UMLS Semantic Types

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					                                                                        UMLS Semantic Types

                       UI:                 Unique Identifier of the Semantic Type.
                       Name                Name of the Semantic Type.
                       Definition:         Definition of the Semantic Type.
                       Example:            Examples of concepts with this Semantic Type.


UI     Name               Definition                                                                                                        Example
T001   Organism           Generally, a living individual, including all plants and animals.                                                 Homozygote; Radiation
                                                                                                                                            Chimera; Sporocyst
T002   Plant              An organism having cellulose cell walls, growing by synthesis of inorganic substances, generally                  Pollen; Potatoes; Vegetables
                          distinguished by the presence of chlorophyll, and lacking the power of locomotion. Plant parts are
                          included here as well.
T003   Alga               A chiefly aquatic plant that contains chlorophyll, but does not form embryos during development and lacks         Chlorella; Laminaria; Seaweed
                          vascular tissue.
T004   Fungus             A eukaryotic organism characterized by the absence of chlorophyll and the presence of a rigid cell wall.          Aspergillus clavatus;
                          Included here are both slime molds and true fungi such as yeasts, molds, mildews, and mushrooms.                  Blastomyces;
                                                                                                                                            Helminthosporium; Neurospora
T005   Virus              An organism consisting of a core of a single nucleic acid enclosed in a protective coat of protein. A virus       Coliphages; Echovirus 6;
                          may replicate only inside a host living cell. A virus exhibits some but not all of the usual characteristics of   Parvoviridae; Fort Morgan virus
                          living things.
T006   Rickettsia or      An organism intermediate in size and complexity between a virus and a bacterium, and which is parasitic           Anaplasma; Chlamydia
       Chlamydia          within the cells of insects and ticks. Included here are all the chlamydias, also called "PLT" for psittacosis-   trachomatis; Ehrlichia risticii
                          lymphogranuloma venereum-trachoma.
T007   Bacterium          A small, typically one-celled, prokaryotic micro-organism.                                                        Acetobacter; Bacillus cereus;
                                                                                                                                            Cytophaga; Enterobacter
                                                                                                                                            intermedius
T008   Animal             An organism with eukaryotic cells, and lacking stiff cell walls, plastids and photosynthetic pigments.            Animals, Laboratory; Animals,
                                                                                                                                            Newborn; Animals, Poisonous
T009   Invertebrate       An animal which has no spinal column.                                                                             Platyhelminths; Starfish;
                                                                                                                                            Strongylus; Wasps; Earthworms
T010   Vertebrate         An animal which has a spinal column.
T011   Amphibian          A cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrate which characteristically hatches as an aquatic larva, breathing         Salamandra; Urodela; Brazilian
                      by gills. When mature, the amphibian breathes with lungs.                                                        horned frog
T012   Bird           A vertebrate having a constant body temperature and characterized by the presence of feathers.                   Canaries; Pigeons; Quail
T013   Fish           A cold-blooded aquatic vertebrate characterized by fins and breathing by gills. Included here are fishes         Bass; Salmonidae; Trout
                      having either a bony skeleton, such as a perch, or a cartilaginous skeleton, such as a shark, or those lacking
                      a jaw, such as a lamprey or hagfish.
T014   Reptile        A cold-blooded vertebrate having an external covering of scales or horny plates. Reptiles breathe by             Iguanas; Lizards; Snakes;
                      means of lungs and are generally egg-laying.                                                                     Lachesis
T015   Mammal         A vertebrate having a constant body temperature and characterized by the presence of hair, mammary               Bears; Hamsters; Kangaroos;
                      glands and sweat glands.                                                                                         Macaca
T016   Human          Modern man, the only remaining species of the Homo genus.                                                        Hominidae; Jean Piaget
T017   Anatomical     A normal or pathological part of the anatomy or structural organization of an organism.
