Age of Exploration, Discovery, and Colonial
  1. Columbus and the coming of the conquerors
        o The voyages to the New World
        o Other Spaniards who came: Cortez, Pizarro, Coronado, DeSoto
        o Fathers: Serra, Kino, Lausen.
  2. Europeans came because of—Reformation & Renaissance
        o Motives for colonization were result of Renaissance
        o Reformation and religious upheavals in Europe
        o Fanaticism in Europe and persecution
  3. European nations who came to colonize—Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, and England
        o Characteristics of nation-state: People, territory, sovereignty, government
        o Spain came for: god, gold, & glory
        o Dutch came as traders and commerciantes
        o Portugal came as trader and speculator-settled in Brazil
        o France came with religious and imperial motives
        o England came to provide a religious safety valve for Protestantism
  4. Convergence on the North American continent of Red, White, and Black Race
        o The continental US became the convergence of complex diversities of a) Native
           Americans, b) White colonizers, c) Black African slaves
  5. The environmental developments of the old world vs the new world [geography]
        o Spanish settled in great southwestern US
         o English along the eastern seaboard
         o French to rivers and waterways for the fur trade
  6. There were explorers and there were colonizers—people who stayed
         o Spanish came primarily as conquistadores until the missionaries come
         o French came as explorers, settlers, & traders-Quebec all the way to New Orleans
         o English people came to settle for religious reasons-individuality & doctrines.
  7. Spaniard came with Missions, Pueblos, & Presidios.
  8. The Dutch came as traders—patroon system—New York
  9. French came as fur traders with the Indians—Canada-establish forts & outposts
  10. English came to bring settlers to live permanently. Multiple colonies.
  11. Settlements of—Santa Fe, At. Augustine, New Orleans, Plymouth, Jamestown
  12. Institutions of government and society blended together in the new world:
         o Covenant contracts
         o Legislative representative assembly
         o Establish town government in the north
         o Establish county [plantation] government in the South
         o Establish of rights of religious freedom, freedom of speech & press
         o Establish three types of colonies: proprietary, charter, & royal.

Colonialism In America (17th Century)
  1. The age of colonization: Jamestown, Plymouth, Boston, New York, & Philadelphia
          Jamestown was the first settlement in north America in Chesapeake Bay
          Boston was settled by Pilgrims & Puritans of Calvinists from England
          New York was a Dutch settlement and established as port city
          Philadelphia was the creation of the Quaker immigrants who come
  2. Distinction between Pilgrims, Puritans, Anglicans, Quakers, Protestants, & Catholics
          Pilgrims were separatists who want to break away from England & be independent
          Puritans were those who sought to refine and purify the Church of England
          Quakers were those who followed the doctrine of George Fox & Wm Penn
          New World English Catholics gravitated to Maryland—Toleration Act.
          Protestants came from Europe in many groups with varied ideals & doctrines
  3. Advent of Puritanism in the colonies:
          Puritanism was Calvinistic, there were different versions, but the Boston group
             predominated under the leadership of the Mather Bros & others.
          The Puritan ideal: work hard, be thrifty, be morally clean, believed in education, &
             supported capitalism.
  4. Establishment of mercantilism in the colonies and New World
          Mercantilism was the economic philosophy of the colonial era stemming from the ideas
             Scottish thinkers. Collection of gold and silver for the mother country meant wealth.
  5. Eminent early leaders: John Winthrop, William Bradford, William Penn, & John Smith
          John Winthrop leader of Mass Bay, “City Upon a Hill”
          Bradford was the leader of the Pilgrims-drafted Mayflower Compact
          William Penn founder of Pennsylvania and espoused the Quaker theology
          John Smith the early founder of Jamestown in Virginia-starving time leader
   6. Later leaders: Ben Franklin(Penn), Jonathan Edwards(Mass), George Whitefield, & Lord
      Baltimore of Maryland.
   7. Variations in the types of colonies set up in New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies
            New England colonies were established by and for Puritan religions & variations
            Middle colonies established by Dutch for commerce and trade
            Southern colonies were established for agrarian pursuits—the plantation
   8. Environmental adaptation and social integration with Native Americans
            Environments were drastically different: NE-cold, rocky, South-agrarian paradise
   9. British control leads to an independence change from Brit to America
   10. Development of religious freedom, education for the masses, and emergence of the
       American character-gradual rejection of fanaticism (Salem, Mass), foreign domination
       as in (Zenger Trial) and issues of slavery in the New World.


