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Structural Change in the Ruhr Area Contents Definition Structural Change The Ruhr Area Economic History The Ruhr Area in the 50s and 60s • The Coal Crisis • Consequences • Reactions • Labour and living conditions The Ruhr Area in the 70s and 90s • Change in work‘s distribution Zeche Zollverein The Ruhr Area today • Labour and living conditions The Sectoral Structural Change Bibliography Definition Structural Change Change of the relative shares of a sector in the time course Changes of the activity structures and occupational structures in and between the sectors Quickened by the technical progress and the increased international competition In the Ruhr area the structural change took place in last decades of the mining and the industry there to the service society The Ruhr Area The Ruhr area is the biggest conurbation in Germany The most close settled town scenery and the biggest industrial zone of Europe In the Ruhr area 80% of the coal and 63% of the raw steel from the whole of Germany are promoted or smelted There are three navigable rivers which connects the Ruhr area with all German economic Area : 4.435 km² North-South expansion: 67 km West-East expansion: 116 km The edge area reaches from close to the Dutch border to Hamm 17,3 % forest und ca. 43 % agriculture Population : 7,3 million (2009) Metro density 1.646 per km² Economic History Development of the steam machine, at the beginning of the 19th century In 1839 coal support strongly expanded (mining industry) 2 million tonnes In 1850 mass production of raw iron In 1890 there grew the large-scale enterprises and formed groups Up to the First World War 0.5 million people moved to the Ruhr area The Ruhr Area in the 50s and 60s Secondary sector won in meaning New building of flats and industrial storage Economic & social success lay on the coal The Coal Crisis In 1957 coal crisis (existence menace) There were two reasons: • In 1950 lay the growth rates of the mono structure of the industry under the average • Sinking inquiry for the Ruhr coal in Germany Consequences After the war there were only 33 million tonnes Still in 1956 125 million tonnes of coal were produced In 1958 short time to produce less coal. Closings of many bills and mass redundancies (35,000 workers dismissed) In 1966 there worked only 1/2 of the employees Structural crisis Reactions The reaction of the economy and politics on the crisis was defensive Instead of adapting itself in market terms, the politics demanded the protection of the coal markets In 1968 "development program of Ruhr“ Development program of the economic responsibility and modernization of the region First step away from the passive crisis management for the specific transformation of the Ruhr area State subsidies Labour and living conditions Many employees in the mining had only one 8th-year degree and almost no education There were hardly agreed working hours Families with many children lived together partially only in flats, with 1-2 rooms under unworthy conditions Flat rents risen There originated miserable accommodations because nobody could afford something better Food expenses sunk Overlong working hours Low wage Missing safety measures The well-to-do established to themselves big villas and houses-> social and spatial separation of the layers Illnesses The Ruhr Area in the 70s and 90s 1970s till the 1990s mark the determining phase of the structural change The steel crisis began during the 70s Japan and other countries put more favorable steel on the market Decline of the traditional mining industry in the Ruhr area The supplier industry was also by the crisis, manpower got lost thereby Many small companies settled (e.g., in the area of biotechnology and environmental economy) and put high investments in the research and development In 1990 55% of the employees worked in the tertiary sector Arbeitsverteilung im Wandel Bergbau = mining Eisen- und Stahlindustrie = iron and steel industry Maschinenbau = machinery construction Elektro-Industrie = electrical industry Chemische Industrie = chemical industry Straßenfahrzeugbau = road vehicle construction insgesamt = in total Bergbau- und Industriebeschäftigte = Employees in mining and industry Sonstige = others Zeche Zollverein Company foundation in 1847 by Franz Haniel in Essen The railway, a new type of transportation supported the origin In 1890 1 million tonnes of coal were produced Technical progress brought 2.5 million tonnes of coal to days (around the First World War) In 1937 3.6 million tonnes with 6900 employees Second World War got over the Zeche Zollverein with low damages In 1953 2.4 million tonnes of coal were produced Front runner of the coal mines in spite of decline in 1974 3 million tonnes of coal were produced because of the mechanization also notices In 1986 closing 14th of December, 2001 world cultural heritage The Ruhr Area Today Coal and steel industry still considerably, but not more in such a way, as during the 50s The scenery changed very much (less factories and chimneys, than still 25 years ago) The rates of unemployment of single towns in the Ruhr area (e.g., Duisburg, Dortmund) belong to highest in the old federal states Labour and living conditions Possibility for education, A-levels or university Regulated working hours Protection of workers terms Big choice in residential possibilities Social security (Hartz IV) The Sectoral Structural Change (Employed people) (services = tertiary sector) producing trade = secondary sector agriculture = primary sector Bibliography http://www.klett.de/sixcms/media.php/76/besch _ruhrgebiet.jpg http://www.fritz- art.de/Motive/Area_Ruhrgebiet_1_large.jpg http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhrgebiet http://www.sendfeld.de/staatsarbeit/oberthemen /ruhrgebiet/r10.htm http://www.jugend-und- bildung.de/files/740/Mitbestimmung_Struktur.pdf http://www.hildegardis.bobi.net/projekte/Geschic htsprojekt%209c/strukturwandel/fset_strukturwa ndel.html Thanks for your attention Leontine, Sarah, Maik, Anton, Christian WG09a (Nöthen – Social Science & History)
"Strukturwandel im Ruhrgebiet"