Roman Art & Architecture by MQ9vG7

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									Roman Art & Architecture

            Ara Pacis
   ‘Altar of Augustan Peace’
           13-9 B.C.
                    Introduction
   It is built in the Field of Mars/Campus Martius
   The Altar of Peace
   Altar/Relief Sculpture
   It is made all of marble from Italy
   Relief scultpure is raised stone silhouette. It is produced
    by carving away the background.
   It is meant to be seen and its function is to inform.
   Mix of human and divine.
   It was created in honour of Augustus for after he
    passified the Gauls and Spaniards. It was a gesture of
    public thanks and was dedicated on 30th January 9 B.C
   Propaganda/to honour Augustus for bringing
    peace.
   Width – 11.6m Length – 10.5m Height 7m
            Materials/Influences
   Tufa for the core
   Travertine (limestone)
   Carrara Marble

   The Parthenon
   Altar of Pity in the Agora

   Allegorical scene and the West side shows a
    mythological
                                Layout
The outer wall is                         Altar raised and
called the precinct.                      faces due east.
                                EAST




                                ALTAR
          NORTH        9                        SOUTH
                       Stairs




                                   WEST
Lower Register Precinct (outer wall)

   Is decorated all the way around with a floral
    scene of swirling tendrils that finish in Acanthus
    leaves. Petals, lizards, snakes, birds, scenes
    from nature. Intricate detail. Panel appears
    alive.
   In several places a swan takes pride of place.
   The swan is sacred to Apollo who is Augustus’
    patron diety.
Lower Register Precinct (outer wall)
     Inside Wall Lower Register

    Wood symbolises the enclosure around
     the Ara Pacis while it was being built.
    The interior was is decorated with three
     symbols
1)   Garlands
2)   Libations
3)   skulls
Upper Register, inside Wall Precint

   Bulls heads, garlands, Patera (Paterae,
    sacrificial bowls). These may represent a
    sacrifice at the dedication of the altar.
   Garlands which adorn the bulls heads
    have fruit from all 4 season to signifiy that
    Augustan peace is present through the
    whole year.
Precinct, Upper Register, West Side
   Panel 1
       Aeneas, Iulus, Lares and Penates (household gods in
        the shrine). They link back to Aeneas and the fall of
        Troy.
       Aeneas wears vail to symbolise piety.
       Aeneas sacrficing the Lavinian sow to the Lares and
        Penates. The Lavinian sow myth is one of the
        foundation myths of Rome. This frieze is destined to
        link Augustus to divine ancestry and piety.
   Panel 2
       Fragmentary
       Another foundation myth of Rome. Romulus and
        Remus suckling the shewolf. Mars, their father, looks
        on.
Precinct, Upper Register, West Side
Precinct, Upper Register, West Side

   Both panels are linked:
       Show animal and the implication for ROme of
        their discovery
       Foundation myths
       R & R divinity suggests Romes divinty. Aeneas
        connects Aeneas with divine heritage.
Precinct, Upper Frieze, East Side
   East Panel: Tellus Relief
   The central figure is Mother Earth, voluptuous and very
    fertile. This represents new life, peace and all things
    good about the Roman empire.
   Tellus sits on a Rocky outcrop amidst nature. She holds
    two chubby infants who appear healthy.
   Drapery is billowy and body can be seen underneath.
   Tellus has fruits and grains in her lap, well fed livestock.
   Two maidens with their cloaks billowing represent salt
    water (dragon) and fresh water (swan). Reign spreads
    over whole world (seas)
   There has been controversy over whether this is actually
    Tellus or the goddess Pax (peace), who would be
    surrounded by the bounty of Augustan Peace.
Precinct, Upper Frieze, East Side
Precinct, Upper Frieze, East Side

   Panel 2
       Roma, Goddess enthroned on a pile of
        weapons.
       Too Fragmented.
    Precinct, Upper Frieze, South Side
   Procession of either 9 B.C. dedication or 13 B.C.
    inauggaration.
   Symbolic procession of religious representative and
    imperial family.
   Augustus had his head shrouded (piety) links with
    Aeneas on W.S. He’s conducting a sacrifice.
   Priests with candles on their heads (flamines).
   Augustus’ family led by Agrippa who dies in 12 B.C., his
    wife Lavinia and daughter Julia. This is an idea of strong
    family representing his political ideaology of children =
    wealth. Large families were provided with a tax
    incentive, unmarried adults were penalised. Children
    represent public faith in the Julio-Claudian destiny.
   Height of figures are varied, this draws the observers
    eye up and down the procession, adding interest.
Precinct, Upper Frieze, South Side
    Precinct, Upper Frieze, North Side

   Senators wearing wreths and members of
    Rome’s most important priesthoods.
   End of procession standing slightly apart
    from the group is women and children,
    minor members of Augustus’ family.
Precinct, Upper Frieze, North Side
                     Altar
   Facing due east
   Central section is fragmentary: maybe
    goddess Pax and other gods and
    goddesses gathered to receive sacrifice.
   Raised ends: vestal virgins and their
    servants. Animal being led to sacrifice.
   Probably two narratives: the sacrifice and
    rituals that take place at the altar.
5)    Tellus is Mother Earth, likes peace and is surrounded by
      all creatures
6)    Four symbols of fertility from the east side:      - water
                - children
                - Fruit/vegetaion/animals
                - Mother Earth
7)    The main message behind the Ara Pacis is peace and
      harmony to all in the Roman Empire. The Emperor is
      great to bring this peace.
8)    Again on the North side we see a Historical procession.
      Augustus himself is present is represented as a pious
      person, with his head bowed as if he is about to conduct a
      libation/prayer
9)    Aeneas – the founder of Rome
10)   Through war Rome was founded. Augustus wouldn’t have
      his peace without War.
1.   On which monument is this relief? Ara Pacis
2.   When was this monument erected? 13-9 BC
3.   Which emperor was this built in honour of?
     Augustus
4.   What political idea does the name of the
     monument promote? Peace
5.   Describe the TWO reliefs on this monument that
     relate to the mythical origins of Rome. Romulus
     and Remes and Aeneas
6.   Describe in detail, what is depicted on this plate.
     What is the symbolic significance of the features
     you have described. This plate is the Tellus relief
     (mother earth) holding two children at her are
     sheep and cow, holding a bowl of fruit.
     There are two women either side of Tellus.
     THese are representations of nature – air and
     wind shown by the billowing of the cloaks/ Fresh
     and salt water. THe natural elements of the
     earth. The left lady is sitting on a swan which is
     the symbol of Apollo.
1.   Describe in detail, what is depicted on the
     northen and southern side of this monument.
     How is a feeling of movement and depth created
     in these two long friezes?

								
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