Colonial Period
   1. New England Area-Family dominated-towns-government by contract
           Area was dominated by villages, towns, & churches
           The area was dominated too by religious theocracy-depending on colony
           Families flourished, population was more hearty
   2. Chesapeake Bay area-largely male dominated-aristocratic
           Dominated by males, aristocratic, and single crop economies
           Established the planter/plantation economy with aristocracy ruling
           The area evolved the first legislative assemblies
           There was a very substantial contrast of climate with NE and land productivity
   3. Southern colonies-slavery-plantations, sugar, tobacco, rice
           The institution of slavery and indentured servitude were deemed vital
           Nature of involvement with the Native Americans was substantial
           Products of prime concern: tobacco, sugar, rice, hemp, and eventually cotton
   4. New York/Pennsylvania-commerce
           The Middle Colonies settled by Dutch, German, Swedish among others
           Development of ports for commerce trade and exchange
           Religiously they were more independent/self-reliant/and consultive
   5. Calvinism in north-Puritanism, Congregationalism, Presbyterianism
           Calvinism dominated New England in a variety of forms
           Quakers, Dutch-Reformed Church, and with notice division of congregationalism vs
           Catholicism was prominent in Maryland, but Anglicanism dominated the South
   6. Anglicanism in the South
           English royal colonies dominate by Anglicanism-Church of England
           Little doctrinal difference from Catholicism, but protestant because of Henry VIII
           Control and direction came from Archbishop of Canterbury & Crown
   7. Middle Colonies: Quakers, Catholics, & Protestants
           Pennsylvania was the domain of William Penn and the Quakers
           Maryland was ostensibly a Catholic strong hold under Lord Baltimore
           But there was substantial infusion of Protestantism from Holland too
   8. Great Awakening
           The Great Awakening began as a liberalization of New England Puritanism was touched with
               significant enlightenment philosophies
           Led by the Mathers, Jonathan Edwards, & George Whitefield,
           Emphasis of literature and educational-Phyllis Wheatly represented African Americans
   9. Plantation economy
           Dominated the territory south of Pennsylvania—especially in the deep South
    10. Widespread diversity among Indians, Europeans, African
            Diversity was evident from the beginning with all races: Red, White, & Black
            European ethnicity was widespread in culture as was that of Native Americans

Colonial Puritanism
Thesis statement: Puritanism in early America was a largely middle-class movement of followers of John
Calvin, whose goal it was to purify their lives and refine their society. This would prove difficult in a time and
place where no one was certain as to how things would end up. This would be especially true in a society where
the people themselves created new philosophical tenets and governed with no previous experience, neither
precedent, nor proven leaders!

Point #1:     Doctrines:
 Predestination
 Covenant
 Original Sin
 Good Works
 Grace/Salvation

Point #2:      Government:
 Theocratic Oligarchy
 Concept of democracy
 Limited Government
 Distrust of arbitrary power
 Concept of self-government

Point #3:     Socio-Political Makeup:
 Middle-class movement
 Occupations that served the world
 Rigid sexual separation and roles
 Suspicious of frivolous behavior
 Autocracy of the clergy

Point #4:      Society of Believers in Capitalism
 Laissez-faire capitalism/mercantilism
 Significance of the ownership of productive land
 Self-reliance and productiveness/commerce in the cities
 Hard work of the individual and society
 Accepted the profit motive
 Dichotomy of women & slavery

Point #5:     Puritan Values:
 Intolerant of drunkenness & sloth
 Intolerant of sexual promiscuity & vice
 Puritans were almost fanatic in their value of self-reliance and self-determination
 Arranged childhood marriages sought to avoid fornication, adultery, & self-gratification in order to
   maintain chastity and fidelity.
 Hard work, sobriety, personal responsibility, and loyalty
   Lastly the value of education, knowledge, & reason. “The Glory of God is intelligence. . . .”

Point #6:      Education:
 Home was a school of the family
 Glory of God was intelligence, “A City on a Hill”
 Building academies in the community
 Building of universities for society, “Education was to help with salvation”
 Education was primarily for males; but, accepted if females acquired it, education was never
   rejected at any level of society.

Point #7:      Puritan Literature
 Puritan literature was a mainstay issue in development of culture in North America
 William Bradford & “The Mayflower Compact”
 Roger Williams and the “Bloody Tenet For Persecution for the Cause of Conscience”
 Anne Bradstreet letter, “To My Dear and Loving Husband”
 Cotton Mather, “The Duties of School Masters”
 Edward Taylor, “Housewifery”
 Finally, in later literature of 19 & 20th centuries, Puritanism becomes the subject of two great pieces
   in American literature—The Scarlet Letter (by Hawthorne), and The Crucible (by Arthur Miller the

Point #8:    Puritanism & Geography:
 From the Puritan central strong-hold of Massachusetts Bay came colonies of Maine, New
   Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut
 Geographic aggrandizement often came from issues of democracy and decent.
 Puritan values would be shifted across geographic boundaries as the country moved westward
 Puritanism came from England as a part of the Religious Reformation in England
 Geography even affected colonial towns and villages—Salem for example during the Witch Trials

Conclusions: (Use bullet points if you wish here.)
1.  Puritanism has thoroughly influenced American politics, economics, and social society, education
    and government practices as the country grew and advanced.
2.  We as Americans have come to accept Puritan values as basic moral standards for society.
3.  There is nothing wrong with being loyal, patriotic, hard-working, sober, chaste, and
4.  Education, according to the Puritan model is now the standard of excellence in our society and
    furthermore, the Puritan striving for salvation placed great reliance on his intellect and
    knowledge. Schools were necessary for families, communities, churches, and colonies!
5.  To be sure, we live in a republican, laissez-faire capitalist society and where a government of
    limited authority is the rule of the people!
6.  Today, a majority of Americans are more Puritan than they think!
7.  To realize how different Puritans could be one only need to compare Roger Williams and John

