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					TORT

A tort is a legal wrong committed upon the person or property of another. Although torts and
crimes are related, they are very different.

A tort is a civil wrong against a private individual which permits the individual to sue the person
who committed the wrong (sometimes called the “tortfeasor”).

A crime is a wrong against the public and is punished by a criminal prosecution which may lead
to jail for the criminal. Torts include assault (offering to hit or improperly touch someone),
battery (hitting or improperly touching someone)
Conversion (theft)
Slander and libel
False imprisonment
Infliction of mental distress,
Intentional or
Negligent injury to another’s person or property
And trespass.

In addition to being liable (legally responsible) for their tort, persons are liable for any torts
committed by their ‘agents” An agent is a person authorized by someone (called the “principal’)
to act for them or in their place.




FRAUD

Is a false representation made through words or conduct which results in harm to another person
because that person believed the false statement.

The fraud can be done either by misleading or concealing something from the other person.
Basically, fraud is cheating or deceiving another person.


CADIZ

Ancient port

The great painter Murillo worked there at the end of his liked. Died shortly after falling off some
scaffolding in the Capuchin church.

In ’92 Cadiz seemed shabby and decayed, a provincial p town no longer among the top twenty
cities of the country; even in its own provicne, it has been overtaken in size by Jerez.

Columbus embarked on his second transatlantic voyage from Cadiz
It is one of the most influential cities in Spanish history yet ill-known and un-hailed because it is
regarded by Spanish conservatives, as the promoter of un Spanish values. In regard to ideas and
movements which originated in Cadiz.

Cadiz’s earlier historic role is well known. Its position, its harbor and the trade winds made it a
natural port for its rulers as well as a natural target for their enemies.

Founded by the Phoenicians just after the Trojan War, Cadiz is probably the oldest city in
Europe, but there is a theory which would make it s older still: according to Edwin Bjorkman, it
may even be the site of Atlantis. An important port under the Carthaginians and Romans, it
declined under the Visigoths and Moors before resuming its role after the Reconquest.

Roman Cadiz was ‘the center of sin and sensual civilization’ by Ford. Although presumably
both Ford and the antiquarians were aware that there was not ethnic connection between the two
populations: Cadiz was resettled after the Reconquest in the 13th century with people from the
northern city of Santander.

Ford admitted the women were charming and fascinating and that Cadiz as ‘rather the city of
Venus, the mother of Love, than of the caste Diania’, and then added without elucidation that the
‘lower orders have borrowed from foreigners many vices not common in the inland towns of
temperate and decent Spain.’

The PIAFAR a unique walk of Cadiz women who had ‘all the gait and bearing, the grace and
dignity, of terrestrial goddesses’, According to Ford, the piafar had ‘been distinguished by Mrs.
Romer, a competent judge, from the ‘affected wriggle of the French women and the grenadier
stride of the English, as a graceful swimming gait’. The charm is that it is natural, and in being
the true unsophisticated daughters of eve and nature, the Spanish women have few rivals.’

For a long time it was almost certain b to be attacked in any war fought by the Spaniards.

It was in Cadiz not Barcelona that Spain’s first modern middle class emerged, and it was d Cadiz
which produced so many of the things later anathematized by General Franco.

It can be argued that the city was the birthplace of the modern Spanish state with its free press,
its liberalism and its nationalism; Here, Spain’s political dialogue originated in the Calle Ancha,
the imposing street where politicians used to meet informally during the years of the courts of
Cadiz, leading to the debates on the constitution, was an important and influential precedent for
perhaps also the birthplace of that Latin American nationalism s which led to the break-up of the
empire.

The Cadiz constitution of 1812 remained for more than a century and a half an inspiration of
Spain’s beleaguered liberals.

       The old Cadiz that we see today, the 18th century town, is in a sense an extension of
buildings appearing in Seville. For 10 yrs after the discovery of America, Cadiz and Seville
competed for the Indies trade. In 1492, the port of Cadiz was then full of ships deporting
Spain’s Jewish population, and Columbus sailed from Palos Instead. Thus Seville was given
the monopoly of the American trade in 1503 and soon after began to expand. The subsequent
loss of that monopoly, condemned Seville to a p long period of decline just as its transfer town
the Guadalquivir inspired more than a century of growth in Cadiz.

In 1680, Cadiz became the port for the loading and unloading of ships on the Atlantic voyages.
The administration of the Indies trade, however, remained in Seville, a cumbersome arrangement
which persisted until the trading house and the merchant’ association were moved to Cadiz in
1717.

But in 1725, Seville prevailed upon Philip V to transfer the admin back to Seville. Cadiz sent
an emissary to the royal court to point out the absurdity of the new plan and the king was quickly
persuaded to annul his decree.

Cadiz was prospering in 1670, when the French consul described Cadiz’s commerce as ‘the
greatest and most flourishing in Europe’, although the volume of Indies trade had greatly
declined during the century and in spite that most of that trade was in foreign hands.

As an emporium and financial centre, Cadiz managed to profit from a system which was of little
benefit to the rest of the country.

According to the French observers, only 5% of the goods shipped from the port were actually
Spanish. Foreign merchants also controlled much of the import trade: At least half of the
American bullion, unloaded in Cadiz harbor and put on non-Spanish ships, never entered the
country at all.

Then there was the problems of corruption and smuggling and captains’ ploy to put ashore at
French or Portuguese ports to evade customs duties (blaming pirate, bad weather or enemy ships
had driven them there) which further reduced the benefits of the trade for Spain.

The 18th century was Spain’s American century. In spite of the problems of smuggling, the
monopoly and foreign participation, the transatlantic trade prospered. That system of a single-
port monopoly remained unquestioned for most of the century and more that four-fifths of the
Indies shipping resisted the temptation of subterfuges and returned each year to Cadiz.

In 1778, however, the Spanish government abolished the monopoly and opened American
commerce to all ports in the country. But commerce flourished. Cadiz still had the advantages
of its position and its harbor, as well as the experience and expertise in it had gained in its
century of the monopoly., as the most efficient of the Spanish ports, Cadiz thrived in a free
trading system and its decline after 1796 was caused not by competition by wars with Britain.

The execution of Louis XVI in 1793 prompted Spain to fight the French revolutionary
government. This first conflict cost Cadiz 186 ships and the majority of its trading houses.

This disastrous involvement which ended in 1796 when the country changed sides and declared
war on Britain, costing Spain part of its fleet off Cape St. Vincent, its British and American
trade and the permanent loss of Trinidad. Along with the remaining trading houses which went
bankrupt along with more than 50 insurance companies.
Spain’s alliance with Britain from 1808 naturally resulted in the end of its commerce with France
and those parts of Europe (most of the continent) under French control. During this time Cadis
managed to enjoy it moment of glory as the centre of political Spain, the bastion of national
resistance and the birthplace of the Spanish constitution.

Lord Byron much extolled both Cadiz’s appearance and its valor, as ‘Sweet Cadiz’ declaring it
to be ‘the first spot in creation…The beauty of its streets and mansions is only excelled by the
loveliness of its inhabitants.’
To his correspondents he announced that Cadiz was ‘the prettiest and cleanest town in Europe,
Seville a large and fine city’…’

Richard Ford: Cadiz may have been ‘shaped like a ham’ but nevertheless sparked ‘like a line of
ivory palaces’.

Theophile Gautier thought of Cadiz as ‘an immense crown of silver filigree’ with the cathedral
dome appearing ‘like a silver-gilt tiara set in the midst of it’; he said the town’s whiteness was
‘as pure as silver, milk, snow, marble and the best crystallized sugar’

Edmondo De Amicis: Cadiz was the color of milk and resembled a seagull after a swim

Gallenga: “… a swan,‘its stately rows of building bearing a resemblance to the bird’s half-
unfolded wings as it struggles to emerge from the waves’.

Manuel Machado ‘salada claridad’

A popular image sees Cadiz as a white handkerchief waving farewell to a sailor.

The war against the Third Coalition, in which the country was an unwilling ally of Napoleon,
was more fatal still and resulted another other things in the destruction of the Spanish navy
alongside the French at Trafalgar.


Spain’s
In spite of the problems of governing vast colonies on the other side of the Atlantic, there was no
serious challenge to the Spanish rule in the American viceroyalties.

Likewise the Latin American penetration was even more pervasive and can still be seen in the
architecture of builds such as the beautiful women’s hop, the street names (Paraguay, Venezuela,
etc) the statues of Bolivar and fellow heroes, and the endless plaques put up by Americans to
salute Cadiz (and the other way around). The city was the meeting point between Spain and its
empire and retains still a strong American flavors: when Lorca visited Havana he described a it
as a larger and hotter Cadiz. An historian’s description of the port as ‘a piece of America entered
into Spain’ is not as whimsical as it sounds.


The changes in the old city have been largely confined to buildings in the port and along the
seafront, as well as to the sites a of a few convents which were demolished in the last century to
make way for squares.
Cadiz is the windiest city in Spain and several writers have remarked on the wind’s role in
forming the characters of the inhabitants

The buildings, though varied, do produce a homogenous effect, usually Baroque with a number
of neo-classical and Isabeline (mid-nineteenth-century) mansions in the most prosperous streets.

The uniformity of houses reflect an un-Andalusian quality: the lack of extreme class
distinctions. The height of the houses reflects the lack of space and their uniformity indicates the
tightness of the town’s building regulations; owners who erected extra stories were frequently
ordered to demolish them the municipal authorities.

The nobles of Cadiz formed a merchant aristocracy, many of them of foreign, particularly Italian,
decent. Unable to live off rents from estates they did not possess, they were forced into
commercial or military careers. Presumably this made them less vain and ostentatious than
Andalusian grandees elsewhere. Instead of inhabiting great palaces sprawling over several
courtyards, the nobles usually had terraced houses of four floors and a single patio which was
seldom used. They lived on the second floor with their servants above them and the two lower
floors reserved for store-rooms and offices.

Many who co not afford a house lived a communal existence in the casas de vecinos.

Cadiz was a city which sets trends. It was there that coffee overtook chocolate at the most
popular hot drink, and it was probably there that modern office hours, at any rate the long
morning culminating in the three o’clock lunch, were first observed. During evenings, a good
deal of time was spent in the café’s, which appeared in Cadiz before anywhere else in Spain.
Men could talk or play billiards or read the newspapers.

One very Spanish institution, the TERTULIA or meeting of friends swapping intellectual bons
mots daily across a café table was much in vogue in Cadiz. Women, who were not allowed to
enter cafes and had to meet in confiterias instead, instigated their own form of tertulias based on
the French salons usually taking place in the house of an intelligent, domineering, sometimes
even cigar- smoking hostess, had its origin in Cadiz later adopted in Madrid.

Cadiz, always cosmopolitan, outward-looking city with a tradition of tolerance. The Inquisition
there was weak in a country that had long been the most intolerant of heresy in Europe, dissent
was doubtful if conducted outside Cadiz. Inhabitants had little difficulty finding books by
Voltaire, Rousseau (though very few intellectuals supported the French Revolution) and other
banned writers. The English constitutional tradition, by contrast, was widely admired and was
reflected in the preference for dressing in British rather than French clothes but had an
ambivalent attitude towards England, inspired by memories of the British fleet and competition
from British commerce.

The Town’s open, liberal character had been heavily influenced by foreigners.

Trade with Americas was the reason why so many foreign merchants came to live in the city
where their principal role was to re-export goods imported from their own countries. 90% of the
English silk stockings which arrived in Cadiz, were sent on to Mexico or South America in the
later 17th century, same for French trade.
According to a contemporary estimate, less than a seventh of the leading trading companies in
the 1670s were Spanish: the others were Genovese, French, British, Flemish, Dutch and
Hanseatic.
At the beginning of the 28th century about 10% of the town’s population was foreign, a
proportion of which rose in the following decades faster than the increase in population.
By 1791 there were some 9,000 foreigners in a city of 75,000 inhabitants,. The largest groups
were French and Italians, but the numbers of these and other nationalities fluctuated with wars
and changing alliances. In 1801, when Britain and Spain were at war, there were only 6
Englishmen in Cadiz.

Cadiz owed their enthusiasm for fine arts to the Italians
Ideas and theatre to the French
Views on education to England where many of their sons were sent to study commerce.

Cadiz is still an important port and the principal link between Spain, north Africa, and the
Canary Islands. Its bay still has a naval industry although this is shared with Rota, La carrack,
Matagorda and San Fernando.
Cadiz also has a large dry dock, a huge cold storage plant and various food-processing industries
which give employment to immigrants from the province who line in stompy tower blocks along
the isthmus leading to the city.
PROFILE OF MY BUSINESS - OVERVIEW

I am setting up a commercial web-site geared at community action. I will be
selling services and products of mine and from other parties. My biz will be
a for-profit as a partnership of 3 to 4 persons with me as the president.
I feel that product liability, consultancy and advice liability may become a
possible threat as the content is of my own opinion and experiences.
Since it will be home based, with possible biz car leasing and much business
travel, what kind(s) of insurance should I be researching?

I am interested in a sweep business account.   Pls explain the different
options and fees involved.
BUSINESS SOLUTIONS – CURRENTLY SEEKING

a sweep business account. Pls explain the different options and fees
involved.
Tracking Number : 100677-272

HOW DOES THIS TIE IN WITH SAVE FOR SHARES OR IS THAT FOR EMPLOYEES OF
WACHOVIA ONLY?

BIZ T A X CALENDAR

January 2 Start of tax season.
January 15 Individuals - Make the fourth payment of your 2002-estimated tax
if you are not paying your income tax for the year through withholding (or
will not pay in enough tax that way). Use Form 1040-ES .
January 31 W-2s are due from your employer. Forms 1099 are due from payers of
interest, dividends and other specified types of income.
February 17 If you were exempt from income tax withholding for 2002, you must
file a new Form W-4 by today to continue your exemption for 2003.
April 1 Tax filing deadline in two weeks. File today using our online tax
services.
April 15 Tax Returns Due

Get an automatic four-month extension to file your return by filing Form
4868, Application for Automatic Extension of Time To File. Must be postmarked
today. Your new tax-filing deadline will be August 15, 2003.

Due date for making 2002 IRA contributions even if you get an extension.

Individuals - Make the first payment of your 2003-estimated   tax if you are
not paying your income tax for the year through withholding   (or will not pay
in enough tax that way). Use Form 1040-ES .
June 16 Individuals - If you are a U.S. citizen or resident   alien living and
working (or on military duty) outside the United States and   Puerto Rico, file
Form 1040 and pay any tax, interest, and penalties due.

If you want additional time to file your return, file Form 4868 to obtain
two additional months to file. Then file Form 1040 by August 15. If you still
need additional time, file Form 2688 to request an additional two months as
soon as possible so that your application can be acted on before August 15.
However, if you are a participant in a combat zone you may be able to further
extend the filing deadline.

Individuals - Make the second payment of your 2003-estimated tax if you are
not paying your income tax for the year through withholding (or will not pay
in enough tax that way). Use Form 1040-ES .
August 15 If you filed for an extension, file your return by today and pay
any tax, interest, and penalties due.

Additional two-month extension: File Form 2688, Application for Additional
Extension of Time To File. It must be postmarked today. Caution: This
extension is not automatic. You must have a valid reason for needing this
extension. If your second extension is approved, your new tax-filing deadline
is October 15.
September 15 Individuals - Make the third payment of your 2003-estimated tax
if you are not paying your income tax for the year through withholding (or
will not pay in enough tax that way). Use Form 1040-ES.
October 1 Deadline for establishing a SIMPLE IRA.
October 15 If your application for an additional two-month extension was
approved, file your 2002 tax return by today and pay any tax, interest, and
penalties due.

Last day for re-characterizing an IRA contribution for 2002 if you filed your
2002 return on time.

Last day for making many elections that ordinarily were required to be made
by the due date of the 2002 return if you filed your 2002 return on time.
December 31 Last day to set up an IRA.

Deadline for establishing many self-employed retirement plans.

Last day to contribute to a charity



NEED CLARIFICATION - INQUIRY & RESEARCH

Wachovia On-line fees
Dont understand
ONLINE FEES
ONLINE FEES FOR PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

Online Banking/BillPay Fees

Online Banking
 No charge

Online BillPay per month
 $6.95*,**,***, (first three (3) months free)


Online Banking and Online BillPay include access from the Internet, Microsoft
Money and Quicken.


