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    Electric Vehicles & Better Place 
                          
    VACC research Jan 2010




     
                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                    
Content
introduction                                                                                   p3
EV demand                                                                                      p4
Electric vehicle (EV) technology                                                               p6
benefits
EV technology challenges                                                                       p7
Electric vehicle types
Electric vehicle service providers
Electric vehicle – overseas market activity                                                    p8
Electric vehicle value chain opportunities for businesses                                      p10
Australia – market activity                                                                    p10
Emerging small business electric vehicle converters                                            p11
Electric vehicle research                                                                      p13
Who is Better Place?                                                                           p14
Better Place business model
Better Place Australia                                                                         p15
Evan Thornley
Better Place Australian activity                                                               p16
Better Place technology capability                                                             p17
overseas activity
projected activity & challenges                                                                p18
EV models                                                                                      p19
    • in production/use
    • planned for production                                                                   p20
    • discontinued                                                                             p21
    • prototype without production intent
           ototy             oduction intent                                                   p22
    • unknown production status                                                                p22
    • trucks & vans                                                                            p23
    • low speed
    • city speed
        city eed                                                                               p24
    • highway capable
        hig hway cap                                                                           p25
references                                                                                     p26-8




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                              Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              




Diagram 1 - Electric vehicle market highlights worldwide - source Oliver Wyman


Introduction 1

For the automotive industry, technological advances are changing its future fast. An
example, (refer to Diagram 1), is the growing global electric vehicle (EV) market.

What is the likelihood for economies to move from a fossil-fuel economy toward a
‘clean-tech’ one powered by renewable energy? The reality of a clean tech economy
is more likely when the potential for disruptive market forces, over time, allows clean
technologies to compliment or even replace fossil fuels.

However, using current business models to shift clean technologies into existing
systems won’t work. Clean technologies, such as electric vehicle technology, need a
framework that includes an enabling technology, innovative business models, a
careful market-adoption strategy, and favourable government policy.

The following paper gives a brief overview of electric vehicle market activity in
Australia and overseas with a specific focus on Better Place, an international
electrical services provider for electric vehicles.




                                                            
1
  Hirschey, M 2009 ‘What’s Your Strategy for the Electric Vehicle Market?’ Oliver Wyman

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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              
EV Demand

A 2009 European commission report on electricity storage for transport applications
expects electric vehicles to remain a niche market in the short and medium term. It
predicts mass electric vehicle production by 2020 will not happen as there is not
enough time for research and development to occur. The internal combustion engine
will remain the dominant mode of road propulsion until 2030 with slow penetration of
alternatives (hydrogen and electric vehicles).

The Centre for Entrepreneurship and Technology at the University of California,
Berkeley report Electric Vehicles in the United States A New Model with Forecasts to
2030 estimates the rate of market adoption of electric vehicles in the United States
to comprise 63% of new light-vehicle sales by 2030.
However, EV share of the overall U.S. light-vehicle fleet is expected to be 24%. The
most aggressive estimate of electric vehicle adoption, based on high oil price
forecasts and incentives from network operators, has EVs achieving a 46% market
share by 2030.

In Australia, a 2008 BITRE and CSIRO report Modelling the road transport sector,
modelled simulation to show the impact of emissions trading on road transport;

‘Mild’ hybrid vehicles (i.e. those without a plug-in capability) become the predominant
vehicle technology in the Australian vehicle fleet by 2050, while PHEV and fully-
electric vehicles are projected to play only a limited role.

Large scale uptake of mild hybrids commences from around 2020. This finding does
not ignore the fact that hybrids have already been taken up in the fleet in small
numbers. Rather the modelling projects the point at which the majority of new
vehicles will be mild hybrids. Largely because of the increase in mild-hybrid use,
transport becomes more fuel efficient at a slightly faster rate to 2050 than it has
historically. Energy use per vehicle kilometre travelled falls at an average annual rate
of one per cent for passenger cars, 1.3 per cent for light commercial vehicles, 1.4 per
cent for rigid trucks and 0.5 per cent for articulated trucks.’

Hybrids are assumed to be the logical next step in sustainable mobility. The battery
technology for the next generation of vehicle electrification comes from current
petrol-electric hybrid vehicles (HEVs).
These vehicles use a conventional internal combustion (IC) engine, but supplement
certain functions with power from an on-board battery. The amount of work the
battery does depend on its size and the configuration of the drivetrain. Generally, the
more energy the battery is capable of delivering, the greater the gasoline fuel
savings.

HEVs have enjoyed commercial success as a result of government incentives and
high oil prices, though they still only represent a small fraction of total auto sales and
an even smaller fraction of vehicles on the road.




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              
                  VFACTS Hybrids new vehicle sales in Australia
  6,000
                                       4,948                 5,042
  5,000
                                                                            4,197
  4,000
                  3,174
  3,000

  2,000

  1,000

       0
                   2006                2007                  2008           2009

Chart 1 new hybrid vehicle sales Australia – source VFACTS


According to Australian figures from VFACTS, in 2009, hybrids represented less than
half a percent of total new vehicles sold during the year.

Hybrid sales from 2006 to 2007 showed a 55.8% increase in total new hybrid vehicle
sales. Over 2007-08, there was a 1.9% increase followed by a 16.7% drop in hybrid
sales during 2008 -09. This is higher than the overall total -7.4% sales drop reported
for all new vehicles sales during the same year. While the current economic down
turn has contributed to the sales decline, it is not clear from existing data, whether
there is a viable market for electric vehicles.

Hybrids broke into the automotive market with the introduction of the Honda Insight
and the Toyota Prius. Since then, Toyota and Honda have each sought to leverage
their basic hybrid drive configuration in other vehicle models. Examples include the
Honda Accord and Civic hybrids; the Toyota Camry hybrid; and the Lexus LS600hL,
RX 450h, and HS 250h models.5, 6

After the Japanese automakers’ initial success with their hybrid programs, a number
of U.S. and European automakers followed. Ford introduced a hybrid version of the
Escape.

Later, the company added the hybrid Ford Fusion.
GM developed a hybrid architecture “two-mode hybrid.” Then it entered into
partnership with DaimlerChrysler and BMW and introduced new vehicles for the
2008 and 2009 model years, including the Chevrolet Silverado and Tahoe; the
Cadillac Escalade; the GMC Sierra and Yukon; the Saturn Vue; the Dodge Durango;
the Chrysler Aspen; the Mercedes M-Class; and the BMW X6 hybrids. GM also
developed a mild hybrid system similar to the Honda hybrid drivetrain that was
utilized in front-wheel drive sedans such as the Saturn Vue and Chevrolet Malibu
hybrids.




