Strukturwandel im Ruhrgebiet by jennyyingdi

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									 Structural
Change in the
 Ruhr Area
                        Contents
   Definition Structural Change
   The Ruhr Area
   Economic History
   The Ruhr Area in the 50s and 60s
     • The Coal Crisis
     • Consequences
     • Reactions
     • Labour and living conditions
   The Ruhr Area in the 70s and 90s
     • Change in work‘s distribution
   Zeche Zollverein
   The Ruhr Area today
     • Labour and living conditions
   The Sectoral Structural Change
   Bibliography
    Definition Structural Change
   Change of the relative shares of a sector in the
    time course
   Changes of the activity structures and
    occupational structures in and between the
    sectors
   Quickened by the technical progress and the
    increased international competition
   In the Ruhr area the structural change took
    place in last decades of the mining and the
    industry there to the service society
               The Ruhr Area
   The Ruhr area is the biggest conurbation in
    Germany
   The most close settled town scenery and the
    biggest industrial zone of Europe
   In the Ruhr area 80% of the coal and 63% of the
    raw steel from the whole of Germany are
    promoted or smelted
   There are three navigable rivers which connects
    the Ruhr area with all German economic
Area : 4.435 km²

North-South expansion: 67 km
West-East expansion: 116 km

The edge area reaches
from close to the
Dutch border
to Hamm

17,3 % forest und
ca. 43 % agriculture

Population : 7,3 million
(2009)
Metro density 1.646 per km²
          Economic History
   Development of the steam machine, at
    the beginning of the 19th century
   In 1839 coal support strongly expanded
    (mining industry)
   2 million tonnes
   In 1850 mass production of raw iron
   In 1890 there grew the large-scale
    enterprises and formed groups
   Up to the First World War 0.5 million
    people moved to the Ruhr area
The Ruhr Area in the 50s and 60s
   Secondary sector won in meaning
   New building of flats and industrial
    storage
   Economic & social success lay on the coal
              The Coal Crisis
   In 1957 coal crisis (existence menace)
   There were two reasons:
    • In 1950 lay the growth rates of the mono
      structure of the industry under the average
    • Sinking inquiry for the Ruhr coal in Germany
            Consequences
   After the war there were only 33 million
    tonnes
   Still in 1956 125 million tonnes of coal
    were produced
   In 1958 short time to produce less coal.
   Closings of many bills and mass
    redundancies (35,000 workers
    dismissed)
   In 1966 there worked only 1/2 of the
    employees
   Structural crisis
                 Reactions
   The reaction of the economy and politics on
    the crisis was defensive
   Instead of adapting itself in market terms,
    the politics demanded the protection of the
    coal markets
   In 1968 "development program of Ruhr“
   Development program of the economic
    responsibility and modernization of the
    region
   First step away from the passive crisis
    management for the specific transformation
    of the Ruhr area
   State subsidies
Labour and living conditions
   Many employees in the mining had only
    one 8th-year degree and almost no
    education
   There were hardly agreed working hours
   Families with many children lived
    together partially only in flats, with 1-2
    rooms under unworthy conditions
   Flat rents risen
   There originated miserable
    accommodations because nobody could
    afford something better
   Food expenses sunk
   Overlong working hours
   Low wage
   Missing safety measures
   The well-to-do established to themselves
    big villas and houses-> social and spatial
    separation of the layers
   Illnesses
The Ruhr Area in the 70s and 90s
   1970s till the 1990s mark the
    determining phase of the structural
    change
   The steel crisis began during the 70s
   Japan and other countries put more
    favorable steel on the market
   Decline of the
    traditional mining
    industry in the
    Ruhr area
   The supplier industry was also by the
    crisis, manpower got lost thereby
   Many small companies settled (e.g., in
    the area of biotechnology and
    environmental economy) and put high
    investments in the research and
    development
   In 1990 55% of the employees worked in
    the tertiary sector
Arbeitsverteilung im Wandel
              Bergbau = mining
              Eisen- und Stahlindustrie =
              iron and steel industry
              Maschinenbau =
              machinery construction
              Elektro-Industrie =
              electrical industry
              Chemische Industrie =
              chemical industry
              Straßenfahrzeugbau =
              road vehicle construction
              insgesamt = in total
              Bergbau- und Industriebeschäftigte =
              Employees in mining and industry

              Sonstige = others
           Zeche Zollverein
   Company foundation in 1847 by Franz
    Haniel in Essen
   The railway, a new type of
    transportation supported the origin
   In 1890 1 million tonnes of coal were
    produced
   Technical progress brought 2.5 million
    tonnes of coal to days (around the First
    World War)
   In 1937 3.6 million tonnes with 6900
    employees
   Second World War got over the Zeche
    Zollverein with low damages
   In 1953 2.4 million tonnes of coal were
    produced
   Front runner of the coal mines in spite of
    decline
   in 1974 3 million tonnes of coal were
    produced because of the mechanization
    also notices
   In 1986 closing
   14th of December, 2001
    world cultural heritage
         The Ruhr Area Today
   Coal and steel industry still considerably,
    but not more in such a way, as during
    the 50s
   The scenery changed very much (less
    factories and chimneys, than still 25
    years ago)
   The rates of unemployment of single
    towns in the Ruhr area (e.g., Duisburg,
    Dortmund) belong to highest in the old
    federal states
    Labour and living conditions
   Possibility for education, A-levels or
    university
   Regulated working hours
   Protection of workers terms
   Big choice in residential possibilities
   Social security (Hartz IV)
The Sectoral Structural Change
         (Employed people)




     (services = tertiary sector)


                  producing trade =
                  secondary sector


                        agriculture = primary sector
                Bibliography
   http://www.klett.de/sixcms/media.php/76/besch
    _ruhrgebiet.jpg
   http://www.fritz-
    art.de/Motive/Area_Ruhrgebiet_1_large.jpg
   http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhrgebiet
   http://www.sendfeld.de/staatsarbeit/oberthemen
    /ruhrgebiet/r10.htm
   http://www.jugend-und-
    bildung.de/files/740/Mitbestimmung_Struktur.pdf
   http://www.hildegardis.bobi.net/projekte/Geschic
    htsprojekt%209c/strukturwandel/fset_strukturwa
    ndel.html
Thanks for your attention
      Leontine, Sarah, Maik, Anton, Christian
      WG09a (Nöthen – Social Science & History)

								
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