       Structure
T018   Embryonic      An anatomical structure that exists only before the organism is fully formed; in mammals, for example, a         Blastoderm; Fetal Heart; Neural
       Structure      structure that exists only prior to the birth of the organism. This structure may be normal or abnormal.         Crest
T019   Congenital     An abnormal structure, or one that is abnormal in size or location, present at birth or evolving over time as    Cleft Palate; Gastroschisis;
       Abnormality    a result of a defect in embryogenesis.                                                                           Acrosyndactyly of the fingers
T020   Acquired       An abnormal structure, or one that is abnormal in size or location, found in or deriving from a previously       Hemorrhoids; Hernia, Femoral;
       Abnormality    normal structure. Acquired abnormalities are distinguished from diseases even though they may result in          Varicose Veins; Abscess of
                      pathological functioning (e.g., "hernias incarcerate").                                                          prostate
T021   Fully Formed   An anatomical structure in a fully formed organism; in mammals, for example, a structure in the body after
       Anatomical     the birth of the organism.
       Structure
T022   Body System    A complex of anatomical structures that performs a common function.                                              Limbic System; Renin-
                                                                                                                                       Angiotensin System;
                                                                                                                                       Reticuloendothelial System;
                                                                                                                                       Skeleton
T023   Body Part,     A collection of cells and tissues which are localized to a specific area or combine and carry out one or         Femur; Kidney Glomerulus;
       Organ, or      more specialized functions of an organism. This ranges from gross structures to small components of              Pulmonary Artery; Articular
       Organ          complex organs. These structures are relatively localized in comparison to tissues.                              cartilage of distal tibia
       Component
T024   Tissue         An aggregation of similarly specialized cells and the associated intercellular substance. Tissues are            Basophilic muscle fibers;
                      relatively non-localized in comparison to body parts, organs or organ components.                                Cartilage; Endothelium;
                                                                                                                                       Epidermis
T025   Cell           The fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms.                                              Dendritic Cells; Erythrocytes;
                                                                                                                                       Histiocytes
T026   Cell           A part of a cell or the intercellular matrix, generally visible by light microscopy.                             Golgi Apparatus; Microsomes;
       Component                                                                                                                       Organelles
T028   Gene or         A specific sequence, or in the case of the genome the complete sequence, of nucleotides along a molecule        Genes, Structural; Genome,
       Genome          of DNA or RNA (in the case of some viruses) which represent the functional units of heredity.                   Human; c-Ha-ras Genes
T029   Body Location   An area, subdivision, or region of the body demarcated for the purpose of topographical description.            Forehead; Base of left lung;
       or Region                                                                                                                       Anterior chest wall; Lateral
                                                                                                                                       surface of thumb; Lower anterior
                                                                                                                                       segment of dental arch
T030   Body Space or   An area enclosed or surrounded by body parts or organs or the place where two anatomical structures meet        Knee Joint; Peritoneal Cavity;
       Junction        or connect.                                                                                                     Synapses; Canal of Hering;
                                                                                                                                       Held's space
T031   Body            Extracellular material, or mixtures of cells and extracellular material, produced, excreted, or accreted by     Amniotic Fluid; Saliva;
       Substance       the body. Included here are substances such as saliva, dental enamel, sweat, and gastric acid.                  Bronchial washings
T032   Organism        A property of the organism or its major parts.                                                                  Ambidexterity; Body
       Attribute                                                                                                                       Temperature; Body Weight; Eye
                                                                                                                                       Color
T033   Finding         That which is discovered by direct observation or measurement of an organism attribute or condition,            Birth History; Downward
                       including the clinical history of the patient. The history of the presence of a disease is a 'Finding' and is   displacement of diaphragm;
                       distinguished from the disease itself.                                                                          Decreased capillary fragility;
                                                                                                                                       Absent tendon reflex
T034   Laboratory or   The outcome of a specific test to measure an attribute or to determine the presence, absence, or degree of a    Forced Expiratory Volume;
       Test Result     condition.                                                                                                      Abnormal skin pH; Blood
                                                                                                                                       carbon monoxide level; Serum
                                                                                                                                       sodium level
T037   Injury or       A traumatic wound, injury, or poisoning caused by an external agent or force.                                   Abdominal Injuries; Carbon
       Poisoning                                                                                                                       Monoxide Poisoning; Frostbite;
                                                                                                                                       Snake Bites; Accident caused by
                                                                                                                                       bench saw
T038   Biologic        A state, activity or process of the body or one of its systems or parts.