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology

Electric cars use energy stored in a battery (or series of batteries) for vehicle
movement. Electric motors are a clean and safe alternative to the internal
combustion engine.
Electric vehicles have faster acceleration but shorter distance range than
conventional engines. They produce no exhaust but currently require long charging
times. Battery electric vehicles are charged using an electric grid.
See Auto CRC’s Electric Vehicles and technologies 2009 report for details on EV
technological capacity and energy use http://autocrc.com/index.htm
For more information on electric vehicles as renewable transport using new
technologies based on V2G, PHEVs and Smart Grids, refer to:
• Renewable Transport: How Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles using
  Vehicle to Grid technology can make Carbon Free Urban Development CUSP
  DISCUSSION PAPER 2008/1 Curtain University Sustainability Policy Institute

• Fuelling Future Passenger Vehicle Use in Australia An Alternative Fuel and
  Technology Mix for Passenger Vehicles in Australia - The Electric Vehicles
  Revolution Jamison Group report for NRMA Motoring & Services February 2010


            EV benefits 

    •    No pollutants are emitted directly by the vehicle potentially reducing urban
         pollution
    •    Quiet, smooth operation and stronger acceleration and less maintenance than
         ICE motors
    •    Aligns with growing global climate change policy for reduced emissions.
    •    Petrol is indirectly replaced by whatever is being used to generate domestic
         electricity, reducing dependence on foreign commodities. The electrical
         energy stored within the battery can be generated by any source, including
         renewable, nuclear, natural gas, coal and petroleum.
    •    A viable alternative to higher petrol prices
    •    Battery electric cars are becoming more practical with the advances in new
         battery technology (Lithium Ion) that have higher power and energy density
         (i.e. greater possible acceleration and more range with less batteries).
    •    Reduced health care costs
    •    New industry employment
    •    Better Place predicts cost of a km worth of electricity to be around 50% lower
         than petrol. In Australia ,It expects the current $20 billion spent on petrol to be
         reduced to $5 billion with the introduction of electric vehicle transportation
    •    Holden, Mitsubishi and Nissan will introduce plug in electric vehicles to the
         local Australian market




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                              Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                          

           EV challenges  
     •    Limited battery range
     •    Cost of battery disposal and safe disposal of toxic battery ingredients
     •    Shifting to new design technology is expensive and requires much long term planning
     •    Electrified vehicles are a huge market threat to the current dominant internal-
          combustion engine and transmission automakers
     •    Long charging times/ keeping vehicles charged
     •    Limited charging infrastructure
     •    Consumer acceptance of pure electric vehicle technology v plug in hybrids and
          conversion of consumer preference to electric vehicles as their primary vehicle
     •    Absence of big car makers Toyota, Honda, GM, Ford and Chrysler – are they willing
          to make the huge economic investment to shift to an EV market?
     •    Reliability of electricity power grid system needs to be assured
     •    Smart grid development still in early stages & privacy issues related to smart grid
     •    Integrated development strategy between car producers and electricity storage
          technology lacking developers and providers
     •    Repeated quick changes degrade battery life
     •    Registration of vehicle e.g. Reva vehicle in Australia Dept of Transport and Regional
          Services couldn’t approve the car as it couldn’t be defined either as a quad bike or a
          passenger vehicle. Crash test standards and therefore conforming to Australian
          design rules are another issue

 Electric Vehicle types
 There are three types of electric vehicles. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle
 that is powered by a conventional combustion engine, and uses battery-driven
 electric motors to improve fuel efficiency. HEV batteries are charged by the
 combustion engine, and also using energy generated during braking. HEV’s are
 powered by liquid fuel only.
 A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with larger batteries that
 can also be recharged by connecting to a standard household power point or a
 special charging point. PHEV’s are powered by liquid fuel and electricity from the
 grid. PHEV’s are highly fuel efficient requiring little petroleum-based fuel
 An all electric vehicle is a battery only operated vehicle. The most likely immediate
 contender is Hybrid electric vehicles.
Electricity service providers - global

     •    Better Place                                                   (ETEC) – supplier, installer and
     •    Envision Solar                                                 service provider of advanced
     •    Solar city                                                     charging solutions for electric
     •    Coulomb Technologies                                           transportation applications
     •    EPRI                                                          • Battery makers
                                                                   http://evtransportal.com/batterycompanies.
     •    Palo Alto Calif. Builds swap
                                                                   html
          stations for electric vehicles                            http://www.advancedbatteryprogress.com/
     •    Electric Transportation
          Engineering Corporation

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Electric Vehicles – overseas market activity
         •     Google is working on new "smart charging" software that manages the charging
               needs of EVs based on real-time signal data from a grid operator. For example,
               automatically turning off EV charging during times of peak grid demand. The software
               will capitalise on the chance to introduce a megawatt-scale storage technology on a
               grid for the first time
         o     Google Energy, a subsidiary formed in December 2009, applied for federal approval
               to buy and sell power. This will allow Google more flexibility in buying renewable
               energy for its data centres. But approval would also allow Google Energy to sell
               surplus (especially renewable) energy on the usual markets. Google's PowerMeter
               receives information from utility smart meters and energy management devices, and
               lets customers access their home electricity consumption from their own Google
               homepage

         •     Apart from Google, Apple, Microsoft, and Intel is also entering the smart home
               energy industry with implications for EVs recharged at home. Activities from these
               major corporations occurring at the same time as new smart electricity meter
               rollouts [which use additional and different meter technology i.e. as real-time
               or near real-time sensors, power outage notification, and power quality
               monitoring] and EV starts ups are helping the introduction and speed of EV
               acceptance. For example;
         o     Apple Computer Inc. has a patent for a smart dashboard system. The system
               upgrades each power outlet in a home or office into a two-way communications port
               that also offers audio, video and data through power line networking technology. It
               can also identify connected devices requiring power, determine the amount of power
               needed, and calculate its cost. It can also turn down or off electronics that are not in
               use. Small businesses will be able to allocate power more efficiently. Nissan is
               currently working with Apple on a software application for smart phones to notify EV
               owners when their charge is running low.

         o     Microsoft's Hohm, analyses a household’s energy consumption and suggest ways
               to reduce it. It was launched with major US utilities. Both the PowerMeter and Hohm
               are designed to reduce the power used by electronics.

         •     Get Ready project launched by the Rocky Mountain Institute in Toronto is a group of
               North American cities wishing to speed up the introduction of electric cars on their
               streets. They are in partnership with Better Place

         •     Denmark has a purchase tax policy for petrol fueled cars while electric models are
               exempt from this tax

         •     Israel also taxes petrol powered vehicles.

         •     Quebec has $8,000 rebates for going electric while the US offers $7,500 (U.S.)

         •     China Some Chinese cities already banning petrol powered cars for one day a week.
               Subsidies of up to US $8,800 2 are being offered to taxi fleets and local government
               agencies in 13 Chinese cities for each hybrid or all-electric vehicle bought.

         •     The state electricity grid has been ordered to set up electric car charging stations in
               Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin.

                                                             
 2
      Bradsher, K. 2009 China Vies to Be World’s Leader in Electric Cars New York Times
                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                     

    •    Government research subsidies for electric car designs are increasing rapidly.