Revolutionary America
                                             Path to Revolution
    11. Switch to Active Colonialism
          George Grenville and revenue raising taxes
          Stamp Act: first direct tax
          Townshend Acts, troops, and “massacre”
          Relative Peace
  12. Turning Revolutionary
          Tea Act and “Party”
          Intolerable Acts leading to 
          1st Continental Congress, Sept. 1774. Grievances drawn. Militia and non
            importation planned
                                                  The War
  13. Beginning of fighting, then full rebellion
          Gage meets resistance in Lexington and Concord
          Bunker Hill: Myth of British power destroyed
          2nd Continental Congress: Continental Army, Olive Branch Petition—declined.
            State of rebellion in colonies declared
          Declaration of Independence in 1776
  14. The War under Washington’s command
          Take Boston, lose New York, retreat to Pennsylvania
          Victories in New Jersey save the Army from disintegration
          Howe in Philadelphia, leaving Washington to winter in Valley Forge
          Battle of Saratoga and French entrance
  15. War Turns southward
          Brits look to Loyalists for manpower
          Fall of GA and SC
          American frontiersman under Francis Merion
          Victories, like Cowpens, force Cornwallis North
          Cornwallis trapped at Yorktown
                                           Revolutionary Society
          Feelings of loyalty, 50,000 Tories
          Common Sense fell on receptive ears in 1776
          Wartime financial problems: the continental
          Republican virtue and motherhood
                                                 The Peace
          Peace of Paris, signed 1783
          America’s representatives: Jay, Adams, and Franklin
          French and Spanish maneuvering
          The terms: 1) US recognized 2) West boundary at Mississippi River 3) Southern
            boundary at Florida 4) Britain keeps Canada at cost of Florida to Spain 5) Brits
            can collect American debts 6) Congress should recommend return of loyalist

Articles of Confederation/Constitution
  16. State Constitutions
         a. Created after 1775 w/ collapse of British authority
        b. From Reasonable (MD) to unworkable (PA)
        c. Massachusetts starts a trend: convention, not legislature, drafts constitutions
        d. Most have bills of rights
17.        Articles of Confederation
        a. John Dickinson wrote them, (though the Continental Congress reshaped them)
        b. Unicameral congress w/ one vote per state
        c. Amendments needed unanimity
        d. Powers: Declare war/treaties, determine each state’s war contribution, admit
           new states, borrow money
        e. Lacked ability to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce
        f. Ratified in 1781 once Virginia surrendered its western land claims
        g. Early troubles – Newburgh Conspiracy
18. Trans-Appalachian West
        a. Many Americans head to KY and TN territories despite trouble from Indians,
           British, and Spanish  pressure to open land north of Ohio
        b. Land Ordinance of 1785: Orderly surveying and settling
        c. Northwest Ordinance of 1787: path to statehood, bills of rights, and no slavery
19. Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations
        a. US in an economic mire after separation from British Empire
        b. Negotiated 1784 by John Jay
        c. Proposed the closing of the Mississippi in return for special privileges from Spain
        d. South and West outraged
20. Shay’s Rebellion
        a. Massachusetts set high taxes to pay its war debts
        b. Western farmers were already in hard times; those who could not pay were sent
           to debtor’s prison
        c. War vet, Daniel Shays, led a rebellion, shutting down the courts
        d. Army raised, rebellion flops, many agree: stronger government needed
 6. Toward a New Constitution
        a. Articles seen to be unworkable: Can’t enforce debt payments or force Brits out of
        b. 3 choices: anarchy, monarchy, or new constitution
        c. Early meetings at Mt. Vernon and Annapolis decide to meet in Philadelphia in
           summer 1787
 7. The Constitutional Convention
        a. Highest class/ best minds meet in Philadelphia with George Washington elected
           as leader
        b. “Man is selfish” checks and balances
        c. Virginia plan: executive branch with two legislatures based on population
        d. New Jersey plan: continuation of unicameral legislature w/ equal state
        e. “Great Compromise” makes presidency and one of each type of legislature
        f. “3/5 Compromise” begins the slavery issue
        g. Compromises and checks in the executive branch
  8. Struggle for Ratification
Nationalism vs Sectionalism

Thesis statement:
     Beginning with Jefferson Administration and ending in the 1860’s two giant colliding forces of
     opposition came to dominate early 19th century America—nationalism vs sectionalism. Each of
     these two great forces had multi-dimensional aspects as to their impact upon the development on
     the American nation.

