Budget Decisions in Times of Fiscal Constraint

Document Sample
Budget Decisions in Times of Fiscal Constraint Powered By Docstoc
					The Montana University System
     Environmental Scan
         June 2007
Management Cycle


                             Planning




                                               Resource
       Assessment
                                               Allocation



 Strategic Management —The allocation of resources to programmed
 activities calculated to achieve a set of goals.
                                                                   2
The Management Cycle in a Public Institution


                        State


                      Planning


                      Institution


        State                           State


                                     Resource
      Assessment                     Allocation

      Institution                     Institution


                                                    3
Characteristics of an Attractive/Competitive State

   Strong Economy
         High Per Capita Income
         High-Wage Jobs
         Low Unemployment
         Low Levels of Poverty

   Good Quality of Life
       Safe Environment—Low Crime Rate
       Healthy Population
       Highly Educated Population


                                                     4
                                                                                    Louisiana
                                                                                                                                             5




                                                                        71.3
                                                                                    Mississippi
                                                                                    West Virginia
                                                                                    Arkansas
                                                                                    Utah
Per Capita Personal Income—State Values as a




                                                                                    New Mexico
                                                                                    South Carolina
                                                                                    Kentucky
                                                                                    Idaho
                                                                 83.8               Montana
                                                                                    Alabama
                                                                                    Oklahoma
                                                                                    Arizona
                                                                                    Maine
                                                                                    Tennessee
                                                                                    North Carolina
                                                                                    Indiana
                                                                                    Georgia
                                                                                    North Dakota
                                                                                    Missouri
                                                                                    Iowa




                                                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                    Ohio
                                                                                    Oregon
                                                                                    Texas
                                                                                    South Dakota
                                                                                    Vermont
                                                                                    Michigan
                                                                                    Kansas
Proportion of U.S., 2005




                                                                                    Nebraska
                                                                                    Wisconsin
                                                                                    Florida
                                                                                    Hawaii
                                                        100.0                       United States
                                                                                    Pennsylvania
                                                                                    Rhode Island
                                                                                    Washington
                                                                                    Alaska
                                                                                    Nevada
                                                                                    Illinois
                                                                                    California
                                                                                    Delaware
                                                                                    Wyoming
                                                                                    Minnesota
                                                                                    Colorado
                                                                                    Virginia
                                                                                    New Hampshire
                                                                                    New York
                                                                                    Maryland
                                                                                    Massachusetts
                                                                                    New Jersey
                                                137.8                               Connecticut




                                                                               50




                                                                                    0
                                               150




                                                           100
Median Earnings by Degree Level




                                                                                                                                   60,000




                                                                                                                                                     58,200
$60,000




                                                                                                                          50,000




                                                                                                                                            50,000
                                       Montana                         U.S.




                                                                                                                45,000
                                                                                              36,000
$40,000




                                                                                                       33,000
                                                                           28,200


                                                                                     25,000
                                                         22,700
                                       21,000




                                                                  20,000
                              16,000




                                                16,000
                     15,000




$20,000
             9,900




     $0
            Less than  High School Some College                   Associate         Bachelor's         Masters           Professional       Doctorate
           High School or Equivalent


 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample Files
                                                                                                                                                              6
State Health Rankings—United Health Foundation
Risk Factors—Personal Behaviors                                                2006   2005   1990
   Prevalence of Smoking               (Percent of population)                  12    22      5
   Motor Vehicle Deaths                (Deaths per 100,000,000 miles driven)    47    44     26
   Prevalence of Obesity               (Percent of population)                  10     6      2
   High School Graduation              (Percent of incoming ninth graders)      11    10      6
Risk Factors—Community Environment
   Violent Crime                       (Offenses per 100,000 population)        16    18      6
   Lack of Health Insurance            (Percent without health insurance)       36    46     34
   Infectious Disease                  (Cases per 100,000 population)            4     3     15
   Children in Poverty                 (Percent of persons under age 18)        39    25     41
   Occupational Fatalities             (Deaths per 100,000 workers)             47    47     48
Risk Factors—Health Policies
   Per Capita Public Health Spending   ($ per person)                            5     5      -
   Adequacy of Prenatal Care           (Percent of pregnant women)              30    33     28
Outcomes
   Poor Mental Health Days             (Days in last 30 days)                   17     7      -
   Poor Physical Health Days           (Days in last 30 days)                   22    21      -
   Cardiovascular Deaths               (Deaths per 100,000 population)          13    12      9
   Cancer Deaths                       (Deaths per 100,000 population)          21    22     17
   Infant Mortality                    (Deaths per 1,000 live births)            8    13     23
   Premature Death                     (Years lost per 100,000 population)      29    26     22
Overall                                                                         22    21     21

                                                                                                    7
Educational Attainment and Rank Among States—
Montana, 2003 (Percent)

      Age 18-24 with
                                  78.6%                                          16th
High School Diploma (20001)


    Age 25 and over with
    High School Diploma
                                  90.5%                                                           3rd


    Age 25 and over with
                                  7.1%                   27th
     Associate Degree


      Age 25-64 with
                                  25.7%
Bachelor’s Degree or Higher                                               23rd

      Age 25-64 with
                                  7.5%
  Graduate or Prof. Degree                               38th

                                   50           40           30           20            10           0
1 Source:U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census. Remaining figures are 2003 data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s State
       and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                                                8
 The Array of Higher Education Benefits

                                                 Public                                                 Private

                        Increased Tax Revenues                                             Higher Salaries and Benefits

                        Greater Productivity                                               Employment

  Economic              Increased Consumption                                              Higher Savings Levels

                        Increased Workforce Flexibility                                    Improved Working Conditions

                        Decreased Reliance on Government Financial Support                 Personal/Professional Mobility


                        Reduced Crime Rates                                                Improved Health/Life Expectancy

                        Increased Charitable Giving/Community Service                      Improved Quality of Life for Offspring

  Social                Increased Quality of Civic Life                                    Better Consumer Decisionmaking

                        Social Cohesion/Appreciation of Diversity                          Increased Personal Status

                        Improved Ability to Adapt to and Use Technology                    More Hobbies, Leisure Activities


Source: Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and Private Value of Going to College.
        Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.
                                                                                                                                    9
Relationship Between Educational Attainment and
Personal Income by State, 2006

         49,852                                                                                                         CT


                                                                                                                       NJ
                                                          R2 = 0.5741                                                            MA

                                                                                                                       MD

                                                                                                           NY
                  Per Capita Income




                                                    WY

                                                                             DE                 CA         VA
                                                                                                           NH               CO
                                                                                                                 MN
                                                                                                      IL
                                                    NV                                 AK             WA
                                                                                                     RI
                                                                              PA                            HI
                                                                                   FL
                                                                   WI              NE                 KS
                                                                         TX
                                                                        SD MI                                     VT
                                                              OH                         OR
                                                                   IA
                                                        IN OK
                                                        TN       MO               ME       ND
                                                                        NC              GA
                                                    AL            AZ
                                                     LA              MT
                                                                      ID        NM
                                                  KY       SC                    UT
                                      WV     AR
          26,535
                                                     MS

                                                               Percent with Bachelor's Degree or Higher
                                      15.9                                                                                       40.4




Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                                                                        10
Relationship Between Educational Attainment and Health
                                                                                            2006
            30
       State Health Index-United Health Foundation




                                                                  R2 = 0.4589                                         MN
                                                                                                                       VT
                                                                                                                NH
                                                                                                                 HI          CT
                                                                                            UT                                        MA
                                                                                                    ND
                                                                                   WI       ME
                                                                                   IA        NE             RI              NJ
                                                                                                             WA
                                                                                                                                 CO
                                                                                     SD                        KS
                                                                                    ID            OR             VA
                                                                  WY                MT                   CA
                                                                             OH                              IL
                                                                                          MIPA
                                                                                                                 NY
                                                                                          DE   AK
                                                                                                                            MD
                                                                        IN         AZ NC
                                                                                  MO TX

                                                                   NV
                                                                 KY                        NM
                                                                                            FL
                                                                                                  GA
                                                     WV                      OK
                                                                  AL
                                                            AR          TNSC
                                                                   MS
                                                                   LA




      -30
                                                     15.9                    Percent with Bachelor's Degree or Higher                 40.4




Source: U.S. Census Bureau; United Health Foundation
                                                                                                                                             11
The Demographic and
  Economic Context



                      12
Total Population, 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                      Daniels
                                                 Glacier                  Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
     Lincoln                                                                         Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                        Valley
                         Flathead                                                                                           Blaine
                                                                Pondera                                                                                                                     Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                               Phillips


                                                                                               Chouteau                                                                                                 Richland
                                                                Teton
                           Lake
          Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                                  McCone

                                                   Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                        Garfield                                Dawson
                                                                                                                       Fergus
                                                                                                                                      Petroleum
               Mineral                                                                           Judith Basin
                            Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                           Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Wibaux
                                                                                     Meagher
                                                      Powell
                                       Granite                                                            Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                            Broadwater                                                                    Treasure                    Custer                  Fallon
                                            Deer Lodge                                                           Golden Valley
                          Ravalli                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                     Yellowstone                        Rosebud
                                                                                                      Sweet Grass
                                                   Silver Bow
                                                                                  Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Carter
                                                                                                                                                     Big Horn                     Powder River
                                                                   Madison                     Park
                                            Beaverhead                                                                   Carbon




                                                                                                                                                          59,302 to 138,213
                                                                                                                                                          10,496 to 40,582
                                                                                                                                                           4,098 to 9,903
                                                                                                                                                           1,321 to 4,057
                                                                                                                                                             474 to 1,244
Montana = 944,632
Source: Projections from the MT Dept. of Commerce, Census and Economic Information Center
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13
                                                                                                          -5.4 West Virginia
                                                                                                                                          14




                                                                                                               North Dakota
                                                                                                               Iowa
                                                                                                               Ohio
Projected Total Population—Percent Change,




                                                                                                               New York
                                                                                                               Pennsylvania
                                                                                                               Wyoming
                                                                                                               South Dakota
                                                                                                               Nebraska
                                                                                                               Michigan
                                                                                                               Connecticut
                                                                                                               Illinois
                                                                                                               Louisiana
                                                                                                               Mississippi
                                                                                                               Rhode Island
                                                                                                               Kansas
                                                                                                               Maine
                                                                                                               Massachusetts
                                                                                                               Alabama
                                                                                                               Indiana
                                                                                                               Kentucky
                                                                                                               New Mexico
                                                                                                               Wisconsin
                                                                                                               Oklahoma
                                                                                                               Missouri
                                                                                              12.0             Montana
                                                                                                               New Jersey
                                                                                                               Vermont
                                                                                                               Hawaii
                                                                                                               Arkansas
                                                                                                               Delaware
                                                                                                               South Carolina
                                                                                                               Minnesota
                                                                                       23.0                    United States
                                                                                                               Tennessee
                                                                                                               New Hampshire
                                                                                                               Maryland
                                                                                                               Colorado
                                                                                                               California
                                                                                                               Virginia
                                                                                                               Alaska
                                                                                                               Oregon




                                                                                                                                Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                               Georgia
                                                                                                               Washington
                                                                                                               Idaho
                                             2005-30
                                                                                                               North Carolina
                                                                                                               Utah
                                                                                                               Texas
                                                                                                               Florida
                                                                                                               Nevada
                                                       82.5                                                    Arizona




                                                                                                          0
                                                       90
                                                              80
                                                                   70
                                                                        60
                                                                             50
                                                                                  40
                                                                                       30
                                                                                              20
                                                                                                     10


                                                                                                              -10
Projected Change in Montana Population by Age and
Race/Ethnicity, 2000-20

120,000
                                                                                                               102,547
100,000
                                    White         Native American            Hispanic
 80,000

 60,000

 40,000                                                                                 33,599


 20,000
                    9,797
                            3,994                                       6,745 3,997              4,897 4,218
                                                2,688 1,085                                                              2,651 2,420
      0
           -9,081
-20,000                               -14,104                 -13,259


                    0-17                    18-24                   25-44                        45-64                   65+



 Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                                       15
Percent Educational Attainment of Population Age 25-64
By Race/Ethnicity—Montana, 2000

35                                                     White           Native American     Hispanic
                                   32
                       30     30
30                                           28
                                        27
                                                  26
25
          22
                                                                            20
20              18


15
                                                                                      11
                                                              10
10    8                                                                          8          8
                                                       7               7
                                                                                                       5
 5                                                                                               3


 0
      Less than HS      High School     Some College       Associate         Bachelor's    Graduate/Prof.


 Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                            16
                                                                                                                                      17




                                                                                          14.2        Hawaii
                                                                                                      North Dakota
                                                                                                      Vermont
Percent of Population Age 18-24 with No High School




                                                                                                      Massachusetts
                                                                                                      Iowa
                                                                                                      Rhode Island
                                                                                                      Utah
                                                                                                      Nebraska
                                                                                                      Pennsylvania
                                                                                                      Maryland
                                                                                                      Virginia
                                                                                                      Minnesota
                                                                                                      Wyoming
                                                                                                      Wisconsin
                                                                                                      Maine
                                                                              21.4                    Montana
                                                                                                      Kansas
                                                                                                      West Virginia
                                                                                                      South Dakota
                                                                                                      Connecticut
                                                                                                      New Hampshire
                                                                                                      Delaware
                                                                                                      Idaho
                                                                                                      Alaska
                                                                                                      Ohio
                                                                                                      Missouri
                                                                                                      Michigan
                                                                                                      Indiana
                                                                                                      New Jersey
                                                                                                      New York
                                                                                                      Illinois
                                                                                                      Arkansas
                                                                                                      Washington
                                                                                                      Tennessee




                                                                                                                       Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census
                                                                                                      Colorado
                                                                                                      Kentucky
                                                                                                      Oklahoma
                                                                       25.3                           United States
                                                                                                      South Carolina
                                                                                                      Oregon
                                                                                                      North Carolina
                                                                                                      Louisiana
                                                                                                      Alabama
                                                                                                      Florida
                                                                                                      Mississippi
Diploma
                                                                                                      California
                                                                                                      New Mexico
                                                                                                      Georgia
                                                                                                      Arizona
                                                                                                      Texas
                                                           33.3                                       Nevada




                                                                                                      0
                                                      40




                                                                  30




                                                                                     20




                                                                                                 10
Percent of Residents 18-24 Who Have Not Completed
High School, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                     Daniels
                                                Glacier                  Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                         Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                       Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                           Blaine
                                                               Pondera                                                                                                                     Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                              Phillips


                                                                                              Chouteau                                                                                                 Richland
                                                               Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                                 McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                        Garfield                                Dawson
                                                                                                                      Fergus
                                                                                                                                     Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                           Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                          Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wibaux
                                                                                    Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                            Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                    Treasure                    Custer                  Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                           Golden Valley
                         Ravalli                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                    Yellowstone                        Rosebud
                                                                                                     Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                 Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Carter
                                                                                                                                                    Big Horn                     Powder River
                                                                  Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                   Carbon




                                                                                                                                                          7.8%          to   21.3%
                                                                                                                                                         21.3%          to   27.0%
                                                                                                                                                         27.0%          to   37.5%
Montana = 21.4%                                                                                                                                          37.5%          to   42.3%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                                         42.3%          to   51.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       18
                                                                                                                   Texas
                                                                                                                                                                                              19




                                                                                             78.7
                                                                                                                   Louisiana
                                                                                                                   Kentucky
Percent of Population Age 25 and over with at least a High




                                                                                                                   Tennessee
                                                                                                                   California
                                                                                                                   Mississippi
                                                                                                                   West Virginia
                                                                                                                   New Mexico
                                                                                                                   Alabama
                                                                                                                   Arkansas
                                                                                                                   South Carolina
                                                                                                                   Arizona
                                                                                                                   Rhode Island
                                                                                                                   North Carolina
                                                                                                                   Georgia
                                                                                                                   New York
                                                                                          85.5                     United States
                                                                                                                   Nevada
                                                                                                                   Delaware
                                                                                                                   Virginia
                                                                                                                   New Jersey
                                                                                                                   Florida
                                                                                                                   Missouri
                                                                                                                   Maryland
                                                                                                                   Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                   Oklahoma
                                                                                                                   Illinois