Telephone BillPay
 $6.95** (first three (3) months free)


For Telephone BillPay customers a $1.00 fee will be applied for every
additional Payee List ordered. A $.50 fee will be applied if a Personal
Service Representative initiates a payment on your behalf.


ONLINE FEES FOR NON-PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

Online Business Banking Basic

Access through the Internet, per month
 No Charge

Check Image Retrieval*

  First 20 Check Images, per month
 No Charge

  Each Check Image over 20 per month
 $1.00

Access through Microsoft® Money,
Quicken® or QuickBooks®, per month
 $12.95 (first three (3) months free)


Online Business Banking Basic with BillPay*

Access through the Internet, per month**
 $6.95 (first three (3) months free)

Access through Microsoft® Money, Quicken® or QuickBooks®, per month
 $19.95 (first three (3) months free)


Online Services, P.O. Box 563973, Charlotte, NC 28256-3973
or fax us at: 704-590-3737
or e-mail us at onlineservices@wachovia.com
CLARIFICATION – INQUIRY re:
AFFILIATIONS

Dear Yellow Elephant: info@yellowelephant.com
We enjoyed your ride-on outdoor vehicles for kids.
Our website will be running shortly and would like to know if we can sell the
above mentioned at favorable terms to us if you would drop-ship to our
customers.

Dear First Aid Products: frprod@first-aid-product.com
In researching for products to sell for our upcoming web-site geared at non-
profit needs, I would like to know if you care to enter into a commission
basis or discount percentage with us (Fundraising Kits) without linked
websites.

For the non-profit's constituency, we are interested in selling the first aid
kits for kids and adult.

For the general public visiting our site, the Auto and sports medicine kit
would also work.

Dear Kidsongs: mail@kidsongs.com
I bought your cassette "Cars, Boats, Trains, Planes" at a Family Dollar store
in Richmond, Va., for $1.00.

Your website address was difficult to locate on the web. We are starting a
commercial website geared to non-profits who oftentimes have children as
their constituents or as the constituents' concern.

We would like to sell your products as I was impressed by the packaging and
content. Would you care for a link from our website or would you be able to
drop ship your products to our customers?

Thank you for your kind reply.   Sophina Aryvz




Regarding ''Small Biz Tax Strategies'' page link did not come up to view so
pls let me know what the contents of that page on your website says.
I was looking for further guidance in the area of sales tax and partnership
corporate taxes info.

Tax Credit Investment Pls explain & X REIT Services
Jeff Taylor
jeff.taylor3@wachovia.com

Commercial Lending and Leasing
Spencer Hamrick
(804) 697-6824
spencer.hamrick@wachovia.com
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Topics include stages of the product life cycle; steps to implement the
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Apply appropriate terms or language to marketing situations.
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select a name that can easily be remembered and best describes your business.
If possible, use your business name. By doing a search on the Internet, you
will find out if someone already has rights to the name you want for your Web
site. Doing a name search in advance will save you both time and money.


How is Web server security maintained?

Verizon Online offers SSL Certificates that can be purchased for your Web
hosting account. These certificates provide encryption to help ensure data
confidentiality. Verizon Online also has CD-ROM Back-up Services. This
service makes sure your Web site and database files are routinely backed-up.
Each month you'll receive a non-erasable CD-Rom disk containing the latest
versions of your site and/or SQL database. Verizon Online monitors 24/7 with
active virus and security management, which provides you with the peace of
mind knowing you are protected. Also, our personnel will not allow
unauthorized persons to access your site.
Will my Web site have redundancy?

As your Web hosting provider, Verizon Online has a large amount of available
bandwidth for your business. We ensure that the bandwidth is redundant at
several levels including the data center and Internet routing functions. In
the data centers there are several pipes from different ISPs to ensure that
your site can be accessed at all times. In the event an ISP has an outage,
another ISP can be used as a back up. This will help ensure your Web site
will be redundant and offer greater reliability for your customers.

What if I go over my allotted storage amounts?

There is no charge for data transfer overages, however, you should upgrade to
another plan. When the need arises to expand your service, Verizon Online
will assist you in the process of upgrading to another package. We can
reevaluate your needs and meet your company's specific requirements for
services, storage, and communications.
Which operating system do I need? What is the operating system of your Web
server?

Verizon Online offers both Windows Server Plans and Linux Server Plans. Many
customers choose Windows plans because they find it easier to build and
maintain a Web site using tools such as Visual InterDev, Access and MSSQL
database and to implement Active Server Pages. A customer may select Linux
because they need Telnet access, PHP or want to implement a MySQL database.

Will I need to change my server technology?

Either the Windows or Linux-based Server plan should fit the needs of your
particular Web site. The Basic Shared Web Hosting plan for either platform is
usually sufficient for most businesses, giving you ample storage space,
transfer capacity, and room to grow as your Web business prospers. You can
easily add additional features or capacity when you're growing company is
ready.

Verizon Online - Printable Web Site Starter Guide
Step 1
What is the primary purpose of your Web site? To attract new customers?
Improve customer service? Interact with business partners? Who will use your
Web site? Customers or Clients? Suppliers or Vendors? Employees? How will
they use your Web site? How often will you need to change the information on
your Web site? Will the products or services change frequently? Will you want
to feature special offers? Will customers expect to see something different
each time they visit? So many questions! Help your business and your
customers get the most from your Web site by thinking through these
questions, and the rest is a breeze. Here are a few ideas to help get you
started.

Customers may use your Web site to get general information about your
business such as your name, location, hours, and contact information. Other
things to consider having customers do on your site include:

View samples of your work
Get detailed product information
Purchase or order products
Ask questions or contact someone to get more information
Schedule an appointment
Review the progress of a project
Download information, like brochures, or audio/video files
Vendors or Business Partners may view their account balances with your
company on your Web site. Perhaps they may also:

Access custom catalogs and pricing
Order products for use in their business
Employees may use your Web site to collaborate with other employees and
offices. And they may:

Reduce paperwork by moving some administrative functions online
Easily access the latest company information
Share best practices within the organization
All are unique audiences with different needs, implying different depths and
types of interaction on your Web site. Seems overwhelming? Try starting with
one primary use for your Web site, and add additional functions in the future
to address other needs. You may also want to talk to your employees,
customers, and suppliers for their ideas on the best purposes for your Web
site.




Step 2
A "Domain Name" is how your customers will find you on the World Wide Web -
it is your Web site address. Just like the sign and address above your front
door, it lets your customers know where to look for you.

Select a Domain Name that is easy for your customers to remember. It might
refer to the name of your business, or relate in some way to the business
that you do. Make sure that you select a domain name that is not used or
trademarked by another company. This will help protect your business from the
time and expense to change the domain later.

Domain names can be up to 62 characters long and can contain letters, numbers
and dashes. You can choose from several top-level domains (the part after the
"dot") including:

.COM - Typically denotes a commercial enterprise
.NET - Usually reserved for businesses engaged in Internet infrastructure,
like an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or Web services company - like
www.verizon.net
.ORG - Used primarily for non-profit organizations

More top-level domains are on the way, so you will have more selection in
creating the right domain name for your business.

Once you've chosen your Domain Name, you must register it with an accredited
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names (ICANN) registrar. It is always a
good idea to have a back-up name, just in case the one you picked is already
taken.




Your domain name is your unique identification in the Web world. Just like
the name and address of your business, it helps your customers know how to
find you. Verizon Online offers several services to help you register,
transfer, or house your domain name.

Domain Registration*
Make sure your Web site visitors can reach you by giving them many ways to
find you. Register all of the top-level domains (.com, .net, and .org) for
your domain name, as well as any alternative spellings. Domain name
registration is available with the purchase of Verizon Online Business
Internet Services, and is priced as follows:


Pricing

2-Year Domain Registration
 $70

5-Year Domain Registration
 $140

10-Year Domain Registration
 $250


Check for domain availability
www.     .com .org .net


Domain Pointer*
Use our Domain Pointer service to point multiple domain names to your site.


Pricing
 Quarterly Fee
 $15/domain

Annual Fee
 $54/domain

Biennial Fee
 $102/domain



Web Site Saver
Reserve a domain name and store it on our servers for only $25. This service
is free with a 5- or 10-year domain registration.

©2003 Verizon. All rights reserved. Web Site Services and Internet Services
provided by Verizon Online. Acceptance of Verizon Online Terms of Service
required. Full payment for selected plans is billed in advance and due at the
time of order. FTP Site Move at no charge valid only for Web sites up to
200MB in size; larger site moves available for an additional fee. Verizon
Online does not guarantee uninterrupted or error-free transfer of Web site.
Early Web Site Services termination fees apply. Customer responsible for
annual domain name registration and transfer fees. Availability of company
name for domain or email name not guaranteed. Domain name registration
limited to .net, .com, and .org extensions. Acceptance of VeriSign terms of
service required for domain name registration. Other terms and restrictions
apply.

To make sure customers can find your Web site even if they type in a similar-
looking address, try registering your domain name under several extensions,
or register spelling variations of your address.

Your domain name is your unique identification in the Web world. Just like
the name and address of your business, it helps your customers know how to
find you. Verizon Online offers several services to help you register,
transfer, or house your domain name.

Domain Registration*
Make sure your Web site visitors can reach you by giving them many ways to
find you. Register all of the top-level domains (.com, .net, and .org) for
your domain name, as well as any alternative spellings. Domain name
registration is available with the purchase of Verizon Online Business
Internet Services, and is priced as follows:
Pricing
          2-Year Domain Registration    $70

5-Year Domain Registration       $140

10-Year Domain Registration   $250


Domain Pointer*
Use our Domain Pointer service to point multiple domain names to your site.

Pricing

Quarterly Fee
 $15/domain

Annual Fee
 $54/domain

Biennial Fee
 $102/domain


Web Site Saver
Reserve a domain name and store it on our servers for only $25. This service
is free with a 5- or 10-year domain registration.

©2003 Verizon. All rights reserved. Web Site Services and Internet Services
provided by Verizon Online. Acceptance of Verizon Online Terms of Service
required. Full payment for selected plans is billed in advance and due at the
time of order. FTP Site Move at no charge valid only for Web sites up to
200MB in size; larger site moves available for an additional fee. Verizon
Online does not guarantee uninterrupted or error-free transfer of Web site.
Early Web Site Services termination fees apply. Customer responsible for
annual domain name registration and transfer fees. Availability of company
name for domain or email name not guaranteed. Domain name registration
limited to .net, .com, and .org extensions. Acceptance of VeriSign terms of
service required for domain name registration. Other terms and restrictions
apply.

Step 3
Now that you have your own unique handle on the World Wide Web, it is time to
design your Web site. There are several options for developing a Web site,
whether you want to create it yourself or have someone create it for you.


Put the Web to work for your business with Verizon Online! We help you get
started and stay with you every step of the way. Our Web site packages make
it easier for businesspeople with any level of expertise to create and post a
Web site within hours. Or, choose to let our Web design specialists build
your site for you. Select from the following do-it-yourself Web site
packages:

Standard Web Site Package
Point-and-click Web page development software and more than 160
professionally designed templates enable you to quickly set up a Web site.
Learn More.

Merchant Web Site Package
Create a store in cyberspace in just hours with Site Merchant. Our Merchant
package includes all of the features of the Standard Web Site Package, plus
online storefront features, including a shopping cart and unlimited SKUs.
Learn more.

Scheduler Web Site Package
What if your existing and prospective clients could set appointments with
your company 24 hours a day, without being rushed or put on hold? Our
Scheduler package includes all of the features of the Standard Web Site
Package, plus online appointment booking. Enable your clients more time to
make decisions, while freeing your employees to perform other work. Learn
more.

Complete Web Site Package
Your business does it all - providing services to your clients as well as
selling a line of products. You need a Web site that automates both of these
functions, from appointment scheduling to product order and delivery. Our
Complete package combines the features of the Standard, Merchant, and
Scheduler Web site packages to help your business boost sales and improve
customer service. Learn more.


Does your business need a Web site, but you think you don't have the time or
expertise to create one from scratch? With the Standard Web Site Package from
Verizon Online, designing a professional-looking Web site is as easy as
point-and-click. If you prefer, a Verizon Online Web design specialist will
even build your site for you. You can then make future modifications
yourself, or tap our team of professionals to update your site.

Features Details
Data transfer 5 GB per month
Disk space 150 MB
E-mail boxes 10
E-marketing Up to 50 names in e-mail database
Monthly fee $34.95 per month, one-year contract required
Set-up fee $49.95
Optional build-it-for-you pricing $199 design fee for up to five pages, or
$699 design fee for up to 15 pages

Features:
Tools to get you online fast
Even if you've never developed a site before, point-and-click Web page
development software helps you to quickly set up your Web site. See how you
can build your Web site in 4 easy steps using your choice of more than 160
professionally designed templates.
Advanced Web site features
Add in tables, navigation rollovers and other high-end Web design elements.
Automatic page linking and updating features let you add, delete or move
pages with ease.
Basic shared hosting plan
Our Basic Shared Web Hosting offers plenty of storage space and transfer
capacity for most Web sites. Hosted on Verizon Online servers, all accounts
include traffic reporting tools and 24x7 technical upport.
Business-grade e-mail
Customers can easily access you through your Web site with 10 business-grade
e-mail boxes.
E-marketing
Stay in close communication with your customers and prospects effectively and
cost-efficiently with Constant Contact®. This do-it-yourself e-mail marketing
manager enables you to build an e-mail database, create professional HTML e-
mail communications and manage e-mail campaigns, from delivery and formatting
to results reporting.
Search engine submission
Register your site with top search engines including Google, Lycos, Hotbot
and more. This optional tool even suggests key words you can use to better
help search engines locate your site at no additional charge.
Online help tools
From step-by-step instructions to assistance with specific problems, dynamic
online help tools can answer even your most challenging questions.
©2003 Verizon. All rights reserved. Web Site Services and Internet Services
provided by Verizon Online. Acceptance of Verizon Online Terms of Service
required. Full payment for selected plans is billed in advance and due at the
time of order. 5-page Standard Web Site design includes one set of revisions.
For more complex sites or additional revisions additional fees may apply.
Design fees are non-refundable. Verizon Easy Web Site Services require
Internet Explorer 5.0+ or Netscape Navigator 6.2+. Verizon Online does not
guarantee uninterrupted or error-free transfer of Web site. Early Web Site
Services termination fees apply. Customer responsible for annual domain name
registration and transfer fees. Availability of company name for domain or
email name not guaranteed. Domain name registration limited to .net, .com,
and .org extensions. Acceptance of VeriSign terms of service required for
domain name registration. Other terms and restrictions apply.


Glossary Terms:

Data transfer
The amount of data that can be transferred between your Web site and its
visitors each month.

Dedicated Hosting
In the Web hosting business, a dedicated server refers to the rental and
exclusive use of a computer that includes a Web server, related software, and
connection to the Internet, housed in the Web hosting company's premises. A
dedicated server is usually needed for a Web site (or set of related company
sites) that may develop a considerable amount of traffic - for example, a
site that must handle up to 35 million hits a day. The server can usually be
configured and operated remotely from the client company. Web hosting
companies claim that the use of a dedicated server on their premises saves
router, Internet connection, security system, and network administration
costs.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth
information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone
lines. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL, such as ADSL, HDSL, and
RADSL. Assuming your home or small business is close enough to a telephone
company central office that offers DSL service, you may be able to receive
data at rates up to 6.1 megabits (millions of bits) per second (of a
theoretical 8.448 megabits per second), enabling continuous transmission of
motion video, audio, and even 3-D effects. More typically, individual
connections will provide from 1.544 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and about 128
Kbps upstream. A DSL line can carry both data and voice signals and the data
part of the line is continuously connected. DSL installations began in 1998
and will continue at a greatly increased pace through the next decade in a
number of communities in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Disk space
The amount of space that your Web site's data, such as text and graphic
images, can use on Verizon Online's servers at any given time.

DNS
The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are
located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a
meaningful and easy-to-remember "handle" for an Internet address.

