The Arctic by jennyyingdi


									        The Subarctic
A vast area – approximately 2,000,000 square miles
 that includes most of interior Alaska and Canada.
                  The Region

Mobility and adaptability have always been essential
to survival.

Survival is dependent upon the abundance and
seasonal migration patterns of animals.
                       The Environment

   Predominant features are barren tundra to the north and
    dense forests to the south.

   There are also areas of open woodlands and swamps,
    mountains, river valleys, and lakes.

   Winters are long and bitterly cold, with limited daylight,
    heavy snowfalls and piercing winds.

   Summer is short, humid and warm.
                         The Lifestyle

   Food resources can be unpredictable and so an integral
    relationship between humans and animals developed.

   Animals provide food and raw materials in the form of
    hides for shelter and clothing, bone and horn for tools,
    sinew for thread and bowstrings – and nearly all other
    materials were obtained from the forests.

   The lifestyle encouraged self-reliance.
                            The People

Children learn very early, the skills
necessary for survival in such
extreme climates.

Change has come quickly to
traditional life, the ramifications still
being experienced today.

A strong mixture of utilitarian and ceremonial items have
been made for centuries, to promote survival of the people
and the culture.
                     Subarctic Artists

Many traditional artforms
continue to be made today in
the subarctic region.

Beadwork traditions are strong
and are often used to
decorate ceremonial clothing
as well as items for everyday
                    Subarctic Artforms

Some individuals became
accomplished for particular
techniques and materials – and
their efforts and artistry are
continuously sought by other
members of the community.

Contact with outside cultures
brought tremendous change in
goods and raw materials.
Beaded pouches show both floral and geometric patterns…
Colors were often obtained through ability rather
                 than choice…
Beaded Hat & Gloves
                      Wood and Bark

People relied on the forests for building shelters:
    Log houses, pole frames covered with skin or bark

…and for transportation:
   Sleds, Toboggans, Snowshoes, Canoes

…for hunting and fishing equipment:

…for dishes, ladles, and serving utensils
Innovations often meant survival.
Some artforms are familiar variations, others are
              new and unique…

Among the Chippewa, a complete set of winter clothes
for an individual could take as many as 11 caribou
   Acquiring, processing, and tanning animal hides is
    arduous work, requiring many hours:

       De-hairing (for summer clothes)
       Repeated scraping, soaking, stretching and rubbing
        with animal fat and brains
       Smoking over a smoldering fire for waterproofing
Clothing is adaptable to the environment for survival.
               Quill and Hair Embroidery

   Quills include porcupine and split
    bird quills

   Hair included moose and caribou

   Colors were used in their natural
    state or dyed using plant and
    mineral sources
Moosehair Embroidery and Tufting
Beads, quillwork, and moosehair embroidery adorned just
                   about everything…
Beads adorned all clothing items, including moccasins and

                                   Varied climates
                                   produced a variety of
                                   footwear from simple
                                   moccasin styles, to
                                   complicated boots.
Beaded items..
             Birchbark working is common.

Birchbark is often embellished
with embroidery, beadwork,
and quillwork…
                 Traditions continue…

Quill and beadwork traditions
continue to be paramount in
    subarctic tribes today.

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