    •    Chinese car company BYD will introduce an all electric highway speed car - the e6 in
         US this year (2010) that can travel 400 kms. Other EV’s include Nissan’s LEAF, Tata
         Motors’ Invicta EV and Mercedes Benz’s electric Smart. Japan’s Mitsubishi, Norway
         based Think and another Chinese car company Coda Automotive is also working on
         new electric models.

    •    An interagency panel is planning tax credits for Chinese consumers who buy
         alternative energy vehicles.

    •    China wants to raise its annual production capacity to 500,000 hybrid or all-electric
         cars and buses by the end of 2011, from 2,100 last year, according to government
         officials and Chinese auto executives.

    •    While China is held back by a lack of centralised policy making, it is lithium rich and
         also has the rare earth metal resources required to make the type of batteries and
         motors needed in electric cars.

    •    By comparison, Japan and South Korea will be producing 1.1 million hybrid or all-
         electric light vehicles in total by then and North America will be making 267,000.

    •    Nissan plans to start building electric vehicles in Japan during 2010. Initial capacity is
         50,000 cars.
    •    Holden Mitsubishi and Nissan to introduce plug in vehicles to the local market

    •    Sähköautot–Nyt! (Finnish for Electric Cars–Now!) . The Finnish not-for-profit group
         wants 500 or more buyers for its first electric powered vehicle model. Instead of
         building a car from scratch, they retro-fit existing Toyota Corollas. At a volume of
         500+, the cost of acquiring and converting used, petrol-powered vehicles to run on
         rechargeable lithium batteries will be on par with the cost of purchasing a standard
         internal combustion engine Corolla off the lot, and saves the energy needed to make
         a new hybrid or electric car.

    •    Europcar joins Nissan offering electric vehicles for hire. Low emission rental
         vehicles are not new. However, it is the first time a rental company and car
         manufacturer are jointly offering a design that’s not just low emission, but no
         emission.

    •    Free car charging initiated at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport i.e. pilot program
         offering free car charging in its parking garage, and a new McDonald's restaurant in
         North Carolina will be the chain's first in the nation to offer the same thing.

    •    GM to launch Chevrolet Volt Hybrid in 2011

    •    Recent US allocation of a$2.6 Billion to battery research.




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                              Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

Diagram 2 Potential electric vehicle value chain opportunities for businesses
supporting electrical vehicles 3




Australia – market activity

    •    Hybrid petrol- electric cars are first launched in Australia 2001
    •    February 2010 AUSTRALIA’S biggest trial of electric vehicles (EVs) was
         announced by the Victorian government to test the impact and benefits of the
         emerging technology, including demands on the electricity network.
         The Victorian transport department expects about 30 full electric vehicles or
         plug-in hybrids from vehicle manufacturers to join the five-year ‘real-world’ trial
         which will involve testing both the cars and a variety of charging systems in
         different environments, from major fleets to domestic use. Applications are
         expected to be received by 26th March
    •    Toyota also will begin fleet trials in Australia of a small number of plug-in
         hybrid Priuses in 2010 as part of a world-wide test of 500 units of the new-
         generation green car

    •    Canberra will be the first Australian city to roll out an electric vehicle
         infrastructure with recharging spots to commence construction in 2011 and
         completed in 2012. Renewable power will be used to recharge vehicles

    •    CSIRO – SP AusNet PHEV Road Trial is currently underway.CSIRO-patented
         UltraBattery is licensed to Japan's Furukawa battery company and US

                                                            
3
  Hirschey, M 2009 ‘What’s Your Strategy for the Electric Vehicle Market?’ Oliver Wyman
 

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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                        
         manufacturer East Penn. It is lead acid based but much cheaper than many
         lithium-ion batteries

    •    Dec 2009 Sydney is one of six cities around the world to take part in a
         program to speed up the introduction of electric vehicles by establishing
         charging stations and converting car fleets.

         Sydney Council wants to set up the first public charging stations before the
         end of next year.

         The Mitsubishi i-MiEV battery-electric car looks likely to go on sale in Australia
         this year [2010] for between $55,000 and $60,000. The cost is expected to
         drop quickly to around $24,600 for a medium sized car as battery technology
         gets cheaper and car companies begin to build in larger volumes.
    •    The Renault-Nissan Alliance (the Alliance) and the State Government of
         New South Wales in Australia have formed a partnership to explore the
         development of a Zero Emission Vehicles program. The company is
         producing a battery powered family-sized car for sale in Australia by 2012.
    •    Melbourne’s first Toyota hybrid has rolled off the production line.
         The Hybrid Camry contains a petrol engine and electric drive motor and is
         touted as Australia's most fuel-efficient locally built car.
         Toyota expects the hybrid to use 35 per cent less fuel than other locally built
         six-cylinder vehicles and produce less than 150 grams of greenhouse gases
         per kilometre. Ten thousand hybrids will be produced for the domestic market
         each year, with 300 for export to New Zealand.

         The hybrid received $35 million in funding through the federal government's
         $1.3 billion Green Car Innovation Fund. The Victorian government has placed
         an order for 2000 hybrids. The hybrid Camry is set to hit showroom floors in
         about two months.

Emerging small business EV converters

EV sales and service
http://www.electricvehicleconversions.                           Electric Vehicle Conversions Of
com.au                                                           Australia
PO Box 117, Marden, SA 5070                                      Corner Farrall & Runyon Rds, Midvale,
p: 04 08846070                                                   WA 6056
                                                                 p: (08) 9250 1234
e: evconversions@live.com.au
                                                                 no other details available
Tony – proprietor
                                                                 Convert Ur Car
EVE Motor Group                                                  http://www.converturcar.com.au/about
                                                                 Maroubra NSW
http://www.evemotorgroup.com.au                                  p:0417 418 600
Brookvale DC, NSW 2100                                           e: nathan@converturcar.com
p: 1300 383668

