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Solar Water Heating An Overlooked Opportunity

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					Solar Water Heating

UNDP Energy and Environment Workshop
Tunisia, 13-16 June, 2005

Vesa Rutanen (vrutanen@kolumbus.fi)
Global Installed Capacities in 2001

                MW
       80.000

                                        69.320
       70.000


       60.000


       50.000


       40.000


       30.000
                                                       23.000

       20.000


       10.000
                        1.100
            0
                     Photovoltaic   Solar Thermal   Wind Power
Office Buildings and Hospitals
Hotels and other tourist facilities
    Off-grid applications
One-family houses
Swimming pools
Integrated Solutions
 Typical characteristics for one
 family systems
Location            Northern      Mid-Europe    Southern
                    Europe                      Europe
Collector Area           4-6           3-5           2-4
[m2]
Storage                200-300       200-300       100-200
Capacity (litres)
Annual yield           300-450       400-550       500-650
(kWh/m2)
Costs (euro/m2)        400-1000      400-1000      300-600
Costs of SWH systems
                                  Average cost of SWH systems per m2


       1 000                          900
                   816
        800                                                               695

        600
 USD                                                                                     Sarja1
        400                                     295
                                                                  236              236
                            175                          195
        200

          0
               Austria   China     Germany   Greece   India    Israel   Italy   Turkey




                                  Average Total Costs of SWH systems

                 4900
       5000                          4500

       4000

       3000
 USD                                                                                     Sarja1
       2000                                                              1800

                                               708                                900
       1000                                                      590
                           350                          390
          0
               Austria   China    Germany    Greece   India    Israel   Italy   Turkey
Cost Break Down
    Cost Break-Down of a Typical System in Greece



        14 %
                                       Materials
                        33 %
                                       Labour

                                       Promotion + general
                                       expenses
     43 %                              Installation (labour and
                      10 %             materials)
Average Production Costs


  ~ 5 – 10 US cents per kWh depending on
    the location and type of the system
Average electricity tariffs
Country           Tariff in euro cents per kWh
Algeria           1.80-4.22
Egypt             0.65-3.24
Jordan            3.38-8.72
Lebanon           1.97-11.28
Morrocco          7.56-12.08
Syria             0.35-3.53
Tunisia           4.67-7.18
Turkey            5.87
Palestine         10.95
Other barriers
 High upfront costs and lack of suitable financing
 mechanisms
 Not yet perceived as a standard option by planning
 professionals (architechts, HVAC engineers etc.)
 Higher transaction costs (information, procurement,
 installation) compared with conventional heating;
 Low awareness of energy savings and environment;
 Lack of motivated and specifically skilled installers
 Lack of customer confidence and proper quality
 control mechanisms (standards, certification and
 labelling scheme etc.)
Reasons for success
 Regulations making solar thermal mandatory;
 Stable and well-designed financial incentives;
 Expected price increase of competing fuels/electricity
 approaching real market prices
 General public awareness on energy and environment
 Public campaigns promoting solar thermal, including
 visible demonstration projects
 Motivated and specifically skilled installers
 Consumer confidence, through good quality products
 and professional installation and after sale services;
 Availability of standard products, applications and
 services, particularly for small residential buildings
Collector Area per Population
                     Collector Area per Population


      Cyprus

        Israel

      Greece

      Austria

       Turkey

       Japan

     Australia

     Denmark

    Germany

  Sw itzerland

        China

                 0    200       400        600       800   1000
                               m2 / 1000 people
Installed Collector Area in 2001
               Solar Water Heating in 2001



                11 %

        11 %                                 China
                                             Japan
                                 46 %
                                             EU
        15 %                                 Turkey
                                             Others

                  17 %
Solar Water Heating in RBAS
 GEF projects in Morocco and Tunisia (+ associated follow-
 up activities of UNEP in Tunisia)
 Egypt: A regulation making solar water heating mandatory
 for certain buildings adopted, but never enforced. Some
 interesting results in GEF Small Grant Program about using
 credits. SWH in general high in the agenda of the New
 and Renewable Energy Authority
 Lebanon: Domestic manufacturing, but less than 1% of
 consumers using SWH. Barriers: Security concerns, lack of
 customer confidence on product quality, lack of awareness
 Palestine: Over 65% of households already using SWH.
 Need to improve quality control and extend the use to
 industrial and commercial sectors
Possible GEF cost-sharing for
  Awareness raising and marketing support
  Information dissemination and networking
  Capacity building (training of installers etc.)
  Improving the legal and regulatory framework
  Developing/adopting appropriate quality guarantee
  mechanisms (standards, certification etc.) so as to
  build and maintain customer confidence
  Introducing new financing and delivery models with
  associated risk sharing and capacity building
Issues to be looked at the
recipient side
 Enabling policy framework or demonstrated move
 towards that direction (especially the issue with
 tariffs and related subsidies)
 Sustainability
 Adequate cost-sharing

				
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