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FOREIGN AND EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASES

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FOREIGN AND EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASES Powered By Docstoc
					Agroterrorism/Bioterrorism:
Potential Occurrences and
Emergency Management of
Foreign and Emerging Animal
Diseases
       Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS
  Professor and Extension Program Leader
           for Veterinary Medicine
        Texas Cooperative Extension
       Texas A&M University System
US Threatened by Potential Occurrences
of FEADs
 Foreign animal diseases
      Not currently present in US
      Accidental and intentional risks for entry
         Travelers
         Meat products

         Garbage

         Bioterrorists
 Emerging animal diseases
      A new disease or a new form of an old endemic
       disease
      Natural, accidental and intentional risks of
       emergence

 Zoonotic diseases
      Diseases shared by animals and people
      Various FEADs
Types of Occurrences of FEADs

  Natural
  Accidental
  Intentional (Bioterrorist Act)
    Devastating Impacts of Animal
    Disease Outbreaks


 Economic impacts
 Sociologic impacts
 Emotional impacts
 Political impacts
Foot and Mouth Disease

 Not in U.S.
      A reportable disease

 Viral disease
      Domestic and wild cloven-hoofed livestock
      Blisters and sores in mouth and on feet

 TAHC ban
      Meat garbage feeding to swine
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Mad Cow Disease

 Not in U.S.
      A reportable disease

 Prion disease
      Cattle
      People (vCJD) – zoonotic disease

 Brain disease in cattle – rabies symptoms
 Not contagious


 Reduced risks of entry and spread


 USDA bans
      Feed bans
      Slaughter bans
      Import bans
 Cervid Spongiform Encephalopathy
 Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

 In U.S.
      A reportable disease

      Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, S. Dakota,
       Utah, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Illinois, New
       York, W. Virginia, Montana, Oklahoma, Kansas
 Prion disease?
      Deer and elk

 Brain disease – rabies symptoms
 Chronic emaciation disease


 Restricted importation into States


 Voluntary CWD Monitoring Program
 Hunter-Killed Testing Program
Deer with CWD
Elk with CWD
 Anthrax

 In U.S.
      A reportable disease

 Bacterial disease
      Domestic and wild livestock
      People – zoonotic disease

 Endemic Southwest Texas
    IH-10 X IH-35 Triangle
West Nile Encephalitis

 In US
      A reportable disease

 Viral bird disease – >100 species
      Blue jays, crows, hawks
      Encephalitis death
 Transmission
     Virus in bird blood
     Mosquito (>75 species) bite bird
     Mosquito bite mammal – virus not in blood
      (dead end)
        Horse – rabies symptoms
        People – zoonotic disease
Bovine Tuberculosis

 In US
      A reportable disease

 Bacterial disease
      Cattle

 Chronic emaciation, respiratory distress
      Tumor abscesses of lungs and lymph nodes
Bovine Paratuberculosis
Johne’s Disease
 In US
      Not a reportable disease

 Bacterial disease
      Cattle

 Chronic emaciation
      Maldigestive enteritis – diarrhea
Avian Influenza
Avian Flu Bird Flu
 Viral disease
     Migratory waterfowl
     Domestic poultry
     Virus in intestines
     Virus shed in feces
 A reportable disease
 Two classifications – disease symptoms
    Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)
         Little risk to poultry industry
         In US
         Endemic disease
         Most common class
     High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
         Serious damage to poultry industry
         Not in US
         Epidemic disease
         Zoonotic disease (rare)
First Line of Defense in Emergency
Management of FEADs
 Education of first defenders is key
      Animal owners
      County Extension agents
      Private veterinarians
Emergency Management of FEADs

 Biosecurity is key


 Early detection is key
    Unusual signs
 Rapid reporting is key
 Rapid response is key
 Prompt quarantine is key
 Quick diagnosis is key


 Disease surveillance is key


 Regulatory agencies and animal industries
  working together is key
Biosecurity Measures


 Wash hands


 Wash disinfect boots
 Wash disinfect trailer
 Wash disinfect tires
 Wash disinfect borrowed equipment


 Proper garbage disposal
 Lock gates
 Stranger alert
 International visitor – >48 hours wait


 Purchased livestock – >2 weeks isolation, tests


 Routine observations
      State Emergency Management

 Texas State Emergency Management Plan
    Annex O
          Agriculture Production and Companion Animals


     Appendix 3
          Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases (FEAD) Response Plan


     State jurisdiction
          Texas Animal Health Commission
 Five state FEAD committees assess
 mitigation, preparedness, response and
 recovery issues
     Impact assessment committee
     Security and containment committee
     Environmental committee
     Public information committee
     Community impact committee
 Identified incident command system
     Incident command post(s)
     Incident commanders – TAHC and DPS
 First Assessment and Sampling Team (FAST)
 Joint Information Center (JIC)
 Texas Emergency Response Team (TERT)
     To support field deployed ICP(s)
 Quarantine animals
     Several mile radius containment zone
     Months to years
     Depopulate animals
     Surveillance of animals
     Control or eradicate options
 Local Emergency Management

 Texas Local Emergency Management Plan
    Annex N
        Direction and Control




     Appendix 4
         Animal Issues Plan




     Local jurisdiction
         County Judge or City Mayor

         Local Emergency Coordinator (EMC)
 Animal disease disasters
     TAHC is lead agency (top down authority)

     TAHC activates Texas FEAD Response Plan

     TAHC activates Local EM Plan
Available Resources

 http://extensionvetmed.tamu.edu
 http://tcebookstore.tamu.org
 http://fazd.tamu.edu


 http://www.tahc.state.tx.us
 http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/zoonosis


 http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/factsheets.ht
  ml
 http://www.cdc.gov

				
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