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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                          
Owner Nathan Bolton, 32, has                                     combustion engine with a 40Kw three-
converted four vehicles since opening                            phase AC motor and a bank of lithium-
three years ago. For $22,000, the                                ion batteries.
electrical technician converts a pre-                            It comes with a three-year parts and
loved car in about six weeks.                                    five-year labour warranty. The latest
                                                                 sale was to the New Zealand Minister
TEVCCO -The Electric Vehicle                                     for the Environment for use as his
Conversion Company                                               ministerial                       car.
http://www.tevcco.com.au/index2.html
Jon Pels                                                         Energetique
p: 0418174199
                                                                 http://www.evme.com.au/about-us
e: jonpels@gmail.com
or                                                               100 Barney Street,
Kevin Hughes                                                      Armidale NSW 2350 Australia
p: 0403504050                                                    p: 02 6772 7113
e: kehu53@gmail.com
                                                                 Plans to convert 100 Mazda 2s to
JON Pels has been converting                                     electric vehicles. Currently it is building
conventional vehicles to electric for 12
                                                                 a hi-tech electric car based on a
months in the NT. A former builder, his
1991 Daihatsu Charade, is on the                                 Mazda2 five-door hatch, called the
market for $12,500. It is fitted with                            evMe.
lead-acid batteries and can travel
between 20km and 40km before                                     The cars sell for about $70,000 each.
needing a four- to -six hour recharge.                           They have a range of up to 250km on
His latest model, the Mitsubishi                                 one charge and can be recharged from
Mirage, should run for 100km before
needing a recharge. Pels' next plan is                           a household 240-volt outlet. They can
to install solar panels on top of car                            reach 100km/h in less than 10
ports to allow drivers to plug their                             seconds and have a top speed
electric      vehicles     into       an                         restricted to 130km/h.
environmentally-friendly source.
                                                                 A liquid-cooled hybrid synchronous
BEV (Blade Electric Vehicles)
                                                                 motor developed in Switzerland
www.bev.com.au
                                                                 replaces the Mazda2's 76kW/137Nm
2 Hitchcock Street
                                                                 1.5-litre engine. The electric motor
Castlemaine VIC 3450
p: 03 5472 2009                                                  puts out about 90kW and 220Nm and
e: ross.blade@bev.com.au                                         can be recharged overnight or has a
r&d: larry.jordan@bev.com.au                                     fast-charge time of two hours. The
                                                                 conversions are undertaken by
Claims to be Australia's first production                        Armidale     firm,  Sport    Vehicles
electric vehicle, BEV sells converted                            Australia.
electric Getz. The BEV Electron costs
from $39,500 as a used vehicle                                   Innovative transport Solutions
converted to electric. BEV's conversion                          http://www.itselectric.com/
means      replacing     the      internal                       PO Box 22

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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                            
Thirlmere, 2572. NSW, Australia                                  horsepower electric motor/generator is
e: info@itselectric.com                                          attached.
                                                                 The motor is liquid-cooled and a
Picton engineer/inventor Clifford Hall                           cooling unit is fitted to the truck's
has developed a hybrid Argosy system                             chassis.
for use in heavy trucks which debuted
at 2008 the Sydney truck show. The                               An 83kg lithium-ion battery pack is
system costs around $70,000                                      mounted between the chassis rails in
Hall's system can be fitted to any                               front of the turntable and stores the
heavy-duty truck with minimum                                    energy to drive the electric motor when
modification. The conversion requires                            it is called into action. Electronics
the rear diff/axle to be replaced with a                         control the system and detect when
duplicate front diff/axle with the drive-                        the electric motor is needed to assist
through shaft, to which a 133                                    the diesel engine. In total, the system
                                                                 adds about 200kg to the truck weight.


Electric Vehicle research                                        to run - about 10 per cent of its petrol-
                                                                 fuelled equivalent.
Swinburne University plans to                                    UWA uses roof-mounted solar cells to
develop Australia's first training course                        create electricity to run the car, so the
for mechanics based on a sustainable                             car is greenhouse gas free. The next
car built by volunteers from CERES                               conversion is a Lotus which will be
environmental park. The CERES                                    converted with a high-performance AC
design transformed two petrol-engine                             electric system. There have been
Citroen Beringos into electric cars and                          requests for the University to build cars
cost $32,000. This will be the first
course for mechanics in Australia for                            Szencorp
retrofitting and servicing electric cars                         http://www.szencorp.net/index.html
                                                                 40 Albert Road
University of WA's engineering                                   South Melbourne VIC 3205
faculty                                                          Australia
http://www.ecm.uwa.edu.au/                                       p: (0)3 8807 4666
University of Western Australia                                  e:info@szencorp.net 
35 Stirling Highway
Crawley, Perth                                                   Szencorp specialises in energy and
Western Australia 6009                                           water      efficiency      in   the   built
p: 08 6488 3061                                                  environment and renewable energy
e: reception@ecm.uwa.edu.au                                      technologies. In 2008 The University of
                                                                 Technology Sydney and Szencorp
The faculty transformed a 2008                                   turned a conventional Toyota Prius
Hyundai Getz from a petrol-fuelled                               into a plug-in hybrid.
hatchback to one just running on plug-                           The Szencorp PHEV, a can run on
in power.                                                        electricity or petrol (like conventional
                                                                 hybrids) and can be charged using
It cost $15,000 in mostly purpose built                          renewable energy from a normal
materials with similar amounts for                               household power point. It also has a
labour costs. These costs are in                                 “power out” capacity, so home and
addition to the cost of car purchase.                            office needs can be meet in high
The vehicle costs 1.4 cents a kilometre                          demand periods.

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Who is Better Place?

Launched in 2007 by Israeli American IT entrepreneur Shai Agassi, Better Place is a
Silicon Valley company that is a Global provider of electrical vehicle services i.e.
physical infrastructure for charging stations and provision of lithium-ion charged
batteries to allow countries to reduce oil dependency for car drivers. The idea is to
change the type of vehicles driven, not driver behavior to reduce environmental
resource depletion.

Better Place’s electric charging system, infrastructure and services are intended to
replace those currently provided by the retail petroleum industry to support petrol
engine cars.

Better Place business model

To sell monthly subscription user pays access to Better Place’s electric grid i.e.
selling electricity kms with the option to lease or buy an electric car.

Better Place are pegging the price of kms to petrol, using the margin between the
cost of petrol and the much lower cost of electricity to provide rebates that would
make electric vehicles significantly cheaper than comparable petrol-fuelled cars. The
recharge plan model is similar to the way mobile phone carriers sell mobile phone
minutes – with a range of plans, from pay-as-you-go to fixed-price contracts.

To do this, Better Place owns the vehicle’s batteries and sells the electricity or ‘clean
kms’ to car users. Using a control system that communicates with each Better Place
vehicle, power is injected into vehicles (or redirected for other uses) when supply
exceeds demand and the electricity flow is reversed during peak consumption times.
Drivers can override the system if electricity is required urgently.

Road service is provided if a battery fails and consumers can purchase additional
features e.g. car owners may be paid by utilities to provide electricity storage for use
during periods of peak demand. Power is fed to batteries during off peak hours then
used during peak hours.

The better place model will be used by fleets e.g. Government, rental agencies,
taxis and delivery services initially and private use is expected to follow as market
builds.

Nissan and Renault are BetterPlace’s business partners to date.
In Australia, it is predicted that Better Place need less than 50,000 electric vehicles
on the road to break even.
                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

Better Place Australia - organisation

Evan Thornley Chief Executive

Thornley’s appointment to Better Place raised questions with revelations that he held
discussions with Better Place four months prior to his appointment with the
organization. He has denied these discussions were linked with government grants
and other assistance were made available to Better Place in Victoria by the premier
John Brumby and specifically Thornley’s advancement of Better Place’s interests
with Government or using his knowledge of Government’s plans to benefit himself.
Thornley resigned from Victorian Parliament to become its Chief Executive on
December 28th 2008 on the eve of a promotion to Cabinet.