                                                                                                                                    Source: Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY, April 2007
                                                                                                                   Ohio
                                                                                                                   Indiana
                                                                                                                   Connecticut
                                                                                                                   North Dakota
                                                                                                                   Hawaii
                                                                                                                   Idaho
                                                                                                                   Maine
                                                             School Diploma, 2006




                                                                                                                   Oregon
                                                                                                                   Michigan
                                                                                                                   South Dakota
                                                                                                                   Massachusetts
                                                                                                                   Colorado
                                                                                                                   Kansas
                                                                                                                   Iowa
                                                                                                                   Vermont
                                                                                                                   Nebraska
                                                                                                                   Wyoming
                                                                                                                   Wisconsin
                                                                                                                   Washington
                                                                                                                   Utah
                                                                                     91.4                          Montana
                                                                                                                   New Hampshire
                                                                                                                   Alaska
                                                                                    93.0                           Minnesota




                                                                                                    75




                                                                                                         50




                                                                                                              25




                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                    100
                                                                                                                                   West Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20




                                                                                                                  17.0
                                                                                                                                   Arkansas
                                                                                                                                   Kentucky
Percent of Population Age 25 and over with an Associate’s




                                                                                                                                   Nevada
                                                                                                                                   Mississippi
                                                                                                                                   Louisiana
                                                                                                                                   Tennessee
                                                                                                                                   Indiana
                                                                                                                                   Alabama
                                                                                                                                   Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                   Ohio
                                                                                                                                   Texas
                                                                                                                                   South Carolina
                                                                                                                                   New Mexico
                                                                                                                                   Missouri
                                                                                                                                   Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                   Georgia
                                                                                                                                   Iowa
                                                                                                                                   Arizona
                                                                                                                                   South Dakota
                                                                                                                                   North Carolina




                                                                                                                                                    Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                                                                   Michigan
                                                                                                                                   Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                   Idaho
                                                                                                                                   Wyoming
                                                                                                      32.8                         Montana
                                                                                                                                   Florida
                                                                                                                                   Nebraska
                                                                                                      33.6                         United States
                                                                                                                                   Oregon
                                                                                                                                   Alaska
                                                                                                                                   Maine
                                                                                                                                   Delaware
                                                            Degree or Higher, 2003




                                                                                                                                   North Dakota
                                                                                                                                   Illinois
                                                                                                                                   Kansas
                                                                                                                                   Utah
                                                                                                                                   Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                   California
                                                                                                                                   Hawaii
                                                                                                                                   New York
                                                                                                                                   New Jersey
                                                                                                                                   Virginia
                                                                                                                                   Washington
                                                                                                                                   Minnesota
                                                                                                                                   Vermont
                                                                                                                                   New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                   Maryland
                                                                                                                                   Connecticut
                                                                                                                                   Colorado
                                                                                          43.4                                     Massachusetts




                                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                     50


                                                                                                 40


                                                                                                             30


                                                                                                                         20


                                                                                                                              10
                                                                                                   17.0        West Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                                   21




                                                                                                               Arkansas
                                                                                                               Kentucky
                                                                                                               Nevada
                                                                                                               Mississippi
                                                                                                               Louisiana
                                                                                                               Tennessee
                                                                                                               Indiana
Percent of Adults Age 25 and over with a Bachelor’s




                                                                                                               Alabama
                                                                                                               Oklahoma
                                                                                                               Ohio
                                                                                                               Texas
                                                                                                               South Carolina
                                                                                                               New Mexico
                                                                                                               Missouri
                                                                                                               Pennsylvania
                                                                                                               Georgia
                                                                                                               Iowa
                                                                                                               Arizona
                                                                                                               South Dakota
                                                                                                               North Carolina



                                                                                                                                Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                                               Michigan
                                                                                                               Wisconsin
                                                                                                               Idaho
                                                                                                               Wyoming
                                                                                            25.7               Montana
                                                                                                               Florida
                                                                                                               Nebraska
                                                                                        26.6                   United States
                                                                                                               Oregon
                                                                                                               Alaska
                                                                                                               Maine
                                                                                                               Delaware
                                                      Degree or Higher, 2003




                                                                                                               North Dakota
                                                                                                               Illinois
                                                                                                               Kansas
                                                                                                               Utah
                                                                                                               Rhode Island
                                                                                                               California
                                                                                                               Hawaii
                                                                                                               New York
                                                                                                               New Jersey
                                                                                                               Virginia
                                                                                                               Washington
                                                                                                               Minnesota
                                                                                                               Vermont
                                                                                                               New Hampshire
                                                                                                               Maryland
                                                                                                               Connecticut
                                                                                                               Colorado
                                                                                35.9                           Massachusetts




                                                                                                               0
                                                                               40



                                                                                       30



                                                                                                   20



                                                                                                          10
Percent of Residents 25-64 with at Least a
Bachelor’s Degree, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                   Daniels
                                                Glacier                 Toole                       Hill                                                                                               Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                        Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                      Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                          Blaine
                                                              Pondera                                                                                                                    Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                             Phillips


                                                                                             Chouteau                                                                                                Richland
                                                              Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                               McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                       Garfield                               Dawson
                                                                                                                     Fergus
                                                                                                                                    Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                          Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wibaux
                                                                                   Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                           Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                   Treasure                   Custer                  Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                          Golden Valley
                        Ravalli                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                   Yellowstone                     Rosebud
                                                                                                    Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Carter
                                                                                                                                                   Big Horn                    Powder River
                                                                 Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                  Carbon




                                                                                                                                                        28.3%         to   43.1%
                                                                                                                                                        23.3%         to   28.3%
                                                                                                                                                        19.2%         to   23.3%
Montana = 26.7%                                                                                                                                         16.8%         to   19.2%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                                        13.3%         to   16.8%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     22
                                                                                                                                                 23




                                                                                             4.0   Maine
                                                                                                   West Virginia
                                                                                                   New Hampshire
Difference Among the Two Largest Racial/Ethnic Groups in Percent
of Population Age 25-64 with a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher, 2000




                                                                                                   Kentucky
                                                                                                   Arkansas
                                                                                                   Tennessee
                                                                                                   Florida
                                                                                                   Oklahoma
                                                                                                   Indiana
                                                                                                   Hawaii
                                                                                                   Mississippi
                                                                                                   Alabama
                                                                                                   Ohio
                                                                                                   Michigan
                                                                                                   Missouri
                                                                                                   Iowa
                                                                                                   Louisiana
                                                                                                   Minnesota
                                                                                                   North Carolina
                                                                                                   Wyoming
                                                                                                   Georgia
                                                                                                   Pennsylvania
                                                                                                   Delaware
                                                                                 14.6              United States
                                                                                                   Wisconsin
                                                                                                   Nevada
                                                                                                   South Carolina
                                                                                                   Maryland
                                                                                                   Illinois
                                                                                                   South Dakota
                                                                                                   Idaho
                                                                                                   Vermont
                                                                                                   Oregon
                                                                                                   North Dakota
                                                                          18.6                     Montana
                                                                                                   Virginia
                                                                                                   Utah
                                                                                                   Washington
                                                                                                   Nebraska
                                                                                                   Kansas




                                                                                                                    Source: U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                   Arizona
                                                                                                   Rhode Island
                                                                                                   Texas
                                                                                                   Alaska
                                                                                                   New York
                                                                                                   Massachusetts
                                                                                                   New Jersey
                                                                                                   New Mexico
                                                                                                   Connecticut
                                                                                                   California
                                                                   28.8                            Colorado




                                                                                                   0
                                                                    30




                                                                           20




                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                North Dakota
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24




                                                                                                                                                                                 -5.8
                                                                                                                                       Maine                        -1.2
                                                                                                                                    Vermont                  -0.5
                                                                                                                                                     0.0   West Virginia
Projected Change* in Percent of Population Age 25-64




                                                                                                                                                    0.1    Kentucky
                                                                                                                                                   0.2     New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                                   0.3     Tennessee
                                                                                                                                                   0.3     Missouri
                                                                                                                                                   0.3     Ohio
                                                                                                                                               0.4         Alabama
                                                       with Less than a High School Diploma, 2000-20




                                                                                                                                               0.4         Montana
                                                                                                                                               0.5         South Carolina
                                                                                                                                               0.5         Michigan
                                                                                                                                                                                        *Projected Change is based on 2000 educational attainment by race/ethnicity and the projected


                                                                                                                                               0.5         Indiana
                                                                                                                                              0.6          South Dakota
                                                                                                                                             0.7           Mississippi
                                                                                                                                             0.7           Hawaii
                                                                                                                                             0.8           Iowa
                                                                                                                                             0.8           Wyoming
                                                                                                                                                           North Carolina




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Source: U.S. Census 2000, U.S. Census Bureau’s 1995 Population Projections
                                                                                                                                             0.8
                                                                                                                                             0.8           Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                         0.9               Louisiana
                                                                                                                                         0.9               Arkansas
                                                                                                                                         1.0               Virginia
                                                                                                                                        1.1                Georgia
                                                                                                                                        1.1                Maryland
                                                                                                                                        1.1                Alaska
                                                                                                                                       1.2                 Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                       1.2                 Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                       1.2                 Nebraska




                                                                                                                                                                                         changes in the population age 25-64 by race/ethnicity.
                                                                                                                                       1.2                 Delaware
                                                                                                                                       1.3                 Minnesota
                                                                                                                                       1.3                 Utah
                                                                                                                                  1.6                      Florida
                                                                                                                                 1.8                       Washington
                                                                                                                                1.9                        Kansas
                                                                                                                                1.9                        New Jersey
                                                                                                                                1.9                        Idaho
                                                                                                                                2.0                        Connecticut
                                                                                                                             2.0                           Oregon
                                                                                                                            2.1                            Rhode Island
                                                                                                                            2.1                            United States
                                                                                                                            2.1                            New Mexico
                                                                                                                            2.1                            New York
                                                                                                                            2.1                            Massachusetts
                                                                                                                          2.4                              Illinois
                                                                                                                          2.5                              Colorado
                                                                                                                    3.3                                    Texas
                                                                                                                  3.6                                      Arizona
                                                                                                            4.6                                            California
                                                                                                           4.8                                             Nevada




                                                                                                       6


                                                                                                                  4


                                                                                                                                 2


                                                                                                                                                         0


                                                                                                                                                                      -2


                                                                                                                                                                            -4


                                                                                                                                                                                 -6
                                                                                                              New Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25




                                                                                                                                                                                              -2.75
                                                                                                                 California                                                               -2.57
                                                                                                                   Arizona                                                            -2.42
                                                                                                                   Nevada                                                         -2.22
                                                                                                                 Colorado
Projected Change* in Percent of Population Age 25-64




                                                                                                                                                                                  -2.21
                                                                                                                     Texas                                                        -2.19
                                                                                                              Connecticut                                                 -1.66
                                                                                                             Rhode Island                                           -1.45
                                                                                                                 New York                                         -1.31
                                                                                                            Massachusetts                                      -1.29
                                                                                                                    Illinois                                 -1.16
                                                                                                                 Delaware                                   -1.11
                                                                                                                   Kansas
                                                                                                                                                                                                      *Projected Change is based on 2000 educational attainment by race/ethnicity and the projected
                                                       with an Associate Degree or Higher, 2000-20




                                                                                                                                                            -1.10
                                                                                                             United States                                -1.00
                                                                                                                     Idaho                            -0.87
                                                                                                                   Georgia                           -0.84
                                                                                                                       Utah                          -0.83
                                                                                                                   Oregon                           -0.79
                                                                                                                    Florida                         -0.79




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Source: U.S. Census 2000, U.S. Census Bureau’s 1995 Population Projections
                                                                                                                 Nebraska                           -0.76
                                                                                                              Washington                            -0.75
                                                                                                                 Maryland                          -0.74
                                                                                                                   Virginia                       -0.66
                                                                                                              New Jersey                          -0.65
                                                                                                                Minnesota                         -0.65
                                                                                                                 Wyoming                          -0.64
                                                                                                                Oklahoma                      -0.57
                                                                                                                 Louisiana                   -0.56
                                                                                                                Wisconsin                    -0.53




                                                                                                                                                                                                       changes in the population age 25-64 by race/ethnicity.
                                                                                                                 Arkansas                    -0.51
                                                                                                            North Carolina                  -0.48
                                                                                                               Mississippi                  -0.45
                                                                                                                   Indiana                 -0.40
                                                                                                             South Dakota                  -0.39
                                                                                                                  Montana                 -0.35
                                                                                                                    Alaska                -0.33
                                                                                                            South Carolina            -0.29
                                                                                                             Pennsylvania             -0.27
                                                                                                                  Alabama            -0.20
                                                                                                               Tennessee            -0.16
                                                                                                                       Iowa         -0.14
                                                                                                                  Missouri          -0.14
                                                                                                                       Ohio       -0.06
                                                                                                                  Vermont         -0.02
                                                                                                                 Michigan         -0.01
                                                                                                                           0.00   Kentucky
                                                                                                                         0.02     West Virginia
                                                                                                                     0.24         New Hampshire
                                                                                                                    0.30          Maine
                                                                                                            0.96                  Hawaii
                                                                                                     1.80                         North Dakota




                                                                                                     2



                                                                                                             1



                                                                                                                             0



                                                                                                                                                     -1



                                                                                                                                                                            -2



                                                                                                                                                                                               -3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        26




                                                                                                         New Mexico                                                                          -2.59
                                                                                                            California                                                               -2.09
                                                                                                              Arizona                                                               -2.03
                                                                                                            Colorado
Projected Change* in Percent of Population Age 25-64




                                                                                                                                                                                  -1.95
                                                                                                                Texas                                                             -1.92
                                                                                                              Nevada                                                      -1.64
                                                                                                         Connecticut                                              -1.37
                                                                                                        Rhode Island                                           -1.21
                                                                                                            New York                                   -0.96
                                                                                                       Massachusetts                                   -0.95
                                                                                                            Delaware                                  -0.92
                                                                                                              Kansas                                  -0.92
                                                       with a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher, 2000-20




                                                                                                               Illinois                               -0.92
                                                                                                        United States                            -0.79
                                                                                                              Georgia                            -0.77
                                                                                                                  Utah                         -0.69
                                                                                                                Idaho                          -0.68                                                      *Projected Change is based on 2000 educational attainment by race/ethnicity and the
                                                                                                            Maryland                          -0.62
                                                                                                               Florida                        -0.62




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Source: U.S. Census 2000, U.S. Census Bureau’s 1995 population projections
                                                                                                              Virginia                       -0.58
                                                                                                              Oregon                         -0.58
                                                                                                            Nebraska                     -0.52
                                                                                                         Washington                      -0.51
                                                                                                           Oklahoma                      -0.51
                                                                                                            Louisiana                    -0.51




                                                                                                                                                                                                           projected changes in the population age 25-64 by race/ethnicity.
                                                                                                           Minnesota                    -0.45
                                                                                                            Wyoming                    -0.44
                                                                                                         New Jersey                    -0.43
                                                                                                             Montana                   -0.41
                                                                                                            Arkansas                  -0.36
                                                                                                          Mississippi                 -0.36
                                                                                                       North Carolina                 -0.35
                                                                                                           Wisconsin                 -0.33
                                                                                                              Indiana                -0.33
                                                                                                        South Dakota                 -0.32
                                                                                                        North Dakota             -0.27
                                                                                                       South Carolina           -0.22
                                                                                                             Alabama            -0.19
                                                                                                        Pennsylvania           -0.15
                                                                                                               Alaska          -0.14
                                                                                                          Tennessee            -0.13
                                                                                                             Missouri          -0.13
                                                                                                             Vermont          -0.08
                                                                                                                  Iowa       -0.04
                                                                                                                  Ohio       -0.02
                                                                                                                      0.02   Kentucky
                                                                                                                  0.08       West Virginia
                                                                                                                 0.11        Michigan
                                                                                                                 0.11        Maine
                                                                                                               0.26          New Hampshire
                                                                                                     0.89                    Hawaii




                                                                                                     1



                                                                                                                        0



                                                                                                                                                     -1



                                                                                                                                                                              -2



                                                                                                                                                                                                     -3
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of U.S. Average—
Montana, 1960-2003


 120%




 100%
                91.2%                          89.8%
                                88.5%