       Function
T039   Physiologic     A normal process, activity, or state of the body.
       Function
T040   Organism        A physiologic function of the organism as a whole, of multiple organ systems, or of multiple organs or          Breeding; Hibernation;
       Function        tissues.                                                                                                        Homeostasis; High altitude
                                                                                                                                       acclimation
T041   Mental          A physiologic function involving the mind or cognitive processing.                                              Anger; Auditory Fatigue;
       Process                                                                                                                         Avoidance Learning; Cognition
T042   Organ or        A physiologic function of a particular organ, organ system, or tissue.                                          Osteogenesis; Renal Circulation;
       Tissue                                                                                                                          Tooth Calcification
       Function
T043   Cell Function   A physiologic function inherent to cells or cell components.                                                     Cell Cycle; Cell Division;
                                                                                                                                        Erythrocyte Aggregation;
                                                                                                                                        Phagocytosis
T044   Molecular       A physiologic function occurring at the molecular level.                                                         Binding, Competitive; Electron
       Function                                                                                                                         Transport; Glycolysis
T045   Genetic         Functions of or related to the maintenance, translation or expression of the genetic material.                   Amino Acid Activation; Early
       Function                                                                                                                         Gene Transcription; Gene
                                                                                                                                        Amplification; RNA Splicing
T046   Pathologic      A disordered process, activity, or state of the organism as a whole, of a body system or systems, or of          Inflammation; Leukopenia;
       Function        multiple organs or tissues. Included here are normal responses to a negative stimulus as well as                 Shock; Abnormal general body
                       patholologic conditions or states that are less specific than a disease. Pathologic functions frequently have    function
                       systemic effects.
T047   Disease or      A condition which alters or interferes with a normal process, state, or activity of an organism. It is usually   Diabetes Mellitus; Dumping
       Syndrome        characterized by the abnormal functioning of one or more of the host's systems, parts, or organs. Included       Syndrome; Malabsorption
                       here is a complex of symptoms descriptive of a disorder.                                                         Syndromes; Nephrotic
                                                                                                                                        Syndrome
T048   Mental or       A clinically significant dysfunction whose major manifestation is behavioral or psychological. These             Agoraphobia; Cyclothymic
       Behavioral      dysfunctions may have identified or presumed biological etiologies or manifestations.                            Disorder; Hallucinations;
       Dysfunction                                                                                                                      Memory Disorders
T049   Cell or         A pathologic function inherent to cells, parts of cells, or molecules.                                           DNA Damage; Wallerian
       Molecular                                                                                                                        Degeneration; Atypical
       Dysfunction                                                                                                                      squamous metaplasia
T050   Experimental    A representation in a non-human organism of a human disease for the purpose of research into its                 Alloxan Diabetes; Carcinoma,
       Model of        mechanism or treatment.                                                                                          Ehrlich Tumor; Melanoma,
       Disease                                                                                                                          Experimental
T051   Event           A broad type for grouping activities, processes and states.
T052   Activity        An operation or series of operations that an organism or machine carries out or participates in.                 Expeditions; Information
                                                                                                                                        Distribution; Social Planning;
                                                                                                                                        Return Migration
T053   Behavior        Any of the psycho-social activities of humans or animals that can be observed directly by others or can be
                       made systematically observable by the use of special strategies.