Thornley’s personal wealth is rumored to be derived from selling his LookSmart
shares during 2000 [LookSmart was publicly listed in 1999].

Thornley resigned as CEO and Chairman of LookSmart in 2002. The company
remains listed on the NASDAQ

Thornley’s Better Place responsibilities: all aspects of the company’s direction,
strategy, financing and operations, including development of the Better Place electric
vehicle network in Australia.

Career

    •    Serving Victorian Parliament as Parliamentary Secretary to the Premier.
    •    Founded and served as chairman and CEO of LookSmart Ltd, an Internet
         search advertising company that remains one of the few Australian
         companies to be taken public on the NASDAQ Stock Market.
    •    Various roles with McKinsey & Company, a leading global management-
         consulting firm in Melbourne, Kuala Lumpur and New York.
    •    Chair of the Board of Per Capita, a public policy think tank
    •    National Secretary of the Australian Fabian Society.
    •    On the board of the Brotherhood of St. Laurence, a leading Melbourne
         welfare agency
    •    Founding Director of GetUp!, an online activist network with over 300,000
         members. Evan holds degrees in Law and Commerce from Melbourne
         University
    •    Proprietor of Pluto Press.




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

Better Place Australian activity

On October 23 2009, the Victorian Government announced Better Place will set up
its Australian headquarters in Melbourne.

In November 2009 Better Place Australia secured an initial round of funding of $25
million for its planned charging and services network for electric vehicles (EVs).

The funding represents the first part of a five-year plan to raise $1 billion for the
deployment of an EV network powered by renewable energy in Australia. The first
infrastructure network is planned for Canberra in 2011. Brisbane, Sydney and
Melbourne planned to be the next network hubs

The funding round was led by Lend Lease Ventures, the venture capital arm of Lend
Lease and included investments by ActewAGL and several private investors.

At the same time, Global banking leader, Harrison Young joined Better Place’s
Board as an independent Chairman.

Electric rechargeable grid powered by renewable energy Better Place partnership
with AGL Energy and the Macquarie Capital Group. Better place have Victorian
Government support for the grid.




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

Better Place technology capability

    •    Robotic quick change stations to swap depleted electric vehicle batteries.
         Batteries normally last around 160km between charges and these stations
         suit consumers used to filling up at a petrol station. These stations are
         reputed to cost consumers less if an electric vehicle is bought
    •    Apart from battery swapping, the other alternative is fixed battery plug-in
         where a car is attached to an outlet for charging. Plug in vehicles need
         between 4- 8 hours to recharge, and rapid recharging degrades battery life.
         Better Place has won an award for a car recharging tower called the Charge
         Spot. These will be installed at places wherever people park cars for long
         periods of time. Charge up time is expected to be about 6 hours. The towers
         will also have digital electronics for recording charges and billing motorist’s
         accounts. Each tower can charge 2 cars at once. Charge spots have been
         launched in Israel, then in California in 2012 and also Hawaii, San Francisco,
         Honolulu, Ontario Denmark, Japan and Australia.
    •    B Place have developed a data communications system AutOS which
         manages data communication between vehicle, battery switching stations and
         electric utilities. It will also be able to predict future driving patterns and
         manage when each car draws electricity i.e. demand capacity so that utilities
         can manage and stabilize the grid during peak times.
    •    Current battery switching station technology can replace a spent battery in
         about 40 – 80 seconds so drivers can keep driving
    •    Concept electric vehicles designed in partnership with Renault are expected
         to cost the same as petrol powered vehicles and operating costs will be equal
         to or less than petrol powered vehicles.
    •    Better Place intend to use only renewable energy for its recharging network

Better Place overseas activity

    •    New equity financing of $US 350 million for US Better Place. Investors include
         HSBC Principal Investments , Morgan Stanley Investment Management and
         Lazard Asset Management

    •    Showcased swapping stations at United Nations conference on climate
         change December 2009
    •    In conjunction with DONG Energy, Better Place Denmark closed
         approximately €103 million Euro (770 million Danish Kroner) in equity and
         convertible debt for the initial deployment of their electric car charging network
         in Denmark. The move sets the stage for Better Place and DONG Energy to
         execute as planned against their commitment to enable the widespread
         adoption of mass-market vehicles by 2011.
    •    Bullfrog Power partners with Better Place in Ontario to provide green
         electricity Jan 2009
    •    California is estimated to generate upwards of $2.5 billion in jobs building
         Better Place’s new infrastructure, with billions more expected in car and

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                                            Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              
              battery sales to consumers. With a population of 36 million and hybrid and
              alternative energy vehicles now making 18% of the market, California is
              tipped to be the electric vehicle capital of the US. Agreement to complete
              infrastructure signed Nov 2008

       •      Swapping station being trialed for free by customers in Yokohama Japan

       •      With funding from Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry’s Natural
              Resources and Energy Agency, Better Place is partnering with Tokyo’s
              largest taxi operator, Nihon Kotsu, to bring the world’s first electric taxis with
              switchable batteries to Japan. The pilot project will showcase Better Place’s
              complete electric vehicle solution, including a battery switch station in the
              Roppongi Hills area of Central Tokyo, and is expected to begin January 2010.
       •      Around 800 chargers are installed in Israel with 100,000 planned for when the
              system becomes commercially viable in 2011in both Israel and Denmark.
              Australia will follow in 2012.
Better Place projected activity

       •      Israel & Denmark first robotic change stations (500,000) running in 2011
              (estimated cost A$150 million for each station)
       •      Expand operations to Australia, Canada, Hawaii (100,000 charging stations)
              and California in 2012. Other planned sites include San Francisco bay area
              (200 battery exchange stations), Ontario and Canada
       •      100,000 electric vehicles in Israel and Denmark by 2016 (Renault –Nissan
              partnership – Renault – Nissan aim to introduce global zero emission mobility
              by building removable battery EVs)
       •      Nissan to move into full scale electric vehicle production September 2010
              making 50,000 cars a year in Japan
       •      2010 B place is establishing Canadian head office in Ontario and opening a
              demonstration and education centre in Toronto

Better Place challenges

       •      System integration issues 4 . Providing lower off peak rates for recharging EVs
              without causing major increases in final power bills. This means changes to
              current electricity billing systems i.e. Complex and time consuming regulatory
              approvals
       •      Concerns about smart electricity meters and local pole and wire networks to
              cope with simultaneous charging of electric vehicles
       •      High cost of battery switching & charging structure (estimated at $200 billion
              for Better Place)
       •      Better Place is still developing software
       •      Not all cars can use Better Places’ swap system if the battery is part of the
              vehicle structure and therefore not able to be quickly replaced
       •      No Better Place case studies

                                                            
4
     Skulley, M. Jan 2010 Electric car boss calls for better billing Australian Financial Review 

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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