PART ONE;    Nationalism in Early 19th Century America

Point #1:    Political Manifestations:
    Revolution of 1800
    Good character of citizens—republicanism
    Simplification of government
    Steamboats on the Ohio
    Jacksonian Democracy
    Extending the right to vote-“Universal Manhood Suffrage”

Point #2:     Economic Manifestations:
    American System
    Tariff issues
    Canal building
    National Roads
    Cottage industry/mills & manufacturing/Samuel Slater
    Panic of 1819
    Commercial Republic/Market Revolution

Point #3:   Diplomatic Nationalism:
    XYZ Affair
    Hartford Convention/Treaty of Ghent
    Louisiana Purchase
    Embargo Act
    Monroe Doctrine

Point #4:   Judicial Nationalism:
    Marbury vs Madison
    Fletcher vs Peck
    McCulloch vs Maryland
    Dartmouth College vs Woodward
    Gibbons vs Ogden
    Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
    Worcester vs Georgia

Point #5:    Cultural Nationalism:
      Republican Motherhood-women-family life (The Cult of Domesticity)
      National Literature-Last of Mohicans & Leather Stocking Tales
      Poetry of John Greenleaf Whittier
      Religious revivalism and development
      Popular Culture: Music, Art, & Drama

PART TWO: Sectionalism in Early 1900’s:

Point #6:    Political Sectionalism
    Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
    Bitter partisan battles in politics
    Missouri Compromise
    Indian Removal
    The issue of Manifest Destiny

Point #7:    Manifestations of Economic:
    Northeast & Manufacturing/Trade Unions
    Lowell & Slater Mills
    Railroads: East & West
    South and expansive agrarianism
    South and cotton emergence
    Eli Whitney and cotton gin
    Plantation life
    Mayville Road Veto
    Banking & sectionalism
    Panic 1837

Point #8:     Diplomatic Sectionalism:
    Slidell Mission
    War with Mexico
    Guadalupe-Hidalgo
    Manifest Destiny
    Oregon/California/Utah/Texas concerns
    Annexation.

Point #9:    Cultural Sectionalism
    Southern plantation culture
    Immigration in North and West
    Slave society: Frederick Douglass & Sojourner Truth
    Social Reforms/Abolitionism/Slave revolts
    Women’s Rights & Family life
    Intellectual currents-Transcendentalism

Jeffersonian Democracy
   1. Greater participation in government
        a. The franchise was expanding: four states had universal manhood suffrage by
            Jefferson’s administration
        b. Land is easier to obtain, therefore the vote is too
           c. Belief that the Court, like the House, should be responsible to popular
   2.   Decrease in federal and increase in state power
           a. Right of citizenry to rebel if rights infringed upon (Declaration of Independence),
              same with states (Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions)
           b. Repeal of the Alien and Sedition acts
           c. Trying to rid the Supreme Court of “midnight appointments”
           d. Less spending, reducing deficit, end of Hamiltonian money policies
   3.   Republican virtue
           a. An independent yeomen class
           b. aversion to European urbanization
           c. Women’s sphere (i.e. childrearing)
   4.   Westward expansion and internal improvements
           a. Land Act of 1801 (smallest parcel becomes half size of that in 1795)
           b. Southerners move West; ties between these two regions
           c. Louisiana Purchase and Lewis-Clark exploration
           d. Securing Mississippi River for western farmers
   5.   Foreign policy: Britain and France
           a. Supporting revolution abroad: French Revolution
           b. Embargo Act
           c. Continue clearing our frontier of British and Indians
   6.   Education and Scholarship
           a. Founded University of Virginia in Charlottesville
           b. The leader of the American Philosophical Society
           c. Learned in sciences, agriculture, architecture, and music
           d. Want for an educated, scientific small farmer

Jacksonian Democracy:

Point #1:     Andrew Jackson Pre-1815:
 Born in the Revolutionary era
 Teaches school during the Confederation Years
 Moves to North Carolina and studies law
 Marries Rachel Donaldson [he marries her twice!]
 Forms partnership & purchases Hermitage property
 Participates in Burr Conspiracy/kills Charles Dickinson
 Leads troops against Indians & British/adopts nickname “Old Hickory”
 Defeats Indians at Horseshoe Bend/Jackson was a militarist/Victor at New Orleans

Point #2:    Jackson from 1815 to 1828
 Defeats the British in New Orleans
 Invades Spanish Florida/Appointed Governor of Florida
 Elected Senator from Tennessee
 Defeated for Presidency in House of Representatives 1825/Accused Clay of Corrupt Bargain
 Elected President of US 1828
Point #3:    Jackson the President
 Inauguration—A Happening of the vox populi!
 Formation of the “Kitchen Cabinet”
 Advocates universal manhood suffrage
 Advocates position as strong nationalist
 Vetoes Maysville Road Bill
 Takes stand against “nullification”/Indian Removal
 Censured by the US Senate/Jackson was tough & autocratic.
 Nominates Roger Taney as Chief Justice of Supreme Court

Point #4:    Jackson as leader in the Market Revolution
 Signs the tariff of 1832/Force Bill
 Vetoes the Bank Re-charter/Establishes Independent Treasury
 Announces the nation is free of debt
 Approves the “Pet Banks”/specie
 Jackson was a hard money man
 Favored the technology revolution-cotton gin, railroad, and manufacturing changes.