T054   Social          Behavior that is a direct result or function of the interaction of humans or animals with their fellows. This    Acculturation; Communication;
       Behavior        includes behavior that may be considered anti-social.                                                            Infanticide; Interpersonal
                                                                                                                                        Relations; Social Conformity
T055   Individual      Behavior exhibited by a human or an animal that is not a direct result of interaction with other members of      Assertiveness; Fingersucking;
       Behavior        the species, but which may have an effect on others.                                                             Risk-Taking; Self Disclosure
T056   Daily or         An activity carried out for recreation or exercise, or as part of daily life.                                Mountaineering; Sports;
       Recreational                                                                                                                  Swimming; Daily shaving
       Activity
T057   Occupational     An activity carried out as part of an occupation or job.                                                     Collective Bargaining;
       Activity                                                                                                                      Commerce; Containment of
                                                                                                                                     Biohazards
T058   Health Care      An activity of or relating to the practice of medicine or involving the care of patients.                    Ambulatory Care; Clinic
       Activity                                                                                                                      Activities; Geriatric Nursing;
                                                                                                                                     Preventive Health Services
T059   Laboratory       A procedure, method, or technique used to determine the composition, quantity, or concentration of a         Blood Protein Electrophoresis;
       Procedure        specimen, and which is carried out in a clinical laboratory. Included here are procedures which measure      Radioimmunoassay;
                        the times and rates of reactions.                                                                            Atherogenic index calculation
T060   Diagnostic       A procedure, method, or technique used to determine the nature or identity of a disease or disorder. This    Heart Auscultation;
       Procedure        excludes procedures which are primarily carried out on specimens in a laboratory.                            Tomography, X-Ray Computed;
                                                                                                                                     Biopsy of skin; Acoustic
                                                                                                                                     rhinometry
T061   Therapeutic or   A procedure, method, or technique designed to prevent a disease or a disorder, or to improve physical        Cesarean Section; Hemodialysis;
       Preventive       function, or used in the process of treating a disease or injury.                                            Vaccine Therapy
       Procedure
T062   Research         An activity carried out as part of research or experimentation.                                              Animal Experimentation;
       Activity                                                                                                                      Biomedical Research;
                                                                                                                                     Experimental Replication
T063   Molecular        Any of the techniques used in the study of or the directed modification of the gene complement of a living   Blotting, Northern; Genetic
       Biology          organism.                                                                                                    Engineering; Heterozygote
       Research                                                                                                                      Detection; Sequence Homology
       Technique                                                                                                                     Determination
T064   Governmental     An activity carried out by officially constituted governments, or an activity related to the creation or     Certification; Credentialing;
       or Regulatory    enforcement of the rules or regulations governing some field of endeavor.                                    Facility Regulation and Control;
       Activity                                                                                                                      Public Assistance
T065   Educational      An activity related to the organization and provision of education.                                          Academic Training; Community
       Activity                                                                                                                      Health Education; Family
                                                                                                                                     Planning Training; Preceptorship
T066   Machine          An activity carried out primarily or exclusively by machines.                                                Computer Simulation;
       Activity                                                                                                                      Equipment Failure; Natural
                                                                                                                                     Language Processing; Word
                                                                                                                                     Processing
T067   Phenomenon       A process or state which occurs naturally or as a result of an activity.                                     Disasters; Motor Traffic
       or Process                                                                                                                   Accidents; Depolymerization
T068   Human-caused    A phenomenon or process that is a result of the activities of human beings.                                  Accidents, Aviation; Baby
       Phenomenon                                                                                                                   Boom; Cultural Evolution
       or Process
T069   Environmental   A change in the natural environment that is a result of the activities of human beings.                      Acid Rain; Water Pollution; Soil
       Effect of                                                                                                                    Degradation
       Humans
T070   Natural         A phenomenon or process that occurs irrespective of the activities of human beings.                          Air Movements; Antibiosis;
       Phenomenon                                                                                                                   Corrosion; Lightning
       or Process
T071   Entity          A broad type for grouping physical and conceptual entities.
T072   Physical        An object perceptible to the sense of vision or touch.
       Object
T073   Manufactured    A physical object made by human beings.                                                                      Car Seats; Cooking and Eating
       Object                                                                                                                       Utensils; Bulldozer; Air
                                                                                                                                    freshener
T074   Medical         A manufactured object used primarily in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of physiologic or anatomic   Bone Screws; Obstetrical
       Device          disorders.                                                                                                   Forceps; Oxygenators; Infusion
                                                                                                                                    Pumps, Multichannel
T075   Research        A manufactured object used primarily in carrying out scientific research or experimentation.                 Cell-Free System; Cytometers,
       Device                                                                                                                       Flow; DNA Chips
T077   Conceptual      A broad type for grouping abstract entities or concepts.