EV models in production/use (source: Wikipedia & VACC research)
Available
  • Bev Australia
  • BMV mini E
  • Bolloré Blue Car
  • Citroën C1 ev’ie www.eccplc.com UK
  • CityEl www.cityel.de
  • Commuter Cars Tango narrow, fast two seater sports car
  • DaimlerChrysler Smart Fortwo EV
  • DaimlerChrysler Smart ED electric version of the Smart fortwo city car from
      Daimler AG'sSmart division
  • Dynasty IT (Canada) www.itiselectric.com
  • Ford Focus EV
  • GEM Car (Chrysler company www.gemcar.com
  • GM Chevrolet Volt
  • Honda CR-Z
  • Hybrid - LiV DASH , EV innovations Inc LiV range of hybrids
  • Kewet Buddy www.elbilnorge.no
  • Liberty Electric Cars is re-engineering Range Rovers to produce electric
      4x4's Production began 2009
  • Lumeneo Smera France www.lumeneo.fr
  • Maya 300 a full electric car
  • Mercedes Benz B Class F cell 200 available in US in 2010
  • Miles Electric Vehicles makes all electric vehicles. Currently the company
      offers four electric vehicles designed primarily for low-speed fleet use, the
      ZX40, ZX40S, ZX40S Advanced Design, and ZX40ST electric truck
  • Mitsubishi Motors announced in 2005, mass-production of a MIEV.
      Production models available in 2010. www.mitsubishi-motors.com/special/ev/
  • MyCar
  • Myers Motors NmG www.myersmotors.com
  • Obvio! Brazilian car maker of micro cars 828E and 012E distributed by Zap in
      US
  • NICE Mega City, www.nicecarcompany.co.uk
  • Oka NEV ZEV www.okaauto.com
  • PML Flightlink Plug in hybrid Ford
  • REVA L-ion and Reva i (India), www.revaindia.com
  • Sakura Maranello, Effedi (Italy)
  • Smart ED www.smart.com
  • Start Lab, Open (Italy) www.startlabspa.it
  • Stevens Zecar, www.stevensvehicles.co.uk
  • Subaru Stella (in Japan), speed: 97 km/h (60 mph), range: 145 km (90 mi)
      www.subaru.jp/stella/custom/  and R1
  • Tesla Roadster, speed: 217 km/h 2 seats, 0-97 km/h (60 mph) in 3.9 sec,
      charging time: 3.5 hours, electric range: 320 km www.teslamotors.com
      standard vehicle delivery planned for 2012. Also makes Model S
  • The Kurrent 40 km/h 2 seats, range: 60 km www.getkurrent.com



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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              
    •    Th!nk City (Norway), speed: 100 km/h (62 mph), seats: 2 (+ 2), range: 170
         km www.think.no
    •    Venturi Fetish (Monaco), speed: 170 km/h (110 mph), electric range: 300 km
         www.venturifetish.fr
    •    ZAP Xebra, speed: 64 km/h (40 mph), seats: 2-4, charging time: 4 hours,
         electric range: 40 to 64 km (25 to 40 mi) Website: www.zapworld.com
Planned for production
  • Aptera Motors Aptera 2 Series (formerly Aptera Typ-1) is a high-efficiency,
     three-wheeled vehicle. Expected for sale in 2010 in both electric and hybrid
     versions.
  • BYD e6 100mph top speed, 249 mile range available 2010 in US
  • Hybrid Technologies
         o AFS Trinity hybrid plug in is a modified Saturn Vue
         o Mini Cooper conversion
  • Fisker automotive - Fisker Karma is a sleek luxury four-door powered by two
         150kW electric motors that can propel it to 200km/h and hit 100km/h in about 6
         seconds. Its battery pack can be recharged by a 194kW turbocharged 2.0-litre petrol
         engine to give a range of nearly 500km.
         GM HOLDEN will build a hybrid Commodore early 2013.
    •    Lightning Car Company UK electric sports car co. Production expected to
         start 2010
    •    Nissan plans to sell the Nissan Leaf in the US and Japan by late 2010. In
         May 2008, Nissan announced plans for a broad range of electric vehicles,
         starting with small cars.
    •    Mindset (vehicle) production expected to start early 2010
    •    Optimal Energy Joule, South African car maker of Joule - a multipurpose
         six-seater electric car with a top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph) and maximum
         reach of 400 km (250 mi). Expected mass production of 500 by 2012. Low
         volume production 2010
    •    Phoenix Motorcars based in Ontario, California, a mid-sized SUV and an
         SUT (Sports Utility Truck) with 210 km range. Expected to be available 2010
    •    Renault Z.E. - scheduled for release in 2011
    •    SSC Ultimate Aero EV – American supercar company
    •    Toyota FT-EV. Production version potentially available by 2012 in US.
         Universal Electric Vehicle Corporation Electrum series Spyder, COM V-3
    •    Persu Hybrid formerly VentureOne. Plug in Hybrid 3 wheeled motor cycle
         Release date as yet unknown
    •    Volkswagen Up limited US production 2013
    •    Volvo Recharge concept 2012

Full-sized cars
Cars and trucks of normal size and capable of 100 km/h (62 mph) highway speed.
   • Tesla Roadster, USA and EU li-ion powered sports car by Tesla Motors with
       244 mi (393 km) range, 125 mph (201 km/h) top speed and 0 to 60 mph (0 to
       97 km/h) in 3.9 seconds acceleration.
Microcars
   • REVA Indian-built city car. Also sold the UK as the G-Wiz as well as in
       several European countries. In the USA, limited to use as a Neighborhood
       Electric Vehicle.

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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              
    •  Kewet
    •  Lumeneo Smera, 80 mph (130 km/h) .
    •  Sakura (Available in Italy from EFFEDI.)
    •  MM NmG, previously named Corbin Sparrow
    •  Zytek Electric version of the Smart Fortwo
 Low-speed vehicles (also known as Neighborhood Electric Vehicles)
These vehicles have a low top speed (like most scooters) and may not be street-
legal without restrictions.
   • CityEl three-wheeled EV, produced in Germany.
   • Dynasty EV a neighborhood electric vehicle
   • EuAuto Mycar manufactured in Southern China, sold in Hong Kong, limited
       to roads with speed limit at or below 50 km/h
   • Global Electric Motorcars, LLC (GEM) quite common in California.
   • Miles Electric Vehicles LSVs for fleet and neighborhood use
           o Miles XS500 Electric Vehicle Production Electric Vehicle from Miles
              Electric Vehicles.
   • Oka NEV ZEV Low Speed Electric Vehicle made in Russia, sold in USA.
   • Open Since the beginning of this year also sold in Japan as Girasole, with
       higher speed and wider range as the Open.
   • Twike three-wheeled EV with pedal assist option. Produced in Germany.
   • Xebra an enclosed three-wheel electric vehicle.
   • ZENN a fully-enclosed three-door hatchback low-speed vehicle.