Domain
On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain
is organized in levels. The top level identifies geographic or purpose
commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or a category
such as "commercial"). The second level identifies a unique place within the
top level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the
Internet (an IP address). Lower levels of domain may also be used.


Strictly speaking, in the Internet's domain name system (DNS), a domain is a
name with which name server records are associated that describe subdomains
or host. For example, "whatis.com" could be a domain with records for
"www.whatis.com" and "www1.whatis.com," and so forth.

Also see domain name.

Domain Name
A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. For
example, the domain name www.totalbaseball.com locates an Internet address
for "totalbaseball.com" at Internet point 199.0.0.2 and a particular host
server named "www". On the Web, the domain name is that part of the Uniform
Resource Locator(URL) that tells a domain name server using the domain name
system (DNS) whether and where to forward a request for a Web page. The
domain name is mapped to an IP address (which represents a physical point on
the Internet).

Downloading
Downloading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to
another, usually smaller computer system. From the Internet user's point-of-
view, to download a file is to request it from another computer (or from a
Web page on another computer) and to receive it. In general, from the
ordinary workstation or small computer user's point-of-view, to download is
to receive a file and to upload is to send a file.

Downstream
In telecommunications generally, a transmission from an information server
toward an end user is referred to as downstream and a transmission toward the
server is referred to as upstream.

Downtime
Uptime is a computer industry term for the time during which a computer is
operational. Downtime is the time when it isn't operational. Uptime is
sometimes measured in terms of a percentile. For example, one standard for
uptime that is sometimes discussed is a goal called five 9s - that is, a
computer that is operational 99.999 percent of the time.

DSLAM
A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) is a network device,
usually at a telephone company central office, that receives signals from
multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections and puts the
signals on a high-speed backbone line using multiplexing techniques.

Dynamic and Static
In computer terminology, dynamic usually means capable of action and/or
change, while static means fixed. Both terms can be applied to a number of
different types of things, such as programming languages (or components of
programming languages), Web pages, and application programs.

When a Web page is requested (by a computer user clicking a hyperlink or
entering a URL), the server where the page is stored returns the HTML
document to the user's computer and the browser displays it. On a static Web
page, this is all that happens. The user may interact with the document
through clicking available links, or a small program (an applet) may be
activated, but the document has no capacity to return information that is not
pre-formatted. On a dynamic Web page, the user can make requests (often
through a form ) for data contained in a database on the server that will be
assembled on the fly according to what is requested.

Dynamic IP
Also see IP address.

A static IP is a number (in the form of a dotted quad) that is assigned to a
computer by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to be its permanent address on
the Internet. Computers use IP addresses to locate and talk to each other on
the Internet, much the same way people use phone numbers to locate and talk
to one another on the telephone. When you want to visit whatis.com, your
computer asks a domain name system (DNS) server (think telephone information
operator) for the correct dotted quad number (think phone number) for
whatis.com and your computer uses the answer it receives to connect to the
whatis.com server.

It would be simple if every computer that connects to the Internet could have
its own static IP number, but when the Internet was first conceived, the
architects didn't foresee the need for an unlimited number of IP addresses.
Consequently, there are not enough IP numbers to go around. To get around
that problem, many Internet service providers limit the number of static IP
addresses they allocate, and economize on the remaining number of IP
addresses they possess by temporarily assigning an IP address to a requesting
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) computer from a pool of IP
addresses. The temporary IP address is called a dynamic IP address.


REPEAT ?
Data transfer
The amount of data that can be transferred between your Web site and its
visitors each month.

Dedicated Hosting
In the Web hosting business, a dedicated server refers to the rental and
exclusive use of a computer that includes a Web server, related software, and
connection to the Internet, housed in the Web hosting company's premises. A
dedicated server is usually needed for a Web site (or set of related company
sites) that may develop a considerable amount of traffic - for example, a
site that must handle up to 35 million hits a day. The server can usually be
configured and operated remotely from the client company. Web hosting
companies claim that the use of a dedicated server on their premises saves
router, Internet connection, security system, and network administration
costs.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth
information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone
lines. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL, such as ADSL, HDSL, and
RADSL. Assuming your home or small business is close enough to a telephone
company central office that offers DSL service, you may be able to receive
data at rates up to 6.1 megabits (millions of bits) per second (of a
theoretical 8.448 megabits per second), enabling continuous transmission of
motion video, audio, and even 3-D effects. More typically, individual
connections will provide from 1.544 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and about 128
Kbps upstream. A DSL line can carry both data and voice signals and the data
part of the line is continuously connected. DSL installations began in 1998
and will continue at a greatly increased pace through the next decade in a
number of communities in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Disk space
The amount of space that your Web site's data, such as text and graphic
images, can use on Verizon Online's servers at any given time.

DNS
The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are
located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a
meaningful and easy-to-remember "handle" for an Internet address.

Domain
On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain
is organized in levels. The top level identifies geographic or purpose
commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or a category
such as "commercial"). The second level identifies a unique place within the
top level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the
Internet (an IP address). Lower levels of domain may also be used.

Strictly speaking, in the Internet's domain name system (DNS), a domain is a
name with which name server records are associated that describe subdomains
or host. For example, "whatis.com" could be a domain with records for
"www.whatis.com" and "www1.whatis.com," and so forth.

Also see domain name.

Domain Name
A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. For
example, the domain name www.totalbaseball.com locates an Internet address
for "totalbaseball.com" at Internet point 199.0.0.2 and a particular host
server named "www". On the Web, the domain name is that part of the Uniform
Resource Locator(URL) that tells a domain name server using the domain name
system (DNS) whether and where to forward a request for a Web page. The
domain name is mapped to an IP address (which represents a physical point on
the Internet).

Downloading
Downloading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to
another, usually smaller computer system. From the Internet user's point-of-
view, to download a file is to request it from another computer (or from a
Web page on another computer) and to receive it. In general, from the
ordinary workstation or small computer user's point-of-view, to download is
to receive a file and to upload is to send a file.

Downstream
In telecommunications generally, a transmission from an information server
toward an end user is referred to as downstream and a transmission toward the
server is referred to as upstream.

Downtime
Uptime is a computer industry term for the time during which a computer is
operational. Downtime is the time when it isn't operational. Uptime is
sometimes measured in terms of a percentile. For example, one standard for
uptime that is sometimes discussed is a goal called five 9s - that is, a
computer that is operational 99.999 percent of the time.

DSLAM
A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) is a network device,
usually at a telephone company central office, that receives signals from
multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections and puts the
signals on a high-speed backbone line using multiplexing techniques.

Dynamic and Static
In computer terminology, dynamic usually means capable of action and/or
change, while static means fixed. Both terms can be applied to a number of
different types of things, such as programming languages (or components of
programming languages), Web pages, and application programs.

When a Web page is requested (by a computer user clicking a hyperlink or
entering a URL), the server where the page is stored returns the HTML
document to the user's computer and the browser displays it. On a static Web
page, this is all that happens. The user may interact with the document
through clicking available links, or a small program (an applet) may be
activated, but the document has no capacity to return information that is not
pre-formatted. On a dynamic Web page, the user can make requests (often
through a form ) for data contained in a database on the server that will be
assembled on the fly according to what is requested.

Dynamic IP
Also see IP address.

A static IP is a number (in the form of a dotted quad) that is assigned to a
computer by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to be its permanent address on
the Internet. Computers use IP addresses to locate and talk to each other on
the Internet, much the same way people use phone numbers to locate and talk
to one another on the telephone. When you want to visit whatis.com, your
computer asks a domain name system (DNS) server (think telephone information
operator) for the correct dotted quad number (think phone number) for
whatis.com and your computer uses the answer it receives to connect to the
whatis.com server.

It would be simple if every computer that connects to the Internet could have
its own static IP number, but when the Internet was first conceived, the
architects didn't foresee the need for an unlimited number of IP addresses.
Consequently, there are not enough IP numbers to go around. To get around
that problem, many Internet service providers limit the number of static IP
addresses they allocate, and economize on the remaining number of IP
addresses they possess by temporarily assigning an IP address to a requesting
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) computer from a pool of IP
addresses. The temporary IP address is called a dynamic IP address.




Features:
Tools to get you online fast
Even if you've never developed a site before, point-and-click Web page
development software helps you to quickly set up your Web site. See how you
can build your Web site in 4 easy steps using your choice of more than 160
professionally designed templates.
Advanced Web site features
Add in tables, navigation rollovers and other high-end Web design elements.
Automatic page linking and updating features let you add, delete or move
pages with ease.
Basic shared hosting plan
Our Basic Shared Web Hosting offers plenty of storage space and transfer
capacity for most Web sites. Hosted on Verizon Online servers, all accounts
include traffic reporting tools and 24x7 technical upport.
Business-grade e-mail
Customers can easily access you through your Web site with 10 business-grade
e-mail boxes.
E-marketing
Stay in close communication with your customers and prospects effectively and
cost-efficiently with Constant Contact®. This do-it-yourself e-mail marketing
manager enables you to build an e-mail database, create professional HTML e-
mail communications and manage e-mail campaigns, from delivery and formatting
to results reporting.
Search engine submission
Register your site with top search engines including Google, Lycos, Hotbot
and more. This optional tool even suggests key words you can use to better
help search engines locate your site at no additional charge.
Online help tools
From step-by-step instructions to assistance with specific problems, dynamic
online help tools can answer even your most challenging questions.


What are Easy Web Site Packages?
Easy Web Site Packages are simple-to-use, powerful web site building tools.

No HTML or other coding required.
But if you know HTML, we have tools for advanced builders that you can use to
build your web site.

You work online - nothing to download.

Any changes you make to your web site will be automatically saved. The next
time you want to update your site, login, then click on the web site you want
to edit.
Choose a Bix sub-category of available templates: PROfessional svcs,
hospitality, blding & mftrg, shopping and sales, health and family.      (other
categories may be personal, organization, express sites. )

Step 2
Choose one of our Designs that you can customize to match your business or
personal style.



Step 3
Concentrate on Content:
Step 3: Edit your web site

 Click the ? buttons to replace or customize the sample content.

 Click Add Picture to spruce up your web site with one of our pictures or
upload your own.

 Click Add Web Gem to promote your site and add multimedia, interactivity,
and more.

 Click Add Page to add pages to your web site. We'll handle linking them.


Step 4: Publish your web site.
Click Publish to Web to get your web site on the Internet and share it with
the world. Click All My Sites to create additional web sites. Each has a
separate web address.

Web Hosting

?
Our Basic Shared Web Hosting package   tends to be enough for most businesses,
offering plenty of storage space and   transfer capacity for most Web sites.
Choose the Basic Shared Hosting Plan   if you do not immediately need database
functions, streaming media, or other   advanced features on your Web site.


 Linux Windows
Monthly Price:   $22.95 $27.95
Quarterly Price:   $68.85

Monthly equivalent: $22.95   $83.85

Monthly equivalent: $27.95   Yearly Price:   $247.86

Monthly equivalent: $20.65   $301.86

Monthly equivalent: $25.15
Bi-annual Price:   $468.18

Monthly equivalent: $19.50   $570.18

Monthly equivalent: $23.75
Setup fee:   $49.95 $49.95
Web Storage Space   150 MB 150 MB
Monthly Data Transfer   5 GB 5 GB
Pop E-mail Accounts   10   10

Standard Features

Site Statistics
All accounts come with WebTrends that allows you to generate daily, weekly
and monthly traffic reports.
Tech Support
Technical help desk is available 24x7, 365 days a year for Web site support.
Technical help desk for e-mail boxes is available 7 a.m.-7 p.m. CST.
Web-based Control Panel
Web interface that helps automate many day-to-day tasks of maintaining the
site remotely. Functions include:

Install and uninstall FrontPage® extensions
Setup an ODBC/DSN database connection on the fly
Password protect directories
View site statistics
Generate WebTrends reporting
FTP files
Setup anonymous FTP
Install sample scripts and ASP
Unlimited FTP Updates
Unlimited FTP access allows you to maintain and update your site as often as
you want, at no additional charge.
E-mail Forwarding
Forward your POP accounts to another e-mail address.
E-mail Autoresponders
Automatically send replies to an incoming e-mail messages
Microsoft FrontPage® Compatible
FrontPage extensions are available on request.
CGI-BIN Directory
Private CGI-BIN Directory. Some sample scripts are available.
Log File Access
Access to raw log files, which are stored in the root directory. The files
are segmented monthly.
Additional Windows Features

Active Server Pages
Deliver dynamic content viewable from almost any browser. Developers can use
the scripting language of their choice to give their Web site ability to
create pages "on the fly," access databases, send e-mail, and more.
ODBC/DSN
ODBC/DSN Database Support
Optional Add-Ons

FTP Site Move
For a nominal fee, we will move your site content from your current provider
to Verizon Online.*
FTP 200 MB Web site $100
FTP Additional 100 MB $100
* Transfer of your Web site is not guaranteed to be interruption free.
Web Consultation
Web specialists are available for an hourly fee of $149 if you need
assistance in developing, loading or transferring your Web site. (1-hour
minimum required)
Web Site Backup
Receive a non-erasable CD each month containing the latest version of your
Web site.
CD-Rom (up to 200 MB) $149/backup
Additional CD-Rom $100/copy of backup
Also Recommended

Domain Registration
Domain Pointer
Web Traffic Generator
©2003 Verizon. All rights reserved. Web Site Services and Internet Services
provided by Verizon Online. Acceptance of Verizon Online Terms of Service
required. Full payment for selected plans is billed in advance and due at the
time of order. FTP Site Move at no charge valid only for Web sites up to
200MB in size; larger site moves available for an additional fee. Verizon
Online does not guarantee uninterrupted or error-free transfer of Web site.
Early Web Site Services termination fees apply. Customer responsible for
annual domain name registration and transfer fees. Availability of company
name for domain or email name not guaranteed. Domain name registration
limited to .net, .com, and .org extensions. Acceptance of VeriSign terms of
service required for domain name registration. Other terms and restrictions
apply.


Web Site Services Glossary
WebTrends
WebTrends analyzes the log file of a Web server and provides a report of site
activity. Daily, weekly or monthly reports on the previous 30 days of site
traffic can be provided. Log files are also maintained for the previous 60
days. You can use a browser or FTP client to download the site's old log
files. Because the accuracy of Web Trends results cannot be guaranteed, it is
not recommended that billing or similar functions be based on WebTrends data.


ODBC/DSN
ODBC stands for Open Database Connectivity and DSN stands for Data Source
Name. ODBC/DSN database connectivity is utilized to ensure fast and
consistent database connectivity for your Web site. Scripting languages such
as ASP, PERL, and ColdFusion can be used to connect to a database such as SQL
server. The goal of ODBC is to make it possible to access any data from any
application, regardless of which database management system (DBMS) is
handling the data. ODBC manages this by inserting a middle layer, called a
database driver, between an application and the DBMS. The purpose of this
layer is to translate the application's data queries into commands that the
DBMS understands. For this to work, both the application and the DBMS must be
ODBC-compliant -- that is, the application must be capable of issuing ODBC
commands and the DBMS must be capable of responding to them. Since version
2.0, the standard supports SAG SQL. Two types of ODBC connections are as
follows:
Jet Data Engine - This connection allows ODBC-compliant databases such as
Microsoft Access, Foxpro, D-Base and others.
SQL Server - This allows ODBC connection via TCP/IP to a Microsoft SQL
server.



Domain Pointer*
Use our Domain Pointer service to point multiple domain names to your site.
Pricing

Quarterly Fee      $15/domain

Annual Fee      $54/domain

Biennial Fee      $102/domain



Web Site Saver
Reserve a domain name and store it on our servers for only $25. This service
is free with a 5- or 10-year domain registration.

Kick-Start Customer Traffic to Your Web Site
Promote your Web site to drive traffic to your virtual front door. Get your
Web site listed with the top Web search engines with Web Traffic Generator.

We Supply the Easy-to-Use Tools
Optimize your site to help achieve a top site rating from select search
engines. Generate automatic keywords for your site that can be used on Web
search engines. Automatically submit your new Web site address to more than
100 top search engines.