Point #5:    Jackson as defender of democracy
 Universal Manhood Suffrage/majoritarian rule
 Favored Direct Election of the President/too avante garde for his time!
 Participated in rise of political parties/the Democratic Party
 Inauguration Celebration an example
 Rotation in office Principle

Point #6:     Social Issues Under Jackson
 Slavery issue inflames society in the South/Jackson was a slave-holder
 Jackson on the status of women/Peggy Eaton O’Neill Affair/women’s colleges
 Religion & 2nd Great Awakening/Mormonism/Perfectionism
 Jackson on Indians, immigrants, and ethnicity/Jackson was nativistic and exclusionary
 Rise of social perfectionism and communitarianism/Jackson was indifferent

Point #7:      Jackson & Cultural Romanticism
 Jackson and the emergence of “penny press” newspapers/magazines
 Rise of literary transcendentalism/romanticism
 Hudson School of painting
 Educational Reforms w/Mann and Barnard/universal education
 Reform movements: abolitionism, women’s rights, prisons, & mentally insane
 These reforms took place in spite of Jackson, rather because of him.

Point #8:    Jacksonian Democracy
 A reform movement across the board-political, economic, social, & cultural
 Absolute commitment to democracy “The majority is to govern”
 Jackson’s commitment to Rotation in Office
 Jackson claimed the people have the “right of instruction”
 Jackson spoke of equality and meant it/except when it came to African Americans/Indians

Manifest Destiny (Early 19th Century)
   1. The idea of expansionism beginning with Jefferson
           Has been implicit in American the Reformation Era and Colonization
           Clearly the Puritans had a manifest destiny “A City Upon a Hill”
           All through the Revolutionary War Era manifest destiny was ideal
           Declaration of Independence/Louisiana Purchase/Lewis & Clark
   2. Growth of nation east/west of the Mississippi River
           The expeditions west—Lewis and Clark, Pike, and Serra
           Exploration inevitably lead to settlement and building of the new nation
   3. John L. O’Sullivan was the man who coined the phrase that claimed the continental
      territory from ocean to oceans should be American. There were tinges of imperialism &
      nationalism in it
   4. It became a nationally divisive issue over the concept of slavery, extension of slavery
      into the territories, and had overtones of racism, ethnic superiority, and “a divine-right
   5. The annexation was an aggressive militant move to expand manifest destiny in
      antebellum era.
   6. The economics of the fur trade were the first financial foundation for it.
           Coming of the Mountain Men, fur traders, trappers, and trailblazers was essential
           The fur trade was lucrative and aggressive with men like John Jacob Astor
           Later, Jed Smith, John Colter, and many others would broaden the scope of the
           They [fur traders] became the trailblazers of the ribboned highways of the west.
   7. The Oregon Trail, the Coming of Mormons to Utah, and the Gold Miners to California
   8. The early concurrent exploration and settlement of the Spanish missionaries even were
      part of it
           Father Serra settler, explorer, and builder of California
           Later came the Anglo explorers-Mormon Battalion etc.
   9. Out of the period 1776-1840 the Spaniard disappears and the Anglo comes with mining
      and agribusiness on a huge scale.
           John C. Fremont, Sam Brannan, James Marshall, & land barons of San Joaquin
           The establishment of the rail lines was the key to this happening successfully.
   10. The mining business, the coming of the railroads, and the development of the regional
      agri-businesses helped to promote and expand “Manifest Destiny”
           The Gold Rush was the single greatest pull to the West & Manifest Destiny
           The building of the railroads were the concomitant corollary
           The railroads gave rise to the lumber industry and together the established the
              farming of the Trans-Mississippi West—Cattle Kingdom and prairie farming


Trans-Mississippi West
   1. Environmental adaptation, movement, and destiny
           There has been environmental adaptation ever since the Pilgrims stepped of the Mayflower.
           The continuous settlement occurred west and south during the colonial period
           Later it was a constant movement west as the population multiplied
           The Declaration of Independence was certainly a call to settle America & the West.
  2. Lewis & Clark, Pike, Serra, Mountain Men & east to west movement
           The period between the Revolutionary War & 1800 was the settlement of the land east of the
               Mississippi River.
           In the period after 1800 exploration of the 60% of the land of the West was explored by:
           Lewis and Clark and the great corps of discovery
           Zebulon Pike investigates the great southwest
           Father Junipero Serra, leads the Spanish to settle California
  3. The role of the frontier
           The role of the frontier has been defined over and over again. Its most famous declaration came
               from historian Frederick Jackson Turner of Wisconsin.
  4. The contact with and management of Native Americans
           The contacts with the Native Americans varied enormously from time to time, and place to place.
               Different tribal groups had different ways of coping and surviving with immigrant white
               Europeans. It ranged from warfare to conciliation
           There were: Woodland Indians, Eastern Agrarian Indians, Nomadic Indians of the high plains,
               Intermountain Indians, Desert Indians, Digger Indians, & the fisher Indians of the Great North
  5. Manifest Destiny
           Manifest Destiny became the watch-word and credo of Anglo-Americans moving west.
           John L. O’Sullivan was the prophet, priest, and kingdom Manifest Destiny
           It was motivation for War with Mexico, the Mormon Migration, & Gold Rush!
  6. Transportation—railroads
           The key to tied the nation together, came 1869 with the completion of transcontinental railroads.
               Later, there would be feeder lines to points of need.
           Railroads stimulated the lumber industry, immigration, and capital investments
  7. The Fur Trade:
           The early economic success of the lucrative fur trade became the motive for settlement of Trans-
               Mississippi West
           Mountain Men and fur traders were the early explorers and settlers
  8. The Mining Kingdom:
           The mining kingdom came a result of gold, silver, copper, and other minerals
           Enormous sums of money were made in this move west to mine the resources
  9. The Cattle Kingdom:
           Because of the railroads, the cattle industry of both Texas & Montana could flourish.
           Cowboys, cow-towns, long-drives, & romantic cowboy life was a lasting image
           The cattle kingdom provided the protein food supply of the growing and burgeoning nation, while
               the buffalo disappeared.
  10. Urbanization of the West
           Urbanization developed in certain locales because of the railroads, the development of commerce
               centers, and geographic adaptability of the area.
  11. Folklore, art, culture & spirit of individualism:
           Folklore has emerged in every region: Cowboys on the ranges, miners and lumberjacks, farmers,
               and myth-makers of modern times. ie) Hollywood!
  12. Development of the greatest bread basket on earth:

Civil War Era
  1. Causes of war:
         sectionalism,
         slavery,
         industrialism,
           expansionism,
           imbalance of power
   2. Immediate issues:
           John Brown,
           Dred Scott,
           Election of Lincoln
   3. Failure of compromises:
           1820
           1850 and Crittenden 1860
   4. Imbalance of advantages for the North
           North has 2 to 1 ratio of manpower & the industrial might
           Immigrants coming went North
           The South had the impossible conflict of the slaves
   5. Critical battles:
            Shiloh,
            Antietam,
            Gettysburg,
            Vicksburg
   6. Leadership: Lincoln, Grant, Davis & Lee the longer the war went the worse the result
       was for the South!
   7. Theaters of the War:
           War on the Potomac,
           War in the South,
           War In the West
   8. Hospitals & Prisons
   9. The Lincoln Speeches:
           First Inaugural Address “The better angels of our nature…”
           Coopers Union Speech “let us have faith that might makes right…”
           Speech to Congress 1862 “…the last be hope of earth.”
           Gettysburg Address: “But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot
              consecrate—we cannot hallow this ground.”
           2nd Inaugural: “With malice toward none, and charity for all…”
   10. Lincoln 2nd Term & Inauguration
   11. Assassination of Lincoln—the greatest battle lost by all Americans
   12. Lincoln’s conception of post-war reconstruction

Reconstruction Era

Thesis statement:
The reconstruction movement of the 1860-1877 was a period that was a multi-dimensional and
complex in solving the problems resulting from the prosecution of the Civil War. Reconstruction during
the years after the war constituted a revolution and it appears that it is still going on. This is the central
argument of both McPherson and Foner.
Point #1:     Constitutional & Political Reconstruction
 Reconstruction Acts
 Lincoln/Johnson Plans for reconstruction
 Thirteenth Amendment
 Fourteenth Amendment
 Fifteenth Amendment
 Court cases—Ex parte Milligan, Ex parte Merryman,

Point #2:    Economic Reconstruction:
 Sharecropping
 Rebuilding the southern cities
 Reestablishment of the cotton economy
 Southern industrialization
 Southern finance and banking

Point #3:     Social Reconstruction:
 Citizenship for African Americans
 Vigilantism—KKK and Knights of White Camilla
 Restructure of social system and development of middle class
 Status of southern women
 Freedmen’s Bureau

Point #4:    Black Reconstruction:
 Freedmen’s Bureau
 Education for African Americans
 Development in Black Religion
 Evolution of civil rights

Point #5:    Geographic Reconstruction
 Divided into military districts
 Rebuilding of the cities and harbors
 Rebuilding by region and area

Gilded Age Culture:(Give me a handful of specific examples of each
category below.
   1. Literature:
           Red Badge of Courage
           My Antonia
           Huck Finn & Tom Sawyer
           Sister Carrie
   2. Music:
           Edward Mc Dowell/Church Music/Evan Stephens
           Metropolitan Opera/Symphony orchestras
           Cowboy music
           Negro Spirituals
   3. Art
           Realism – John Singer Sergeant
         Seascapes-Winslow Homer
         Charles M. Russell-high plains art
         Impressionism-Mary Cassatt
4. Architecture
         John Jacob Roebling
         Louis Sullivan-skyscrapers
         Brooklyn Bridge
         Gutzon Borglum/Mt Rushmore-Mass art
5. Education:
         Morrill Land Grant Act-A & M schools
         Oberlin College-dual sex education
         Private Universities: Stanford/Chicago
         Education of Fine Art—Eastman Sch-Music
6. Science: practical
         discovery of electricity
         airbrake
         telephone
         farm machinery
7. Science: theoretical
         Michelson-speed of light
         Rowland-electron theory
         Gibb-physical chemistry
         Pickering-astrophysics
8. Inventions:
         telephone
         photography
         air brake
         Glidden/barbed wire
9. Myth making of lure & stories:
         “the American dream of success”
         “self made man’ Horatio Alger
         “acres of diamonds”-Russell Conwell
         “true blue American”
10. Producers of Food:
         Pillsbury-flour for bread
         Amour/Cudahy-meat packing
         Duke, tobacco
         Carver, peanuts for food
11. Philanthropy:
         Carnegie Foundation(libraries)
         Rockefeller Foundation(education)
         Eastman Foundation(arts/music)
         Vanderbilt Foundation(education & cultural)
12. Philosophy
         Idealism vs realism
         Pragmatism
             Social Darwinism
             Progressivism