Discontinued
  • AC Propulsion TZero very fast two-seat sportster prototype. four produced.
  • Baker Electric
  • Bertone Blitz
  • Chevrolet S10 EV (some sold to fleets, available on secondary market as
     refurbished vehicles) S-10 with EV1 powertrain, over 100 produced only about
     60 sold to private owners and survived.
  • Chrysler TEVan (1993–1995) and second generation EPIC (1998–1999)
  • citicar/commutacar/comuta-van This car had a plastic body, aluminum frame,
     lead acid batteries, top speed of 50 mph (80 km/h) and a range of about
     50 miles (80 km).
  • Citroën Berlingo Electrique (1999–2005)
  • Citroën Saxo Electrique
  • Corbin Sparrow
  • Detroit Electric (1907–1939)
  • Elcat (1985–2002, almost all vehicles in second-hand use)
  • Enfield 8000 (1971)
  • Fiat Panda Elettra
  • Ford Ranger EV (1998–2003) some sold, most leased. Several hundred were
     produced for lease only, almost all were recovered and most destroyed. Ford
     has announced [citation needed] reconditioning and sale of a limited quantity to
     former leaseholders by lottery.
  • Ford Think Neighbor (2002)
  • General Motors EV1 Gen I (1996–1997) used VRLA batteries, Gen II (1999–
     2003) used NiMH batteries.


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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              
    •    Henney Kilowatt (1958–1960) the first modern (transistor-based) electric car,
         capable of highway speeds of up to 60 mph and outfitted with modern
         hydraulic brakes. Fewer than one hundred of them were produced before
         production was discontinued in 1960.
    •    Honda EV Plus (199?-1999) (several hundred produced for lease only, all
         recovered and most destroyed)
    •    Nissan:
              •
              o Nissan Altra lithium-powered hatchback; never offered (even by lease)
                to consumers.
             o Nissan Hypermini
    •    Peugeot 106 ev
    •    Pivco City Bee
    •    Sinclair C5
    •    Solectria Force - conversion of Geo Metro, not currently in production
    •    Think City - Norwegian import by Ford, lease only, all recovered and returned
         to Norway. Think Global produced 200 Think City cars in 2008.
    •    Toyota RAV4 EV (leased and sold on US east and west coast, out of
         production, supported.
    •    Volkswagen
             o Volkswagen Golf CITYStromer (1995–1998) Volkswagen has built 200
                electric versions of the golf 3.
             o Volkswagen Jetta CITYStromer
    •    Wrightspeed X1 an Ariel Atom sports car modified to use an all-electric
         powertrain. Production has been cancelled.
    •    ZENN (Zero Emission, No Noise) CityZENN model will cease production by April 2010
    •    Zytek Lotus Elise
Prototype without production intent
   • Dodge: Dodge Zeo announced in early 2008 as a concept car.
   • Eliica - Sports car - limo
    •    Nissan revealed a concept called the Mixim at the 2007 Frankfurt motor show

Unknown production status
  • Audi R8 e-tron concept car
  • Arton Birdie
  • BYD Chinese electric people mover ‐ range of 400km on one charge and a 50 per
         cent recharge in 10 minutes. Apparently, the technology is only two or three years
         away i.e. 2013 and BYD includes US investment company Berkshire Hathaway
         among its backers.  
         Dodge circuit
    •    Dynasty IT Canadian-produced electric vehicle
    •    In November 2008, Ford and PML Flightlink produced the Hi-Pa DriveFord
         F150 pickup truck.
    •    Hyundai Blue Will plug in hybrid
    •    Magna Steyr new concept Mila EV
    •    Marussia - sports car
    •    Mini Mini E
    •    Toyota Prius-based FT-CH petrol-electric hybrid concept car
    •


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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                               

    •    AC Propulsion eBox, a li-ion powered conversion of a Toyota Scion xB with
         150 mi (240 km) range, 95 mph (153 km/h) top speed and 0 to 60 mph (0 to
         97 km/h) in 7 seconds.
    •    Volkswagen New Compact Coupe concept hybrid

Medium and Light Duty Trucks and Vans
  • Cleanova, Société de Véhicules Électriques (Dassault Group), based on a
     Kangoo
  • Electrorides, based on an Isuzu N-series platform, retrofitted with a UQM
     Technologies electric motor
  • Miles Electric Vehicles- MILES ZX40ST Electric Truck
  • Modec UK built electric delivery vans
  • Peugeot Partner

Heavy Duty Trucks
  • Smith Electric Vehicles International company

Low speed
Cars not capable of reaching 60 km/h (37 mph)
                 Top       Capacity     Charging                            Nominal            Market release
 Model
              speed       (Adults)       time                               range                 date
            40 km/h
Dynasty IT                2/4                                           50 km (31 mi)
            (25 mph)
            40 km/h
GEM Car                   2/4/6                                         48 km (30 mi)
            (25 mph)
Oka NEV 40 km/h
                          2
ZEV         (25 mph)
            40 km/h
The Kurrent               2                                             60 km (37 mi)
            (25 mph)
            40 km/h
ZENN                      2                                             55 km (34 mi)
            (25 mph)
            50 km/h                                                     120 km
ZEV Smiley                2
            (31 mph)                                                    (75 mi)




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

City speed
Cars capable of at least 60 km/h (37 mph), but not 100 km/h (62 mph)
               Top        Capacity                         Nominal        Market
  Model                               Charging time
             speed       (Adults)                          range      release date
Kewet      80 km/h                                      40 to 80 km
Buddy      (50 mph)                                     (25 to 50 mi)
                                                        100 to
Citroën C1 97 km/h
                        4           6-7 hours           110 km (60 30 April 2009
ev'ie      (60 mph)
                                                        to 70 mi)
           63 km/h                  8 hours (complete 80 to 90 km
CityEl                  1
           (39 mph)                 recharge)           (50 to 56 mi)
           64 km/h                                      64 to 110 km
MyCar                   2           5 to 8 hrs
           (40 mph)                                     (40 to 68 mi)
NICE Mega 64 km/h                                       96 km
                        4
City       (40 mph)                                     (60 mi)
           80 km/h                  8 hrs (80% in 2     80 km
REVA i                  2+2
           (50 mph)                 hrs)                (50 mi)
                                    6 hrs with onboard
           80 km/h                  charger             120 km
REVA L-ion              2+2
           (50 mph)                 1 hrs with external (75 mi)
                                    charger
Stevens    90 km/h                                      80 km
Zecar      (56 mph)                                     (50 mi)
Subaru     97 km/h                                      145 km        Production in
Stella EV (60 mph)                                      (90 mi)       Japan, 2009
                        PK 2        4 hours 120 volt 20
ZAP Xebra 64 km/h                                       40 to 64 km
                        person - SD amp 220 volt
SD and PK (40 mph)                                      (25 to 40 mi)
                        4           compatible