You See the Results
Analyze and compare which search engines bring the most visitors to your Web
site. The tracker tool compares the performance of 15 top Web search engines
on your primary Web site pages.

Our Basic Shared Web Hosting package   tends to be enough for most businesses,
offering plenty of storage space and   transfer capacity for most Web sites.
Choose the Basic Shared Hosting Plan   if you do not immediately need database
functions, streaming media, or other   advanced features on your Web site.


Standard Features

Site Statistics
All accounts come with WebTrends that allows you to generate daily, weekly
and monthly traffic reports.
Tech Support
Technical help desk is available 24x7, 365 days a year for Web site support.
Technical help desk for e-mail boxes is available 7 a.m.-7 p.m. CST.
Web-based Control Panel
Web interface that helps automate many day-to-day tasks of maintaining the
site remotely. Functions include:

Install and uninstall FrontPage® extensions
Setup an ODBC/DSN database connection on the fly
Password protect directories
View site statistics
Generate WebTrends reporting
FTP files
Setup anonymous FTP
Install sample scripts and ASP
Unlimited FTP Updates
Unlimited FTP access allows you to maintain and update your site as often as
you want, at no additional charge.
E-mail Forwarding
Forward your POP accounts to another e-mail address.
E-mail Autoresponders
Automatically send replies to an incoming e-mail messages
Microsoft FrontPage® Compatible
FrontPage extensions are available on request.
CGI-BIN Directory
Private CGI-BIN Directory. Some sample scripts are available.
Log File Access
Access to raw log files, which are stored in the root directory. The files
are segmented monthly.
Additional Windows Features

Active Server Pages
Deliver dynamic content viewable from almost any browser. Developers can use
the scripting language of their choice to give their Web site ability to
create pages "on the fly," access databases, send e-mail, and more.
ODBC/DSN
ODBC/DSN Database Support
Optional Add-Ons

FTP Site Move
For a nominal fee, we will move your site content from your current provider
to Verizon Online.*
FTP 200 MB Web site $100
FTP Additional 100 MB $100
* Transfer of your Web site is not guaranteed to be interruption free.
Web Consultation
Web specialists are available for an hourly fee of $149 if you need
assistance in developing, loading or transferring your Web site. (1-hour
minimum required)
Web Site Backup
Receive a non-erasable CD each month containing the latest version of your
Web site.
CD-Rom (up to 200 MB) $149/backup
Additional CD-Rom $100/copy of backup
Also Recommended

Domain Registration
Domain Pointer
Web Traffic Generator
Kick-Start Customer Traffic to Your Web Site
Promote your Web site to drive traffic to your virtual front door. Get your
Web site listed with the top Web search engines with Web Traffic Generator.

We Supply the Easy-to-Use Tools
Optimize your site to help achieve a top site rating from select search
engines. Generate automatic keywords for your site that can be used on Web
search engines. Automatically submit your new Web site address to more than
100 top search engines.

You See the Results
Analyze and compare which search engines bring the most visitors to your Web
site. The tracker tool compares the performance of 15 top Web search engines
on your primary Web site pages.
List Your Site With Directories and Search Engines
By Staff Writer,    workz.com

Listing your site with the major search sites - that is, directories and
search engines - can direct large numbers of interested prospects to your
site. Your goal is to make sure that your site shows up on the "search
results" screen when potential customers look for you. Although there are
thousands of different search engines, they all fall into two different
categories.

True Search Engines
These search engines use software agents (called spiders, robots, or
crawlers) to scour the entire Web and index everything they find. (Two widely
known examples are AltaVista and HotBot.) Search engine link databases built
this way create a more comprehensive, though less qualified, listing of
sites. "All-in-one search engines" (also known as "meta search engines"),
such as Dogpile, provide a single page of results created from the combined
returns of simultaneous keyword searches across many search engines.

Directories
These types of search engines organize information about sites into
hierarchical listings, much like a telephone directory. The most widely know
examples are Yahoo!, Infoseek, and LookSmart. Qualified directories, such as
Yahoo!, About.com, Britannica Internet Guide, Open Directory, and Magellan,
review each site they list and make their reputation by linking only to the
best sites.

Both types of search sites keep their listings in a proprietary index
database. When you use a search site, it looks in its database, not on the
Web, to find sites that match your query. (For more information on search
sites, visit Search Engine Watch.) Here's how to submit your site to make
sure search engines return a link to your Web site when a prospective
customer comes searching for you:

Submit Your Site to Yahoo!
Getting a listing in Yahoo! means traffic, and traffic means business.
According to "NetRatings Search Engine Ratings," Yahoo! ranks number one,
getting approximately 51% of all directory and search engine traffic.
Approximately 22 million people use Yahoo! every day. Each site listed on
Yahoo! has been inspected by an editor - a Yahoo! surfer - before it has been
listed. Give your site an edge, and prepare it fully before submitting it.
Then, be sure to fill out the forms properly and completely. If you do not
receive a listing, there are ways to resubmit and contact Yahoo! regarding
your submission.

Submit Your Site to Other Directories
Although less numerous than search engines, there are still hundreds of
directories that can potentially drive traffic to your site. Locate and
prioritize the directories you want to list your site, and then submit your
URL to each one. You might also consider using submission services or
consultants to help you make your submissions.

Submit Your Site to True Search Engines
Preparing your site for submission to true search engines is a fine art. The
process entails identifying keywords and phrases that your customers will use
to find sites like yours, and then deploying those keywords in specific ways
throughout your HTML code, submitting your prepared site, and monitoring your
results to fine-tune your placement on each engine.

Evaluate Paid-For Positioning
Consider the advantages of free registration vs. paid-for positioning. Most
search sites offer free registration, but many are expanding their services
to include pay-as-you-go options such as purchasing keywords via auction,
express listing services, and keyword / ad banner combinations. Paid-for
positioning offers some super advantages, including speedy registration
and/or high relevance rankings for your target audience. Weigh all these
issues carefully before you begin submitting your site to search sites.

Small Businesses Reap Large Returns with Broadband Access
The TransSynergy Group

High-speed Internet access isn't just for surfing any more.

Business owners and managers for years have bemoaned the challenges of
Internet access. For small companies that could only afford dial-up access,
getting online could be more of a hassle than it was worth. Plus, managers
feared their employees might spend more time catching waves on the Internet
than working.

But thanks to the low-coast broadband services now available, even the
smallest company can afford high-speed Internet access. And businesses of all
sizes are finding ways to reduce costs, boost productivity and increase
worker efficiency with broadband access.

What's more, unlike dial-up access, broadband services can be used by several
workers at a single location. With the help of a router, multiple employees
can share one connection. The company even saves money, since individual
accounts usually do not have to be purchased.

Express delivery e-mail
E-mail has become the key method of communication for many businesses.
Exchanging information with customers, suppliers and employees can be
accomplished inexpensively, quickly and easily with the click of a mouse.
With broadband Internet access, businesses can take their e-mail service to
the next level.

In the past, dial-up accounts forced users to wait several minutes simply to
download text e-mail messages. With broadband services such as DSL, these e-
mails are delivered at lightening speed.

Plus, broadband access enables businesses to quickly upload and download
large e-mail attachments, including files with graphics, audio and video
clips. As a result, files that used to take minutes or even hours - such as
large spreadsheets, slide show presentations, .pdf files, graphics-intensive
brochures, software manuals and more - can be downloaded in mere seconds.

Companies also can use their high-speed connection to transfer large data
files to and from suppliers, customers and remote offices via FTP technology.


E-commerce comes alive
Shopping online with a dial-up connection creates too much frustration for
the average computer user. From getting booted off of the network to waiting
endlessly for merchandise photos to load, e-commerce via dial-up presents
more challenges than opportunities.

But once small businesses have broadband access in place, a whole new world
of online shopping opens up to them. And it's not about wasting time window-
shopping the 'net. It's about saving time and money.

Rather than making a trip to the office supply store, online shoppers can
hunt for bargains and order products via the Web. After orders are placed,
customers can check on delivery status and know exactly when their products
will arrive.

Small businesses also can use the Web to save hundreds or thousands of
dollars on travel expenses. The Internet offers a myriad of discount travel
providers. By booking air travel, hotel stays and rental cars online,
business managers can take control of their companies' travel budgets.

Another way small business can take control of their money is through online
banking. With broadband access, business managers can quickly and easily
write electronic checks, get updated account information and more.


Where business gets intelligence
Small and mid-sized businesses are always on the lookout. They must penetrate
their market, keep on top of competitors' activities and find new prospects.
With broadband access, these businesses have one more weapon in the fight for
more sales.

The Internet is a prime source of business intelligence. There workers can
find invaluable information about their customers and prospects, including
data on locations, employees, revenue and more. They can also search for news
about competitors' latest products, services and customer wins. There's no
faster way to learn so much, so inexpensively.


Up-to-date and in-touch
Effectively leveraging technology requires keeping computers and software up-
to-date. This is especially important in the area of anti-virus software
programs, which must be periodically updated to recognize the latest security
threats stalking the Internet.

Who can wait for software updates to be sent in the mail? With broadband
Internet access, users can download software programs and updates quickly and
easily. What once tied up the Internet connection all day now can be
accomplished in just minutes.

Broadband access also frees employees from their desks, enabling them to keep
in touch with the office from home. With high-speed access, workers can log
in to the corporate network to send and receive e-mail, download data files
and remain productive, even when they're out of the office.

Mobile Technologies Free Workers from the Office
The TransSynergy Group

It looks so tantalizing in the sexy television ads: hard-working
businesspeople break away from their desks and become "mobile workers,"
released from the technology ties that once bound them to the office. Now
they roam free, conquering the business world while on the go, thanks to a
briefcase full of high-tech gadgets.

Does this seem like an impossible dream, or a scenario only plausible in the
future? Well, it's not. With commonly available technologies, any business
manager or employee can become a more productive, mobile worker today. Best
of all, "going mobile" does not require a legion of expensive, high-tech
toys.


The power to choose
Is becoming a mobile worker really worth the trouble? Can it live up to the
hype? After all, many employees cannot wait to leave the office each day. So
they certainly don't want to take it with them, right?

Wrong. Being a mobile worker is not about working more hours. Instead, it's
about improving productivity and giving each employee choices about how they
want to work.

Consider the mobile phone. Once deemed a luxury affordable only for a few, it
now frees employees from waiting by a landline phone for important calls. As
a result, they can go about other business, but still remain in contact with
key clients, colleagues and family members.

Plus, a truly mobile worker can take control of personal and business
communications, enabling a healthier balance between work and family life.
Taking time off to deal with family matters, enjoy a child's soccer game or
go on vacation no longer means being cut off completely from the corporate
network. Rather, managers and employees can choose to keep in touch, even
when they're out of the office, out of town or out of the country.



Is it time to go home?
Probably the most common reason employees request access to mobile
technologies is so that they can work from home. With a technology-enabled
home office, workers can:

Check e-mail and work on projects after-hours and on weekends, rather than
being stuck in the office
Take advantage of the quiet atmosphere to work on thought-intensive projects
Remain productive on days they simply cannot come in to work, including sick
days and bad weather days
Take care of pressing personal business - from meeting a home repairman to
leaving the office early for a doctor appointment - without sacrificing
productivity

The tools needed to accomplish these tasks are simple: a PC or laptop and a
high-speed Internet connection can get any worker up and running at home.
Rather than suffer through busy signals and tie up their home phone line,
many mobile workers choose to install DSL. This gives them broadband Internet
access, plus allows them to simultaneously use the same phone line for voice
or fax.

Many DSL service packages include the option of dial-up access, so users can
leverage their Internet access even when away from their DSL-enabled home
office.
Another connectivity option is Virtual Private Network (VPN). Employers can
set up a VPN, which gives workers remote access to the corporate network,
regardless of the type of Internet access they use. This offers better
security than a simple, password-protected access solution.


Hitting the road
Mobile working extends far beyond the home office. Using mobile dial-up
access, employees can reach their employer's network or VPN while on the go -
from a hotel room, meeting site or clients' office. No longer must workers
fear missing a key e-mail from a client, colleague or family member.

With the world now going wireless, Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) offers the
hottest new tool for connectivity. Workers simply must add a wireless access
card to their laptop, personal digital assistant (PDA) or PocketPC. Then
jumping on the Internet is as simple as finding a "hot spot" set up by their
Internet service provider.

Hot spots generally are placed in high-density, urban centers. Using this
technology, mobile workers can access their e-mail, surf the Internet, send
instant messages and more - all from the convenience of a café, park bench or
client's office.

So now workers can take their office with them. Or they can simply turn it
off. With mobile technologies, the choice is theirs.

E-mail Goes Pro
The TransSynergy Group


"If that was a real business, wouldn't it have a Web site and domain name?"

Fair question? Maybe not, but it's one that is asked every day. As consumers
and businesses shop for products and services, they are becoming more likely
to check out company Web sites or request information via e-mail.

So when a small business doesn't have a professional-sounding e-mail address,
they might already have one strike against them.

That's why more small companies are choosing to purchase business-grade e-
mail solutions, which offer domain name e-mail. Plus, with business-grade
service, small businesses are less likely to suffer from down-time and other
problems.

What's in a domain name?

Domain name e-mail enables users to choose a professional-sounding e-mail
address that best reflects their small business. For example, John at ABC
Company might register the domain name abccompany.com. With business-grade
email, his e-mail address could then be john@abccompany.com.

This way customers immediately recognize their vendors' communications, since
e-mail no longer is listed as being from the Internet service provider, such
as john@yourisp.net. Plus, with domain name service, e-mail communications
appear more comfortable and reinforce brand equity for even the smallest of
firms.

Big-business service at small-business prices
Most businesses of any size cannot survive without e-mail. They use this
powerful tool to communicate with clients and employees, take orders, request
information and more. But consumer-grade e-mail service simply was not
designed to meet the rigors and demands of the business world.

In the past, business-grade e-mail was available only to large companies that
could afford to set up and maintain their own e-mail servers. But today,
small businesses can purchase feature-rich, business-grade e-mail services
from Internet service providers.

Buying e-mail service frees small businesses from the capital outlays,
upgrades and ongoing maintenance required to operate even the simplest e-mail
solution. Most providers offer system support and maintenance, as well as
automatic disaster recovery in the event of a system failure.

Each provider offers different packages, from bare bones to the gold
standard. Businesses might choose from these options:
Virus protection helps block viruses, Trojans, worms and other malicious
content before it can do damage.
Web access to e-mail enables users to retrieve messages from any hard-wired
computer with Internet access.
Mailbox storage allows customize the amount of e-mail messages maintained on
the Internet service provider's servers.
Personal preferences might include vacation messaging and mail forwarding.
System activity reports tell users about system traffic and efficiency,
enabling them to proactively monitor their account.

Small Businesses Put Safety First
The TransSynergy Group

It's a scenario that can strike fear into the hearts of business managers:
intruders hack into the company network, wreaking havoc on every technology
asset the firm owns.

Unfortunately, attacks like this happen every day. And as the Internet
becomes more prevalent, smaller businesses are becoming targets.

The costs of such attacks can be staggering - lost productivity and sales as
the network is restored to its previous condition; loss of customer trust;
high bills from technology consultants who are called in to repair the
damage, and more.

But this damage can be prevented. And with the affordably priced security
solutions now available on the market, even the smallest business can be
virtually hacker-proof. Small and mid-sized businesses must take three simple
steps to secure their networks.


Step 1: Run anti-virus software
Viruses can come from anywhere. They can infect a network via e-mail
attachments, floppy disks, Internet downloads, shared files, CD-Roms and
online services. If just a single machine becomes infected, the entire
network is at risk. That's why every PC and laptop on the company network
must be protected by anti-virus software.
Anti-virus software monitors the computer's activities to protect against
known viruses, Web attacks and e-mail intrusions. If a virus is detected, the
software quarantines the infected file so it cannot harm the computer.

To be effective, anti-virus software must be continually updated with
information on the most recently developed threats. If traditional software
was purchased, users can typically download free updates for a prescribed
length of time.

Alternately, some small-business owners choose managed anti-virus solutions.
These subscription-based services automatically update the anti-virus
software on each of the company's PCs, without requiring intervention from
the user. That way the network has the most up-to-date protection available.