                                                                  79.3%               83.8%
  80%
                                                                            76.9%




  60%
              1960             1970            1980            1990       2000      2003



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                              27
Per Capita Personal Income, 1999
                                                                                                                                                                                         Daniels
                                                    Glacier                  Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
        Lincoln                                                                         Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                           Valley
                            Flathead                                                                                           Blaine
                                                                   Pondera                                                                                                                     Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                                  Phillips


                                                                                                  Chouteau                                                                                                 Richland
                                                                   Teton
                              Lake
             Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                                     McCone

                                                      Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                        Garfield                                Dawson
                                                                                                                          Fergus
                                                                                                                                         Petroleum
                  Mineral                                                                           Judith Basin
                               Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wibaux
                                                                                        Meagher
                                                         Powell
                                          Granite                                                            Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                               Broadwater                                                                    Treasure                    Custer                  Fallon
                                               Deer Lodge                                                           Golden Valley
                             Ravalli                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                        Yellowstone                        Rosebud
                                                                                                         Sweet Grass
                                                      Silver Bow
                                                                                     Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Carter
                                                                                                                                                        Big Horn                     Powder River
                                                                      Madison                     Park
                                               Beaverhead                                                                   Carbon




                                                                                                                                                      $23,247           to    $28,249
                                                                                                                                                      $20,517           to    $23,138
                                                                                                                                                      $18,764           to    $20,514
                                                                                                                                                      $15,823           to    $18,587
Montana = $21,585                                                                                                                                     $14,427           to    $15,517
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           28
Per Capita Personal Income, 2005
                                                                                                                                                                                         Daniels
                                                  Glacier                  Toole                       Hill                                                                                                  Sheridan
      Lincoln                                                                         Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                           Valley
                          Flathead                                                                                            Blaine
                                                                 Pondera                                                                                                                       Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                                 Phillips


                                                                                                Chouteau                                                                                                    Richland
                                                                 Teton
                            Lake
           Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                                     McCone

                                                    Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                          Garfield                                Dawson
                                                                                                                        Fergus
                                                                                                                                        Petroleum
                Mineral                                                                           Judith Basin
                             Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wibaux
                                                                                      Meagher
                                                       Powell
                                        Granite                                                            Wheatland                   Musselshell
                                                                             Broadwater                                                                     Treasure                     Custer                  Fallon
                                             Deer Lodge                                                           Golden Valley
                           Ravalli                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                       Yellowstone                         Rosebud
                                                                                                       Sweet Grass
                                                    Silver Bow
                                                                                   Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Carter
                                                                                                                                                        Big Horn                     Powder River
                                                                    Madison                     Park
                                             Beaverhead                                                                   Carbon




                                                                                                                                                       $30,647 to               $33,215
                                                                                                                                                       $27,610 to               $30,608
                                                                                                                                                       $24,714 to               $27,436
                                                                                                                                                       $21,640 to               $24,652
Montana = $28,906                                                                                                                                      $20,164 to               $21,624
Source: U. S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           29
Percent of Population Living in Poverty, 2004

                                                                                                                                                                                      Daniels
                                                Glacier                  Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                         Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                       Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                           Blaine
                                                               Pondera                                                                                                                     Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                              Phillips


                                                                                              Chouteau                                                                                                 Richland
                                                               Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                                 McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                        Garfield                                Dawson
                                                                                                                      Fergus
                                                                                                                                     Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                           Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                          Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wibaux
                                                                                    Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                            Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                    Treasure                     Custer                 Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                           Golden Valley
                         Ravalli                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                    Yellowstone                        Rosebud
                                                                                                     Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                 Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Carter
                                                                                                                                                    Big Horn                      Powder River
                                                                  Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                   Carbon




                                                                                                                                                                                  8.6%         to     10.2%
                                                                                                                                                                                 10.4%         to     12.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                 12.1%         to     14.2%
Montana = 10.5%                                                                                                                                                                  14.5%         to     17.9%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004 Small Area Income & Poverty Estimates                                                                                                           18.7%         to     26.8%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       30
                                                                                                                          West Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                       31




                                                                                                         54.8
                                                                                                                          Louisiana
                                                                                                                          Mississippi
                                                                                                                          Kentucky
                                                                                                                          Florida
                                                                                                                          Arkansas
                                                                                                                          Alabama
                                                                                                                          New York
                                                                                                                          Tennessee
                                                                                                                          New Mexico
Percent of Civilian Population (Age 16 and Older)




                                                                                                                          Oklahoma
                                                                                                                          Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                          Hawaii
                                                                                                                          South Carolina
                                                                                                                          Arizona
                                                                                                                          California
                                                                                                                          New Jersey
                                                                                                                          North Carolina
                                                                                                                          Maine
                                                                                                  66.0                    United States
                                                                                                                          Michigan




                                                                                                                                           Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006
                                                                                                                          Oregon
                                                    Participating in the Workforce, 2004




                                                                                                                          Illinois
                                                                                                                          Delaware
                                                                                                                          Rhode Island
                                                                                                                          Connecticut
                                                                                                  66.6                    Montana
                                                                                                                          Ohio
                                                                                                                          Nevada
                                                                                                                          Indiana
                                                                                                                          Texas
                                                                                                                          Virginia
                                                                                                                          Georgia
                                                                                                                          Massachusetts
                                                                                                                          Washington
                                                                                                                          Idaho
                                                                                                                          Missouri
                                                                                                                          Maryland
                                                                                                                          Iowa
                                                                                                                          Vermont
                                                                                                                          Utah
                                                                                                                          New Hampshire
                                                                                                                          Alaska
                                                                                                                          Wyoming
                                                                                                                          Kansas
                                                                                                                          Wisconsin
                                                                                                                          North Dakota
                                                                                                                          Colorado
                                                                                                                          South Dakota
                                                                                                                          Nebraska
                                                                                           74.6                           Minnesota




                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                           80



                                                                                                         60



                                                                                                                40



                                                                                                                     20
Percent of Civilian Population Participating in the
Workforce, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                   Daniels
                                                Glacier                 Toole                       Hill                                                                                               Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                        Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                      Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                          Blaine
                                                              Pondera                                                                                                                    Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                             Phillips


                                                                                             Chouteau                                                                                                Richland
                                                              Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                               McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                       Garfield                               Dawson
                                                                                                                     Fergus
                                                                                                                                    Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                          Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wibaux
                                                                                   Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                           Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                   Treasure                   Custer                  Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                          Golden Valley
                        Ravalli                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                   Yellowstone                     Rosebud
                                                                                                    Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Carter
                                                                                                                                                   Big Horn                    Powder River
                                                                 Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                  Carbon




                                                                                                                                                        68.3%         to   73.3%
                                                                                                                                                        64.5%         to   68.3%
                                                                                                                                                        60.8%         to   64.5%
Montana = 64.8%                                                                                                                                         57.5%         to   60.8%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                                        47.2%         to   57.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     32
Percent of Total Gross State Product by Industry
and Comparison to U.S.
                                                                                                                                                30
30
                                                                                                                                           27
                        Montana 1990                    Montana 2005                     U.S. 2005
25
                                                                                                                               21

20
                                                                                                                          17          17             17
                                                                                                                                                          16

15                                                                      14
                                                                 12                                                  12                                        12

                                                                                                      9
10                                                      8                    8
         7                                                                                                7    7
                        6
                                             6                                            6       6
                                                   5         5                     5          5
 5           4                4
                                         4
                                     2
                   1

 0
         Agriculture,       Mining       Construction   Manufacturing   Transportation    Wholesale   Retail Trade       Finance,      Services      Government
        Forestry, and                                                    and Public        Trade                     Insurance, and
           Fishing                                                         Utilities                                   Real Estate



     Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                33
Percent of Employed Persons 16 and Older
By Industry, 2000

45   43.8
            42.0

40

35                                                         Montana                United States

30

25

20
                                                                                 14.1
15                 12.8
                          11.7

10                                7.6
                                        8.3
                                               7.4                                                          6.9
                                                     6.8   6.8
                                                                           6.0          5.9           5.5
                                                                                              4.8
 5                                                                                                                3.0   3.6
                                                                 1.5                                                          1.1   0.4
 0
      Services       Retail      Trans/Comm Construction   Agriculture   Manufacturing Public Admin   F.I.R.E.    Wholesale    Mining



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                          34
Percent of Employed Persons 16 and Older
By Occupation, 2000

30
            26.7
     25.5

                                                                                                 Montana                 United States

20
                      17.2

                             14.9                          14.6
                                     14.2 13.5

                                                    11.2           10.7
                                                                          9.4
10                                                                                7.9
                                                                                        6.2   6.2 5.7

                                                                                                           3.1 3.2
                                                                                                                                 2.1                           2.4
                                                                                                                           1.4            1.4 1.4        1.1

 0
     Sales & Office    Service      Management,     Production,   Construction,   All Other   Education,      Health      Engineering &     Health      Computer &
                                      Business,   Transportation, Extraction,                  Training,   Diagnosing,     Architecture Technologists & Mathematical
                                    Financial Op.    Material     Maintenance                   Library      Treating                    Technicians
                                                      Moving



 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                                                     35
Percent Employment by Job Type (16 and Older),
1998-2000
40                                                                                            38.9
                                      Montana             U.S.                         36.1



30
                                        24.2

                                               20.0
20                             17.3

                        13.5
                                                                       10.8 10.0
10
                                                                                                             6.8
                                                        5.9   5.8                                      5.3
         4.1
               1.2
  0
          Natural         Factory        Low-Skill     Health Care    Education &         Office      Technology
         Resources                       Services                    Public Services

Source: Tony Carnevale and Donna Desrochers, ETS (PUMS 2000 5% Sample, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org)
                                                                                                                   36
Earnings by Job Type, 1998-2000




                                                                                                                                          47,732
                                Montana                         U.S.
$50,000




                                                                                                                       39,851
                                                                                39,365
$40,000




                                                                                                                                                            33,486
                                                                                                                                 33,034
                                                                       31,751




                                                                                                     31,038
                                         29,978




                                                                                                              27,304
                                27,140




$30,000




                                                                                                                                                   24,172
                                                                                            23,407
                       22,610
              22,223




                                                           19,474
$20,000
                                                  14,690




$10,000


      $0
                Natural           Factory         Low-Skill         Health Care           Education &             Office        Technology          All Jobs
              Resources                           Services                               Public Services


 Source: Tony Carnevale and Donna Desrochers, ETS (PUMS 2000 5% Sample, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org)
                                                                                                                                                                     37
                                                                                                                                                                                                     38




                                                                                                                                  4,000           Montana
                                                                                                                                                  Iowa
                                                                                                                                                  Wyoming
                                                                                                                                                  North Dakota
Difference in Median Earnings Between a High School Diploma




                                                                                                                                                  Utah
                                                                                                                                                  Nebraska
                                                                                                                                                  South Dakota
                                                                                                                                                  Kansas
                                                                                                                                                  Arkansas
                                                                                                                                                  Massachusetts
                                                                                                                                                  Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                                  Maine
                                                                                                                                                  Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                                  West Virginia
                                                                                                                                                  Mississippi
                                                                                                                                                  Idaho
                                                                                                                                                  Florida
                                                                                                                                                  Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                                  Minnesota
                                                                                                                                                  Washington
                                                                                                                                                  Missouri




                                                                                                                                                                   Source: U.S. Census Bureau’s Public Use Samples, based on 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                                  Alabama
                                                                                                                                                  New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                                  Vermont
                                                                                                                                                  New York
                                                                                                                                                  Indiana
                                                                                                                                                  Illinois
                                                                                                                                                  Kentucky
                                                                                                                                                  Louisiana
                                                                                                                                                  Oklahoma
                                                              and an Associate Degree, 2000




                                                                                                                                                  New Mexico
                                                                                                                                                  Tennessee
                                                                                                                                                  Ohio
                                                                                                                                                  Colorado
                                                                                                                  8,000                           United States
                                                                                                                                                  Maryland
                                                                                                                                                  New Jersey
                                                                                                                                                  North Carolina
                                                                                                                                                  South Carolina
                                                                                                                                                  Arizona
                                                                                                                                                  Oregon
                                                                                                                                                  Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                  Alaska
                                                                                                                                                  Delaware
                                                                                                                                                  Nevada
                                                                                                                                                  Georgia
                                                                                                                                                  Michigan
                                                                                                                                                  Virginia
                                                                                                                                                  Connecticut
                                                                                                                                                  California
                                                                                                 10,400                                           Texas




                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                          9,000




                                                                                                                          6,000




                                                                                                                                          3,000
                                                                                              12,000
                                                                                                                                                                                               39




                                                                                                                            7,600           South Dakota
                                                                                                                                            Vermont
                                                                                                                       9,000                Montana
                                                                                                                                            Iowa
Difference in Median Earnings Between a High School Diploma




                                                                                                                                            North Dakota
                                                                                                                                            Nebraska
                                                                                                                                            Maine
                                                                                                                                            Indiana
                                                                                                                                            Kentucky
                                                                                                                                            Wyoming
                                                                                                                                            Louisiana
                                                                                                                                            Colorado
                                                                                                                                            Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                            Kansas
                                                                                                                                            Arkansas
                                                                                                                                            Massachusetts
                                                                                                                                            West Virginia
                                                                                                                                            South Carolina
                                                                                                                                            Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                            Mississippi
                                                                                                                                            Idaho




                                                                                                                                                             Source: U.S. Census Bureau’s Public Use Samples, based on 2000 Census
                                                                                                                                            Florida
                                                                                                                                            New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                            Arizona
                                                                                                                                            Missouri
                                                                                                                                            Alabama
                                                                                                                                            Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                            Oregon
                                                                                                                                            New Mexico
                                                                                                                                            Minnesota
                                                              and a Bachelor’s Degree, 2000




                                                                                                                                            Hawaii
                                                                                                                                            Alaska
                                                                                                                                            Tennessee
                                                                                                                                            Connecticut
                                                                                                                                            Delaware
                                                                                                                                            Utah
                                                                                                                                            Illinois
                                                                                                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                            North Carolina
                                                                                                                                            Nevada
                                                                                                                                            Georgia
                                                                                                                                            Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                            Washington
                                                                                                         15,200                             United States
                                                                                                                                            Maryland
                                                                                                                                            New York
                                                                                                                                            Virginia
                                                                                                                                            Texas
                                                                                                                                            Michigan
                                                                                                                                            California
                                                                                              19,000                                        New Jersey




                                                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                                                    5,000
                                                                                                20,000




                                                                                                              15,000




                                                                                                                        10,000
The Education Pipeline




                         40
Key Transition Points in the Education Pipeline


   Complete High School

   Enter College

   Finish College

   Enter the Workplace



                                                  41
                           Percent Loss at Each Stage of Transition, 2004
            9th to 12th Grade                            High School Graduate to College                                              College Entrance to Graduation                                                  College Graduates

100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         6
                                                                                                                                                 12 11 10
                                                                                                                            15 14 14 14 13 13 12
                                                                                        18 17 17 17 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15
                                                       20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 19
                                        24 22 22 22 22
       28 27 27 27 27 26 25 25 25 25 24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18
80%
                                                                                                                                                                              15                       15                 21
                                                                                                                                                14             14                            18 20               21 23 22          25
                                                                                                                                                                                                            23               25 26
                                                                                                                                                     20 22          22 23          24
                                                                           14        15                                                                                                 27
                                                                                                18          21       23 23
                                                                 20             20        22 20    22 22 21    24 27
                                                    17
                                          19             22 22        25
                           19 21               25
60%         25                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      23
       28        27                  32
                      30                                                                                                                                                                               26
                                                                                                                                                                                                  17             20                                      35
                                                                                                                                                                              34                                      24                       24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32        24
                                                                                     30                                                         40        24 40                                                            33        28
                                                                                                         20                           23                                                     40             31
                                                                                29                                                         29                            34
                                                                                               32                                                                                  35
                                                    34           31                       31        39        34 37 36 30                                           42                  33
40%                                       31                               47
                                27                       30 32        30                                                    33                       48
                           32