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                          


Highway capable
Cars capable of at least 100 km/h (62 mph)
                                                                                               Market
                 Top                                 Capacity Charging Nominal
 Model                        Acceleration                                                     release
                speed                              Adults+kids time    range
                                                                                                date
                                                                     8 hrs
                                                                     220V                  Domestic
                                                                     domestic              production
                                                                     socket                commencing.
REVA          104 km/h                                                             160 km
                                                   4 Adults          1.5 hrs               Export
NXR           (65 mph)                                                             (99 mi)
                                                                     with high             production
                                                                     voltage               begins Q2
                                                                     fast                  2010.
                                                                     charger
                                                                     9 hrs with
                                                                     onboard
                                                                     charger
BEV,       110 km/h 0-60 in 7                                                      120 km
                                                   4 Adults          1.5 hrs               Available
'Electron' (68 mph) seconds                                                        (75 mi)
                                                                     with
                                                                     external
                                                                     charger
BMW           153 km/h                                                             240 km Available for
                                                   2 Adults
Mini E        (95 mph)                                                             (150 mi) lease only
                                                                                            Available in
Mitsubishi 130 km/h                                2 (+ 2                          170 km
                                                                                            Japan, 2010
iMiEV      (81 mph)                                optional)                       (110 mi)
                                                                                            in US
                    0 - 50 km/h
          120 km/h                                                                 110 km
Smart ED            (31 mph) in                    2
          (75 mph)                                                                 (68 mi)
                    6.5 sec
          217 km/h 0 - 97 km/h
Tesla                                                                              320 km
          (135 mph) (60 mph) in                    2                 3½ hours               Available
Roadster[                                                                          (200 mi)
          (limited) 3.9 sec
Th!nk     100 km/h                                 2 (+ 2                          170 km
                                                                                            Available
City      (62 mph)                                 optional)                       (110 mi)
Venturi 170 km/h                                                                   300 km
Fétish[5] (110 mph)                                                                (190 mi)




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                             Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

References

Are swap shops the battery breakthrough? Greimel, H. Automotive News, 5/18/2009,
Vol. 83, Issue 6360

Battery stations to drive rise of electric car Blackburn, R. Age, The (Melbourne), May
14, 2009

Battery-swap stations for tomorrow's cars Anon Toronto Star (Canada), May 30,
2009

Canberra gets wired up Anon New Zealand Herald, The, Jul 25, 2009

Charge 'Er Up. Belfiore, M. Popular Mechanics, Dec 2009, Vol. 186, Issue 12

Charge of the electric brigade Anon Age, The (Melbourne), May 16, 2009

Charge of the post-petrol car Anon Australian, The, May 14, 2009

China needs centrally coordinated EV action and not just a blueprint Yang J.
Automotive News December 22, 2009

China Vies to Be World’s Leader in Electric Cars Bradsher, K. 2009 New York Times

Electric car boss calls for better billing Skulley, M. Australian Financial Review Jan
2010

Supplying the Brains for Electric Cars. Hamm, S. BusinessWeek Online, September
15 2009

Gold Award: Electric Car Recharging Station. Wong, V. BusinessWeek Online,
7/30/2009

How to jumpstart the clean tech economy Harvard Business Review Nov 2009

In the dark on the future of electric vehicles Toronto Star (Canada), Aug 29, 2009

McGuinty promises to boost plug-in car Anon Toronto Star (Canada), Jul 15, 2009

People plug in to electric power Anon Sydney Morning Herald, The Aug 01, 2009

Plug in or perish, car industry warned Heasley A. Morton A. Age, The (Melbourne),
Jul 23, 2009

Portland may be Better Place down the road: Firm is already preparing to provide its
electric-vehicle services for networks in Israel and Denmark Slavin, M. 2009 Doolan
Media


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                                            Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                              

Power bosses blasted over use of brown coal Morton, A. Age, The (Melbourne), Apr
25, 2009

Shai Agassi. Anon CREATIVITY, Feb2009, Vol. 17, Issue ½

The Australian Connection Anon Sydney Morning Herald, The, Apr 10, 2009
Vic: Thornley had early talks with Better Place: opposition AAP Australian National
News Wire, Mar 25, 2009

Thornley says talks with boss distant from political role Libs' claim denied Herald Sun
(Melbourne), Feb 25, 2009

Thornley accused of lying over company link Rood, D. Age, The (Melbourne), Mar
25, 2009

Toronto eager to get electric cars on the road AnonToronto Star (Canada), Mar 23,
2009

What’s Your Strategy for the Electric Vehicle Market? Hirschey, M 2009 Oliver
Wyman

www.betterplace.com/opportunity/

www.crikey.com.au

EV news sites 5
Clean Fleet Report has good information on clean transport options, including battery electric vehicles
and plug-in hybrids. http://www.cleanfleetreport.com/

Electric Drive Transportation Association is a US industry association promoting electric vehicles.
http://www.electricdrive.org/

EV Finder has information on EVs that are currently available or in development.
http://www.evfinder.com/

EV World is a news website that covers electric, hybrid and fuel-cell vehicles, technologies and
issues. http://www.evworld.com/

Green Car Congress is a website that provides `high quality editorial about the full spectrum of energy
options, technologies, products, issues and policies related to sustainable mobility'.
http://www.greencarcongress.com/

Green Car Site provides news, reviews and buyer guides for a range of `green cars'. It also lists a
range of cars that are to be made available soon. http://www.greencarsite.co.uk

The Green Car Website is similar to the Green Car Site. http://www.thegreencarwebsite.co.uk

NewRide is a website for EV users in London. It lists vehicles, dealers, and charging points around
the city. http://www.newride.org.uk/

                                                            
5
     AutoCRC 2009 Electric Vehicles and Technologies   http://autocrc.com/index.htm 

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                                            Electric Vehicles research paper 2010                                    

Smart Grid sites including research programs 6

www.csiro.au/science/IntelligentGrid.html
http://igrid.net.au/
http://www.smartgridaustralia.com.au/index.html
http://www.oe.energy.gov/smartgrid.htm.
http://www.gridwise.org/
http://www.gridwiseac.org/
http://intelligrid.epri.com/publications.html
http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/
http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/
http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/
http://www.smartgrids.eu/
www.DESERTEC.org

V2G sites
Vehicle to Grid (V2G) means combining electrical storage capacity in a fleet of Plug-in Hybrid Electric
Vehicles (PHEVs), linked through a smart grid, to allow the introduction of a large amount of
renewable energy into an electricity network

http://www.udel.edu/V2G/
http://phev.ucdavis.edu/
http://www.calcars.org/
http://www.evworld.com/index.cfm
http://www.acpropulsion.com/technology/v2g.htm
http://www.pluginpartners.com/resources/index.cfm
http://www.pluginamerica.org/links-and-resources/links-and-resources.html
http://blogs.edmunds.com/greencaradvisor/
http://www.eaaev.org/
http://ev.starttips.com/
http://www.greencarcongress.com/
http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/hev/publications.html
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/technologies/systems/index.html




                                                            
6
 Went, A. Newman, P. James, W. 2008 RENEWABLE TRANSPORT: How Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles using
Vehicle to Grid technology can make Carbon Free Urban Development CUSP DISCUSSION PAPER 2008/1 Curtain University
Sustainability Policy Institute

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