20090223 ??? Foundation for problem based gaming by oROMUF


									          Foundation for
      problem-based gaming

             Presenter: Hsiao-lan Lee
             Professor: Ming-Puu Chen
             Date: 01 / 19 / 2009

Kiili, K. (2007). Foundation for problem-based gaming. British
Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3), 394-404.
      Introduction (1/3)
Higher education often has not managed to develop students’
abilities to apply their knowledge in complex, ill-defined practical
– difficulties in applying theoretical subject knowledge in solving ill-
  defined problems
– the lack of contextualising or anchoring the content being learned

Properly designed games can be used to answer these needs.
– focus on the game design issues separated from learning
– not utilize the powerfulness of games as an interactive context-free

The field of educational technology lacks research on how to
design game environments.
– foster knowledge construction
– deepen understanding and problem solving
     Introduction (2/3)
Kiili (2005) developed the experiential gaming model:
– founded on the principles of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984) and
  constructivism (Phillips, 1995)
– not provide a clear account for reflective thinking that can be
  considered as the key factor in problem-based learning

The most important contribution of the experiential gaming
model to the educational game design is the design principles
of engagement (Kiili & Lainema, 2006).

The aim of this research is to develop an empirically allocated
model about problem-based gaming.
– provide means to design pedagogically meaningful games
– evaluate the proposed model
             Introduction (3/3)
      Problem-based gaming model
      – PBG = PBL + Game + Experiential Learning + Constructivism

 • base on learner’s prior experiences          • test the strategy and possible hypotheses
 • form an appropriate playing strategy         • observe the consequences of the learner’s
                       1                             2

• govern variables
  in order to                                                               • base on only one
  generate better                                                             particular strategy
  playing strategies
  and solutions to                                                          • strengthens only
  problems                                                                    those schemata
                                                                              that are related to
                                                                              this strategy

• recapture the experience,                 • provide the feedback from a learner’s actions
• think about it,                           • support reflective thinking and knowledge
• mull it over and evaluate it                construction by focusing a player’s attention to
                                              relevant information
         Figure1: Problem-based gaming model describes the learning process with games              4
– 12 students of Turku School of Economics
– age between 20-30
– All had some experiences about other business games before.
– Realgame business
  simulation game (Lainema, 2004)
– give learners a realistic view
  of business processes
  through case-based learning
– reflect realistic time-dependent
  decision making
– semi-structured interviews
– two themes: games in education and problem-based gaming
     Results and discussion (1/4)
About educational games:
1. Educational games aroused interest among players.
   • All players liked the playing experience of Realgame.

2. The role of the games was seen more like applying previously
   learned knowledge than studying totally new issues.

3. Games seem to support the perception of things as a whole.

     Results and discussion (2/4)
About the main principles of the PBG approach:
1. Learners saw that authenticity is a very important element in
   educational games.
   • Some simplifications needed to be made in simulation games,
      but did not disturb their playing experiences.
   • Gaming strategy is based on trial and error.  aware about
      their incomplete strategy and realize that they could have utilized
      a more strategic approach

2. All learners felt that it was fruitful to play the game in teams.
   • Knowledge sharing during gaming facilitated learning.

3. Learners felt that games are effective because they involve
   learning by doing.
    • involve with the experience
    • not absorb knowledge by rote learning
     Results and discussion (3/4)
About the structure of the PBG model:
1. The results clearly supported the structure of the PBG model.
   • actively form playing strategies and hypotheses and test them

2. Some learners were more sensitive for double-loop learning and
   were willing to even take risks to discover more optimal strategies.

3. One thing that may lead to single-loop learning is the lack of
   • virtual players that are challenging to beat in to the game
   • motivate the leading human team to perform better

           Results and discussion (4/4)
     About reflection in PBG:
     1. It is important to consider the game elements that triggered
         • The demand of products was experienced as a basic trigger of
     2. The most powerful thing that pushed learners to consider their
        performance was the conflicts that they faced.
        • The conflicts in the game should be designed properly.
      3. Factor disturbing reflection:
          • game design: Too fast playing tempo does not provide a
            possibility for learners to reflect on the consequences of their
            actions appropriately.
          • the complexity of the game:
cognitive  include new concepts and many changing variables
overload  The user interface requires much cognitive processing.
PBG model can help to address the gap between pedagogy and
game design.
Reflection that arouses double-loop learning enhances learning
because learners tend to aspire to a better understanding of the
problem domain by actively testing different strategies.
Conflicts and the performance were found to be the most
important triggers of reflection.
Too fast a game tempo and cognitive overload can disturb
reflection process.
Collaboration and learning by doing were found to be most
important characteristics of effective educational games.
Games were seen as good tools to understand cause and
consequence chains.

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