Chinese Dynasty Overview by iX2C072J

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									Chinese Dynasty Overview

       Shang to Qing
      AP World History
   Shang (1700 - 1027 BCE)
• First recorded Dynasty (Xia -
  no written records)
• Ruled by aristocracy
• First Chinese cities, center of
  court life
• Developed writing, worked
  with bronze, created silk
• Honored ancestors, used
  oracle bones
• Shang tyrant emperor
  overthrown
     Zhou (1027 - 250 BCE)
• Longest lasting Chinese Dynasty
• Beginning of Mandate of Heaven
• Early: Feudal system, lords had total
  authority
• Later: City-states
• Built roads, expanded trade, made
  agricultural advancements
     Zhou (1027 - 250 BCE)
• Taoism and Confucianism introduced
• Decline: Inefficient rulers can’t control
  fighting between city-states
• Period of Warring States
       Qin (221 - 207 BCE)
• Qin She Huanshi - only
  emperor
• Adopted Legalism
• Developed highly
  centralized gov’t with
  bureaucratic administration
• Standardized currency,
  language, measurements,
  laws
• Built first Great Wall
       Qin (221 - 207 BCE)
• Brutal ruler -
  executed dissenters,
  burned books
• Many enemies,
  dynasty falls after his
  death
    Han (202 BCE - 221 CE)
• Legalism replaced by Confucianism
• Introduced civil service examination
  (scholar gentry)
• Silk Roads
  developed,
  opens trade
   Han (202 BCE - 221 CE)
• Buddhism introduced, paper invented
• Great increase in population, land
  holdings
Decline
• Nomadic raiders
• Corruption, weak leaders
• Collapse of bureaucracy
           221 - 581 (CE)
• Warlords control china - no centralized
  gov’t
• Non-Chinese nomads control much of
  China
• Buddhism becomes popular -
  Confucianism failed
       Sui (581 - 618 CE)
• Completed Grand
  Canal
• High taxes, forced
  labor
• Military failures
  (couldn’t conquer
  Korea)
• Assassination ends
  dynasty
       Tang (618 - 907 CE)
• High point of Chinese culture
• Rebuilt bureaucracy
  – Examination system
  – Confucian education
  – Limited social mobility
• Buddhism supported, then oppressed
• Invention of movable print, porcelain,
  gun powder
      Tang (618 - 907 CE)
• Wu Zetian - Only Empress in Chinese
  history
Decline
• Weak emperors, nomadic incursions,
  economic difficulties
• Warlords take control
     Song (969 - 1279 CE)
• Large centralized bureaucracy (Neo-
  Confucian)
• Mercantile class grows, increased trade
• Magnetic compass, growing sea power
• Weak military
     Yuan (1279 - 1368 CE)
• Mongol Khubilai Khan conquers China
• Economic stability and prosperity
• China more open to trade and travel (Marco
  Polo)
• Ignored Chinese traditions, replaced
  bureaucrats with non-Chinese
• Unsuccessful attacks on Japan, corruption
  weakens dynasty
• Peasant rebellion ends Yuan
     Ming (1368 - 1644 CE)
• Tried to erase all signs of Mongols
• Reinstated civil service, Confucian
  scholars
• Eunuchs play growing role (Zheng He) -
  resented by scholar gentry
• Rebuilt and extended Great Wall
• Collapsed after famines and riots
     Qing (1644 - 1911 CE)
• Manchus (from Manchuria) move south
• Take Korea, Japan, then China
• Manchus hold top posts, but relied upon
  scholar gentry
• “Son of Heaven” concept emphasized
• Would be final Chinese Dynasty
• Eventually would be weakened by
  European / American interventions
          Chinese Dynasty Song
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han        shang, joe, chin, hahn
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han

Sui, Tang, Song              sway, tang, soong
Sui, Tang, Song

Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic   yooan, ming, ching, Republic
Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic

Mao Zedong                   mou dzu dong
Mao Zedong

								
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