Fluids_20Lab_202 by ramysaber


									Lab #2 – Hydrostatic Pressure
ENGR 341 – Fluid Mechanics
September 27/28, 2007

In this lab, you will apply the principles of hydrostatics for two separate experiments.

Part 1 – Hydrostatic Force

Using the Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus (shown in the figure above) with the Armfield
Hydraulics Bench, you will determine the hydrostatic force on the submerged plane
surface. You will also determine the location of this force and compare it to the
theoretically-derived location.

Place the empty tank on the Bench and position the balance arm on the pivot. Place the
balance pan in the groove at the end of the balance arm. Level the tank. Position the
counterbalance weight until the balance arm is horizontal.
Add a known amount of weight to the balance pan. Pour water into the tank until the
balance arm is horizontal again. (Note: it may be easier to overfill then use the drain to
level it.) When the arm is level, this means that the force on the vertical face of the
quadrant balances out the force due to the added weight. Read the depth of immersion
from the scale on the face of the quadrant. Repeat the experiment by adding more
weights (increments of 50g should work fine) until you have at least two measurements
in which the vertical face is completely submerged. Calculate the magnitudes and
locations of the forces for each weight combination. Compare these locations with the
theoretical positions.
Pre-determined Dimensions:
Width of Quadrant B=0.075m
Height of Quadrant D=0.100m
Length of Balance   L=0.275m
Quadrant to Pivot   H=0.200m

For Partially Submerged Surfaces:

d = depth of submersion
F = hydrostatic force
h = depth to the centroid
h’ = depth to the center of pressure
h” = distance to the line of action of thrust below the pivot
Partially Submerged Equations:
                         Bd 2
Hydrostatic Force: F = γ
Experimental Location of Force: h" =
Theoretical Location of Force: h" = H −

For Fully Submerged Surfaces:

Fully Submerged Equations:
                          ⎛    D⎞
Hydrostatic Force: F = γBD⎜ d − ⎟
                          ⎝    2⎠
Experimental Location of Force: h" =
                                          ⎛    D⎞
                                       ρBD⎜ d − ⎟
                                          ⎝    2⎠
                                    D2 ⎛     D⎞
                                      + ⎜d − ⎟
                                    12 ⎝     2⎠
Theoretical Location of Force: h" =             +H −d
Questions to Answer in Report:
1. Describe the variation of the hydrostatic force with depth.
2. Describe the relationship between the depth of the center of pressure and the depth of
3. For both (1) and (2), describe the same when the vertical face becomes completely
4. Explain any discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results.

Results Table:
    mass (m)        submergence (d)       force (F)       h” experimental      h” theory
     grams              meters            Newtons             meters            meters

Part 2 – Buoyancy

For this part of the lab, you must determine the specific gravity of three cylinders
(plastic, concrete, and steel).

Use the scale system provided and your knowledge of Buoyant Forces.

Show all appropriate equations used to calculate your answers and include an appropriate
Free Body Diagram.

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