       Entity
T078   Idea or         An abstract concept, such as a social, religious or philosophical concept.                                   Capitalism; Civil Rights; Ethics;
       Concept                                                                                                                      Freedom; Spiritualism
T079   Temporal        A concept which pertains to time or duration.                                                                Birth Intervals; Half-Life;
       Concept                                                                                                                      Postimplantation Phase;
                                                                                                                                    Postoperative Period;
                                                                                                                                    Puerperium
T080   Qualitative     A concept which is an assessment of some quality, rather than a direct measurement.                          Clinical Competence; Consumer
       Concept                                                                                                                      Satisfaction; Esthetics, Dental;
                                                                                                                                    Health Status
T081   Quantitative    A concept which involves the dimensions, quantity or capacity of something using some unit of measure,       Age Distribution; Body Height;
       Concept         or which involves the quantitative comparison of entities.                                                   Metric System; Secretory Rate
T082   Spatial         A location, region, or space, generally having definite boundaries.                                          Mandibular Rest Position;
       Concept                                                                                                                      Lateral; Bicoronal
T083   Geographic      A geographic location, generally having definite boundaries.                                                 Americas; Arctic Regions;
       Area                                                                                                                                Baltimore; Canada; Far East
T085   Molecular         A broad type for grouping the collected sequences of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotide
       Sequence          sequences. Descriptions of these sequences are generally reported in the published literature and/or are
                         deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GenBank, European Molecular Biology Laboratory
                         (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
T086   Nucleotide        The sequence of purines and pyrimidines in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. Included here are                   AT Rich Region; Base
       Sequence          nucleotide-rich regions, conserved sequence, and DNA transforming region.                                         Sequence; Direct Repeat; Exons
T087   Amino Acid        The sequence of amino acids as arrayed in chains, sheets, etc., within the protein molecule. It is of             Signal Peptides; Kringles;
       Sequence          fundamental importance in determining protein structure.                                                          Homologous Sequences, Amino
                                                                                                                                           Acid
T088   Carbohydrate      The sequence of carbohydrates within polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.
       Sequence
T089   Regulation or     An intellectual product resulting from legislative or regulatory activity.                                        Building Codes; Criminal Law;
       Law                                                                                                                                 Health Planning Guidelines;
                                                                                                                                           Security Measures
T090   Occupation or     A vocation, academic discipline, or field of study, or a subpart of an occupation or discipline.                  Aviation; Craniology; Ecology;
       Discipline                                                                                                                          Linguistics
T091   Biomedical        A vocation, academic discipline, or field of study related to biomedicine.                                        Adolescent Medicine; Cellular
       Occupation or                                                                                                                       Neurobiology; Dentistry;
       Discipline                                                                                                                          Dermatology; Emergency
                                                                                                                                           Nursing
T092   Organization      The result of uniting for a common purpose or function. The continued existence of an organization is not         Labor Unions; United Nations;
                         dependent on any of its members, its location, or particular facility. Components or subparts of                  United States Environmental
                         organizations are also included here. Although the names of organizations are sometimes used to refer to          Protection Agency; Universities;
                         the buildings in which they reside, they are not inherently physical in nature.                                   European Economic Community
T093   Health Care       An established organization which carries out specific functions related to health care delivery or research      Ambulatory Care Facilities;
       Related           in the life sciences.                                                                                             American Cancer Society;
       Organization                                                                                                                        Health Care Coalitions; Pan
                                                                                                                                           American Health Organization
T094   Professional      An organization uniting those who have a common vocation or who are involved with a common field of               American Medical Association;
       Society           study.                                                                                                            International Council of Nurses;
                                                                                                                                           Library Associations
T095   Self-help or      An organization whose purpose and function is to provide assistance to the needy or to offer support to           Alcoholics Anonymous;
       Relief            those sharing similar problems.                                                                                   Charities; Red Cross;
       Organization                                                                                                                        Tuberculosis Societies
T096   Group             A conceptual entity referring to the classification of individuals according to certain shared characteristics.