  1. Was an era of reform that occurred as outgrowth of industrial exploitation
           Beginning in 1892 and concluding in the early 1920’s the Progressive Reform Movement took
           It was response to the exploitation of the Gilded Age and to the need for political changes in the
              democratic system
  2. Progressivism occurred at all levels of politics:
           National level saw the 16th, 17th, 18th, & 19th Amendments to Constitution
           There was the development of moderate politics on both sides of spectrum
           State levels showed: initiative petition, referendum, and recall elections emerge
           City and County government saw: commission system, City Manager System
           There were successful and powerful leaders at all levels
  3. State changes pioneered in Wisconsin, California, Nebraska were at the center
           Robert LaFollette (WI), Hiram Johnson (CA), and George Norris (NE)
           These men brought open primaries to the candidate selection process
  4. Presidential Progressives:
           Theodore Roosevelt, Pure Food & Drug Act, Hepburn Act, & Mann-Elkins Act Trust-busting
              Wm Howard Taft, Dollar Diplomacy
           Woodrow Wilson Brought about women voting, judicial independence, banking reforms, tariff
              reduction, and strong sense of social justice.
  5. Legislative achievements
           Conservation. TR created national forest program to conserve resources
           Labor reforms there was regulation of organized labor,
           urban changes sought to provide better housing and working conditions
  6. Progressive Party founded by TR
           Was the result of the Republican Party dividing between its conservative and progressive wings.
              TR sought to create a viable 3rd Party
  7. Gospel of efficiency—muckrakers and populists
  8. Development of Social Justice
           Walter Rausenbausch & Washington Gladden
           John Dewey
           Jane Addams & Hull House
           Brigham Young and Mary Baker Eddy
  9. Progressivism and Black views in America:
           Booker T. Washington
           Wm. E.B. DuBois
  10. Paradoxes of the Progressive Era—Disenfranchisement of Blacks & decline of voter participation.


      1. Why immigrants came to America—the motives?
          Avoid starvation and poverty
          Escape political oppression
          Search for new life and opportunity
      2. The problems and processes of building the infrastructure:
            Housing—tenement houses were built
            Transportation—railroads were built
            Establishment of commerce
     3.    How could urban dwellers make a living (1880’s, 1920’s, 1950’s)
            By following the control of the City Bosses
            Relocation which provided for a settlement in the West
            Rise of suburbia because of automobile
     4.    Three economic anchors of urban environment: commerce, labor, & education
            Organization of labor unions
            Opportunity for rapid rise up the economic ladder
            Availability of education for the masses
     5.    Housing in urban American environment
            The Tenement Housing Projects
            Ghettos
            Slums
     6.    Chronic ills of urban society: crime, poverty, disease, & exploitation:
            Crime was the social, political, and economic reality
            Poverty was widespread because of exploitation
            Disease was rampant and everywhere because of conditions
            Lack of government regulation provided for exploitation of masses
     7.    Advantages of urban living: education, culture, & social diversity
            The coming of secondary & higher education—both public & private
            The massive development of culture
            The increasing development of social diversity—immigration, rural/urban shift
            Increase in family size as medicine becomes better
     8.    Transportation a key to urban success and endurance
            Railroads: transcontinental, feeder lines, and trolley cars(electricity)
            Development of roads, canals, and ports
            Rail centers: Chicago, St. Louis, Denver, Salt Lake City
     9.    Role of Christian Social Gospel and spread of new life among immigrants
     10.    Development of political machines—why, who, and what for?

Great Depression
  1. Causes:
          Over-speculation,
          over-extension of credit,
          over-production,
          mal dist. of wealth-Wall Street, Banks, Insurance Companies
          government failure to regulate
  2. Decade long influence from abroad as result of WW I:
          The depression began in Europe over reparations payments
          Governments refused to contain recession
  3. Hoover policies too little too late to stem the depression
          After the stock market crash—the immediate flash point
          US government waited for business to right itself—didn’t happen!
          Hoover began the idea Reconstruction Finance Corporation
          It was too little too late
          Some useful piece of legislation: RFC, Glass-Steagall Act, Farm-Home Loan Act, Federal
             Emergency Relief Act.
          Protests: farmers got little relief, sharecroppers turned to communism, veterans held the Bonus
             March in DC, and emergence of nativism everywhere against immigrants.
  4. Oct. 29th stock market crash
  5. Depression deepens and displaces more and more people
           Banks failed, farmers failed in droves, restriction against immigrants
           Problems with fundamentalism—Scopes Trial, KKK issues, prohibition.
  6. Dust bowl issue—trans-location of the poor
           The environmental catastrophe of the dust bowl
           The migrant workers move or starve creating a whole new exploited class
  7. Nearly 30 % of the people unemployed
           Came in the urban ghettos
           Came among the blue collar and 2nd level professionals
           Came on the farms
           Came in the south worse than elsewhere
  8. Government failed to regulate effectively
  9. Economic crises abroad in Europe and Asia
  10. Tariff policy was bad—Hawley Smoot Tariff was way bad
  11. Reconstruction Finance Corporation—Government ultimately had to seize the banks
  12. Depression continues into the 1930’s nearly until 1939:
           1932 Election and depression deepens does not recover until WW II
           FDR and his prescription of Relief, Recovery, & Reform
           Shifted to massive deficit spending and the welfare state