                                               34
       25 33 29
                                     28
                      34                                                                                                                                                                                                                            49
                                                                                                                                                                                                  48             46
                                                                                                                                                                                                       45
20%                                                                                                                                                                                                                   40                  38 40
                                                                                                         38                           36                  37                  36                                                                         38
                                                                                     35                                                                                                                                         35 35
                                                                                30                                                         31 29                                                            31             32
                                                                                                                                                               30
                                                                 27                       27 28                                                                          27        26 25 28
                                25        25        24 24             23                            23        25 23 24 26
                           22                             22                                                              21                                        20
       19                                                                  17
            16 16                    15        16                                                                                                    15
                      9

 0%
       New York
       Maine

       Illinois




                                                                                                                                      West Virginia
       North Dakota




                                                                                                                                      Idaho




                                                                                                                                      Oregon
       Delaware




       Maryland
                                                                                                                            Montana




                                                                                                                                      Louisiana




                                                                                                                                      Mississippi
       Minnesota




                                                                                                                                      Tennessee




                                                                                                                                      South Carolina
       Massachusetts




       Missouri




                                                                                                                                      California




                                                                                                                                      Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                      Arkansas


                                                                                                                                      Florida




                                                                                                                                      Kentucky
                                                                                                                                      Michigan
       Ohio




                                                                                                                                      Georgia
                                                                                                                                      Alabama




                                                                                                                                      Nevada
       Iowa




       Wyoming



       Wisconsin




                                                                                                                                      North Carolina




                                                                                                                                      Alaska
       Virginia




       Rhode Island
       South Dakota


       New Jersey




       New Hampshire
       Connecticut


       Kansas

       Indiana

       Colorado




                                                                                                                                      Arizona




                                                                                                                                      Texas
                                                                                                                                      Hawaii
       Vermont




                                                                                                                                      New Mexico
       Pennsylvania



       Nebraska




                                                                                                                                      Utah

                                                                                                                                      Washington




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         42
Student Pipeline, 2004

                                     Of 100 9th Graders, How Many…
100
         91.3


                       78.6                                       Best Performing State
80
                69.7
                                                                  United States
                                                                  Montana

60                                  57.3

                                                  45.5
                                                          42.0
                                           38.8
40
                                                                 26.9   29.0       27.9

                                                                                          18.4   18.8
20


 0
      Graduate from High School       Enter College      Enroll Sophomore Year   Graduate Within 150% of
                                                                                      Program Time


Source: NCHEMS Information Center
                                                                                                           43
Percent of Whites and Minorities at Each Stage of the
Education Pipeline, 2000
                                                                  White         Minority
100
                              91.6
         86.0
                                                  83.1                                     81.1
                                                                      79.5

75



50



25                                                                           20.5                 18.9
                                                         16.9
                 14.0
                                      8.4

  0
         18-Year-Olds        High School          First-Time          All Other            Completers
                              Graduates           Freshmen         Undergraduates

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; NCES Common Core Data, NCES IPEDS Fall 2000
        Enrollments and 2000 Completion Surveys                                                          44
Projections of High School Graduates to 2018
By Race/Ethnicity—Montana
                                                                                                                         White (9,629 to 7,216)
                                                                                                                         American Indian/Alaska Native (689 to 732)
                                                                                                                         Hispanic (169 to 299)
12,000
                                                                                                                         Asian/Pacific Islander (108 to 177)
                                                                                                                         Black, Non-Hispanic (33 to 60)


 9,000



 6,000



 3,000



      0
           2000-01

                     2001-02

                               2002-03

                                         2003-04

                                                   2004-05

                                                             2005-06

                                                                       2006-07

                                                                                 2007-08

                                                                                           2008-09

                                                                                                     2009-10

                                                                                                               2010-11

                                                                                                                           2011-12

                                                                                                                                     2012-13

                                                                                                                                               2013-14

                                                                                                                                                         2014-15

                                                                                                                                                                   2015-16

                                                                                                                                                                             2016-17

                                                                                                                                                                                       2017-18
Source: WICHE Projections of High School Graduates                                                                                                                                               45
                                                                                                                                                     Nevada
                                                                                                                                                                                           46




                                                                                                                                         50.7
                                                                                                                                                     South Carolina
                                                                                                                                                     Georgia
High School Graduation Rates—Public High School Graduates




                                                                                                                                                     Florida
                                                                                                                                                     Mississippi
                                                                                                                                                     Alabama
                                                                                                                                                     New Mexico
                                                                                                                                                     Alaska
                                                                                                                                                     New York
                                                                                                                                                     Tennessee
                                                                                                                                                     North Carolina
                                                            as a Percent of 9th Graders Four Years Earlier, 2004




                                                                                                                                                     Arizona
                                                                                                                                                     Kentucky
                                                                                                                                                     Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                     Delaware
                                                                                                                                                     Texas
                                                                                                                                                     Louisiana
                                                                                                                                                     Michigan
                                                                                                                                 69.7                United States
                                                                                                                                                     Indiana
                                                                                                                                                     Washington
                                                                                                                                                     California
                                                                                                                                                     Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                                     Oregon
                                                                                                                                                     West Virginia
                                                                                                                                                     Colorado
                                                                                                                                                     Virginia
                                                                                                                                                     Maryland
                                                                                                                                                     Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                                     Massachusetts
                                                                                                                                                     Wyoming
                                                                                                                                                     Arkansas
                                                                                                                                                     Illinois
                                                                                                                                                     New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                                     Connecticut
                                                                                                                                                     Ohio
                                                                                                                                                     Kansas




                                                                                                                                                                      Source: NCHEMS Information Center
                                                                                                                                                     Missouri
                                                                                                                                                     Maine
                                                                                                                                                     Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                                     Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                          78.6                       Montana
                                                                                                                                                     Idaho
                                                                                                                                                     South Dakota
                                                                                                                                                     Vermont
                                                                                                                                                     Minnesota
                                                                                                                                                     Nebraska
                                                                                                                                                     Iowa
                                                                                                                                                     North Dakota
                                                                                                                                                     Utah
                                                                                                                   91.3                              New Jersey




                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                     90




                                                                                                                                        60




                                                                                                                                                30
                                                                                                                                                                      Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                            47




                                                                                                                                           43.4
                                                                                                                                                                      Vermont
                                                                                                                                                                      California
                                                          High School as a Percent of Recent High School Graduates, 2004




                                                                                                                                                                      Utah
                                                                                                                                                                      Alaska
                                                                                                                                                                      Oregon
                                                                                                                                                                      Idaho
                                                                                                                                                                      Arizona
College Going Rates—First-Time Freshmen Directly Out of




                                                                                                                                                                      Maine
                                                                                                                                                                      Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                                      Texas
                                                                                                                                                                      Ohio
                                                                                                                                                                      Missouri
                                                                                                                                                                      Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                                                      West Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                      Florida
                                                                                                                                                                      Delaware
                                                                                                                                                                      Louisiana
                                                                                                                                                                      Nevada
                                                                                                                                                                      Illinois
                                                                                                                                                                      New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                                                      Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                   55.7                               United States
                                                                                                                                                                      Arkansas
                                                                                                                                                                      Kentucky
                                                                                                                                                                      Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                      Colorado
                                                                                                                                  57.8                                Montana
                                                                                                                                                                      Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                                                      Maryland
                                                                                                                                                                      Michigan
                                                                                                                                                                      Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                                                      Wyoming
                                                                                                                                                                      Indiana
                                                                                                                                                                      Nebraska
                                                                                                                                                                      Mississippi
                                                                                                                                                                      Alabama




                                                                                                                                                                                       Source: NCHEMS Information Center
                                                                                                                                                                      Connecticut
                                                                                                                                                                      Kansas
                                                                                                                                                                      New Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                      Iowa
                                                                                                                                                                      Tennessee
                                                                                                                                                                      New Jersey
                                                                                                                                                                      Massachusetts
                                                                                                                                                                      Georgia
                                                                                                                                                                      North Carolina
                                                                                                                                                                      Minnesota
                                                                                                                                                                      South Carolina
                                                                                                                                                                      North Dakota
                                                                                                                                                                      New York
                                                                                                                           68.8                                       South Dakota




                                                                                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                           70

                                                                                                                                  60

                                                                                                                                          50

                                                                                                                                                  40

                                                                                                                                                       30

                                                                                                                                                            20

                                                                                                                                                                 10
Total High School Graduates, 2005
                                                                                                                                                                                      Daniels
                                                 Glacier                  Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
     Lincoln                                                                         Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                        Valley
                         Flathead                                                                                           Blaine
                                                                Pondera                                                                                                                     Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                               Phillips


                                                                                               Chouteau                                                                                                 Richland
                                                                Teton
                           Lake
          Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                                  McCone

                                                   Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                        Garfield                                Dawson
                                                                                                                       Fergus
                                                                                                                                      Petroleum
               Mineral                                                                           Judith Basin
                            Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                           Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Wibaux
                                                                                     Meagher
                                                      Powell
                                       Granite                                                            Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                            Broadwater                                                                    Treasure                    Custer                  Fallon
                                            Deer Lodge                                                           Golden Valley
                          Ravalli                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                     Yellowstone                        Rosebud
                                                                                                      Sweet Grass
                                                   Silver Bow
                                                                                  Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Carter
                                                                                                                                                     Big Horn                     Powder River
                                                                   Madison                     Park
                                            Beaverhead                                                                   Carbon




                                                                                                                                                          656    to 1,563
                                                                                                                                                          139    to 428
                                                                                                                                                           77    to 123
                                                                                                                                                           20    to    59
                                                                                                                                                           5     to    19
Montana = 10,713 (10,417 public, 296 private)
Source: Montana Office of Public Instruction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        48
First-Time Freshmen Net Imports by Institution Type for
Montana, Fall 2002

           Public Research                                                          913

              Public 4-Year                    -214

              Public 2-Year                 -303

               Public Other                                 -30

Private Non-Profit Research                          -150

   Private Non-Profit 4-Year         -464

   Private Non-Profit 2-Year                                -40

   Private Non-Profit Other                                 -34

                 Proprietary                       -210

                     TOTAL        -532

                                  -600        -300                0   300   600   900     1,200




 Source: NCES, IPEDS Fall 2002 Enrollments, Residency and Migration File
                                                                                                  49
Out-of-State Institutions in Which Montana Students Enroll
          Northwest Community College                                                                  92
              Dickinson State University                                                     74
                     University of Mary                                                 68
                    Gonzaga University                                        49
                         Wyoming Tech                                    41
                    North Idaho College                              39
                     University of Idaho                       32
          Concordia College at Moorhead                        32
                       Sheridan College                        32
                  Minot State University                  28
            Washington State University                   28
       Brigham Young University - Idaho                  27
              Brigham Young University               25
                 University of Wyoming               25
                  Boise State University             24
          Eastern Washington University              24
                      Seattle University            22
                     Jamestown College          21
                 Williston State College        21
             Pacific Lutheran University        21
                  University of Portland        20
                     Whitworth College          20

                                           0   20                   40             60             80        100   120
Source: NCES, IPEDS Fall 2004 Enrollments
                                                                                                                    50
First-Time Freshmen as a Percent of High School
Graduates, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                                   Daniels
                                                Glacier                 Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                        Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                      Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                          Blaine
                                                              Pondera                                                                                                                    Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                             Phillips


                                                                                             Chouteau                                                                                                  Richland
                                                              Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                               McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                       Garfield                               Dawson
                                                                                                                     Fergus
                                                                                                                                    Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                          Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wibaux
                                                                                   Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                           Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                   Treasure                   Custer                  Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                          Golden Valley
                        Ravalli                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                   Yellowstone                     Rosebud
                                                                                                    Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carter
                                                                                                                                                   Big Horn                    Powder River
                                                                 Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                  Carbon




                                                                                                                                                                                75.6%             to    98.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                55.0%             to    75.6%
                                                                                                                                                                                36.3%             to    55.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                21.9%             to    36.3%
                                                                                                                                                                                13.7%             to    21.9%
Montana = 52.0%
Source: Montana University System; Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     51
Two-Year First-Time Freshmen as a Percent of
High School Graduates, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                                   Daniels
                                                Glacier                 Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                        Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                      Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                          Blaine
                                                              Pondera                                                                                                                    Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                             Phillips


                                                                                             Chouteau                                                                                                  Richland
                                                              Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                               McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                       Garfield                               Dawson
                                                                                                                     Fergus
                                                                                                                                    Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                          Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wibaux
                                                                                   Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                           Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                   Treasure                   Custer                  Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                          Golden Valley
                        Ravalli                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                   Yellowstone                     Rosebud
                                                                                                    Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carter
                                                                                                                                                   Big Horn                    Powder River
                                                                 Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                  Carbon




                                                                                                                                                                                21.5%             to   39.6%
                                                                                                                                                                                 9.7%             to   21.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                 4.4%             to    9.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                 1.4%             to    4.4%
                                                                                                                                                                                 0.0%             to    1.4%
Montana = 11.4%
Source: Montana University System; Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     52
Four-Year First-Time Freshmen as a Percent of
High School Graduates, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                                   Daniels
                                                Glacier                 Toole                       Hill                                                                                                Sheridan
    Lincoln                                                                        Liberty
                                                                                                                                                                      Valley
                        Flathead                                                                                          Blaine
                                                              Pondera                                                                                                                    Roosevelt
                                                                                                                                             Phillips


                                                                                             Chouteau                                                                                                  Richland
                                                              Teton
                          Lake
         Sanders
                                                                                                                                                                               McCone

                                                  Lewis and Clark            Cascade                                                                       Garfield                               Dawson
                                                                                                                     Fergus
                                                                                                                                    Petroleum
              Mineral                                                                          Judith Basin
                           Missoula
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prairie
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wibaux
                                                                                   Meagher
                                                     Powell
                                      Granite                                                           Wheatland                  Musselshell
                                                                           Broadwater                                                                   Treasure                   Custer                  Fallon
                                           Deer Lodge                                                          Golden Valley
                        Ravalli                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                   Yellowstone                     Rosebud
                                                                                                    Sweet Grass
                                                  Silver Bow
                                                                                Gallatin                            Stillwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carter
                                                                                                                                                   Big Horn                    Powder River
                                                                 Madison                     Park
                                           Beaverhead                                                                  Carbon




                                                                                                                                                                                62.0%             to   89.6%
                                                                                                                                                                                42.0%             to   62.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                30.2%             to   42.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                18.1%             to   30.2%
Montana = 40.6%
                                                                                                                                                                                11.6%             to   18.1%
Source: Montana University System; Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     53
                                                                                                                                                    54




                                                                                                    3.3       Montana
                                                                                                              Pennsylvania
                                                                                                              West Virginia
                                                                                                              North Dakota
                                                                                                              Mississippi
Part-Time Undergraduate Enrollment as a Percent of




                                                                                                              Louisiana
                                                                                                              Georgia
                                                                                                              Kentucky
                                                                                                              New York
                                                                                                              Arkansas
                                                                                                              Tennessee
                                                                                                              New Jersey
                                                                                                              New Hampshire
                                                                                                              South Carolina
                                                                                                              Indiana
                                                                                                              Vermont
                                                                                                              South Dakota
                                                                                                              Ohio
                                                                                                              Idaho
                                                                                                              Connecticut
                                                                                                              Alabama
                                                                                                              Massachusetts
                                                                                                              Hawaii
                                                                                                              North Carolina
                                                                                                              Maine
                                                                                                              Delaware
                                                                                                              Oklahoma
                                                                                                              Iowa
                                                     Population Age 25-44, 2000




                                                                                                              Virginia
                                                                                                              Minnesota
                                                                                                              Texas
                                                                                                              Maryland
                                                                                              6.2             United States
                                                                                                              Wisconsin




                                                                                                                               Source: NCES-IPEDS, U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                              Rhode Island
                                                                                                              Washington
                                                                                                              Missouri
                                                                                                              Florida
                                                                                                              Colorado
                                                                                                              Nebraska
                                                                                                              Michigan
                                                                                                              Oregon
                                                                                                              Illinois
                                                                                                              Nevada
                                                                                                              Wyoming
                                                                                                              Alaska
                                                                                                              Kansas
                                                                                                              New Mexico
                                                                                                              Utah
                                                                                                              California
                                                                                   10.8                       Arizona




                                                                                          9



                                                                                                6



                                                                                                          3



                                                                                                              0
                                                                                  12
                                                                                                                                                 55




                                                                                                          11.5   Louisiana
                                                                                                                 Georgia
                                                                                                                 Connecticut
                                                                                                         12.7    Montana
                                                                                                                 Alaska
                                                                                                                 Maine
                                                                                                                 Maryland
                                                                                                                 Delaware
                                                                                                                 West Virginia
Associate Degrees Awarded per 100 High School




