Transnational Digital Government Research: Building Regional by MQ9vG7

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 41

									     Transnational Digital
    Government Research:
Building Regional Partnerships


               José Fortes (on behalf of the TDG team)
         Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering and
        Dept. of Computer and Info. Science and Engineering
                         University of Florida




Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
    The TDG team
   University researchers and staff members from OAS and
    agencies in the US, Belize and Dominican Republic
    •    North Carolina State University (A. Anton)
    •    Carnegie Mellon University (J. Carbonell, V. Cavalli-Sforza)
    •    University of Belize (C. McSweeney)
    •    University of Florida (J. Fortes, S. Su, I. Krsul)
    •    University of Colorado (R. Cole, W. Ward)
    •    University of Massachusetts (D. Towsley)
    •    U. Pontificia Católica Madre y Maestra (L. de Brens, J. Ventura, P.
         Taveras)
    •    OAS CICAD (R. Connolly, C. Ortega)
    •    National Drug Abuse Control Council (Belize) (O. Brooks)
    •    Consejo National de Drogas (Dominican Republic) (N. Bautista)
    •    Agencies in Belize and Dominican Republic

        Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Outline

    The TDG team and project background
    Transnational digital government
    Challenges
       • Research
       • Organization
       • Coordination
       • Infrastructure and funding
       • Political
    Conclusions

    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
 The long path behind TDG
Int. Collaboration in Computer Science, WA’97
   •   benefits/barriers;
   •   to advance S&T + solve global problems
Western Hemisphere Collaboration, FL’98, Mexico’99
   •   scientists from Latin America, Canada, US, OAS
OAS/CICAD meeting, Montevideo’99
   •   approves drug information network in the Americas
US-Chile/Argentina Collaboration,Chile/Argentina’00
   •   collaboration and development plan
Transnational Digital Government (TDG), Belize’ 01
TDG Kickoff(s), Dominican Rep.’ 02
  Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Transnational Government

   Agreed actions among agencies of distinct
    countries to address global problems
   Transnational Digital Government:
    • Uses information technology to enable or
        improve government processes.




     Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Research goals of the project

                                 Data extraction/           Data/services       Information
Process          Data                                                                                 Analysis
                                 summarization              registration        integration/
stages         collection                                                                           and retrieval
                                   (statistics)              and sharing        conversion




              Interfaces                              Internet services                            Information retrieval
              - speech-based                          -specification                               - distributed queries
              - dialogue-based                        - active objects                             - interfaces
Research      - paperless                                                                          - networking
                                                      - tool kits
Issues
                                 Data management                            Data processing
                                 -filtering                                 - translation
                                 -formatting                                - data integration
                                 -security                                  - quality of service



    To advance the state-of-the-art of: spoken dialogue systems,
     machine translation, collaborative information management,
     Internet portals and services, network performance optimization,
     and software requirements in the
    context of transnational digital government applied to the MEM.

    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Research challenges

    Heterogeneity everywhere!
       • Languages
       • Agency and staff skills
       • Infrastructures
              • Networks and other communication means
              • Computer hardware and software
       • Regulations
       • Government structures
       • Culture and politics
       • Time!
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Building a partnership

    Representative transnational scenario
    Requirements:
       • Two small countries with distinct languages
       • High-level commitment to TDG activities
       • Local universities teamed with agencies
    Choices:
       • Belize
       • Dominican Republic
       • US (OAS headquarters)
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
one slide on MEM (?)




Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Belize

    1981 - present
    ~ size of Massachusetts
    ~270,000 people
    Languages
       •   English (official), Spanish,
           Mayan, Garifuna, Creole
    University of Belize
       •   School of Engineering & IT



            *Source: The World Fact book 2002
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Dominican Republic

    1844 - present
    ~2 X size of N. Hampshire
    ~9 Million people
    Languages
       •   Spanish
    Pontificia Univ. Catolica
     Madre y Maestra
       •   Computer systems



            *Source: The World Fact book 2002
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Transnational Issues

   Disputes - international:
    •   the "Line of Adjacency" established in 2000 as an agreed
        limit to check squatters settling in Belize, remains in place
        while the OAS assists states to resolve Guatemalan
        territorial claims in Belize and Guatemalan maritime
        access to the Caribbean Sea; Honduras claims the
        Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize
   Illicit drugs:
    •   major transshipment point for drugs; small-scale illicit
        producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
        some money-laundering activity related to offshore sector

            *Source: The World Fact book 2002
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Organization of the American States

   oldest regional international organization
   North, Central and South America and the
    Caribbean (the Western Hemisphere)
   forum for multilateral dialogue and action.
     • English, Spanish, French and Portuguese
   Inter-American Drug Abuse Control
    Commission (CICAD)
     • creating a multilateral evaluation tool to measure
         progress of countries in meeting anti-drug goals