World War II
  1. The causes relate to failures of WWI
           Nationalism, imperialism, militarism, fanaticism, propaganda, & isolationism
           The failure to enforce the Treaty of Versailles—reparations payments & Art. 231
           US withdrawal into isolationism and insularism again
  2. World Rise of Fascism, dictatorship, & economic inequality
           Problems of world-wide depression escalate
           Rise of militant fascism in Italy, Germany, Japan, & Spain
  3. The problems of Europe not being policed during the 1928-1936 with Hitler, Mussolini, & Tojo.
           War Guilt Clause an major motivation for Germany to rearm.
           Reparations payments were an economic catastrophe on Germany and Europe in general
  4. Failures of allies to act sooner, more decisively, & with power:
           Allied governments did not supervise and enforce the Treaty of Versailles
           The Germans used democracy to establish the dictatorship
  5. Uniqueness of the two theaters: Europe & South Pacific
           Europe and Africa were land wars on a total basis against civil populations as well as military
           South Pacific was jungle warfare and guerrilla warfare at it very worst
  6. Role of military leadership on all sides
           The Prussian General Staff
           The rise and emergence of the American military leadership
  7. Hitler rearms Germany comes to power in democratic elections to established dictatorship.
           Hitler becomes aggressive-Blitzkreig into Poland, Krislknact, Anschluss,
           Fall of France, and the Battle of Britain
           Pearl Harbor bring US into the war, with commitment to fight Europe first
  8. Development and implementation of technology
           U-boat technology, tanks, air craft, & atomic warfare
  9. Role of the US as “arsenal of democracy”
           North African Campaign
           Sicily, Italy and soft underbelly
           Normandy Invasion/finally ending after Battle of the Bulge
  10. The world confronts dictatorship with democracy—the Cold War
   11. War In South Pacific:
           Pearl Harbor and the first Salvo
           Midway and Coral Sea
           Island Hopping on dual track: Nimitz and MacArthur
           Air war—at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
   12. Development of regional military alliances—NATO, SEATO, OAS, etc.
   13. The outgrowth of the Hot War was to lead the allies into a COLD WAR among themselves
           Russia & China with Communism

Cold War Era
Point #1:    Cold War Era 1945-1964:
    Causes of the Cold War
    Chronology of the Cold War
    Intellectual origins and ideas
    Military aspects of the war
    Diplomatic aspects of the war

Point #2:   Causes of the Cold War
    WW II geo-politics
    Ideological positions of dictators vs democracy
    Leninism vs free world capitalism
    Warfare technology—the bomb, the computer, WMD

Point #3:   Chronology of the Cold War Diplomacy:
    Confrontation
    Marshall Plan/Truman Doctrine/NATO
    Regional Defense Alliances
    Massive Retaliation (JFD)
    Brinkmanship—Korea, Berlin, & Cuba
    Containment
    Détente/Mutual coexistence

Point #4:    Cold War Events:
    Postwar Europe settlements
    Iron Curtin Speech [drawing the line]
    Korean War
    U-2 Incident
    Military-Industrial Complex Debate
    Vietnam War
    Cuban Missile Crisis

Point #5:   Cultural Nationalism-American vs Soviet
    Mutual xenophobia by both nations
    Russia/Asia vs the West & Democracy

Point #6:    Cold War Leaders
    Russian/Chinese/E. Asian/Latin Am              US/Europe/S. Amer./Middle East
    Stalin/Mao Zedong/                                   Roosevelt/Truman
      Molotov                                          Marshall/Churchill
      Khrushchev/Castro                                Eisenhower/Dulles/Rogers
      Bulganin                                         Kennedy & “whiz kids”
      Andropov                                         Johnson
      Gorbachev                                        Nixon/Kissinger/Carter/Reagan

Point #7:    Cold War Economics:
    Capitalism vs Communism
    Control of world business & banking
    Control of labor & distribution
    East/West migration shifts

Point #8:   Diplomatic Struggle 1963-1990
    Cuban Missile Crisis the Apex of the Cold War
    Vietnam solution
    Chinese/Korean Problems
    Softening of communist leaders of new generation

Point #9:   Carter/Reagan Actions and Diplomacy:
    Camp David
    SALT I & II
    Rykovick, Iceland
    Reagan and Berlin Wall Speech
    Colossal economic power of the West broke Communism

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