Step 2: Build a firewall
Any business that accesses the Internet needs a firewall. Once online, a PC
is vulnerable to intrusion from hackers, who seek out access points from
which they can watch users' every move. In doing so, they can steal credit
card numbers, personal financial information and sensitive customer data.

There are two primary firewall options: desktop-based and network-based. With
the desktop-based variety, each PC erects its own individual firewall. The
solution then can safeguard system devices - including network cards and
modems - by blocking suspicious and unauthorized activity. Whether purchased
as software or as a managed service, desktop firewalls must be updated
periodically with the latest information.

On the network level, firewalls include both software and hardware options.
These can protect PCs, laptops, routers, servers and more.


Step 3: Install a virtual private network
Businesses with multiple locations face a unique set of security challenges.
This includes companies that operate branch offices, as well as those where
employees perform some work from home, a client office or while traveling.

To get the most out of the IT infrastructure, these businesses must
simultaneously keep intruders out, while allowing employees and other
authorized users in from other locations.

These firms might choose to install a virtual private network (VPN), which
enables telecommuters and other remote users to access the company network
remotely and securely, regardless of the type of Internet access they use. By
dialing in or using a broadband connection, users can efficiently read e-mail
and pull data off of the network's servers, without creating security risks.
Special encryption technologies ensure that data remains safe.


Keep it all together
The powerful combination of anti-virus software, a firewall and a VPN
provides the best defense against growing threats on the Web. This includes
the most threatening of security problems: blended threats. These viruses
enter the system through malicious and international attacks. Because they
combine elements of viruses and hack attacks, blended threats are the more
pervasive and dangerous Internet attacks.
But by installing a multiple security measures - with a special focus on
placing both anti-virus and firewall protection on each PC - companies will
be posted to keep data from harm.

Publish an E-Mail Newsletter
By Staff Writer
workz.com

Producing a newsletter that's of interest to your target audience is a great
way to build your lead database, earn new customers, and develop an "expert's
voice" in your field. A newsletter can be anything from a few simple
announcements and updates about your product to a detailed resource of
information with articles, reviews, and any other content that might be
useful to your readers. Increasingly, newsletters and discussion lists
published via e-mail have become excellent sources of advertising revenue.
Here's a checklist you can follow for developing and delivering a consistent
e-mail-based publication:

Choose Your Newsletter Topic
Think about your readers: Are they customers? Clients? Potential customers or
clients? If this is your first experience with newsletters, starting with a
modest free newsletter is often your best bet. You can always expand with
more detailed content later.

Set Your Publication Schedule
At the start, you will also need to decide how often to publish your
newsletter - daily, weekly, monthly, or at some other interval. You may want
to start with a less-frequent schedule until you have ironed out all your
publishing procedures and have determined the workload associated with
putting out issues on time.

Collect and Maintain a List of E-Mail Names
Once you have determined the model for your newsletter, you need to figure
out how you will get people to sign up to receive it. In addition to getting
readers to sign up, you will need to think about how to maintain your list
over time. E-mail addresses can be especially volatile; you may have to
update your list each time you send out your newsletter.

Choose List Management and Distribution Software
There are a number of options to consider when deciding how you will manage
your e-mail newsletter or other list activity. ListBot is a Web-based utility
that handles list sign-up and maintenance. A free version is available, along
with a more powerful commercial version. You simply put the ListBot button
field on your page and users enter their e-mail address and press "submit."
Their address then goes into your list's database. Majordomo automates the
management of Internet mailing lists via e-mail. It is free but only runs on
UNIX servers. Check with your ISP to see if they support it or something
similar.

Write the Newsletter
You will want to put together a newsletter that you will be proud of and that
will benefit your readers. You and your staff can write each issue, you can
solicit contributions, or you can hire an agency to handle it for you.
Determine what your objectives are and what resources you have to get the job
done right.

Distribute the Newsletter
Many of the products and services for collecting and maintaining e-mail
addresses will also facilitate the delivery of your newsletter. Because of
their built-in maintenance features, this is often the easiest method.
Smaller lists can be delivered using your standard e-mail package. If you use
this method, be sure to put the list of addressees in the "bcc" field so they
wont be visible to every subscriber.

Sell and Manage E-Zine Advertising Space
You can increase your revenues by selling advertising in your own e-mail
publication. Advertisers are always looking for highly targeted e-mail
newsletters or "e-zines" where they can promote their products.

E-mail Goes Pro     The TransSynergy Group

"If that was a real business, wouldn't it have a Web site and domain name?"

Fair question? Maybe not, but it's one that is asked every day. As consumers
and businesses shop for products and services, they are becoming more likely
to check out company Web sites or request information via e-mail.

So when a small business doesn't have a professional-sounding e-mail address,
they might already have one strike against them.

That's why more small companies are choosing to purchase business-grade e-
mail solutions, which offer domain name e-mail. Plus, with business-grade
service, small businesses are less likely to suffer from down-time and other
problems.


What's in a domain name?

Domain name e-mail enables users to choose a professional-sounding e-mail
address that best reflects their small business. For example, John at ABC
Company might register the domain name abccompany.com. With business-grade
email, his e-mail address could then be john@abccompany.com.

This way customers immediately recognize their vendors' communications, since
e-mail no longer is listed as being from the Internet service provider, such
as john@yourisp.net. Plus, with domain name service, e-mail communications
appear more comfortable and reinforce brand equity for even the smallest of
firms.


Big-business service at small-business prices

Most businesses of any size cannot survive without e-mail. They use this
powerful tool to communicate with clients and employees, take orders, request
information and more. But consumer-grade e-mail service simply was not
designed to meet the rigors and demands of the business world.

In the past, business-grade e-mail was available only to large companies that
could afford to set up and maintain their own e-mail servers. But today,
small businesses can purchase feature-rich, business-grade e-mail services
from Internet service providers.

Buying e-mail service frees small businesses from the capital outlays,
upgrades and ongoing maintenance required to operate even the simplest e-mail
solution. Most providers offer system support and maintenance, as well as
automatic disaster recovery in the event of a system failure.

Each provider offers different packages, from bare bones to the gold
standard. Businesses might choose from these options:
Virus protection helps block viruses, Trojans, worms and other malicious
content before it can do damage.
Web access to e-mail enables users to retrieve messages from any hard-wired
computer with Internet access.
Mailbox storage allows customize the amount of e-mail messages maintained on
the Internet service provider's servers.
Personal preferences might include vacation messaging and mail forwarding.
System activity reports tell users about system traffic and efficiency,
enabling them to proactively monitor their account.

Manage Customer E-Mail Communication
By Lisa Picozzi, Contributing Author      workz.com

E-mail offers your online customers their only chance to "speak to the
manager" to get additional information or pursue resolution to a problem.
Online shoppers expect people to answer their e-mail message; they become
dissatisfied with anything less than prompt, accurate responses to their
questions. How well you manage your customer e-mail communications can make
or break your online sales efforts.

Confirming the receipt of all incoming e-mail messages is the first step
toward earning the trust of your online customers. But that's just the tip of
the iceberg. Routing and responding to incoming queries is where most
companies drop the ball. For example, if the message doesn't reach the right
department, the customer may receive a response that is inaccurate or
incomplete, or worse, no response at all.

Finally, it should be noted that communicating via e-mail is something of an
art. People often react differently to the written word than to the spoken
word. Understanding how to use e-mail effectively will increase your
company's chances for positive interaction with its customers. Savvy Web
merchants are even using e-mail proactively, enticing their customers back to
their site with full-text articles, information on new products and services,
news items, and other incentives.

Confirm Receipt of All Incoming E-Mail Messages
To many Intenet users, a late response is worse than no response at all.
Confirming the receipt of all incoming e-mail messages will give your
customers confidence in your company's ability to serve their needs. Further,
confirming the receipt of e-mail inquiries gives you the opportunity to set
expectations for response times, which may vary from 15 minutes to 24 hours,
depending on the nature of your business. There are two options for
accomplishing the confirmation of incoming e-mail: replying manually or via
auto-reply e-mail systems.

Route and Prioritize Incoming Customer E-Mail Inquiries
If a customer's e-mail message doesn't make it to the right person, there is
little chance that the customer will receive an appropriate response.
Therefore, routing incoming customer inquiries is critical to the success of
any online customer service center. There are two basic strategies for
routing e-mail: offering a single customer service address, or offering
multiple addresses pointing customers to specific individuals or departments.
Offering a single company address will require auto-routing technology,
whereas offering multiple addresses gives customers a more direct path to the
department they need. Either way, all messages must be prioritized for timely
responses. For example, resolving a customer's problem should receive a
higher priority than responding to a customer's friendly suggestion.

Respond to Your Customers Effectively via E-Mail
Responding to customer inquiries is a challenge. People often respond
differently to the written word than to the spoken word, so communicating via
e-mail can be something of an art. As a result, a special set of guidelines
has been established in an effort to bring a standard to Web-based
communication. This standard is commonly referred to as "Netiquette."
Understanding and implementing these guidelines will help ensure that your
customers receive answers that are clear, concise, and effective in meeting
their needs.

Use an E-Mail Newsletter for Proactive Customer Service
On the Net, e-mail customer service extends beyond answering questions and
complaints. You can use e-mail proactively to give your customers important
product and service information. An effective tool for distributing this
information is an e-mail newsletter, which allows you to "push" news, article
teasers, details on special promotions, and other important product
information to your clientele while providing a link back to your site for
ordering information, full-text articles, news items, and other details. But
don't distribute your e-mail newsletters indiscriminately; invite visitors to
your site to sign up for it through a quick and easy registration process.

Growing you bix online
 3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You - Your Web site is your only
face to many of your customers. If you post your original content and forget
about it, they will notice. You need to keep refreshing your features to make
sure your site is up-to-date in order to keep the interest of your customers.

 10 Design Tips for Improving Your Web Site - When you design a Web site,
especially an e-commerce site, you want people to visit often, for reasonably
long periods of time, and to make purchases. To do this, you must make your
site easy to use.

 Additional Features to Enhance Your Site - Here's a list of features that
you might want to consider when imagining your site. Some of these features
go well beyond the basics of what you'll need for your site. But you might
find that some of them will be instrumental in maximizing your Web site
profits.

 Engage Your Customers With Online Surveys - People enjoy taking   surveys when
they feel their opinions are valued, and they like learning what   others are
saying about an issue. Surveys are an excellent way to get close   to your
customers, to offer them something interesting, and to keep them   coming back
to your site.

 How To Keep Content Current - Keeping a site accurate, literate and credible
is the first priority of Web site maintenance.

 Make Your Site Design Work - Your Web design evolves in response to company
growth and customer needs. Measure the effectiveness of the changes you make
along the way to make sure you are only making the changes that improve
sales.
 Monitor and Analyze Site Traffic - You've built a company Web site, and it
does a great job of presenting your business to everyone who visits it.
You've promoted your site wherever you could, and you've spent your marketing
budget wisely. So where do you begin to find out how your site is performing?

 Promote Your URL on All Communications - Once you've invested time and
effort to produce a great Web site for your company, be sure to let your
customers know it's there.

 Steering Visitors in the Right Direction - Once you have visitors coming to
your site and you have their interest peaked, it's time to direct them to
where you want them to go.

Fifteen Free or Low Cost Promotional Tips - Promoting your Web site doesn't
have to be expensive. The following tips can help you get the word out about
your online business without ruining your bank account.

How to Promote Your Site: Reciprocal Links - Did you know reciprocal links
are one of the most effective ways to promote your company and increase
traffic?

Build Traffic with Compelling Content - One of the most stunning mistakes
site owners make is to pay too much attention to first-time visitors to their
sites, and too little to repeat visitors.
Build Traffic with Compelling Content
By Staff Writer
workz.com

One of the most stunning mistakes site owners make is to pay too much
attention to first-time visitors to their sites, and too little to repeat
visitors. "First-time visitors can be bought," says online ad-sales
consultant Kirk Tatnall. "Banner ads, site sponsorships, and other
advertising efforts will bring some people to your site - but only once.
Getting them to come back generally means having compelling content on the
site for them to enjoy on that first visit, and a strong pull for them to
come back again soon."

An important rule of thumb: people who eventually do things on your site that
you want them to do - like registering personal information with you, signing
up to receive a newsletter, or buying a product - generally don't do these
things on their first visits. They do them on their third, their fifth, or
even their twentieth visits. People tend to build trust in your site as they
make more repeat visits, and with their trust comes their patronage.

"So you have a real challenge here," says Tatnall. "How can your site be of
value to people who don't want to buy what you're selling, at least not the
first time they come to your site. What can you offer those people?"

Strong, original, unique content that promises to be updated regularly is
right at the top of the list, according to Tatnall. Each of these adjectives
is very important, though. The content must be strong - not just filling
space. It must be the kind of material that rewards your site visitors more
than all the other things they could be doing. Strong content competes with
television, talking with friends, and all the other content out there on
other Web sites. And your content must be original . Piping in newsfeeds and
articles that have been published elsewhere might please some site visitors,
but those who are most engaged in the topics your site covers will find
recycled material less than satisfying. Unique content means that it simply
cannot be found anywhere else - on or off the Web. That's a great challenge
to rise to, but if you meet it, first-time visitors will be back for more.

Tatnall suggests rewarding repeat visitors with "frequent surfers'
discounts," and perhaps with contests and giveaways that build on clues woven
into your site over a series of days or weeks.

"In the long run," he says, "You'll find that the bulk of your revenues come
from repeat visitors - so invest in your resources accordingly. For every
dollar you spend on banner ads or other promotions, ask yourself how much you
are investing in the quality of what you're offering the folks who already
know where you are, and need a good reason to keep coming back."

workz.com Bottom Line

People browse the web as much for information as they do to actually buy
things. You can make your site more useful and memorable - and more visited -
by investing in strong, original, unique content.

3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You
By Russell Shaw, Contributing Author     workz.com


Your Web site is your only face to many of your customers. If you post your
original content and forget about it, they will notice. You need to keep
refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in order to
keep the interest of your customers. The only way for you to know whether
your site is meeting your customers' needs and how it might need to be
changed is to keep monitoring it after it is built. You can use a number of
methods to make sure your content is right for your audience: Log analysis
tools for tracking traffic patterns on your site, keyword tracking, and
customer surveys can all help you make sure that you don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading or that turns your customers
away.

Traffic Pattern Analysis

Use log analysis tools, such as WebTrends Log Analyzer, to determine high and
low traffic areas of your site. If one of your sections has had a decrease in
traffic or has become an exit page, you may need to make some changes. Think
about how long it has been since you last added content. Don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading.



Keyword Analysis

Determine which of your keywords lead to the most hits on your site. This
will be a good indicator of your site's readership and will help you
understand what your customers are most interested in. Don't forget to
register new keywords as you add or revise content. And, of course, if
someone is conducting a Web search and finds your site because you've
included the same words they've searched for in your META tags, you should
ensure that those words describe topics that are actually on your site. If
not, your site visitor (a potential customer) may view this experience as a
waste of time and not return.

Analysis of Online Surveys
Filling out online surveys is one way the reader can more fully interact with
your site. This can help attract and hold customers. Also, though, it is a
great way to get free feedback from the actual viewers who use your site. In
turn this information can help your design team and your marketing team in
creating a more successful Web site.

3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You
By Russell Shaw, Contributing Author
workz.com

Your Web site is your only face to many of your customers. If you post your
original content and forget about it, they will notice. You need to keep
refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in order to
keep the interest of your customers. The only way for you to know whether
your site is meeting your customers' needs and how it might need to be
changed is to keep monitoring it after it is built. You can use a number of
methods to make sure your content is right for your audience: Log analysis
tools for tracking traffic patterns on your site, keyword tracking, and
customer surveys can all help you make sure that you don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading or that turns your customers
away.

Traffic Pattern Analysis

Use log analysis tools, such as WebTrends Log Analyzer, to determine high and
low traffic areas of your site. If one of your sections has had a decrease in
traffic or has become an exit page, you may need to make some changes. Think
about how long it has been since you last added content. Don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading.