    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Conversational interface systems

    User does not need to write or read in
     order to receive/provide information
    Conversation between user and computer
     as questions and answers
    Examples of usage:
       • animated characters who can talk with children
           to educate them on drug-related matters
       •   assistance on data collection
       •   detect and respond to suspicious activities at
           countries' borders
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Why are conversational interfaces hard?

   variability in languages, dialects, environmental
    noise and communication channels
   annotated speech from native speakers required to
    model variability and achieve good performance
   expensive studies - human operator controls the
    computer response - to model language use
   Approaches
    •   statistical modeling of speech patterns to generate word sequence
        hypotheses
    •   robust semantic parsing to assign words and phrases to conceptual
        categories
    •   sophisticated modeling of dialogue interaction to achieve task goals
    •   robust semantic acoustic and model acoustic
     Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
    Machine translation

   For documents, dialogues …
   Example of use:
    •   Documents shared among collaborating countries
          • Records of conversations between officials and travelers
          • Descriptions of travelers at border crossings
          • Text Information in fixed-format databases
   Problem: very hard unless domain-restricted
    •   Words must have unambiguous meaning, e.g. “drug”
    •   Language differences: meaning, structure, idioms …



     Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
    Comparing Approaches
      Interlingua and syntactic transfer MT
       •   labor intensive/expensive, no “learning from experience”
      Statistical MT
       •   huge amount of parallel text (billions of words) to work well
       •   not easily available, especially in our domain
      Example-Based MT is a good compromise
       •   less parallel in-domain texts than statistical MT
       •   like statistical MT, learns from additional data w/ less labor

  Given     I met the Pope  Conocí al Papa
examples    The tallest man is my father  El hombre mas alto es mi padre
  New       I met the tallest man  Conocí el hombre mas alto
sentence    I met the tallest man  Conocí al hombre mas alto
                                                               Slide by J. Carbonell and V. Cavalli-Sforza
       Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Data/knowledge management

   Enables secure, timely, authorized access
    to shared data and distributed information
   Enforces rules and policies of interactions
    among agencies to ensure security,
    privacy and coordination of collaborations
   Example of use:
    • checks of timely complete drug-use reports
        while protecting identities and data integrity


    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
End goal: Virtual Collaboration Grids
                             1.                  Grid 1

                             2.                  Grid 2
                                                                 Country X
                             3.                  Grid 3
           US



                                                                          Belize


 Country
   Y                                               Internet



                                                                      Country Z

   Dominican
    Republic                        Slide provided by S. SU
                                                              Country W
   Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Purposes/Challenges of Collaboration Grids

       Share heterogeneous data, knowledge and
        application system resources and allow
        human & programmatic accesses to these
        resources
       Coordinate Inter-government and Inter-
        organizational activities by
          •   querying for distributed data,
          •   automatic event notification,
          •   information delivery,
          •   application system invocation, and
          •   knowledge rule processing.

Slide provided by S. SU

      Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
  How does our approach work

                                                    US                   *SMSC: Short Message Service Center          Detailed presentation
  Prototype System                               (OAS)                                                                and discussion of this
                                         Collaboration                                                                prototype system will take
                                             Portal
    DR
                       Internet
                                                                                                          Belize      place in session 2B this
                                    Event Registration and Discovery                                                  afternoon at 1:30 pm
 ETR Server                                         Query                                              ETR Server
Event Server                       Event Notification and Data Delivery
                                                                                                       Event Server
 Translator
                 Post                                                                         Post                    Presentation title:
                 events                 Point               Point                             events     Translator
  Dist. QP
                                        of
                                        entry
                                                            of
                                                            entry                                                     Enabling Transnational
                                        Stations            Stations                                     Dist. QP
                      query
                                        with
                                        Conv.
                                                            with
                                                            Conv.
                                                                                       query
                                                                                                                      Collection, Notification,
                                        Interface           Interface
   DBMS       Data                                                                               Data     DBMS        and Sharing of
              entry                                                                              entry
                                                                                                                      Information
                                       Agencies             Agencies
    DB                                                                                                      DB


                                        People               People
*SMSC                                                                                                        *SMSC

         Cell phone notification                                    Cell phone notification




     Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Internet portals and services

    Web sites where collaborating agencies
     can find and use data, documents and
     software to process information
    Web site where agencies can place
     data, ask questions or assistance,
     interact with similar agencies
    Example of use:
       • MEM survey templates and statistical tools to
           summarize survey results can be obtained
           and used on the OAS web site

    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
A possible “new” OAS portal




Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
What is behind portals


                                    UIML    Virtual interfaces   XUL



                                           Belize         Dom
                         OAS                              Rep                Other
                         MEM               MEM            MEM                MEM
                                 OGSA                            UDDI                SOAP
                   XML   HTTP              Virtual information grids         WSDL