T097   Professional or   An individual or individuals classified according to their vocation.                                              Clergy; Demographers; Hospital
       Occupational                                                                                                                   Volunteers; Military Personnel;
       Group                                                                                                                          Physicians; Zoologist
T098   Population       An indivdual or individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of       Asian Americans; Ethnic
       Group            living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute.                           Groups; Low-Income
                                                                                                                                      Population; Adult Offenders
T099   Family Group     An individual or individuals classified according to their family relationships or relative position in the   Only Child; Siblings; Single
                        family unit.                                                                                                  Parent; Surrogate Mothers
T100   Age Group        An individual or individuals classified according to their age.                                               Adolescents; Adult; Aged, 80
                                                                                                                                      and over; Infant, Premature
T101   Patient or       An individual or individuals classified according to a disability, disease, condition or treatment.           Amputees; Child,
       Disabled                                                                                                                       Institutionalized; Chronically Ill;
       Group                                                                                                                          Mental Patients
T102   Group            A conceptual entity which refers to the frequency or distribution of certain characteristics or phenomena in Family Size; Group Structure;
       Attribute        certain groups.                                                                                               Life Expectancy; Neonatal
                                                                                                                                      Mortality
T103   Chemical         Compounds or substances of definite molecular composition. Chemicals are viewed from two distinct perspectives in the network,
                        functionally and structurally. Almost every chemical concept is assigned at least two types, generally one from the structure hierarchy and at
                        least one from the function hierarchy.
T104   Chemical         A chemical or chemicals viewed from the perspective of their structural characteristics. Included here are    Ammonium Compounds;
       Viewed           concepts which can mean either a salt, an ion, or a compound (e.g., "Bromates" and "Bromides").               Cations; Siloxanes; Sulfur
       Structurally                                                                                                                   Compounds
T109   Organic          The general class of carbon-containing compounds, usually based on carbon chains or rings, and also           Benzene Derivatives; Busulfan;
       Chemical         containing hydrogen (hydrocarbons), with or without nitrogen, oxygen, or other elements in which the          Methane; Toluene
                        bonding between elements is generally covalent.
T110   Steroid          One of a group of polycyclic, 17-carbon-atom, fused-ring compounds occurring both in natural and              Bufanolides; Ketosteroids;
                        synthetic forms. Included here are naturally occurring and synthetic steroids, bufanolides, cardanolides,     Norandrostanes; Prednisone
                        homosteroids, norsteroids, and secosteroids.
T111   Eicosanoid       An oxygenated metabolite from polyunsaturated 20 carbon fatty acids including lipoxygenase and                8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid;
                        cyclooxygenase products and their synthetic analogs. This includes the prostaglandins and thromboxanes.       Alprostadil; Thromboxane A2;
                                                                                                                                      Rioprostil
T114   Nucleic Acid,    A complex compound of high molecular weight occurring in living cells. These are basically of two types,      Adenosine; Guanine
       Nucleoside, or   ribonucleic (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids. Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides (nitrogen-          Nucleotides; Nicotinamide
       Nucleotide       containing base, a 5-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate group) linked together by a phosphodiester       Mononucleotide
                        bond between the 5' and 3' carbon atoms. Nucleosides are compounds composed of a purine or pyrimidine
                        base (usually adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil) linked to either a ribose or a deoxyribose sugar.
T115   Organophosph     An organic compound containing phosphorus as a constituent. Included here are organic phosphinic,             Diphosphonates;
       orus             phosphonic and phosphoric acid derivatives and their thiophosphorus counterparts. Excluded are                Phosphonoacetic Acid;
       Compound        phospholipids, sugar phosphates, phosphoproteins, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.                                 Phosphoric Acid Esters;
                                                                                                                                         Thiamine Triphosphate
T116   Amino Acid,     Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.                                              Acetylcysteine; Glycoproteins;
       Peptide, or                                                                                                                       Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A;
       Protein                                                                                                                           glycylglutamine
T118   Carbohydrate    A generic term that includes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides as well as substances         Deoxyglucose; Glycosides;
                       derived from monosaccharides by reduction of the carbonyl group (alditols), by oxidation of one or more           Polysaccharides; Sepharose
                       terminal group to carboxylic acids, or by replacement of one or more hydroxy groups by a hydrogen atom,
                       an amino group, a thiol group or similar heteroatomic groups. It also includes derivatives of these
                       compounds. Included here are sugar phosphates. Excluded are glycolipids and glycoproteins.