Keyword Analysis

Determine which of your keywords lead to the most hits on your site. This
will be a good indicator of your site's readership and will help you
understand what your customers are most interested in. Don't forget to
register new keywords as you add or revise content. And, of course, if
someone is conducting a Web search and finds your site because you've
included the same words they've searched for in your META tags, you should
ensure that those words describe topics that are actually on your site. If
not, your site visitor (a potential customer) may view this experience as a
waste of time and not return.

Analysis of Online Surveys

Filling out online surveys is one way the reader can more fully interact with
your site. This can help attract and hold customers. Also, though, it is a
great way to get free feedback from the actual viewers who use your site. In
turn this information can help your design team and your marketing team in
creating a more successful Web site.
3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You
By Russell Shaw, Contributing Author
workz.com


Your Web site is your only face to many of your customers. If you post your
original content and forget about it, they will notice. You need to keep
refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in order to
keep the interest of your customers. The only way for you to know whether
your site is meeting your customers' needs and how it might need to be
changed is to keep monitoring it after it is built. You can use a number of
methods to make sure your content is right for your audience: Log analysis
tools for tracking traffic patterns on your site, keyword tracking, and
customer surveys can all help you make sure that you don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading or that turns your customers
away.

Traffic Pattern Analysis

Use log analysis tools, such as WebTrends Log Analyzer, to determine high and
low traffic areas of your site. If one of your sections has had a decrease in
traffic or has become an exit page, you may need to make some changes. Think
about how long it has been since you last added content. Don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading.

Keyword Analysis

Determine which of your keywords lead to the most hits on your site. This
will be a good indicator of your site's readership and will help you
understand what your customers are most interested in. Don't forget to
register new keywords as you add or revise content. And, of course, if
someone is conducting a Web search and finds your site because you've
included the same words they've searched for in your META tags, you should
ensure that those words describe topics that are actually on your site. If
not, your site visitor (a potential customer) may view this experience as a
waste of time and not return.

Analysis of Online Surveys

Filling out online surveys is one way the reader can more fully interact with
your site. This can help attract and hold customers. Also, though, it is a
great way to get free feedback from the actual viewers who use your site. In
turn this information can help your design team and your marketing team in
creating a more successful Web site.
3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You
By Russell Shaw, Contributing Author
workz.com

Your Web site is your only face to many of your customers. If you post your
original content and forget about it, they will notice. You need to keep
refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in order to
keep the interest of your customers. The only way for you to know whether
your site is meeting your customers' needs and how it might need to be
changed is to keep monitoring it after it is built. You can use a number of
methods to make sure your content is right for your audience: Log analysis
tools for tracking traffic patterns on your site, keyword tracking, and
customer surveys can all help you make sure that you don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading or that turns your customers
away.


Traffic Pattern Analysis

Use log analysis tools, such as WebTrends Log Analyzer, to determine high and
low traffic areas of your site. If one of your sections has had a decrease in
traffic or has become an exit page, you may need to make some changes. Think
about how long it has been since you last added content. Don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading.

Keyword Analysis

Determine which of your keywords lead to the most hits on your site. This
will be a good indicator of your site's readership and will help you
understand what your customers are most interested in. Don't forget to
register new keywords as you add or revise content. And, of course, if
someone is conducting a Web search and finds your site because you've
included the same words they've searched for in your META tags, you should
ensure that those words describe topics that are actually on your site. If
not, your site visitor (a potential customer) may view this experience as a
waste of time and not return.

Analysis of Online Surveys

Filling out online surveys is one way the reader can more fully interact with
your site. This can help attract and hold customers. Also, though, it is a
great way to get free feedback from the actual viewers who use your site. In
turn this information can help your design team and your marketing team in
creating a more successful Web site.

3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You
By Russell Shaw, Contributing Author     workz.com

Your Web site is your only face to many of your customers. If you post your
original content and forget about it, they will notice. You need to keep
refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in order to
keep the interest of your customers. The only way for you to know whether
your site is meeting your customers' needs and how it might need to be
changed is to keep monitoring it after it is built. You can use a number of
methods to make sure your content is right for your audience: Log analysis
tools for tracking traffic patterns on your site, keyword tracking, and
customer surveys can all help you make sure that you don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading or that turns your customers
away.


Traffic Pattern Analysis

Use log analysis tools, such as WebTrends Log Analyzer, to determine high and
low traffic areas of your site. If one of your sections has had a decrease in
traffic or has become an exit page, you may need to make some changes. Think
about how long it has been since you last added content. Don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading.

Keyword Analysis

Determine which of your keywords lead to the most hits on your site. This
will be a good indicator of your site's readership and will help you
understand what your customers are most interested in. Don't forget to
register new keywords as you add or revise content. And, of course, if
someone is conducting a Web search and finds your site because you've
included the same words they've searched for in your META tags, you should
ensure that those words describe topics that are actually on your site. If
not, your site visitor (a potential customer) may view this experience as a
waste of time and not return.
Analysis of Online Surveys

Filling out online surveys is one way the reader can more fully interact with
your site. This can help attract and hold customers. Also, though, it is a
great way to get free feedback from the actual viewers who use your site. In
turn this information can help your design team and your marketing team in
creating a more successful Web site.

10 Design Tips for Improving Your Web Site
By Delilah Obie, Wendy Hinman, Contributing Authors   workz.com

When you design a Web site, especially an e-commerce site, you want people to
visit often, for reasonably long periods of time, and to make purchases. To
do this, you must make your site easy to use. Here are 10 tips for making
your site customer-friendly:

Keep Your Pages Fast-Loading

Web users are impatient. Don't force visitors to wait through JavaScript-
enabled introductions or QuickTime movies before they can enter your site.
Always provide a "Skip" or "Stop" button when using these elements.

Avoid Dead-End Pages

Always offer your customers a way out of a page. This could mean including a
link to the main page on every page. Users are becoming increasingly
accustomed to a navigation bar that links to all the sections of a site, and
company logos that act as a navigation link to the home page. You can also
offer text links on each page for going to "Top of page" or "Back."

Facilitate Scanning

Study after study shows that most people don't read on the Web. They scan
content for information that is relevant. Facilitate this process by breaking
up text with headings and subheadings. Use text links that allow readers to
jump from section to section. Don't expect people to scroll to find
information on your site.

Avoid Overusing Graphics, Animation, and Multimedia

If they don't add functionality, don't use graphics, animation, movies,
sounds, and so on. Only use these features if they enhance your customers'
experience. Product photos are often valuable additions to your site, but you
might want to minimize the delays they could cause in load times by using
thumbnail (small) images. You can link these thumbnail images to larger, more
detailed images for customers who are interested in having a closer look. You
can even include technology that allows viewers to zoom in on features or
rotate the view of the product.

Limit the number of images on each page for faster load times. If pages or
files will take some time to download, it's best to forewarn your customers
by noting the file size next to the link to them. If anything, users have
less patience for state-of-the-art technology these days as the Web becomes
dominated by new users, and the upgrade speeds for new browsers and plug-ins
decline.

Don't Assume That Everyone Uses the Same Browser
Avoid designing for a certain browser or trying to force a certain look. Some
Web authors make extensive use of elaborate formatting tricks in a determined
effort to coerce a client program into creating a specific visual rendering.
These pages look good when viewed with the author's browser of choice, but
look bad in most or all other browsers.

Provide a Text Option

Browser preferences allow users to turn off graphics if they choose, and
those who are using older browsers may not have the ability to view all
images. So provide text links or alternative text tags in addition to
graphics, including navigational buttons or bars.

Delay Registration

There are many reasons for asking visitors to register at your Web site, but
don't put your registration form on the first page. Show your content first;
demonstrate that registration has its rewards before you ask visitors to
spend their time on it.

Make Your Forms Flexible

Online forms are often necessary and useful for placing an order or setting
up accounts. But try to make your forms flexible by limiting the number of
required fields. Also, make errors easy to find and correct. If users have
incorrectly entered a phone number, they shouldn't need to complete the
entire form again. Just have them correct the portion with the error, which
should be highlighted to make the mistake obvious. Include a "Help" link in
case customers run into problems while filling out a form. It's just not
worthwhile to people to take time to figure out how to make something work on
your site when there are 5 million other sites to visit.

Avoid "Under Construction" Signs

By definition, Web documents change over time. Either your pages are useful
to people (in which case you need not apologize for them) or they're not - in
which case, you aren't ready to show them to the world and shouldn't be
making them public.

Provide a Clear Path for Customers to Make a Purchase

Display your products, descriptions, and prices prominently. If you're going
to talk about a product your company sells, explain how to order it. Many Web
sites are guilty of not fully disclosing product and pricing information or
making it clear how to buy their products. Even if you are not yet prepared
to process transactions online, you can let customers know how to buy your
products by including a telephone number or retail location where they can
complete a purchase, or a date when the product will become available online.

Additional Features to Enhance Your Site     workz.com

Here's a list of features that you might want to consider when imagining your
site. Some of these features go well beyond the basics of what you'll need
for your site. But you might find that some of them will be instrumental in
maximizing your Web site profits.
When evaluating any feature it's always a good idea to compare the cost to
add the feature against the possible revenue the addition of the feature
might bring.

The list of potential features includes:

On-site search engine

If a potential customer comes to your site for one reason and one reason
only, you want that customer to be able to find what she is looking for
quickly and easily, otherwise she's probably going to surf somewhere else.
Providing your visitors with an on-site search engine is a relatively easy
way to ensure that your products, ideas, designs, and content are easy to
find.

It's also possible that, if you purchased a turnkey solution, you purchased
an on-site search engine, so check with your provider to find out. Many
companies offer free or low-cost search engines for your site.

Newsletters

Keeping your site's visitors up-to-date with changes in the site's content,
sales and promotional items, and related news is a great way to keep visitors
coming back. One way to do this is to publish an e-mail newsletter. Site
visitors can sign up by entering their e-mail information into a form that
you provide on your site. If you choose to make this newsletter interactive,
you'll need to create an opt-in e-mail forum. If you offer news and
information in your newsletters and do not allow users to post to the group,
the software and maintenance are, obviously, much simpler. In fact, in order
to run a newsletter, all you need is an e-mail client.

Community

An essential element of any Web site, community refers to the group of people
who frequent your site. It is important to cultivate this group in order to
organize a community of repeat customers and develop a sense of
interdependence. There are many ways to build community. For example, you can
offer chat rooms, Web-based forums, discussion groups, and newsletters.
You'll need to choose forum technology and forum hosts to get things started.
The following community building tools are easy additions to your site,
because you can often find free downloads and free service providers that
will provide access to (and host) these elements for you.

Chat Rooms

Providing your visitors with real-time communication capabilities promotes
true stickiness. Visitors will likely remain on your site longer if there is
a hot discussion or an immediate exchange of ideas and assistance. Read
workz.com's Hooking Up Your Chats to learn about the three kinds of chat
rooms.

Web-Based Forums

A common example of a Web-based forum is   a message board. A   message board is
similar to a chat room in that it allows   your site users to   exchange ideas
and thoughts - and it keeps them at your   site while they do   so. Message
boards and other forums differ from chat   rooms in that they   are asynchronous:
Visitors do not communicate in real time   and therefore need   not be present at
a certain time in order to participate. Your forum's design and functionality
depend upon which platform (NT or Unix) your site uses. Read workz.com's
Choose Software for Your Web-Based Forum to help you decide which program to
use.

Discussion Groups and Opt-In E-mail Forums

Opt-in e-mail forums have the advantage of being both private and convenient.
Those who have asked to be included in the thread or discussion receive the
same e-mail and are able to post thoughts and ideas by submitting an e-mail
message to the group's moderator. The opt-in format allows users to take
themselves off the list and add themselves back on whenever they wish. The
software that enables this type of discussion is easy to use and widely
available. Read workz.com's Choose Software for Your E-Mail-Based Forum to
help you decide what technology to use. You may want to outsource the service
entirely, in which case you will want to choose either an advertising-based
provider or a provider that charges a fee.



Affiliate Partners

You can significantly increase site revenue and traffic by starting your own
associate or affiliate program. Planning your program will involve choosing
or developing your software, setting up agreements with your associate sites,
and deciding how much commission to pay. Read the workz.com article Join an
Affiliate or Associate Program to find out more.

Streaming Audio or Video

Streaming audio or video is an excellent way to distinguish your site from
the millions of Web sites out there. You'll need to be aware of your audience
and of access issues before you introduce this bandwidth-intensive feature.
To do this, you'll need to understand how bandwidth, Net connections, and
modem speeds affect your visitors' experience.

Online Forms

You'll use online forms to collect information about your customers, run
online surveys, create opt-in email, and process orders.

Database Software

You'll need some database software to capture your customer and product data.
If you choose a turnkey solution provider to build your site, you may find
that this is included, because many turnkey solution providers will offer
this as part of their package. If you build your site using off-the-shelf
software, you'll want to choose one that will enable dynamic access to
databases.

Engage Your Customers With Online Surveys
By John Towler, Ph.D.         workz.com

People enjoy taking surveys when they feel their opinions are valued, and
they like learning what others are saying about an issue. Surveys are an
excellent way to get close to your customers, to offer them something
interesting, and to keep them coming back to your site.
You can use surveys to identify your customers and their preferences. For
example, you may want to survey people who have ordered from you once but
have not returned, to find out why. Sometimes people like taking surveys
because it makes them feel important and that someone actually values their
opinions and wants to listen.

If you post a survey on your site and make the results available online,
people will visit your site again and again to view the results. Surveys are
an excellent way to attract people to and build traffic on your site. An
added bonus is that if your survey turns up something interesting and
newsworthy, the media may become interested. This can generate some free
publicity for you.

You can survey people on just about anything. You can create surveys to learn
what your customers like or don't like about your site, your services or your
products. Surveys can also help you determine their level of satisfaction and
research their buying habits. You can also measure their opinions on
politics, news items, pressing community issues, and on social, economic and
environmental issues.

Start by deciding what the purpose of the survey will be and why you want to
do it. Be sure to take into consideration that the survey must serve your
visitors first and you second. They must feel that it is an important use of
their time. They must also feel that they will reap a particular benefit from
participating, such as making a difference in the community or in your
company's direction, or winning a prize.

How To Keep Content Current
By Mary Ann Chapman, Guest Expert      workz.com

Keeping a site accurate, literate and credible is the first priority of Web
site maintenance.

Correct, without delay, any error found in-house or reported by visitors.
Whether you correct features not operating properly in a browser or incorrect
spelling, grammar or facts, your site needs to be 100 percent accurate.

The next priority goes to keeping site content up-to-date. Visitors return
for new, exciting and entertaining content. The most popular sites, from
Dilbert.com to eBay to MSNBC offer viewers something new every day.

Update Without Delay

If you provide reports on regular events, don't make visitors wait a month -
or even a week - to read them. Prompt posting drives visitors to your site;
delays drive them elsewhere. If you provide alternate versions for access by
text-based browsers or visually disabled access, update those versions
simultaneously with the main site.

Highlight the latest features on the home page and keep recent ones within a
click or two for visitors who may have missed them. If older material is
still of interest, keep it to increase the site's depth of content. Richness
of content attracts and retains visitors.

Some older material might be timeless and worth a position on the site's
current pages. The energy engineering site 21Design keeps a prominent listing
of newsletters going back several years because the information contained in
them is still current. Older material that isn't currently of interest should
be stored in archives.

Archive Outdated Content

If your content is predictable and structured, divide archived material into
logical search topics and provide navigation in a tree-structure directory. A
site on agriculture forecasts, for example, could have folders called
archives/eastern-us, archives/middle-us, and archives/western-us. Or an
organization's meeting reports could be filed into folders named by year,
with links to each section.

Unpredictable content can be retrieved more easily with a site search
feature. Free site search engines are available from many sources, including
Google, FreeFind, and Atomz.com.
If a visitor returns to review information found earlier or sends a friend or
an associate to the site to see it, storing that information in a searchable
archive can prevent frustration and keep the visitor coming back. New
visitors searching for older information might find the site through your
archives then return for current information on the same topic.

Frequent updating and archiving can help to make your site the Web
destination of first choice for your target audience.