                                                                                                                 Tennessee
                                                                                                                 Arkansas
                                                                                                                 Texas
                                                                                                                 Ohio
                                                                                                                 New Jersey
                                                                                                                 Virginia
                                                                                                                 Kentucky
                                                                                                                 Wisconsin
                                                                                                                 Alabama
                                                                                                                 South Dakota
                                                                                                                 Nevada
                                                Graduates Three Years Earlier, 2002




                                                                                                                 Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                 Indiana
                                                                                                                 Michigan
                                                                                                                 Minnesota
                                                                                                                 Nebraska
                                                                                                                 Missouri
                                                                                                                 South Carolina
                                                                                                                 Oklahoma
                                                                                                                 Illinois
                                                                                                                 Colorado
                                                                                                                 New Mexico




                                                                                                                                  Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions Survey, WICHE
                                                                                                                 North Dakota
                                                                                                                 Oregon
                                                                                                                 New Hampshire
                                                                                                  21.1           United States
                                                                                                                 Vermont
                                                                                                                 North Carolina
                                                                                                                 Massachusetts
                                                                                                                 Kansas
                                                                                                                 Hawaii
                                                                                                                 Mississippi
                                                                                                                 Iowa
                                                                                                                 California
                                                                                                                 Idaho
                                                                                                                 Utah
                                                                                                                 New York
                                                                                                                 Arizona
                                                                                                                 Wyoming
                                                                                                                 Washington
                                                                                                                 Rhode Island
                                                                                      41.5                       Florida




                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                      45




                                                                                             30




                                                                                                         15
                                                                                                                                    56




                                                                                                  4.2   Alaska
                                                                                                        Nevada
                                                                                                        California
All Credentials Awarded (Two-Year and Less) at Two-Year Colleges




                                                                                                        Rhode Island
                                                                                                        New Mexico
                                                                                                        Maryland
                                                                                                        New Jersey
                                                                                                        Oregon
                                                                                                        Texas
                                                                                                        Connecticut
                                                                                                        Michigan
                                                                                                        Virginia
                                                                                                        Tennessee
                                                                                                        Vermont
                                                                                                        Indiana
                                                                                                        Illinois
                                                                                      12.3              United States
                                                                                                        Hawaii
                                                                                                        Oklahoma
                                                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                                        Delaware
                                                                                                        Colorado
                                                                                                        Alabama
                                                                                                        Arizona
                                                                                                        Missouri
                                                                                                        Idaho
                                                                                                        Utah
                                                                                                        North Carolina
                                                                                                        Montana




                                                                                                                         Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions Survey, Enrollment Survey
                                                                               15.1
as a Percent of Enrollment, 2002




                                                                                                        Washington
                                                                                                        Nebraska
                                                                                                        New York
                                                                                                        Kentucky
                                                                                                        Arkansas
                                                                                                        New Hampshire
                                                                                                        Kansas
                                                                                                        South Carolina
                                                                                                        West Virginia
                                                                                                        Massachusetts
                                                                                                        Mississippi
                                                                                                        Minnesota
                                                                                                        Florida
                                                                                                        Maine
                                                                                                        Iowa
                                                                                                        Pennsylvania
                                                                                                        Wyoming
                                                                                                        Louisiana
                                                                                                        Wisconsin
                                                                                                        Georgia
                                                                                                        North Dakota
                                                                   29.1                                 South Dakota




                                                                                                        0
                                                                    30




                                                                          20




                                                                                             10
                                                                                                                              57




                                                                           22.3   Alaska
                                                                                  Wyoming
Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded per 100 High School Graduates




                                                                                  Idaho
                                                                                  New Jersey
                                                                                  Arkansas
                                                                                  New Mexico
                                                                                  Hawaii
                                                                                  Maine
                                                                                  Kentucky
                                                                                  Nevada
                                                                                  West Virginia
                                                                                  Texas
                                                                                  Ohio
                                                                                  Mississippi
                                                                                  Georgia
                                                                                  California
                                                                                  Minnesota
                                                                                  Louisiana
                                                                                  Tennessee
                                                                                  Oklahoma
                                                                                  Connecticut
                                                                                  South Dakota
                                                                                  Illinois
                                                                                  South Carolina
                                                                                  Maryland
                                                                                  Alabama
                                                                   49.8           Montana
                                                                                  Wisconsin
                                                                                  Oregon
                                                                   50.8           United States
                                                                                  Michigan




                                                                                                   Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions Survey, WICHE
                                                                                  Virginia
                                                                                  Washington
                                                                                  Nebraska
Six Years Earlier, 2002




                                                                                  Indiana
                                                                                  Kansas
                                                                                  Florida
                                                                                  Pennsylvania
                                                                                  North Dakota
                                                                                  Iowa
                                                                                  Missouri
                                                                                  North Carolina
                                                                                  New York
                                                                                  New Hampshire
                                                                                  Utah
                                                                                  Arizona
                                                                                  Colorado
                                                                                  Delaware
                                                                                  Vermont
                                                                                  Massachusetts
                                                           98.5                   Rhode Island




                                                                      50




                                                                                  0
                                                             100
                                                                                                                                                   58




                                                                                               5.3       Alaska
                                                                                                         Nevada
                                                                                                         Wyoming
Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded as a Percent of All Undergraduates,




                                                                                                         California
                                                                                                         New Mexico
                                                                                                         Arizona
                                                                                                         Idaho
                                                                                                         Washington
                                                                                                         Texas
                                                                                                         Florida
                                                                                                         Oregon
                                                                                                         Kentucky
                                                                                                         Arkansas
                                                                                                         Hawaii
                                                                                                         Georgia
                                                                                                         Illinois
                                                                                                         Kansas
                                                                                                         Minnesota
                                                                                                         North Carolina
                                                                                     9.5                 United States
                                                                                                         Mississippi
                                                                                                         New Jersey
                                                                                                         Oklahoma
                                                                                                         Alabama
                                                                                                         Michigan
                                                                                                         Virginia
                                                                                                         South Carolina




                                                                                                                          Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions Survey, Enrollment Survey
                                                                                                         Maryland
                                                                                                         Louisiana
                                                                                                         Colorado
                                                                                                         Tennessee
                                                                                                         Wisconsin
                                                                                                         Ohio
                                                                                                         Maine
                                                                                                         Nebraska
                                                                                                         Connecticut
                                                                                                         Utah
                                                                                                         West Virginia
                                                                                                         Iowa
                                                                                                         South Dakota
                                                                                                         Missouri
                                                                                                         New York
                                                                                                         Indiana
                                                                                                         Delaware
                                                                                                         North Dakota
                                                                         13.1                            Montana
                                                                                                         Pennsylvania
                                                                                                         New Hampshire
                                                                                                         Rhode Island
2002                                                                                                     Massachusetts
                                                                 14.8                                    Vermont




                                                                                           9


                                                                                               6


                                                                                                     3


                                                                                                         0
                                                                    15


                                                                                12
Montana Net Migration by Degree Level and Age Group

             22- to 29-Year-Olds                                                                30- to 64-Year-Olds


                                                      383    Less than High School             790



                                          -475                      High School                           3,794


                                      -738                          Some College                1,073



                                           -240                      Associate           106


               -4,886                                                Bachelor’s           360



                                      -644                   Graduate/Professional               1,211


    -6,600                                                             Total                                              7,334


-8,000       -6,000     -4,000   -2,000           0         2,000                    0           2,000   4,000    6,000   8,000




 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files
                                                                                                                             59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                60




                                                                                                         Pennsylvania                            -36,693
                                                                                                                  Iowa                 -18,943
                                                                                                               Indiana
Net Migration of Residents Age 22-29 with a College Degree




                                                                                                                                     -15,146
                                                                                                            Wisconsin               -13,002
                                                                                                            Louisiana             -9,606
                                                                                                             Alabama             -9,135
                                                                                                                  Ohio           -8,925
                                                                                                             Michigan            -8,717
                                                                                                         West Virginia          -8,124
                                                                                                         North Dakota           -7,805
                                                                                                           Mississippi         -7,376
                                                                                                            Oklahoma           -6,739
                                                                                                                  Utah        -5,808
                                                                                                             Montana          -5,770
                                                                                                                 Maine       -5,212
                                                                                                            Nebraska         -5,100
                                                                                                         South Dakota        -5,043
                                                                                                             Arkansas       -3,670
                                                                                                              Vermont       -3,562
                                                                                                               Kansas       -3,516
                                                                                                         Rhode Island      -2,910
                                                                                                       New Hampshire       -2,623
                                                                                                                 Idaho    -1,864
                                                                                                            Wyoming       -1,693
                                                                                                          New Mexico      -1,547




                                                                                                                                                               Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Public Use Microdate Samples, 2000
                                                                                                                    209   Kentucky
(Associate or Higher), 1995-2000




                                                                                                                 1,300    Connecticut
                                                                                                                 1,570    Delaware
                                                                                                                 2,147    Missouri
                                                                                                                 2,238    Alaska
                                                                                                                 2,476    Hawaii
                                                                                                                3,433     South Carolina
                                                                                                          14,034          Nevada
                                                                                                          14,648          Tennessee
                                                                                                         16,457           Minnesota
                                                                                                         17,485           Oregon
                                                                                                    27,800                New Jersey
                                                                                                   29,130                 Maryland
                                                                                                  29,884                  Arizona
                                                                                                 32,486                   Massachusetts
                                                                                                34,259                    Washington
                                                                                                34,745                    North Carolina
                                                                                                35,580                    Virginia
                                                                                                                          Colorado
                                                             199,458

                                                                                              39,307
                                                                                            41,303                        New York
                                                                                           44,556                         Illinois
                                                                                       53,228                             Florida
                                                                                     58,085                               Georgia
                                                                            83,540                                        Texas
                                                                                                                          California




                                                                                                                     $0
                                                                                             $50,000
                                                                       $100,000




                                                                                                                                                    -$50,000
Montana Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports,
1995-2000—All Residents Age 22-29

                                  Supervisors, Sales Workers                         316

                                             Financial Clerks                       288

                                                Woodworkers                  173

                                             Material Moving                147

                                         Construction Trades             131

                             Other Management Occupations              90

                             Building Cleaning & Pest Control          87

                                         Other Transportation          86
                                                -234                Other Installation, Maintenance, & Repair
                                                -253                Material Recording, Scheduling, Dispatching, & Distributing
                                         -389                       Other Office & Administrative Support
                                        -411                        Business Operations Specialists
                               -591                                 Financial Specialists
               -958                                                 Engineers
          -1,015                                                    Computer Specialists
 -1,199                                                             Primary, Secondary, & Special Education Teachers
   -1,200             -900       -600           -300            0                  300       600          900          1,200



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files
                                                                                                                                  61
Montana Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports,
1995-2000—Residents Age 22-29 with College Degrees

                                  Food & Beverage Serving Workers                 231

                                                Construction Trades          93

                             Other Personal Care & Service Workers           66

                                                       Woodworkers          64

                                          Fire Fighting & Prevention        59

                                                    Printing Workers        50

                                        Supervisors, Sales Workers          46

Counselors, Soc. Workers, & Other Community/Social Svc. Specialists         45
                                                              -188         Information & Record Clerks
                                                             -201          Life Scientists
                                                            -250           Business Operations Specialists
                                                     -360                  Other Office & Administrative Support
                                              -523                         Financial Specialists
                                       -791                                Computer Specialists
                                -909                                       Engineers
                 -1,261                                                    Primary, Secondary, & Special Education Teachers
           -1,500     -1,200      -900        -600          -300       0          300        600       900       1,200        1,500



  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files
                                                                                                                                  62
Montana Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports,
1995-2000—All Residents Age 30-64

                               Supervisors, Sales Workers                                                 537

                                               Retail Sales                                             500

                       Cooks & Food Preparation Workers                                             489

                Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners                                         469

                             Construction Trades Workers                                          454

                          Other Management Occupations                                       432

                                            Top Executives                                  406

            Supervisors, Construction & Extraction Workers                            327
                                           -204               Sales Representatives, Services
                                        -244                  Postsecondary Teachers
                                    -261                      Business Operations Specialists
                                 -305                         Computer Specialists
                          -395                                Secretaries & Administrative Assistants
                         -417                                 Engineers
                 -533                                         Other Production Occupations
          -606                                                Primary, Secondary, & Special Education Teachers
   -750     -600        -450       -300           -150    0           150       300         450               600   750



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files
                                                                                                                          63
Montana Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports,
1995-2000—Residents Age 30-64 with College Degrees

               Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners                                                      543

                                         Top Executives                                                 415

                                            Retail Sales                                    304

                                          Legal Support                               246

                             Supervisors, Sales Workers                              228

                 Other Personal Care & Service Workers                         193

                            Other Teachers & Instructors                       188

                                      Law Enforcement                   138
                                         -174               Supervisors, Office & Administrative Support
                                         -181               Financial Clerks
                                         -182               Business Operations Specialists
                                     -190                   Information & Record Clerks
                                  -228                      Operations Specialties Managers
                           -284                             Engineers
                 -384                                       Computer Specialists
   -550                                                     Primary, Secondary, & Special Education Teachers
 -600            -400                    -200           0                     200                 400            600



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files
                                                                                                                       64
Development Report Card for the States, 2007—Montana

                                                                        Employment                         A
                                                                        Earnings and Job Quality           F
                                                  C   Performance       Equity                             B
                                                                        Quality of Life                    B
                                                                        Resource Efficiency                D

                                                       Business         Competitiveness of Existing Bus.   C
       Weaknesses (Bottom 10 Rank)                D     Vitality        Entrepreneurial Energy             D

    Rank               Measure                                          Human Resources                    A
      41     Working Poor                                               Financial Resources                D
      42     Health Professional Shortage Areas   C   Development
                                                                        Infrastructure Resources           B
      43     Vehicle Miles Traveled                     Capacity        Amenity Resources                  B
      43     Greenhouse Gas Emissions                                   Innovation Assets                  C
      44     High Speed Lines
      44     Uninsured Low Income Children
      44     Employer Health Coverage
      44     Toxic Release Inventory                           Strengths (Top 10 Rank)
      44     Venture Capital Investments
      44     Urban Mass Transit                         Rank             Measure
      46     Technology Industry Employment
                                                         1      Manufacturing Investment
      49     Employer Health Coverage
                                                         3      Conversion of Cropland to Other Uses
      50     Strength of Traded Sector
                                                         3      University Spin-Outs
      50     Average Annual Pay
                                                         4      Use of Alternative Energy
      50     Job Growth Due to New Businesses
                                                         5      New Companies
                                                         6      Voting Rate
                                                         7      Heart Disease
                                                         8      K-12 Expenditures
                                                         9      High School Attainment
                                                         9      Rural/Urban Disparity
                                                         10     Net Migration
                                                         10     Basic Educational Skills Proficiency—
                                                                Reading
Source: Corporation for Enterprise Development
                                                                                                               65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 66




                                                                                          South Dakota
                                                             41




                                                                                          Arkansas
                                                                                          West Virginia
Overall State Scores on Measures of Innovation Assets




                                                                                          South Carolina
                                                                                          Kentucky
                                                                                          Mississippi
                                                                                          Wyoming
                                                                                          Tennessee
                                                                                          Louisiana
                                                                                          Alaska
                                                                                          Oklahoma
                                                                                          Nevada
                                                                                                                                                                                                   2007 Development Report Card for the States, Corporation for Enterprise Development

                                                                                          Maine
                                                                                          Florida
                                                                                          Nebraska
                                                                                                           Note: Score is calculated as the average of rankings on ten separate subindex scores.
                                                                                          Missouri
                                                                                          Idaho
                                                                                          Alabama
                                                                                          Montana
                                                                       28




