Welcome to Virtual Reality Technology by j2NRcD

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									Electrical and Computer Engineering Department




         Welcome to
 Virtual Reality Technology


            Grigore C. Burdea Ph.D.
 Director, Human–Machine Interface Laboratory,
        CAIP Center, Rutgers University.
           http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/vrlab/


          Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Grading Criteria:
Quizzes 10%,
Midterm 45%
Final 45%
Laboratory assignments graded separately

            Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Textbook: Burdea and Coiffet, Virtual Reality
Technology, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2003




                Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Laboratory Hardware




Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
            Virtual Reality - Introduction

Class notes (PowerPoint) will be
posted on the web
http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/vrlab/vrclass




                  Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
   Introduction




Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
What is Virtual Reality?
   Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction




        It is not augmented reality….
         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction


What is Virtual Reality?
“A high-end user interface that involves real-time
simulation and interaction through multiple
sensorial channels.” (vision, sound, touch, smell,
taste)




            Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction




  Sensorama Simulator, US Patent #3,050,870, 1962

           Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
1963+
   Ivan Sutherland's doctoral theses:
SKETCHPAD: stereo HMD, position tracking,
and a graphics engine. 1966+
   Tom Furness: display systems for pilots;
1967+
   Brooks developed force feedback GROPE
system;
1977
   Sandin and Sayre invent a bend-sensing glove
1979
   Raab et al: Polhemus tracking system
1989
   Jaron Lanier (VPL) coins the term virtual
reality
1994 VR Society formed            VR Short History
             Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction




           Ivan Sutherland’s HMD (1966+)
         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction



                                                       Brooks’s Grope
                                                       Project (1977)




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction
   NASA … a pioneer in VR


  The first complete system was
  developed by NASA “Virtual Visual
  Environmental Display” (VIVED early
  80s; they prototyped the LCD HMD;
  Became “Virtual Interface Environment
  Workstation” (VIEW) 1989




          Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction
   Why NASA?


  Large simulation and training needs;
  Could not send humans to other harm;
  Relatively small budgets.




          Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction
                    NASA VIEW system (1989)




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction
                   NASA VIEW system (1992)




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction

     Towards Commercialization…
     The first commercial VR systems
     appeared in the late 80s produced by
     VPL Co. (California):
     The VPL “Data Glove” and
     The VPL “Eye Phone” HMD




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction




                   The VPL DataGlove (1987)
         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction




        The Matel PowerGlove (1989)
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The first commercial VR glove for entertainment – Mattel
Power Glove $50 (1989)




                 Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
    Early HMDs were massive




The Flight Helmet (ca. 1990) weighs 5 lbs
         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
…and had poor resolution




     Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction

Virtual Reality in the early 90s….
Emergence of first commercial Toolkits:
WorldToolKit (Sense8 Co., now Engineering
Animation Inc.);
VCToolkit (Division Ltd., UK);
Virtual Reality Toolkit VRT3 (Dimension
Ltd./Superscape, UK);
Cyberspace Developer Kit (Autodesk)



            Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction
     Superscape VRT3 Development System




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction

Virtual Reality in the early 90s….
Emergence of first non-commercial toolkit:
Rend386;
Later Virtual Reality Modeling Language
(VRML 1.0);
Later still Java and Java 3D;




             Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction
                         Scene created with Rend386




         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Introduction

Virtual Reality in the early 90s….
PC boards still very slow (7,000 – 35,000
polygons/sec);
First turnkey VR system – Provision 100
(Division Ltd.)
Emergence of faster graphics rendering
architectures at UNC Chapel Hill:
Pixel Planes;
Later Pixel Flow;


                Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
      Introduction

Stride PC graphics
accelerator
35,000 polygons/sec;
$26,000 (with two co-
processors)/card
Require up to 6 PC slots for
stereo version




                        Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
        Introduction Provision 100 VR turnkey system
                              (Division Ltd., UK)


35,000
polygons/sec;
$64,000 (including
texture generator,
tracker, 3-D audio,
HMD and
software)




                      Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
 Introduction
Provision 100 VR turnkey system (Division Ltd., UK)




              Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
        Introduction

~ 1 Million triangles/sec;



 Pixel Planes 5 VR system
 (UNC)




                         Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Rendering speed comparison SGI vs. PCs




          Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
                                                                VR 2001 prices
  Introduction
                                                                PC -      $5k
VR Marketplace (estimated in 1994)
                                                                HMD       $1k
                                                                Trackball $1k
                                                                Toolkit   $0k
                                                                Total:    $7k




              Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
Laboratory VR Station prices (2002)
PRODUCT                    Price/user                        % of Budget
                                       2,347                              48
      PC 1.7 GHz
 FireGL 2 accelerator
 Polhemus 3D tracker                   1,823                              37
     4 receivers
  5DT sensing glove                     482                               10
  five-sensor version
 Stereo Glasses wired                   179                                3
Force feedback Joystick                  88                                2
   Java and Java3D                        -                                -
        VRML                              -                                -
         Total                         4,919                              100

                        Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
        VR Market growth




Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology
The key elements of a VR System




     Rutgers University - Virtual Reality Technology

								
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