Make Your Site Design Work
By Jennifer LeClaire, Contributing Author    workz.com

Your Web design evolves in response to company growth and customer needs.
Measure the effectiveness of the changes you make along the way to make sure
you are only making the changes that improve sales. Even simple daily
changes, such as updating content and sales promotions, can have a big impact
on the customer-friendliness of your site.

First, define a target measurement. In other words, what measurement
signifies great design for your business? Increased traffic? Increased sales?
Increased repeat visitors? All three? Some general factors to look at include
changes in Web site traffic flow, the number of sales made, and customer
response to design changes.

Start Tracking

Design changes are made with a purpose in mind. For example, redesigning the
order page is a change driven by the need to match shopping patterns. In this
case, the redesign should facilitate the ordering process and decrease the
likelihood customers will abandon the sale.

If the number of orders decreases or the number of questions about the
ordering process increases after you've made a change, you need to find out
specifically what your customers find difficult and rectify the problem.

Monitor site traffic. A favorite measurement tool on the Web, site traffic
reports supplied by your server's software or by your ISP can include such
information as daily or hourly traffic volume, most requested pages, or error
messages. In addition, referrer logs tell you where visitors came from and
what pages they visited on your site.

Measure sales volume fluctuations. Though commonly used to measure the
effectiveness of changes to site design, it might not be the most accurate
indicator of a successful design. Many factors contribute to fluctuations in
sales volume, one of which could be changes to design. Consider this when
tracking the effectiveness of a design change, but use it in conjunction with
other measurements.

Conduct customer surveys. Use online or e-mail surveys to elicit customer
feedback. Remember the adage, "The customer is always right"? If you really
want to know if something works in your site design, go straight to the
customers.
A change in your site should increase traffic and facilitate flow from the
product information section to the order area. Most important, sales should
increase.

Compare your data to previously established baselines or to target numbers
established through comparison with similar sites.

Relate customer survey data to sales information and page traffic. If the
cost of the design change was greater than the increase in sales for a three-
month period, the change was probably not worth the investment.

Improve Initiatives

Based on the results of a cost-benefit analysis, decide whether to expand,
maintain, reduce, or temporarily suspend your site design initiatives. You
might need to consider a new designer or to hire one if you've been doing it
yourself.

You don't want to fix something that's not broken, but you do want to scout
other vendors and rerelease your site with competitive features and
functionality.

Monitor and Analyze Site Traffic
By Jacqueline Southey, Contributing Author         workz.com

You've built a company Web site, and it does a great job of presenting your
business to everyone who visits it. You've promoted your site wherever you
could, and you've spent your marketing budget wisely. So where do you begin
to find out how your site is performing?

There are several questions you'll need to consider: How many people are
visiting your site? Where are they coming from? Where on the site are they
going? Where do they spend the most time? Those are a few questions to start
with, and there are more. The good news is that, with a solid tracking
system, you can find reasonably accurate data with which to measure your
site's performance.

Getting Started

Before you begin, you need to know the difference between hits and page
views. Do you understand Internet protocol addresses and the user agent
string? Make sure you know what you'll be counting before you get started.

The raw data about your site's visitors is in your server's log files. To
make sense of this data, you will need to use site-traffic analysis tools.
There are various options available to you that can help you analyze your
data - from your basic hit-counter-type reports to a more comprehensive
approach using off-the-shelf software programs, outsourcing to a third party,
or having your own database expert build a custom-made solution.
Using Reports

Once you have the reporting structure in place, you'll be looking at reports
that will most likely break down into the categories below. Ideally, you will
have the e-mail addresses for all your customers, and you'll be able to
develop a customer relationship based on individual demand. It is more
likely, however, that your casual browser or customer visiting your Web site
will leave you only clues to follow rather than detailed demographic
information about themselves. Use your Web server statistics to pick up as
many clues as you can about your customers. These clues can provide you with
information on how many visitors the site is getting, where they are coming
from, which pages they find most interesting, and which keywords they are
using to find your site.

Total stats reports: Get a good overall picture of your site's activity and
performance levels and use that information to track peak usage. Identify
spikes in your traffic resulting from promotional campaigns.

Top URLs requested: Find out where your customers spend their time on your
site and identify the parts of your site that are working best and the parts
that need improvement.

Referrer report: Who is sending customers your way? Use that information to
drive more traffic to your site. Search phrase report: Find out the keywords
that work on search engines to drive customers to your site, and rework your
site's keywords to get higher search engine ratings.

Most common browser used: See what types and versions of browsers your
visitors are using and fine-tune your site design to match them.

Bad URL/referrer report: Links to your site that don't work make you look
bad. Use this report to find and remove the dead links that are causing error
messages for your users.

User domain reports: Examine the top-level domains of your users to
understand where, both in cyberspace and worldwide, your customers are coming
from. Then figure out how to get more customers like them.

One thing to remember as you analyze your Web site statistics is to take it
slow. Make changes gradually to measure their effectiveness. Changing many
things on your site at once makes it difficult to assess the impact of each
change.

Promote Your URL on All Communications        workz.com

Once you've invested time and effort to produce a great Web site for your
company, be sure to let your customers know it's there. Place your URL
prominently on all your stationery, promotional materials, and T-shirts, as
well as on packaging, invoices, and receipts - in other words, wherever you
would print your company's name or telephone number.

If you have only a limited budget to promote your Web site, including the URL
on all communications is one inexpensive way to increase traffic. If your
potential customers know they can find out more about your products or
services by visiting your Web site, many will do so.
If your company sends out any business letters before your letterhead has
been reprinted with the Web site URL, be sure to type the URL and the
company's main e-mail address under the signature of the sender.

There are three main areas to consider when you set out to promote your URL.
Follow our checklists of all the instances of each category, and work through
the various pieces as you reprint current material or design new advertising.
If you can think of more, let us know!

Checklist for Developing Direct Marketing

Direct marketing materials, including direct mail pieces, point-of-sale
packaging, and trade show displays, should include the Web site URL and,
wherever possible, an e-mail contact address. Run through this checklist to
make sure your company is making use of the marketing dollars you would have
budgeted anyway.
Direct mail letters
Direct mail envelopes
Flyers, or inclusions with other senders' direct mail
Product displays, for retail or trade
Trade show brochures
Tent cards
Postcards, or direct response cards
Entry forms, for contests or sweepstakes
Promotional items or giveaways, such as
Pens or pencils
T-shirts
Calendars
Memo pads
Magnets
Coffee mugs

Checklist for Developing Awareness Advertising

Another essential place to include your URL is on your company's awareness
advertising. Wherever you've found advertising to be effective, such as
display or classified ads you purchase in trade journals or newspapers, your
URL should direct customers to your Web site.

Remember to include even less obvious awareness advertising, such as resource
guides or your Yellow Pages listing. View your site as an second layer of
information connected to the ad. Your ad will catch readers' attention; then
your Web page offers a more detailed explanation of your product, and perhaps
offer the opportunity to place an order on the spot.

Print advertising, in newspapers, magazines, or trade journals
TV advertising
Radio advertising, if your URL is short and easy to remember
Yellow pages listing or page ad
Business White pages listing or page ad
Other directory listings, in trade journals or local resource guides
Classified advertising
Employment advertising

Checklist for Developing Collateral

Collateral material includes all your company's literature, whether it's
traditional stationery materials or flashier four-color brochures you might
send to potential customers. Be sure to include materials that wouldn't be
managed from a marketing department.

Letterhead, all sizes
Envelopes, all sizes
Boxes or other packaging
Business cards
Receipts
Invoices
Packaging inventory lists for mailing
Fax cover pages
Account statements
Order confirmations
Thank you cards
Annual reports or informational brochures

Promote Your URL on All Communications          workz.com

Once you've invested time and effort to produce a great Web site for your
company, be sure to let your customers know it's there. Place your URL
prominently on all your stationery, promotional materials, and T-shirts, as
well as on packaging, invoices, and receipts - in other words, wherever you
would print your company's name or telephone number.

If you have only a limited budget to promote your Web site, including the URL
on all communications is one inexpensive way to increase traffic. If your
potential customers know they can find out more about your products or
services by visiting your Web site, many will do so.

If your company sends out any business letters before your letterhead has
been reprinted with the Web site URL, be sure to type the URL and the
company's main e-mail address under the signature of the sender.

There are three main areas to consider when you set out to promote your URL.
Follow our checklists of all the instances of each category, and work through
the various pieces as you reprint current material or design new advertising.
If you can think of more, let us know!

Checklist for Developing Direct Marketing

Direct marketing materials, including direct mail pieces, point-of-sale
packaging, and trade show displays, should include the Web site URL and,
wherever possible, an e-mail contact address. Run through this checklist to
make sure your company is making use of the marketing dollars you would have
budgeted anyway.
Direct mail letters
Direct mail envelopes
Flyers, or inclusions with other senders' direct mail
Product displays, for retail or trade
Trade show brochures
Tent cards
Postcards, or direct response cards
Entry forms, for contests or sweepstakes
Promotional items or giveaways, such as
Pens or pencils
T-shirts
Calendars
Memo pads
Magnets
Coffee mugs

Checklist for Developing Awareness Advertising

Another essential place to include your URL is on your company's awareness
advertising. Wherever you've found advertising to be effective, such as
display or classified ads you purchase in trade journals or newspapers, your
URL should direct customers to your Web site.

Remember to include even less obvious awareness advertising, such as resource
guides or your Yellow Pages listing. View your site as an second layer of
information connected to the ad. Your ad will catch readers' attention; then
your Web page offers a more detailed explanation of your product, and perhaps
offer the opportunity to place an order on the spot.

Print advertising, in newspapers, magazines, or trade journals
TV advertising
Radio advertising, if your URL is short and easy to remember
Yellow pages listing or page ad
Business White pages listing or page ad
Other directory listings, in trade journals or local resource guides
Classified advertising
Employment advertising

Checklist for Developing Collateral

Collateral material includes all your company's literature, whether it's
traditional stationery materials or flashier four-color brochures you might
send to potential customers. Be sure to include materials that wouldn't be
managed from a marketing department.

Letterhead, all sizes
Envelopes, all sizes
Boxes or other packaging
Business cards
Receipts
Invoices
Packaging inventory lists for mailing
Fax cover pages
Account statements
Order confirmations
Thank you cards
Annual reports or informational brochures

Steering Visitors in the Right Direction
By Contributing Author, Marnie Pehrson           workz.com

Once you have visitors coming to your site and you have their interest
peaked, it's time to direct them to where you want them to go. Whether you're
selling information, products, services or simply generating leads, bear in
mind why people visit web sites:
News - according to the MarketFacts research firm, roughly 90% of Net users
use the Web for news. A report from Media Metrix shows that news sites are
now more popular than search engines.
Research - people visit sites to look for information on products, services,
etc.
Shopping - people are starting to use the Web with increasing regularity to
comparison shop and are buying more and more over the Web.
Most likely, unless you are generating all your Web revenues from
advertising, you are trying to sell the visitor something--your products or
services. To draw people in, use a three-step process:

First, give them what they want--give them news, articles, or non-sales pitch
information that relates to your products or services.
Second, include links to your products or services on the page(s) with the
news or articles. These can be subtle links - as simple as a ''products'' or
''services'' link in the navigational area of the page. Or, it can be a blurb
about you as the author and a link to your products/services at the bottom of
the page.
Third, test, test and test again. Check your statistics frequently when you
make a change to your home page or site. Which information areas are getting
the most hits? Pay attention to the information areas people like so as to
learn what they actually want. Are the pages that contain product information
getting more hits now that you've made the change? Are more people clicking
on your order form now? And, bottom line, are you making more sales or
getting more referrals from your Web site? Keep tweaking, testing, and
recording the results until you find the mix that brings the maximum number
of sales per visitor.
In summary, use your home page to steer people to the content. Remember,
people first ask themselves, ''What's in it for me?'' or ''Why should I click
any further?'' By bringing content (articles, news, information) to the
forefront, you'll draw them further inside your site. Then, make sure they
know you're an expert on the subject and direct them as to where to go next
to purchase your products or services.

Remember that it's not how much traffic you get, it's what you do with the
people once they arrive. What you really want to know is: ''how many visitors
does it take to make a sale?'' Work with your content and try directing your
traffic in different ways until you get the maximum yield per visitor.

15 Free or Low-Cost Promotion Tips
By Larry Swanson, Staff Writer   workz.com

Promoting your Web site doesn't have to be expensive. The following tips can
help you get the word out about your online business without ruining your
bank account.

Work the Big Directories

The sites that are most likely to point visitors to your site are the big
directories, chief among them Yahoo!. You maximize your chances of getting
listed in these directories by creating a professional site and then getting
the attention of the editors who choose what goes into the directory.

Work the Search Engines

Search engines automatically scan the Web to identify and index sites. The
best way to make sure your site shows up on these sites is to write content
and HTML code that gets the search agents' attention. Again, there are more
details in our Search Engines and Directories section.

Work the Qualified Directories
While the big directories will list any site that meets their basic
qualifications, specialized directories, like About.com, Britannica Internet
Guide, and Magellan , review each site that they list. These folks make their
reputation by linking to only the best sites, so your first step in cracking
these directories is to create a great site . Then you have to get the
attention of the editor, who very likely has the attitude of the nightclub
bouncer, if they will talk with you at all. Many of these editors prefer to
proactively go out and find sites that meet their needs rather than field
calls from listing candidates. If you do get their attention, be nice, but
also be persistent and persuasive, and (assuming you've got what they are
looking for) eventually you might slip past their velvet ropes.

Work the Specialized Directories

If you go to Yahoo!'s list of specialized directories, you'll see that many
industries and interest areas have their own directories. Find directories
that specialize in your industry, and work these folks the same way you do
the qualified directories.

Work the Registration Services

You can reach many of the search engines and directories mentioned above by
using a registration service. There are hundreds of these services. Among the
better-known and more established are Submit It, Register-It, and Did-It.
SelfPromotion.com takes a slightly different approach, and their price is
right: It's free.

Work the Awards Sites

From Netscape's What's Cool page to your local Internet service provider's
(ISP's) "Business of the Day" page, everyone on the Web wants to share their
favorite sites with the world. Getting a Cool Site of the Day or other award
can bring new traffic to your site right away, and it gives you bragging
rights for years. Working these sites is much like working the qualified
directories. A good overview of these sites, and how to win them over, can be
found at VirtualPromote's site awards page.

Work a Newsletter

No matter what business you are in, you have probably developed one or more
areas of expertise. An e-mail newsletter is a terrific way to share your
knowledge with your customers and prospects and to promote your business. See
our article on Developing and Delivering an E-Mail Newsletter for more info
(and check out our article on the generic benefits of content-based
marketing: Build Traffic with Compelling Content).

Work the Discussion Groups, Forums, and Chat Rooms

Another way to establish (and share) your expertise is participating in the
many interactive discussions you will find online. From Usenet news groups to
discussion forums, from mailing lists to chat rooms, the online world is
buzzing with conversation. You can learn a lot just by lurking at the edges
of these conversations, but you will benefit most when you participate, so
find a conversation that you can contribute to and jump in. A number of sites
can help you find conversations to join: Forum One lists online discussion
forums, Deja News indexes and archives news groups, Liszt lists thousands of
mailing lists. To find out more about live chats, check out Yahoo!'s Net
Events chat page.
Plaster Your URL Everywhere

Your Web address (i.e., URL) should be as visible and as widely available as
your phone number. Make sure it is prominently displayed on your e-mail
correspondence, your paper letterhead, your business cards, your invoices,
your print ads, your radio and TV ads, your Yellow Pages ad, your delivery
vans, your answering machine message and any place else of which you can
think.

Work Your Signature File

Most e-mail and news-reading programs allow you to create a signature file,
or ".sig file," that can be appended to the bottom of your outgoing messages.
Anyone who reads your e-mail or newsgroup postings will see your sig file, so
it offers a great opportunity to promote your business. It shouldn't be too
long (no more than four or five lines), but it should include at least your
name, your e-mail address, your Web site URL, and a pitchy catch phrase that
describes your business. Esther Filderman at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing
Center has been saving signature files for years and has filled a Web page
with examples of .sig files.