T119   Lipid           An inclusive group of fat or fat-derived substances that are soluble in nonpolar solvents related to fatty acid   Ceroid; Glycerides;
                       esters, fatty alcohols, sterols, waxes, etc. Included in this group are the saponifiable lipids such as           Sphingolipids
                       glycerides (fats and oils), essential (volatile) oils, and phospholipids.
T120   Chemical        A chemical viewed from the perspective of its functional characteristics or pharmacological activities.           Aerosol Propellants; Food
       Viewed                                                                                                                            Additives; Soaps
       Functionally
T121   Pharmacologic   A substance used in the treatment or prevention of pathologic disorders. This includes substances that            Antiemetics; Cardiovascular
       Substance       occur naturally in the body and are administered therapeutically.                                                 Agents; Codeine; Morphine
                                                                                                                                         Sulfate
T122   Biomedical or   A substance used in biomedicine or dentistry predominantly for its physical, as opposed to chemical,              Anion Exchange Resins; Bone
       Dental          properties. Included here are biocompatible materials, tissue adhesives, bone cements, resins, toothpastes,       Cements; Dental Casting
       Material        etc.                                                                                                              Investment; Elastosil
T123   Biologically    A generally endogenous substance produced or required by an organism, of primary interest because of its          Enzyme Precursors; Gastric
       Active          role in the biologic functioning of the organism that produces it.                                                Acid; Growth Substances
       Substance
T124   Neuroreactive   An endogenous substance whose activities affect or play an important role in the functioning of the               GABA; Neurotensin;
       Substance or    nervous system. Included here are catecholamines, neuroregulators, neurophysins, etc.                             Norepinephrine
       Biogenic
       Amine
T125   Hormone         In animals, a chemical usually secreted by an endocrine gland whose products are released into the                Glucocorticoids; Gonadotropins;
                       circulating fluid. Hormones act as chemical messengers and regulate various physiologic processes such            Pentagastrin
                       as growth, reproduction, metabolism, etc. They usually fall into two broad classes, steroid hormones and
                       peptide hormones.
T126   Enzyme          A complex chemical, usually a protein, that is produced by living cells and which catalyzes specific              Complement Activating
                       biochemical reactions. There are six main types of enzymes: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases,            Enzymes; Glucose Oxidase;
                       lyases, isomerases, and ligases.                                                                                  Leucocyte esterase
T127   Vitamin         A substance, usually an organic chemical complex, present in natural products or made synthetically,              25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2; Biotin;
                        which is essential in the diet of man or other higher animals. Included here are vitamin precursors,            Pantothenic Acid; Vitamin A1;
                        provitamins, and vitamin supplements.                                                                           Folinic acid preparation
T129   Immunologic      A biologically active substance whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune         Antilymphocyte Globulin;
       Factor           system.                                                                                                         Autocrine Motility Factor; Blood
                                                                                                                                        group antibody 754
T130   Indicator,       A substance primarily of interest for its use in laboratory or diagnostic tests and procedures to detect,       Congo Red; Dansyl Compounds
       Reagent, or      measure, examine, or analyze other chemicals, processes, or conditions.
       Diagnostic Aid
T131   Hazardous or     A substance of concern because of its potentially hazardous or toxic effects. This would include most           Carcinogens; Paraquat; Sodium
       Poisonous        drugs of abuse, as well as agents that require special handling because of their toxicity.                      Cyanide; Crack Cocaine
       Substance
T167   Substance        A material with definite or fairly definite chemical composition.                                               Air; Foreign Bodies; Fossils;
                                                                                                                                        Copper dust
T168   Food             Any substance generally containing nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, that can be            Beverages; Egg Yolk;
                        ingested by a living organism and metabolized into energy and body tissue. Some foods are naturally             Margarine; Nuts
                        occurring, others are either partially or entirely made by humans.