                                                                                          Iowa
                                                                                          Indiana
                                                                                          Hawaii
                                                                                          Georgia
                                                                                          Wisconsin
                                                                                          Kansas
                                                                                          Texas
                                                                                          North Dakota
                                                                                          Illinois
                                                                                          New Mexico
                                                                                          Arizona
                                                                                          Oregon
                                                                                          Ohio
                                                                                          Michigan
                                                                                          North Carolina
                                                                                          New Jersey
                                                                                          Vermont
                                                                                          Utah
                                                                                          Pennsylvania
                                                                                          Minnesota
                                                                                          Washington
                                                                                          New Hampshire
                                                                                          Delaware
                                                                                          Virginia
                                                                                          New York
                                                                                          Colorado
                                                                                          Connecticut
                                                                                          Maryland
                                                                                          Rhode Island
                                                                                          California




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Source:
                                                                                          Massachusetts




                                                                                      3

                                                                                          0
                                                        50


                                                                  40


                                                                       30


                                                                            20


                                                                                 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         67




                                                                                                  1.158   Nebraska
                                                                                                          Nevada
                                                                                                          Florida
                                                                                                          Arkansas
Number of Doctorates per 1,000 Workers—Science




                                                                                                          Wyoming
                                                                                                          Mississippi
                                                                                                          South Dakota
                                                                                                          Kentucky
                                                                                                          West Virginia
                                                                                                          South Carolina
                                                                                                          Louisiana
                                                                                                          Alabama
                                                                                                                           Source: 2007 Development Report Card for the States, Corporation for Enterprise Development
                                                                                                          Wisconsin
                                                                                                          Oklahoma
                                                                                                          Georgia
                                                                                                          Kansas
                                                                                                          Arizona
                                                                                                          Iowa
                                                                                                          Missouri
                                                                                                          Indiana
                                                                                                          Texas
                                                                                                          Maine
                                                                                                          Tennessee
                                                                                                          Michigan
                                                                                                          Alaska
                                                                                                          Ohio
                                                                                                          Idaho
                                                                                                          Illinois
                                                                                                          Utah
                                                                                                          New Hampshire
                                                 and Engineering, 2003




                                                                                          3.790           Montana
                                                                                                          Minnesota
                                                                                                          North Carolina
                                                                                                          Oregon
                                                                                                          Pennsylvania
                                                                                                          New Jersey
                                                                                                          New York
                                                                                                          Hawaii
                                                                                                          Washington
                                                                                                          Colorado
                                                                                                          California
                                                                                                          Virginia
                                                                                                          Vermont
                                                                                                          Connecticut
                                                                                                          Rhode Island
                                                                                                          Delaware
                                                                                                          North Dakota
                                                                                                          Maryland
                                                                                                          Massachusetts
                                                                          9.076                           New Mexico




                                                                                  8




                                                                                      6




                                                                                            4




                                                                                                  2




                                                                                                          0
                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           68




                                                                                                   66.31    Maine
                                                                                                            Arkansas
                                                                                                            Nevada
                                                                                                            West Virginia
                                                                                                            South Dakota
Per Capita R&D Expenditures at Universities and




                                                                                                            Florida
                                                                                                            Oklahoma
                                                                                                            Idaho
                                                                                                            New Jersey
                                                                                                            Kentucky
                                                                                                            Minnesota
                                                                                                            South Carolina
                                                                                                            Tennessee
                                                                                                                             Source: 2007 Development Report Card for the States, Corporation for Enterprise Development
                                                                                                            Arizona
                                                                                                            Virginia
                                                                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                            Wyoming
                                                                                                            Mississippi
                                                                                                            Kansas
                                                                                                            Louisiana
                                                                                                            Alabama
                                                                                                            Texas
                                                                                                            Illinois
                                                                                                            Indiana
                                                                                                            Delaware
                                                                                                            Michigan
                                                                                                            Georgia
                                                                                                            Oregon
                                                                                                            Washington
                                                                                                            Missouri
                                                                                                            California
                                                                                                            New Mexico
                                                                                          166.93            Montana
                                                                                                            Colorado
                                                                                                            North Carolina
                                                                                                            Utah
                                                                                                            Wisconsin
                                                                                                            New York
                                                                                                            Pennsylvania
                                                  Colleges, 2004


                                                                                                            Rhode Island
                                                                                                            Iowa
                                                                                                            Connecticut
                                                                                                            Nebraska
                                                                                                            Vermont
                                                                                                            Hawaii
                                                                                                            New Hampshire
                                                                                                            Alaska
                                                                                                            North Dakota
                                                                                                            Massachusetts
                                                                   408.27                                   Maryland




                                                                                                   $90


                                                                                                           $0
                                                                   $450


                                                                            $360


                                                                                   $270


                                                                                            $180
                                                                                    Alaska
                                                                                                                                                                                                   69




                                                                            0.00
                                                                                    South Dakota
                                                                                    Louisiana
                                                                                    Iowa
                                                                                    Mississippi
                                                                                    South Carolina
                                                                                    Tennessee
                                                                                    Missouri
Dollar Value of SBIR Grants Per Worker, 2004




                                                                                    Kansas
                                                                                    Kentucky
                                                                                    Indiana
                                                                                    Illinois
                                                                                    Arkansas
                                                                                                     Source: 2007 Development Report Card for the States, Corporation for Enterprise Development
                                                                                    Georgia
                                                                                    North Dakota
                                                                                    Florida
                                                                                    Idaho
                                                                                    Nebraska
                                                                                    North Carolina
                                                                                    Wisconsin
                                                                                    Oklahoma
                                                                                    Michigan
                                                                                    Minnesota
                                                                                    Wyoming
                                                                                    Texas
                                                                                    Nevada
                                                                                    Utah
                                                                                    Arizona
                                                                                    West Virginia
                                                                                    New York
                                                                                    Pennsylvania
                                                                                    Ohio
                                                                                    Oregon
                                                                                    Maine
                                                                                    New Jersey
                                                                                    Vermont
                                                                    16.87           Montana
                                                                                    Arizona
                                                                                    Washington
                                                                                    Rhode Island
                                                                                    Connecticut
                                                                                    Delaware
                                                                                    California
                                                                                    Hawaii
                                                                                    New Mexico
                                                                                    Virginia
                                               81.81                                Colorado
                                                                                    New Hampshire
                                                                                    Maryland
                                                                                    Massachusetts




                                                                                   $0
                                                  $90




                                                        $60




                                                              $30
                                                                                                                                                                                 70




                                                              0.0 Wyoming
                                                                  West Virginia
                                                                  South Dakota
                                                                  Alaska
                                                                  Nevada
                                                                  Idaho
                                                            0.25 Montana
                                                                  New Mexico
                                                                  Vermont
                                                                  Maine
                                                                  Mississippi
                                                                  Kentucky
Gross License Income Per Worker, 2003




                                                                  Connecticut
                                                                                   Source: 2007 Development Report Card for the States, Corporation for Enterprise Development
                                                                  Arkansas
                                                                  Delaware
                                                                  Hawaii
                                                                  New Jersey
                                                                  South Carolina
                                                                  New Hampshire
                                                                  Alabama
                                                                  Colorado
                                                                  Oklahoma
                                                                  Kansas
                                                                  Illinois
                                                                  Oregon
                                                                  Nebraska
                                                                  Virginia
                                                                  Maryland
                                                                  North Dakota
                                                                  Ohio
                                                                  Indiana
                                                                  Texas
                                                                  Tennessee
                                                                  Pennsylvania
                                                                  Rhode Island
                                                                  Missouri
                                                                  Louisiana
                                                                  Georgia
                                                                  North Carolina
                                                                  Florida
                                                                  Iowa
                                                                  Michigan
                                                                  Washington
                                                                  Utah
                                                                  California
                                        46.54                     Wisconsin
                                                                  Minnesota
                                                                  Arizona
                                                                  New York
                                                                  Massachusetts




                                                                $0
                                         $30




                                                $20




                                                      $10
                                                                                                                                                                                                         71




                                                                                     43   Mississippi
                                                                                          Hawaii
Number of Patents Issued Per Million Population, 2005




                                                                                          West Virginia
                                                                                          Alaska
                                                                                          Arkansas
                                                                                          Louisiana
                                                                                          Alabama
                                                                                          South Dakota
                                                                                          Kentucky
                                                                                          Wyoming
                                                                                          Nebraska
                                                                                          Tennessee
                                                                                          Maine
                                                                                                           Source: 2007 Development Report Card for the States, Corporation for Enterprise Development
                                                                                          Oklahoma
                                                                                          Missouri
                                                                                          South Carolina
                                                                               127        Montana
                                                                                          North Dakota
                                                                                          Virginia
                                                                                          New Mexico
                                                                                          Georgia
                                                                                          Florida
                                                                                          Kansas
                                                                                          Nevada
                                                                                          Indiana
                                                                                          Pennsylvania
                                                                                          North Carolina
                                                                                          Iowa
                                                                                          Maryland
                                                                                          Ohio
                                                                                          Texas
                                                                                          Illinois
                                                                                          Utah
                                                                                          Arizona
                                                                                          New York
                                                                                          Rhode Island
                                                                                          Wisconsin
                                                                                          New Jersey
                                                                                          Michigan
                                                                                          Washington
                                                                                          Delaware
                                                                                          New Hampshire
                                                                                          Colorado
                                                                                          Connecticut
                                                                                          Minnesota
                                                        1,084                             Oregon
                                                                                          Massachusetts
                                                                                          California
                                                                                          Vermont
                                                                                          Idaho




                                                                 900




                                                                       600




                                                                             300




                                                                                          0
                                                         1,200
                                                                                                                                                                                        72




                                                                                                2.6   Hawaii
                                                                                                      Alaska
                                                                                                      Mississippi
                                                                                                      Virginia
                                                                                                      Alabama
                                                                                                      Arkansas
                                                                                                      West Virginia
                                                                                                      Louisiana
                                                                                                      Nebraska
Number of Patents Issued per 100,000 Innovation




                                                                                                      South Dakota
                                                                                                      Missouri
                                                                                                      Tennessee
                                                                                                      South Carolina
                                                                                                      Kentucky
                                                                                                      Wyoming
                                                                                                      Maryland
                                                                                                      North Dakota
                                                                                                      Oklahoma
                                                                                                      Georgia
                                                                                                      Florida
                                                                                             7.1      Montana
                                                                                                      Kansas
                                                                                                      Maine
                                                                                                      New Mexico
                                                                                                      Pennsylvania




                                                                                                                       Source: 2007 Economic Vision 2010 Report Card, Indiana Chamber
                                                                                                      North Carolina
                                                                                                      Ohio
                                                                                                      Utah
                                                                                                      Indiana
                                                                                                      Illinois
                                                                                                      Texas
                                                                                                      Iowa
                                                                                         10.8         United States
                                                                                                      Nevada
                                                                                                      New Jersey
                                                                                                      Wisconsin
                                                                                                      Arizona
                                                                                                      Colorado
                                                                                                      New York
                                                                                                      Rhode Island
                                                                                                      Massachusetts
                                                  Workers, 2005


                                                                                                      Washington
                                                                                                      Michigan
                                                                                                      New Hampshire
                                                                                                      Delaware
                                                                                                      Connecticut
                                                                                                      Minnesota
                                                                                                      California
                                                                                                      Oregon
                                                                                                      Vermont
                                                                       62.9                           Idaho




                                                                                                      0
                                                                  80



                                                                              60



                                                                                   40



                                                                                        20
                                                                                                                                                                 73




                                                                        0.00   South Dakota
                                                                               North Dako0ta
                                                                               Kansas
Venture Capital—Financing Per $1,000 of Gross




                                                                               Alaska
                                                                               Louisiana
                                                                               South Carolina
                                                                               Maine
                                                                               Nebraska
                                                                               Iowa
                                                                               Mississippi
                                                                               Alabama
                                                                               Arkansas
                                                                               Wyoming
                                                                               Idaho
                                                                               West Virginia
                                                                               Delaware
                                                                               Michigan
                                                                               Kentucky
                                                                               Tennessee
                                                                               Ohio
                                                                               Wisconsin
                                                                               Hawaii
                                                                               Oklahoma
                                                                               Indiana




                                                                                                Source: 2007 Economic Vision 2010 Report Card, Indiana Chamber
                                                                               Illinois
                                                                               Missouri
                                                                               Florida
                                                                               Georgia
                                                                               Arizona
                                                                               Nevada
                                                                               Connecticut
                                                                               Pennsylvania
                                                                               Oregon
State Product, 2005




                                                                 10.9          Montana
                                                                               Minnesota
                                                                 11.5          United States
                                                                               Texas
                                                                               New York
                                                                               Virginia
                                                                               New Mexico
                                                                               North Carolina
                                                                               Rhode Island
                                                                               Vermont
                                                                               New Hampshire
                                                                               New Jersey
                                                                               Maryland
                                                                               Utah
                                                                               Colorado
                                                                               Washington
                                                                               California
                                                82.7                           Massachusetts




                                                90




                                                       60




                                                            30




                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                          74




                                                                                                                  0.0   Wyoming
                                                                                                                        Wisconsin
                                                                                                                        West Virginia
                                                                                                                        Vermont
                                                                                                                        South Dakota
                                                                                                                        South Carolina
                                                                                                                        Rhode Island
                                                                                                                        Oregon
Number of Initial Public Offerings—Financing Per




                                                                                                                        North Dakota
                                                                                                                        New Mexico
                                                                                                                        New Hampshire
                                                                                                                        Nebraska
                                                                                                                  0.0   Montana
                                                                                                                        Mississippi
                                                                                                                        Kentucky
                                                                                                                        Kansas
                                                                                                                        Iowa
                                                                                                                        Delaware
                                                                                                                        Arkansas
                                                                                                                        Alaska
                                                                                                                        Arizona
                                                                                                                        Washington
                                                                                                                        Ohio
                                                                                                                        Missouri
                                                                                                                        Florida




                                                                                                                                         Source: 2007 Economic Vision 2010 Report Card, Indiana Chamber
                                                                                                                        Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                        Indiana
                                                                                                                        Utah
                                                                                                                        Tennessee
                                                                                                            1.9         United States
                                                                                                                        Georgia
                                                                                                                        Louisiana
                                                                                                                        Michigan
                                                                                                                        Virginia
                                                                                                                        Idaho
                                                   100,000 Firms, 2005




                                                                                                                        Maine
                                                                                                                        New Jersey
                                                                                                                        New York
                                                                                                                        Texas
                                                                                                                        California
                                                                                                                        Hawaii
                                                                                                                        Connecticut
                                                                                                                        Minnesota
                                                                                                                        North Carolina
                                                                                                                        Oklahoma
                                                                                                                        Illinois
                                                                                                                        Maryland
                                                                                                                        Colorado
                                                                                                                        Alabama
                                                                                                                        Nevada
                                                                              8.6                                       Massachusetts




                                                                              9
                                                                                    8
                                                                                        7
                                                                                            6
                                                                                                5
                                                                                                    4
                                                                                                        3
                                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                  1
                                                                                                                        0
                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              75




                                                                                                                              61.9          Maine
                                                                                                                                            Nevada
                                                                                                                                            Arkansas
Total Per Capita R&D Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, 2005




                                                                                                                                            West Virginia
                                                                                                                                            Florida
                                                                                                                                            Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                            Idaho
                                                                                                                                            South Dakota
                                                                                                                                            New Jersey
                                                                                                                                            Kentucky
                                                                                                                                            Minnesota
                                                                                                                                            South Carolina
                                                                                                                                            Virginia
                                                                                                                                            Arizona
                                                                                                                                            Indiana
                                                                                                                                            Mississippi
                                                                                                                                            Tennessee
                                                                                                                                            Kansas
                                                                                                                                            Louisiana
                                                                                                                                            Alabama
                                                                                                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                                            Texas
                                                                                                                                            Delaware
                                                                                                                                            Illinois




                                                                                                                                                             Source: National Science Foundation; NCHEMS Information Center
                                                                                                                                            Georgia
                                                                                                                                            Washington
                                                                                                                                            Michigan
                                                                                                                                            Oregon
                                                                                                                                            Missouri
                                                                                                                154.3                       United States
                                                                                                                                            Utah
                                                                                                                                            Wyoming
                                                                                                                                            California
                                                                                                                                            Colorado
                                                                                                                                            New Mexico
                                                                                                                                            Wisconsin
                                                                                                             182.7                          Montana
                                                                                                                                            Iowa
                                                                                                                                            Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                            New York
                                                                                                                                            Hawaii
                                                                                                                                            Vermont
                                                                                                                                            Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                            North Carolina
                                                                                                                                            Connecticut
                                                                                                                                            Nebraska
                                                                                                                                            New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                            Alaska
                                                                                                                                            North Dakota
                                                                                                                                            Massachusetts
                                                                       421.7                                                                Maryland




