Text-dependent questions

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					TEXT-DEPENDENT QUESTIONS
   building a critical foundation of knowledge needed for
   comprehending complex texts
   Background
      A priority of the Common Core State Standards is that
       students must closely read texts of increasing
       complexity to acquire knowledge.
      The standards strongly focus on students gathering
       evidence, knowledge, and insight from what they read
       and therefore require that a majority of questions and
       tasks that students ask and respond to (both orally and
       in writing) be based on the text under consideration.
      Questions and tasks should require thinking about the
       text carefully and finding evidence in the text itself to
       support the response.

Rhode Island Department of Education                        2/2012
               80-90% of (CCSS) reading standards require text-
               dependent analysis yet over 30% of questions in major
               textbooks do not.
Rhode Island Department of Education                               2/2012
   Why adjust the way we question?

      Asking students to make connections to themselves,
       other texts and the world is a common style of
       questioning that guides students away from the text.
           This type of questioning does not lead to a deep
           understanding of the text.
      We often ask students simple questions that require
       very literal thinking to ensure they have read the text.
           Students expend too much time and energy answering these
           questions rather than slowing down to consider the
           meaningful text-specific questions that will bring them to a
           deeper understanding.

Rhode Island Department of Education                              2/2012
   Studying the Standard
   Using a Learning Trajectory

      We are going to explore the learning trajectory of
       reading standard 1in order to more deeply
       develop an understanding of the alignment of that
       standard within the K-12 context.
      This activity will allow us to understand how the
       standard builds and increases in rigor throughout
       the grades.



Rhode Island Department of Education                 2/2012
   College and Career Readiness Anchor
   Standard for Reading - Standard 1
       This CCR           R.CCR.1: Read closely to determine what
        anchor
     standard is            the text says explicitly and to make
      our goal.             logical inferences from it; cite specific
                            textual evidence when writing or
     All students           speaking to support conclusions drawn
         must
    demonstrate
                            from the text.
      this skill in
     order to be
    prepared for
    college or a
        career.

Rhode Island Department of Education                               2/2012
                                                                                         Learning Trajectory

                                                                                                                                 READING CLOSELY TO ANALYZE TEXT
R.CCR.1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical
inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support




                                                                                         RI.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences
                                                                                         from the text.
                                                                                          D: Refer to details and examples
                                                                                          A: Quote accurately from the text
                                                                                         RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences
                                                                                         from the text.
                                                                                          D: Ask and answer questions
                                                                                          A: Refer to details and examples when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences
                                                                                         RI.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the
                                                                                         text as the basis for the answers.
conclusions drawn from the text.




                                                                                          D: Specific questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how
                                                                                          A: Refer explicitly to the text as a basis for the answers
                                                                                         RI.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key
                                                                                         details in a text.
                                                                                          A: Who, what, where, when, why, and how are specific questions to be asked and answered
                                                                                          CC: demonstrating an understanding of the key details
                                                                                         RI.1.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. D: prompting and support
                                                                                         RI.K.1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
                                                                                                                                                                       A Learning Trajectory
                                                                                                                                                            Big Idea: Reading Closely to Analyze Text
from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from
R.CCR.1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences




                                                                                                     RI.5.1   Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
                                                                                                              D: Refer to details and examples
                                                                                                              A: Quote accurately from the text


                                                                                                     RI.4.1   Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text
                                                                                                              D: Ask and answer questions
                                                                                                              A: Refer to details and examples when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences


                                                                                                     RI.3.1   Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
                                                                                                              D: Specific questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how.
                                                                                                              A: Refer explicitly to the text as a basis for the answers


                                                                                                     RI.2.1   Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
                                                                                                              A: Who, what, where, when, why, and how are specific questions to be asked and answered
                                                                                                              CC: demonstrating an understanding of the key details


                                                                                                     RI.1.1   Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
                                                                                                              D: prompting and support
the text.




                                                                                                     RI.K.1   With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.




                                  Rhode Island Department of Education                                                                                                                                                                          2/2012
   Reflection
      Consider the following questions and then discuss
       with a colleague:
        How does the learning from this trajectory activity
       impact/expand our understanding of text-dependent
       questioning?

       How does the learning from this trajectory activity
       emphasize the need for questions that are text-
       dependent?

Rhode Island Department of Education                     2/2012
   Text-Dependent Questions…
      are questions that can only be answered correctly by close
       reading of the text and demand careful attention to the
       text.
      require an understanding that extends beyond recalling
       facts.
      often require students to infer.
      do not depend on information from outside sources.
      allow students to gather evidence and build knowledge.
      provide access to increasing levels of complex text.
      call for careful and thoughtful teacher preparation.
      require time for students to process.
      are worth asking.
Rhode Island Department of Education                         2/2012
   What are we looking for?
      Rich and rigorous evidence-based conversations
       about text amongst students and with teachers
      Discussions that stay deeply connected to the text so
       that students make evidentiary arguments
      Students revisiting text for evidence to support their
       argument in a thoughtful, careful, and precise way
      Students slowing down to explore and learn from
       the evidence


Rhode Island Department of Education                    2/2012
  Which question requires students to read closely for
  text-specific information?


       Questions based on: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American
                            Slave by Frederick Douglass

      How did Frederick                          After reading
       Douglass’ ability to read                   Frederick Douglass’
       contribute to his                           narrative, In what
       emotional struggle for                      ways does America
       freedom?                                    represent the hope for
       Cite examples from the                      freedom that lived in
       text to support your                        the heart of Frederick
       answer.                                     Douglass?

Rhode Island Department of Education                                           2/2012
   A Conversation about Text-Based Answers


   This 11 minute video features a discussion between New York
     State Commissioner of Education John B. King Jr.,
     David Coleman (contributing author to the Common Core)
     and Kate Gerson (a Sr. Fellow with the Regents Research
     Fund) that addresses the shift to Text-Based Answers.

               http://engageny.org/resource/common-core-in-ela-literacy-shift-4-text-based-answers/




Rhode Island Department of Education                                                                  2/2012
   Questions to Consider After Viewing Video

   Independently answer the following questions and then
                     discuss with a colleague:
    What does it mean to ask text-based questions?

    How will this impact our instruction?

    What challenges will we face as we make this shift?

    What are the implications for teacher planning and for

     teacher planning time in schools?
    What questions will take the students deeper into this

     text and cause them to pay careful attention to it?

Rhode Island Department of Education                  2/2012

				
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