T169   Functional       A concept which is of interest because it pertains to the carrying out of a process or activity.                Interviewer Effect; Problem
       Concept                                                                                                                          Formulation; Endogenous;
                                                                                                                                        Responsive
T170   Intellectual     A conceptual entity resulting from human endeavor. Concepts assigned to this type generally refer to            Decision Support Techniques;
       Product          information created by humans for some purpose.                                                                 Information Systems; Literature;
                                                                                                                                        Population Projection
T171   Language         The system of communication used by a particular nation or people.                                              Afrikaans; Greek, Modern;
                                                                                                                                        braille; Adamawa language
T184   Sign or          An observable manifestation of a disease or condition based on clinical judgment, or a manifestation of a       Dyspnea; Nausea; Pain; Pallor;
       Symptom          disease or condition which is experienced by the patient and reported as a subjective observation.              Homans' sign
T185   Classification   A term or system of terms denoting an arrangement by class or category.                                         Chemicals and Drugs (MeSH
                                                                                                                                        Category); Axis I; Gleason grade
                                                                                                                                        2; C1 certainty
T190   Anatomical       An abnormal structure, or one that is abnormal in size or location.
       Abnormality
T191   Neoplastic       A new and abnormal growth of tissue in which the growth is uncontrolled and progressive. The growths            Abdominal Neoplasms; stage
       Process          may be malignant or benign.                                                                                     IVB vaginal cancer; tonsillar
                                                                                                                                        lymphoepithelioma
T192   Receptor         A specific structure or site on the cell surface or within its cytoplasm that recognizes and binds with other   Adenosine A2 Receptor;
                        specific molecules. These include the proteins on the surface of an immunocompetent cell that binds with        Antigen p150,95; T-Cell
                        antigens, or proteins found on the surface molecules that bind with hormones or neurotransmitters and           Receptors alpha-Chain
                       react with other molecules that respond in a specific way.
T194   Archaeon        A member of one of the three domains of life, formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but   Thermoproteales; Haloferax
                       now considered separate and distinct. Archaea are characterized by: 1) the presence of characteristic        volcanii; Methanospirillum
                       tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; 2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; 3) the presence of ether-linked
                       lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and 4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea
                       resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of
                       genomic replication.
T195   Antibiotic      A pharmacologically active compound produced by growing microorganisms which kill or inhibit growth          Antibiotics; Cephalosporins;
                       of other microorganisms.                                                                                     Methicillin
T196   Element, Ion,   One of the 109 presently known fundamental substances that comprise all matter at and above the atomic       Carbon; Chromium Isotopes;
       or Isotope      level. This includes elemental metals, rare gases, and most abundant naturally occurring radioactive         Cobalt Radioisotopes;
                       elements, as well as the ionic counterparts of elements (NA+, Cl-), and the less abundant isotopic forms.    Deuterium; Radioisotopes;
                       This does not include organic ions such as iodoacetate to which the type 'Organic Chemical' is assigned.     Uranium
T197   Inorganic       Chemical elements and their compounds, excluding the hydrocarbons and their derivatives (except              Carbonic Acid; Sodium
       Chemical        carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates and carbon disulfide). Generally inorganic compounds contain        Chloride; Talc
                       ionic bonds. Included here are inorganic acids and salts, alloys, alkalies, and minerals.
T200   Clinical Drug   A pharmaceutical preparation as produced by the manufacturer. The name usually includes the substance,       Zovirax Cold Sore 5% cream;
                       its strength, and the form, but may include the substance and only one of the other two items.               sleeping pill;
                                                                                                                                    ACETOHEXAMIDE 250 MG
                                                                                                                                    tablet
T201   Clinical        An observable or measurable property or state of an organism of clinical interest.                           body density; ALANINE
       Attribute                                                                                                                    AMINOTRANSFERASE:CAT
                                                                                                                                    ALYTIC
                                                                                                                                    CONCENTRATION:POINT IN
                                                                                                                                    TIME:SERUM:QUANTITATIV
                                                                                                                                    E:WITHOUT P-5'-P; urine
                                                                                                                                    acidity

				
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