                                                                                                                                     $50

                                                                                                                                           $0
                                                                          $450

                                                                                 $400

                                                                                        $350

                                                                                               $300

                                                                                                      $250

                                                                                                               $200

                                                                                                                      $150

                                                                                                                             $100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         76




                                                                                                                                  22.9        Maine
                                                                                                                                              Nevada
Per Capita Life Sciences R&D at Universities and Colleges, 2005




                                                                                                                                              Delaware
                                                                                                                                              Idaho
                                                                                                                                              Florida
                                                                                                                                              Alaska
                                                                                                                                              Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                              West Virginia
                                                                                                                                              New Jersey
                                                                                                                                              Arkansas
                                                                                                                                              Arizona
                                                                                                                                              South Dakota
                                                                                                                                              Virginia
                                                                                                                                              Indiana
                                                                                                                                              South Carolina
                                                                                                                                              Mississippi
                                                                                                                                              Wyoming
                                                                                                                                              New Mexico
                                                                                                                                              Hawaii
                                                                                                                                              Georgia
                                                                                                                                              Kentucky
                                                                                                                                              Kansas
                                                                                                                                              Tennessee
                                                                                                                                              Minnesota
                                                                                                                                              Illinois
                                                                                                                                              Ohio
                                                                                                                                              Colorado
                                                                                                                                              Rhode Island




                                                                                                                                                               Source: National Science Foundation; U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                                              Louisiana
                                                                                                                                              Utah
                                                                                                                                              Michigan
                                                                                                                                              Texas
                                                                                                                                              Alabama
                                                                                                             93.1                             United States
                                                                                                                                              Washington
                                                                                                                                              Oregon
                                                                                                                                              California
                                                                                                                                              Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                              North Dakota
                                                                                                 115.9                                        Montana
                                                                                                                                              Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                              New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                              New York
                                                                                                                                              Missouri
                                                                                                                                              Iowa
                                                                                                                                              North Carolina
                                                                                                                                              Nebraska
                                                                                                                                              Connecticut
                                                                                                                                              Massachusetts
                                                                                                                                              Vermont
                                                                  211.0                                                                       Maryland




                                                                                                                     $80
                                                                                                                           $60
                                                                                                                                 $40
                                                                                                                                       $20
                                                                                                                                             $0
                                                                   $220
                                                                          $200
                                                                                 $180
                                                                                        $160
                                                                                               $140
                                                                                                      $120
                                                                                                              $100
                                                                                                                                                                                        77




                                                                                                         0.4 South Dakota
                                                                                                             West Virginia
                                                                                                             Nevada
Per Capita Computer Sciences R&D at Universities and Colleges, 2005




                                                                                                             Arkansas
                                                                                                             Washington
                                                                                                             Idaho
                                                                                                             Maine
                                                                                                             South Carolina
                                                                                                             Oklahoma
                                                                                                             Kansas
                                                                                                             Missouri
                                                                                                             North Dakota
                                                                                                             Florida
                                                                                                             Wyoming
                                                                                                     2.5     Montana
                                                                                                             Kentucky
                                                                                                             Michigan
                                                                                                             Vermont
                                                                                                             Tennessee
                                                                                                             Connecticut
                                                                                                             Alabama
                                                                                                             Delaware
                                                                                                             Arizona
                                                                                                             Louisiana
                                                                                                             Colorado
                                                                                                             Wisconsin
                                                                                                             Minnesota




                                                                                                                              Source: National Science Foundation; U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                             New Mexico
                                                                                                             New Hampshire
                                                                                                             Ohio
                                                                                                             Indiana
                                                                                                             Mississippi
                                                                                                             New Jersey
                                                                                                             Virginia
                                                                                                             North Carolina
                                                                                                             Texas
                                                                                                             New York
                                                                                               6.4           United States
                                                                                                             Nebraska
                                                                                                             Iowa
                                                                                                             Georgia
                                                                                                             Oregon
                                                                                                             Utah
                                                                                                             California
                                                                                                             Illinois
                                                                                                             Pennsylvania
                                                                                                             Rhode Island
                                                                            25.0
                                                                                                             Massachusetts
                                                                                                             Hawaii
                                                                                                             Alaska
                                                                                                             Maryland


                                                                      $28




                                                                                   $21




                                                                                         $14




                                                                                                $7




                                                                                                           $0
                                                                                                                            Alaska
                                                                                                                                                                                                       78




                                                                                                                     0.1
                                                                                                                            South Dakota
                                                                                                                            West Virginia
                                                                                                                            Vermont
                                                                                                                            Kentucky
Per Capita Physical Sciences R&D at Universities and College, 2005




                                                                                                                            Oregon
                                                                                                                            Arkansas
                                                                                                                            Alabama
                                                                                                                            Minnesota
                                                                                                                            Missouri
                                                                                                                            Oklahoma
                                                                                                                            Nevada
                                                                                                                            South Carolina
                                                                                                                            Tennessee
                                                                                                                            Georgia
                                                                                                                            Florida
                                                                                                                            Virginia
                                                                                                                            Idaho
                                                                                                                            Maine
                                                                                                                            Nebraska
                                                                                                                            Louisiana
                                                                                                                            Ohio
                                                                                                                            Washington
                                                                                                                            Kansas
                                                                                                                            Texas
                                                                                                                            North Carolina
                                                                                                                            Connecticut
                                                                                                                            New Jersey
                                                                                                                            Iowa




                                                                                                                                             Source: National Science Foundation; U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                            Wyoming
                                                                                                                            New Hampshire
                                                                                                                            Wisconsin
                                                                                                                            Utah
                                                                                                                            Michigan
                                                                                                                            Indiana
                                                                                                                            Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                            Illinois
                                                                                                       12.5                 United States
                                                                                                                            Rhode Island
                                                                                                                            New Mexico
                                                                                                                            Mississippi
                                                                                                                            New York
                                                                                                                            Colorado
                                                                                                                            California
                                                                                          19.9                              Montana
                                                                                                                            Delaware
                                                                                                                            North Dakota
                                                                                                                            Hawaii
                                                                                                                            Arizona
                                                                                                                            Maryland
                                                                     39.4                                                   Massachusetts




                                                                                                                $6


                                                                                                                           $0
                                                                     $42


                                                                            $36


                                                                                  $30


                                                                                        $24


                                                                                                 $18


                                                                                                          $12
                                                                                                                                                                                               79




                                                                                                             3.0    Alabama
                                                                                                                    Vermont
                                                                                                                    Oregon
                                                                                                                    Hawaii
Per Capita Engineering R&D at Universities and Colleges, 2005




                                                                                                                    Arkansas
                                                                                                                    Maine
                                                                                                                    Connecticut
                                                                                                                    Minnesota
                                                                                                                    Nevada
                                                                                                                    Florida
                                                                                                                    Missouri
                                                                                                                    Oklahoma
                                                                                                                    Idaho
                                                                                                                    Louisiana
                                                                                                                    Kentucky
                                                                                                      14.3          Montana
                                                                                                                    North Carolina
                                                                                                                    Wyoming
                                                                                                                    Washington
                                                                                                                    South Dakota
                                                                                                                    New Jersey
                                                                                                                    Tennessee
                                                                                                                    Nebraska
                                                                                                                    Texas
                                                                                                                    Mississippi
                                                                                                                    Arizona
                                                                                                                    Illinois
                                                                                                                    Wisconsin




                                                                                                                                     Source: National Science Foundation; U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                                                                    West Virginia
                                                                                                                    Colorado
                                                                                                                    California
                                                                                                                    Indiana
                                                                                                    22.7            United States
                                                                                                                    Michigan
                                                                                                                    New York
                                                                                                                    Kansas
                                                                                                                    Rhode Island
                                                                                                                    South Carolina
                                                                                                                    Iowa
                                                                                                                    Ohio
                                                                                                                    Virginia
                                                                                                                    New Hampshire
                                                                                                                    Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                    Georgia
                                                                                                                    Utah
                                                                                                                    Delaware
                                                                                                                    North Dakota
                                                                                                                    Massachusetts
                                                                                                                    New Mexico
                                                                                                                    Maryland
                                                                  161.7                                             Alaska




                                                                                        $90



                                                                                              $60



                                                                                                    $30



                                                                                                                   $0
                                                                $180


                                                                          $150



                                                                                 $120
Themes that Emerge from the Data

The Need to:

  Improve Rates of College Participation
  Increase Rates of College Completion—Production of:
      Associate Degrees
      Baccalaureate Degrees

  Create High-Value Jobs
  Reduce Disparities in Opportunity and Benefits
      Geography
      Race/Ethnicity

                                                         80
The Financial Environment
  for Higher Education



                            81
The Flow of Funds

        Economy
                                           Available
                                        State and Local
                                         Govt. Funds




                                               Higher
                                              Education


                             Student Aid                    Appropriations/Grants



                                               Tuition
                        Students                                 Institutions
                                           Scholarships &
                                              Waivers

                  Student Aid (Restricted)


                                               Federal
                                             Government

                                                                                    82
State Tax Capacity and Effort—Montana Indexed
to U.S. Average
     1.40


     1.20
                                                Tax Effort (Effective Tax Rate)


     1.00
                                                        U.S. Average

     0.80

                                      Tax Capacity (Total Taxable Resources per capita)
     0.60


     0.40
             1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003


Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO)
                                                                                          83
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      84




                                                                                         Alabama                                                                                -10.7
                                                                                        Louisiana                                                                              -10.5
                                                                                      Mississippi                                                                       -9.8
                                                                                      Tennessee                                                                      -9.3
                                                                                          Nevada
Projected State and Local Budget Surplus (Gap) as a




                                                                                                                                                                     -9.3
                                                                                            Texas                                                                  -8.9
                                                                                          Oregon                                                            -8.2
                                                                                     Washington                                                            -8.0
                                                                                         Missouri                                                      -7.4
                                                                                    South Dakota                                                     -7.0
                                                                                   South Carolina                                                    -7.0
                                                                                            Idaho                                                   -6.9
                                                                                           Florida                                                 -6.8
                                                                                   North Carolina                                                 -6.7
                                                                                          Indiana                                                -6.5
                                                                                              Iowa                                              -6.3
                                                                                        California                                             -6.2
                                                                                     New Mexico                                              -5.9
                                                                                              Utah                                          -5.8
                                                                                         Montana                                            -5.8
                                                                                    United States                                          -5.7




                                                                                                                                                                                              Source: NCHEMS; Don Boyd (Rockefeller Institute of Government), 2005
                                                                                    Rhode Island                                           -5.7
                                                                                           Alaska                                          -5.7
                                                                                    Pennsylvania                                          -5.6
                                                                                           Illinois                                       -5.6
                                                                                           Hawaii                                       -5.3
                                                                                          Georgia                                      -5.2
                                                                                        New York                                       -5.2
                                                      Percent of Revenues, 2013




                                                                                          Arizona                                     -5.1
                                                                                        Michigan                                   -4.8
                                                                                        Kentucky                                   -4.8
                                                                                    West Virginia                                  -4.8
                                                                                        Colorado                                 -4.4
                                                                                       Minnesota                                 -4.4
                                                                                       Oklahoma                                 -4.3
                                                                                        Nebraska                                -4.3
                                                                                          Virginia                             -4.2
                                                                                        Arkansas                               -4.2
                                                                                          Kansas                             -3.9
                                                                                     Connecticut                            -3.8
                                                                                    North Dakota                         -3.3
                                                                                              Ohio                     -3.0
                                                                                         Vermont                      -2.9
                                                                                       Wisconsin                     -2.8
                                                                                   Massachusetts                  -2.3
                                                                                        Maryland                -2.1
                                                                                            Maine            -1.6
                                                                                     New Jersey          -1.0
                                                                                        Delaware         -1.0
                                                                                  New Hampshire       -0.5




                                                                                                  0



                                                                                                                    -3



                                                                                                                                         -6



                                                                                                                                                              -9



                                                                                                                                                                                        -12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       85




                                                                                                        Wyoming                                                         -3.6
                                                                                                    North Dakota                                                    -3.3
                                                                                                         Montana                                                -3.0
                                                                                                         Vermont                                            -2.7
                                                                                                            Maine                                           -2.7
                                                                                                     New Mexico
Projected Ratio of Spending for Higher Education to




                                                                                                                                                          -2.6
                                                                                                    South Dakota                                          -2.6
                                                                                                           Alaska                                      -2.4
                                                                                                  New Hampshire                                       -2.3
                                                                                                      Mississippi                              -1.8
                                                                                                         Alabama                               -1.8
                                                                                                     Washington                              -1.7
                                                                                                            Idaho                            -1.7
                                                                                                       Oklahoma                              -1.7
                                                                                                        Louisiana                            -1.7
                                                                                                       Minnesota                             -1.7
                                                                                                           Hawaii                           -1.6
                                                                                                        Arkansas
                                                      Spending for All Other Programs, 2013




                                                                                                                                            -1.6
                                                                                                       Wisconsin                            -1.6
                                                                                                        Nebraska                            -1.6
                                                                                                    West Virginia                           -1.6
                                                                                                         Missouri




                                                                                                                                                                               Source: NCHEMS; Don Boyd (Rockefeller Institute of Government), 2005
                                                                                                                                         -1.4
                                                                                                          Oregon                       -1.3
                                                                                                          Kansas                       -1.3
                                                                                                             Iowa                      -1.3
                                                                                                   South Carolina                     -1.2
                                                                                                        Kentucky                   -1.0
                                                                                                      Tennessee                    -1.0
                                                                                                             Ohio                  -1.0
                                                                                                        Maryland                -0.8
                                                                                                            Texas             -0.7
                                                                                                    Pennsylvania              -0.7
                                                                                                        New York              -0.7
                                                                                                             Utah            -0.6
                                                                                                          Georgia            -0.6
                                                                                                   North Carolina            -0.6
                                                                                                           Florida           -0.6
                                                                                                    United States            -0.6
                                                                                                    Rhode Island          -0.4
                                                                                                   Massachusetts         -0.3
                                                                                                          Virginia       -0.3
                                                                                                        Colorado         -0.3
                                                                                                        Delaware         -0.3
                                                                                                     Connecticut       -0.2
                                                                                                        California    -0.1
                                                                                                          Indiana    0.0
                                                                                                        Michigan     0.0
                                                                                                               0.2   Arizona
                                                                                                         0.5         Illinois
                                                                                                        0.6          New Jersey
                                                                                                  1.2                Nevada




                                                                                              2


                                                                                                        1


                                                                                                                     0


                                                                                                                                -1


                                                                                                                                              -2


                                                                                                                                                             -3


                                                                                                                                                                          -4
                                                                                                                                                                                                     86




                                                                                         4.3%    Massachusetts
                                                                                                 Connecticut
                                                                                                 Vermont
                                                                                                 Delaware
                                                                                                                                                                         Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO); National Association of State Business Officers (NASBO)




                                                                                                 Rhode Island
State Higher Education Priority—Higher Education




                                                                                                 New Jersey
Appropriations as a Percent of Tax Revenues, 2006




                                                                                                 Minnesota
                                                                                                 Colorado
                                                                                                 Ohio
                                                                                                 Alaska
                                                                                                 Hawaii
                                                                                                 New Hampshire
                                                                                                 Maine
                                                                                                 Pennsylvania
                                                                                                 West Virginia
                                                                                  7.8%           Montana
                                                                                                 New York
                                                                                                 Virginia
                                                                                                 Oregon
                                                                                                 Maryland
                                                                                                 Illinois
                                                                                                 Indiana
                                                                                                 Washington
                                                                                                 Florida
                                                                                                 Wisconsin
                                                                                                 Tennessee
                                                                                                 Kentucky
                                                                          10.7%                  United States
                                                                                                 California
                                                                                                 Louisiana
                                                                                                 New Mexico
                                                                                                 Georgia