                      Services              Services         Services           Services

                   Globus        .net       Virtual computing grids           JINI



 VMware    Virtual          Java     Virtual                Virtual                    Virtual
IBMz800    machines                applications          SQL data      NFS            networks
                            C#
                                             NFS                                                  TCP/IP
                                                                                                   UDP
          Machines           Applications                    Data                      Networks




 Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Why virtual resources and grids?
    Hiding of heterogeneity
       • resource differences, lack of resources
       • security and privacy
       • sustainability and scalability
       • time independence
       • natural for collaborative efforts
    A basis for
       • flexible and portable test beds
       • cyberinfrastructure for digital government
           research and deployment
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Network support for collaboration grids

    services to compensate for variations in
     performance of the Internet
    example of use:
       • keeping authorized copies of data on local
           computers in anticipation of needs of
           users/agencies (dissemination)
       •   application-level overlay networks (fast,
           transparent)



    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Legal and cultural heterogeneity

    Raised by reviewers and agency
     representatives
    IT solutions must be mindful of needs
     and expectations of users and
     institutions
    A. Anton joins TDG team - expert on
       • software requirements analysis
       • aligning privacy and security

    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Software requirements

    The inquiry cycle




                                                            Slide provided by A. Anton
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Manageable first steps
   TDG Kickoff(s), Dominican Rep.’ 02
   identified MEM IT systems/processes
    requiring transnational collaboration
   MEM has 83 indicators
      • many agencies interact for each one
      • need country/agency buy-in
   Selected indicator 83: Displacement
      • “new trends in the global phenomenon of the
          mobility of the different manifestations of the
          drug problem” - e.g. trafficking/routes
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
    Remote border control

   Very specific domain
    • timely
    • support at
    highest-levels
    • transnational
    in many ways
    • builds on
    existing IT
    infrastructures

     Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
  Participant roles
                           Belize                           USA       Dominican
                                                                      Republic


                                                                     Pontificia
                        University                     CMU, NCSU     Universidad
Universities            of                             U. Colorado   Católica
                        Belize                         U. Florida    Madre y
                                                       U. Mass.      Maestra




                        Ministry of                                  National
                                                         OAS
 Agencies                Health                                      Drug
                                                      headquarters
                                                                     Council




    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
The reality




Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Transnational Dig. Gov. research is…

   …transnational!
   Heterogeneity rules!
     • Language barriers
     • Security
     • Buy-in from agencies
     • Infrastructure differences
     • Bureaucracy and different institutional cultures
     • Thinly divided funds

    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Solutions to language barriers

    Translators for political meetings
    Mostly bilingual team (12/17)
    Selective translation of documents
       • by OAS
       • by other team members
    Translation services are expensive!
       • can automatic translation help?


    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Coordination challenge

   17+ participants
     •   plus students …
   Web-based forum
   Review meetings
     •   3 in 2003
   Exchange visits
   Calls, email …
   Teleconferencing



    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Institutional bureaucracy/cultures

    academia vs. OAS vs. agencies
    similar institutions in different countries
    one and half year “from intention to fund”
     to “arrival of funds”
       • diplomatic concerns
       • distinct contract languages
       • first-time scenario
       • “deep” subcontracting
    solution: re-budgeting and other sources
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Thinly divided funds

   1 student + 1 faculty-month per university
   limited funding for infrastructure
   supplements for
    • undergrad research
    • work on security-privacy alignment
   leveraging ongoing work at PI’s laboratories
   seeking complementary funding sources


    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
Infrastructure differences

    Everywhere
       • computers, networks, software…
    Three-phase approach
       • U.Florida-centered system
       • system distributed across universities
       • system distributed across countries
    Virtualization technology planned
       • for test bed
       • for deployment
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
    Summary
   an exciting unique project (3 years, just started …)
   strict goal: to advance research on IT that
    facilitates transnational collaborations
   heterogeneity is major barrier
    • virtualization-supportive infrastructure needed
   broad potential to lead to
    • solutions adoptable by many countries
   IT can help TDG but … will it? *
    • need systems-oriented research and international
        collaboration

     Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
                                                             * inspired by Gio Wiederhold
Acknowledgements

    NSF
       • The Digital Government program
              • Larry Brandt and Valerie Gregg
       • Program Directors
              • Rita Rodriguez
              • Gary Strong
    OAS
    Ministry of Health, Belize
    National Drug Council, Dom. Republic
    The TDG team
    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory
The real reality

    This slide will have photos of people
     involved in the project or benefiting from
     it; I do not include the pictures because
     they take 50 MB and will cause pain to
     your mailboxes




    Advanced Computing and Information Systems laboratory

								
To top