                                                                                                                  *Includes Appropriations to Independent Institutions
                                                                                                 Iowa
                                                                                                 South Carolina
                                                                                                 Oklahoma
                                                                                                 South Dakota
                                                                                                 Texas
                                                                                                 Kansas
                                                                                                 Missouri
                                                                                                 Alabama
                                                                                                 Idaho
                                                                                                 Utah
                                                                                                 North Carolina
                                                                                                 Arizona
                                                                                                 North Dakota
                                                                                                 Nebraska
                                                                                                 Mississippi
                                                                                                 Arkansas
                                                                                                 Nevada
                                                                                                 Michigan
                                                          24.1%                                  Wyoming




                                                                                           5%


                                                                                                0%
                                                    30%


                                                            25%


                                                                  20%


                                                                        15%


                                                                                  10%
                                                                                                                                                               Florida
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            87




                                                                                                                              $7,261
                                                                                                                                                               California
                                                                                                                                                               Mississippi
                                                                                                                                                               West Virginia
Total Educational Revenues (State and Local and Tuition)




                                                                                                                                                               Louisiana
                                                                                                                                                               Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                                               Colorado
                                                                                                                                                               Washington
                                                                                                                                                               North Dakota
                                                                                                                          $8,903                               Montana
                                                                                                                                                               Arkansas
                                                                                                                                                               Utah
                                                                                                                                                               Oregon
                                                                                                                                                               Texas
                                                                                                                                                               South Dakota
                                                                                                                                                               Kansas
                                                                                                                                                               Illinois
                                                                                                                                                               Georgia
                                                                                                                                                               Idaho
                                                                                                                                                               Missouri
                                                                                                                                                               North Carolina
                                                                                                                $9,891                                         United States
                                                                                                                                                               Ohio
                                                                                                                                                               Virginia
                                                                                                                                                               Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                                               Arizona
                                                                                                                                                               New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                                               Tennessee
                                                                                                                                                               Alabama




                                                                                                                                                                                Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO)
                                                                                                                                                               Minnesota
                                                                                                                                                               Nevada
                                                                                                                                                               Nebraska
                                                           Per FTE Student, 2005-06




                                                                                                                                                               Indiana
                                                                                                                                                               New Mexico
                                                                                                                                                               South Carolina
                                                                                                                                                               Iowa
                                                                                                                                                               Kentucky
                                                                                                                                                               New York
                                                                                                                                                               Maine
                                                                                                                                                               Michigan
                                                                                                                                                               Maryland
                                                                                                                                                               Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                                               Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                               Vermont
                                                                                                                                                               Massachusetts
                                                                                            $16,657
                                                                                                                                                               Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                                               New Jersey
                                                                                                                                                               Wyoming
                                                                                                                                                               Connecticut
                                                                                                                                                               Alaska
                                                                                                                                                               Delaware




                                                                                                                                                          $0
                                                                                      $18,000


                                                                                                      $15,000


                                                                                                                $12,000


                                                                                                                               $9,000


                                                                                                                                        $6,000


                                                                                                                                                 $3,000
                                                                                                                                                            88




                                                                                       21.9    Vermont
                                                                                               New Hampshire
Share of Institutional Funding for Higher Education Provided




                                                                                               Colorado
                                                                                               Delaware
Through State Appropriations (Public Institutions), 2005-06




                                                                                               Pennsylvania
                                                                                               Rhode Island
                                                                                               Michigan
                                                                                               Ohio
                                                                                               South Dakota
                                                                                               Oregon
                                                                               49.5            Montana
                                                                                               Indiana
                                                                                               Maryland
                                                                                               West Virginia
                                                                                               Maine
                                                                                               Iowa
                                                                                               Virginia
                                                                                               South Carolina
                                                                                               Alabama
                                                                                               North Dakota
                                                                                               Minnesota
                                                                                               New Jersey
                                                                                               Connecticut
                                                                                               Missouri
                                                                                               Massachusetts
                                                                                               Tennessee
                                                                                               Kentucky
                                                                                               Kansas




                                                                                                                Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO)
                                                                                               Mississippi
                                                                                               Wisconsin
                                                                                               Arizona
                                                                      64.0                     United States
                                                                                               Nebraska
                                                                                               Utah
                                                                                               Arkansas
                                                                                               Oklahoma
                                                                                               Louisiana
                                                                                               Texas
                                                                                               New York
                                                                                               Illinois
                                                                                               Alaska
                                                                                               Washington
                                                                                               North Carolina
                                                                                               Idaho
                                                                                               Florida
                                                                                               Hawaii
                                                                                               Georgia
                                                                                               California
                                                                                               Nevada
                                                                                               Wyoming
                                                               85.5                            New Mexico




                                                                                              0%
                                                               90%




                                                                             60%




                                                                                      30%
2004 In-State Average Tuition and Fees for Full-
Time Undergraduates at Doctoral-Granting
Institutions (as a Percent of Median Family Income)
               Nevada


                 Utah


               Alaska


              Arizona


          North Dakota


          South Dakota


              Montana                                          12.1%

                     0%        2%       4%   6%   8%   10%   12%       14%


Source: WICHE 2006 Regional Fact Book
                                                                             89
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      90




                                                                                           -0.5 Montana
                                                                                                Wyoming
                                                                                                North Dakota
                                                                                                Washington
                                                                                                                 Source: NCES, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; U.S. Census Bureau 2000 Public Use Microdata Samples




                                                                                                Iowa
Internal Rate of Return for Public Two-Year




                                                                                                Nebraska
                                                                                                Arkansas
                                                                                                Nevada
                                                                                                Maine
                                                                                                New Hampshire
                                                                                                Indiana
                                                                                                Alaska
                                                                                                Minnesota
                                                                                                Ohio
                                                                                                Kansas
                                                                                                Wisconsin
                                                                                                Alabama
                                                                                                Hawaii
                                                                                                Vermont
                                                                                                Massachusetts
                                                                                                Colorado
                                                                                                New Mexico
                                                                                                Utah
                                                                                                Illinois
                                                                                                Pennsylvania
                                                                                                Mississippi
                                                                                                Rhode Island
                                                                                                Oklahoma
                                                                                                Kentucky
                                                                                                North Carolina
                                                                                                Missouri
                                                                                                Maryland
                                                                                                Idaho
                                                                                                Louisiana
                                                                                                New York
                                                                                                Virginia
                                                                                                Delaware
                                                                                                Michigan
                                                                                                Florida
                                                                                                West Virginia
                                                                                                South Carolina
                                                                         10.4                   United States
                                              Institutions

                                                                                                Oregon
                                                                                                Tennessee
                                                                                                Georgia
                                                                                                Connecticut
                                                                                                Arizona
                                                             23.5
                                                                                                New Jersey
                                                                                                Texas
                                                                                                California
                                                                                                South Dakota




                                                                    15




                                                                            10




                                                                                   5




                                                                                             0




                                                                                                            -5
                                                                                 Percent
                                                                                                                                                                          91




                                                                                           4.8       Wyoming
                                                                                                     Vermont
                                                                                                     North Dakota
                                                                                     6.4             Montana
                                                                                                     Alaska
Internal Rate of Return for Public Four-Year




                                                                                                                      Source: NCES, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; U.S. Census Bureau 2000 Public Use Microdata Samples




                                                                                                     Iowa
                                                                                                     Hawaii
                                                                                                     Maine
                                                                                                     Nevada
                                                                                                     Wisconsin
                                                                                                     Nebraska
                                                                                                     Indiana
                                                                                                     South Carolina
                                                                                                     New Hampshire
                                                                                                     Utah
                                                                                                     Mississippi
                                                                                                     Rhode Island
                                                                                                     West Virginia
                                                                                                     Oregon
                                                                                                     New Mexico
                                                                                                     Arkansas
                                                                                                     Idaho
                                                                                                     Washington
                                                                                                     Ohio
                                                                                                     Kansas
                                                                                                     Oklahoma
                                                                                                     Missouri
                                                                                                     Maryland
                                                                                                     Minnesota
                                                                                                     Pennsylvania
                                                                                                     Colorado
                                                                                                     Louisiana
                                                                                                     Michigan
                                                                                                     Tennessee
                                                                                                     Kentucky
                                                                                                     Delaware
                                                                                                     Florida
                                                                                                     Arizona
                                                                                                     North Carolina
                                                                                                     Alabama
                                                                                                     Illinois
                                                                          10.9                       United States
                                               Institutions

                                                                                                     Massachusetts
                                                                                                     New Jersey
                                                                                                     Virginia
                                                                                                     Georgia
                                                                                                     South Dakota
                                                                                                     Texas
                                                                                                     Connecticut
                                                                                                     California
                                                                   12.9                              New York



                                                              15


                                                                          12


                                                                                 9


                                                                                           6


                                                                                                 3


                                                                                                     0
                                                                                 Percent
A Picture of State Higher Education Funding, 2006


                                                    $14,000       Net Tuition Revenues
       State and Local Education Revenues per FTE


                                                                                                                                             WY
                                                                  High Tuition Revenues

                                                                  Medium Tuition Revenues                                                         AK
                                                    $12,000
                                                                  Low Tuition Revenues
                                                                                                                         HI

                                                    $10,000
                                                                                                                                              CT
                                                                                                      NM
                                                                                                    NV
                                                                                                                              MA
                                                     $8,000                                                                    NJ
                                                                                        GA            NY
                                                                                         ID NC
                                                                                                 NE
                                                                             CA WA      IL           KY                                            DE
                                                                                      TX US TN
                                                                                             AZ
                                                                                             WI                   MD          RI
                                                     $6,000                         UT
                                                                                    AR KSMO      MN IA ME
                                                                       FL       OK
                                                                               LA               AL SC            MI
                                                                                                                    PA
                                                                                             VA   IN
                                                                              MS
                                                                                 ND    SD OH
                                                                                     OR
                                                     $4,000                    WV MT
                                                                                 CO            NH                         VT

                                                     $2,000
                                                         $6,000                 $9,000                 $12,000                     $15,000              $18,000

                                                                                          Total Education Revenues per FTE


 Source: SHEEO                                                                                                                                                    92
Performance Relative to Total Funding per FTE—State Higher Education Systems
   Undergraduate Degrees Awarded (2002-03) per 100 FTE Undergraduates, Fall 2002

                                                    20

          Undergraduate Degrees Awarded (2002-03)                                            VT         RI
                                                                               NH
                                                                                              NY             PA
                                                                          UT
               per 100 Undergraduates, Fall 2002
                                                                                                    IA            MA
                                                                                  MT
                                                                             FL
                                                                            ND             IN
                                                                                        SD      MO
                                                                               WA       HI
                                                                                       WVNE                                              WY
                                                    15                            ID    OH         ME                       DECT
                                                                                           MS     TN
                                                                                      OK SCMN
                                                                                        VA WI
                                                                                       KS US                           MI           NJ
                                                                                               AL
                                                                                              IL
                                                                                CO LA
                                                                                      AR NC                                        MD
                                                                                 OR
                                                                                            GA                KY
                                                                                                   TX

                                                                            CA              AZ
                                                                                           NM
                                                    10

                                                                                NV                                           AK




                                                     5
                                                    $5,000                                         $10,000                                    $15,000
                                                             Total Funding per FTE (State & Local Appropriations, Net Tuition and Fees -
                                                                               adjusted for COL and Enrollment Mix)



    Source: SHEEO; NCES – IPEDS Enrollment and Completions Survey
                                                                                                                                                        93
Performance Relative to Total Funding per FTE—State Higher Education Systems
                                                      PhDs per 1,000 Degrees Awarded (Baccalaureate and Above), 2002-03


                                                      35
      PhDs per 1,000 Degrees Awarded (Baccalaureate



                                                      30                                                  MA
                                                                           CA
                                                                                      NE
                                                                                            IL
                                                                                                                          MD
                     and above, 2002-03




                                                      25                                     MN                      CT
                                                                             CO          IN
                                                                                        NM
                                                                                     VA GA                                  NJ   WY
                                                                                     OH            PA
                                                                                        NC MOTX                     DE
                                                                              OR         US
                                                                                             NY
                                                                                          AZ TN RI
                                                                                     HI MSWI
                                                      20                     NV                                MI
                                                                                             AL IA                   AK
                                                                            WA      KS
                                                                                    OK SC           KY
                                                                                LAID
                                                      15                   ND
                                                                         UT NH
                                                                                   ARSD
                                                                              MT
                                                                                     WV
                                                      10

                                                                           FL              VT   ME
                                                       5
                                                      $5,000                                    $10,000                               $15,000
                                                           Total Funding per FTE (State & Local Appropriations, Net Tuition and Fees -
                                                                             adjusted for COL and Enrollment Mix)

 Source: SHEEO; Digest of Higher Education Statistics, 2005
                                                                                                                                                94
Performance Relative to Total Funding per FTE—State Higher Education Systems,
                                                      Per Capita R& D at Universities and Colleges, 2005

                                           450
                                                                                                           MD
     Per Capita R& D at Universities and




                                                                                             MA
              Colleges. FY2005




                                           300


                                                                 ND                                  AK
                                                                  NH
                                                                              NE
                                                                    COMT HI NCVT IARI PA
                                                                               NMNY
                                                                               WI
                                                                                                      CT
                                                                  CA
                                           150
                                                                UT
                                                                      OR
                                                                                   `
                                                                               US MO
                                                                                                                 WY
                                                                   WA                             MI DE
                                                                           OH GA TX
                                                                                 IL
                                                                       LA KS MSAL TN
                                                                           VA INAZ
                                                                               SC MN    KY                  NJ
                                                                   FL  ID OKSD
                                                                           WV
                                                                    NV    AR
                                                                                     ME


                                             0
                                             $5,000                                $10,000                               $15,000

                                                 Total Funding per FTE (State & Local Appropriations, Net Tuition and Fees -
                                                                   adjusted for COL and Enrollment Mix)


   Source: SHEEO
                                                                                                                                   95
Performance Relative to Total Funding per FTE—State Higher Education Systems
                                                              Pipeline Result, 2004

                               35



                               30

                                                                  SD
                                                                       MN IA PA                      NJ
                                                                                    MA
       Pipeline Result, 2004




                               25                      ND           NE                                    WY
                                                                      WI                       CT
                                                                  VA VT
                                                                 KS
                                                                     IN
                               20                        CO             NY MERI               DE
                                                                  OH ILMO                           MD
                                                            MT      NC
                                                                     US
                                                                                         MI
                                                     UTCA
                                                        WA              TN
                                                                WV AZ
                                                            ID AR
                               15                         OR OK SC
                                                       FL          GAAL
                                                                HI      TX
                                                                   NM             KY
                                                                   MS
                               10                        NV



                                                                                               AK
                               5
                               $5,000                                     $10,000                                     $15,000
                                        Total Funding per FTE (State & Local Appropriations, Net Tuition and Fees -
                                                           adjusted for COL and Enrollment Mix)


 Source: SHEEO; NCES – Common Core Data; IPEDS Residency and Migration, Fall Enrollment and Graduation Rate Surveys
                                                                                                                                96
Performance Relative to Total Funding per FTE—State Higher Education Systems
     Bachelor’s Degrees as a Percent of High School Graduates Six Years Earlier, 2004



                                                       100
                                                                                                        RI
      Bachelor's Degrees as a percent of High School




                                                       80
                Graduates Six Years Earlier




                                                                                                               MA

                                                                                  CO            NY                       DE
                                                                                              AZ
                                                                             UT NH          NC
                                                       60                       FL             VT       PA
                                                                               ND            IN MO
                                                                                   OR   KS GA        IA
                                                                                         VANEUS    TN               MI
                                                                                                                          CT
                                                                                              WI
                                                                                WAMT OK SC
                                                                                         SD    AL                              MD
                                                                               CA LA HI  OH IL  MN
                                                                                         WV         ME   KY
                                                       40                        NV ID      MS
                                                                                             NM    TX
                                                                                       AR                                        NJ


                                                                                                                                       WY
                                                       20                                                                 AK
                                                        $5,000                                       $10,000                                       $15,000
                                                             Total Funding per FTE (State & Local Appropriations, Net Tuition and Fees - adjusted for
                                                                                            COL and Enrollment Mix)




Source: SHEEO; NCES – IPEDS Completions Survey; WICHE

                                                                                                                                                             97

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:6/11/2012
language:
pages:97