Swap Links with Other Sites

Hypertext linking is what makes the Web go 'round. And links from other sites
are the most common way that people find your site (see the survey data
below). You can (and should) swap links on a casual and informal basis. Just
ask anyone who seems interested (and to whom you wouldn't mind being linked)
if they would like to swap links. There is also a whole sub-industry of more
formal link programs (e.g., affiliate programs, Web rings, etc.) which we
discuss in our Low-Cost Link Programs article.

Work News Releases

Letting the media know about your business can result in tons of free
publicity. The Internet News Bureau's media relations tips page can help you
get your media campaign started. Once you have created a news release, you
can issue it yourself by getting addresses from a directory such as Gebbie
Press's, or you can use a free submission service like PR Web. You will
probably get better results with for-fee services, like PR Newswire, Internet
Wire, or Internet News Bureau. And, if you have really high expectations
(and/or a generous budget), you can use a premium service like URLWire.

Exchange Banner Ads

If you have already created banner ads for a paid advertising campaign, it is
simple to use those ads in free banner-exchange programs like LinkExchange.

Sponsor a Contest or Sweepstakes

Creating a contest or sweepstakes might make sense for your business. Give-
away programs of any kind are sure to attract attention. See these sites for
tons of examples of online (and offline) contests and sweepstakes:
Sweepstakes Online, ContestGuide.com, and Debbie's Contest & Sweepstakes
Page.

Use Specialized Promotion Services
Recommend-It.com is a service that generates traffic to your Web site by
giving browsers an easy way to pass along sites of interest to friends. We'll
list other innovative services like this as we find them. According to a
recent survey, the main ways that people find new web sites are:
Other Web pages
Search engines
Directories
Magazines/newspapers
Friends
TV
Sig files
Usenet newsgroups
Books
Think about this list as you plan your promotion campaign.

workz.com Bottom Line

Doing business online can be expensive. Hosting services, software, custom
programming, content creation, and advertising can add up in a hurry. Your
marketing budget doesn't have to follow this trend. Using our tips can bring
customers to your site without breaking the bank.

How to Promote Your Site: Reciprocal Links
By Ranae Buscher, Contributing Author
workz.com

Did you know reciprocal links are one of the most effective ways to promote
your company and increase traffic? According to webtomorrow, hyperlinks are
the second most common way visitors find sites. (Search engines are No. 1.).
You can also see what SelfPromotion.com and the Reciprocal Links Newlsetter
have to say.

Reciprocal links enable complementary Web pages to direct traffic to each
other by trading a link for a link. Each business has the opportunity to
advertise its site, usually for free, to a target audience. Exchange programs
exist for hyperlinks and banner ads, but reciprocal hyperlinks are by far the
more common.

What's In It for You

Reciprocal linking offers two main benefits. Search engines often factor link
popularity into their algorithms to give pages linked to other sites a higher
ranking.

And reciprocal links are excellent for targeting specific audiences. Let's
say you've written a book about a particular breed of dog, the border collie.
You can promote your book to its highly focused market through links on sites
focusing solely on that breed, such as online dog clubs.

Search engines don't offer this direct connection to your audience.
The point of a reciprocal link campaign is to direct targeted traffic to your
site. Find sites that cater to the same audience yours does, request links
from them and track each request.

Be Realistic

Keep in mind most high-traffic sites, such as Amazon.com and Barnes &
Noble.com, won't participate in reciprocal linking. They have plenty of
viewers and can't spare the time to screen potential linked sites. Moreover,
you might be accused of spamming if you send these sites e-mail, particularly
unsolicited messages requesting promotional favors.

Start by conducting an online search. If your site sells pet supplies, you
can type keywords such as pets, pet stores, cats and dogs into a search
engine to get a list of potential linking partners. Yahoo! is an excellent
tool because it returns similar pages by category, which helps narrow the
field immediately.

Yahoo!'s WebRing is a good tool for targeting a market of similar sites if
you want to join a Web ring, - another strategy for building reciprocal
links.

When you've compiled a list of potential sites, start requesting link
exchanges. It's likely you'll start out quickly identifying many high-quality
linking partners only to spend several days, perhaps weeks, coordinating and
negotiating deals with them.

Outside Assists

You can ease the administrative burden by finding a good software program or
reciprocal link service. Programs help you do the work more efficiently;
services generally handle the work for you.

Reciprocal link software programs. LinKtoLinK, for example, is designed to
simplify the process and save time in requesting and maintaining reciprocal
links. The program has e-mail templates to help you compose requests to site
owners. It allows you to automate this process by merging your request
message with partner site URLs, contact names and other pertinent data - if
you have entered these in a database.

Beware of sending the same e-mail message to multiple recipients if they're
high-traffic sites. You can find a list of other reciprocal link software
programs online.

Reciprocal link services. You can outsource the whole process to companies
that specialize in reciprocal link building, such as LinkMe.com. These link
services, many of which are free, tout attractive benefits, such as link
verification and customization.

Before you outsource, ask yourself two important questions.

How will you measure performance? If you conduct the campaign yourself, you
can look at your server's referrer logs, which contain data on which sites
have sent you traffic, average length of time visitors remain on your site,
and so on.

You can obtain these logs from your Internet service provider (ISP). If you
outsource your link campaign, you should ask how the service will track
traffic sent to your site, and if it will share those data with you.

How can you be assured the links being negotiated for you are top-quality and
targeted at your audience? Are you willing to give the third-party service
full authority to negotiate links on your behalf?

If you do outsource, one good approach is to set quality control standards -
such as only partnering with sites that will agree to place your link a click
or two from their home page, not several layers deep in their site. Reserve
the right of approval for any link deals.

Whether you outsource or not, the only sure way to determine if your
reciprocal linking campaign is working to your advantage is to regularly
verify all reciprocal links.

Make sure the links are still there, that they work and that your partner
sites are geared toward your audience.

Take the Bull by the Horns

Finally, ask yourself: How will I measure performance? Maintain quality? Make
sure inbound and outbound links are active? Be realistic about your resources
and time constraints when deciding if automating or outsourcing all or a
portion of the job is right for you. No one cares about your site as much as
you do, and no third party will be as conscientious as you or your staff when
it comes to the details.

Reciprocal links are a valuable tool for attracting traffic to your Web site.
Grab the helm in building and negotiating them to target a focused audience.
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Doing Business with the Commonwealth
State and local agencies are now purchasing through eVA, the Commonwealth's new,
government-to-business web site. To register your business as an eVA vendor, visit
www.eva.state.va.us and click on "Learn About eVA." Governor Warner issued Executive
Order 29, which directs public bodies to give small businesses and businesses owned by
women and minorities every opportunity to compete for the Commonwealth's expenditures
for goods and services. If you are looking for certified minority or women-owned businesses
or are interested in becoming certified, visit DBA's Minority & Women-Owned Businesses
page for more information and resources.

LAUNCH
New Business Loan Program Launched
DBA has just launched a new loan program for Virginia businesses – VSBFA DIRECT.
Created in response to requests for non-traditional lending options from the business and
economic development community, VSBFA DIRECT is an innovative, unconventional
financing program that can provide financing assistance directly to companies without the
participation of other lenders. The loans can finance many business needs including the
working capital needs of emerging or expanding businesses.

New Business Outreach Program Launched
DBA just launched a new Business Outreach Program! This new program, which uses
existing staff and resources, will not only ensure that the state maintains awareness of state
and regional business issues, but will also help keep DBA and city and county economic
development officials informed of local business concerns. Members of DBA’s Existing
Business Services team will work with regional and local economic development offices to
keep them apprised of state resources that can complement local activities to encourage
business growth, retention, and enhancement. The Business Outreach program is the latest
program at DBA designed to promote economic growth by helping Virginia businesses
prosper. The program follows the recent launching of the agency’s Virginia Business
Information Center, which provides toll-free and email access to Virginia businesses in
search of answers and resources. Businesses can reach the VBIC by calling 804-371-0438,
toll-free at 1-866-248-8814, or by emailing VBIC@dba.state.va.us.

BUSINESS REGISTRATION GUIDE
A Cooperative Effort By:
The State Corporation Commission
The Virginia Employment Commission
The Department of Taxation
6th Edition
2002
COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA
INTRODUCTION
Welcome to Virginia’s business community.
This guide is designed for new businesses operating in the Commonwealth or deriving
income from Virginia sources. You are required to register with several state and local
agencies, and to help you in the process, the State Corporation Commission (SCC), the
Virginia Employment Commission (VEC), and the Department of Taxation (TAX) have
developed this guide.
Included is a flowchart of the seven steps to follow in registering a new business.
Immediately following is a brief explanation of each step and a list of registration
requirements for the SCC, VEC, and TAX. Also included is a brief description of other
agencies you may need to contact before opening a new business. And finally, registration
forms and instructions are also enclosed.
Information in this guide is current as of May 2002 and is believed to be accurate. It may be
advisable to contact the contributing agency for the most current information. Agency
contact information is contained within the guide. NOTE: This guide is intended only to
provide answers to the basic or most frequently asked questions concerning business
registration requirements. It is not intended to provide advice on which business type best
suits your needs or how to start up and operate a business. To ensure that you will operate
your business within the law and in a manner to best protect your interests, you should seek
legal or other professional advice as may be appropriate.

STEP 1: Determine Your Business Entity Type…………………………………...1
STEP 2: Registration Requirements for the State
Corporation Commission………………………………………………….3
State Corporation Commission Forms
STEP 3: Determine if You Are Required to Obtain a Federal
Employer Identification Number (EIN)…………………………………...6
Internal Revenue Service Forms
STEP 4: Determine if You Will be Liable for Unemployment Tax……………….7
Registration Requirement for the
Virginia Employment Commission……………………………………….7
Virginia Employment Commission Forms
STEP 5: Registration Requirements for the Virginia
Department of Taxation…………………………………………………..9
Department of Taxation Forms
STEP 6: Contact Your Local Commissioner of the Revenue
or Town Administrator to Satisfy Local
License Tax Requirements……………………………………………...12
STEP 7: Contact Other State Agencies to Determine Which
Licenses or Permits Apply……………………………………………....13
iii
REGISTRATION PROCESS
STEP 1
Determine Business Entity Type
General Partnership, Limited Partnership, Corporation, or Limited Liability Company?
EP 2
Register with the State Corporation Commission Obtain a Federal Identification Number (Complete Form
SS-4)
STEP 4
Will you be liable for Virginia Unemployment Tax?
STEP 5
Register with the Department of Taxation (Complete Form R-1)
Register with the Virginia Employment Commission (Complete Form VEC-FC-27)
STEP 6
Satisfy local license requirements
STEP 7
Contact other State agencies

State and local registration will vary depending on the business entity type. In order to
complete the necessary registration forms, you must first determine which of these
categories applies to your business. The most common forms of business entities are listed
below.
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
A sole proprietorship is an unincorporated business that is owned and operated by one
person. This person receives all the profits and is personally liable for all the losses.
GENERAL PARTNERSHIP
A general partnership is a relationship existing between two or more persons who join
together to carry on a trade or business for profit. Each partner contributes money, property,
labor and/or skills, and agrees to share in the profits or losses of the business.
LIMITED PARTNERSHIP
Generally, a limited partnership is created to obtain additional funds. General partners retain
control over the management of the partnership and are liable for all debts. Limited partners
invest money or property in the business and are entitled to share in the profits. The limited
partners’ liability is limited to the extent of their investment. A Virginia limited partnership is
created by filing a Certificate of Limited Partnership with the State Corporation Commission.
A limited partnership created under the laws of another state or country is called a foreign
limited partnership. It must register with the State Corporation Commission before it
transacts business in Virginia.
CORPORATION
A corporation is an entity with a legal existence apart from its owners. Corporations must
comply with federal laws and with laws in each state where business is conducted.
Corporations are classified as stock or nonstock and domestic or foreign.
A stock corporation usually is organized for profit and is authorized to issue shares of
stock to raise capital.

P 1 DETERMINE YOUR BUSINESS ENTITY TYPETEP 1
Nonstock corporations are not authorized to issue shares of stock and usually are
organized for purposes other than to make a profit.
A professional corporation is one form of a corporation which may be organized and
authorized to do business in Virginia. It consists of a group of people authorized to perform
certain professional services in the corporate form. Virginia law limits such services to the
personal services rendered by the following: pharmacists, optometrists, physical therapists,
physical therapist assistants, practitioners of the healing arts, nurse practitioners,
practitioners of the behavioral science professions, veterinarians, surgeons, dentists,
architects, professional engineers, land surveyors, certified landscape architects, public
accountants, certified public accountants, attorneys-at-law, insurance consultants,
audiologists or speech pathologists, and clinical nurse specialists.
Domestic corporations are stock and nonstock corporations created under Virginia law.
Foreign Corporations are stock and nonstock corporations created under the laws of
another state or country.
Every corporation must first register with the State Corporation Commission before
beginning its operations in Virginia.
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY
A limited liability company is a business entity that is an unincorporated association of one
or more members and that limits the personal liability of all of its owners. Internal Revenue
Service regulations allow a limited liability company to choose whether to be taxed as a
corporation or as a partnership.
A professional limited liability company is organized to perform a professional service in the
LLC form. The personal services authorized to be performed are the same as those listed
under the Professional Corporation category.
Domestic limited liability companies are those created under Virginia Law.
Foreign limited liability companies are those created under the laws of another state or
country.
Every limited liability company must first register with the State Corporation Commission
before beginning its operations in Virginia.
Note: A copy of Virginia Corporation Law, which contains the Virginia Stock and Nonstock Corporation
Acts, The Virginia Limited Liability Company Act, the Virginia Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act,
and the Virginia Uniform Partnership Act may be purchased from the Clerk of the State Corporation
Commission. (see page 4).

You do not need to file with the State Corporation Commission or with the clerk of the circuit court.
However, see the assumed name filing requirements on the next page.
Partnership statements may be filed with the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Statement of Partnership Authority (Form UPA-93) and file with the Commission. A duly
authenticated copy of a Statement that is filed in an office in another state may be filed with the
Commission. Complete the Certificate of Limited Partnership (Form LPA-73.11) and file with the State
Corporation Commission.
Complete the Application For Registration of Foreign Limited Partnership (Form LPA-73.54) and file with
the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Articles of Incorporation (Form SCC 619) and file with the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Articles of Incorporation (Form SCC 819) and file with the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Articles of Incorporation (Form SCC 544) and file with the State
Corporation Commission.
Complete the Application for a Certificate of Authority to Transact Business in Virginia (Form SCC
759/921) and file with the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Articles of Organization (Form LLC-1011) and file with the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Articles of Organization for a Professional Limited Liability Company (Form LLC-1103) and
file with the State Corporation Commission.
Complete the Application for Registration of a Foreign Limited Liability Company (Form LLC-1052) and
file with the State Corporation Commission.
REGISTER WITH THE VIRGINIA STATE CORPORATION COMMISSION

To register with the State Corporation Commission, you must first determine your business entity
type (See STEP 1). Next, refer to the list below to determine if you are required to file with the State
Corporation Commission and to identify those forms you must complete. (Addresses and forms for the
State Corporation Commission are located at the end of this step.)
Assumed or Fictitious Business Name:
If business is conducted in Virginia under a name other than the legal business name, an
assumed or fictitious name certificate must be filed in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit
Court in each county or city where business is to be conducted. In addition, if the entity is a
limited partnership, a limited liability company, or a corporation, it must obtain a copy of
each fictitious name certificate, attested by the Clerk of the Circuit Court where the original
was filed, and file it with the Clerk of the State Corporation Commission.
Contacting the SCC:
The addresses and telephone numbers for the Clerk’s Office of the State Corporation
Commission are listed below. These should be used if there are questions about registering
a corporation, a partnership, or a limited liability company and to obtain forms from the State
Corporation Commission.
Visit the Clerk's Website Access Required Forms
In addition to registering with the Clerk’s Office as a corporation, general partnership, limited
partnership or limited liability company, you may need to contact one or more of the
divisions of the State Corporation Commission listed below to comply with other laws.
Bureau of Financial Institutions – (804) 371-9657. For state chartered banks, trust
companies, savings and loan associations, industrial loan associations, credit unions,
mortgage lenders and brokers, consumer finance companies, financial institutions holding
companies, money order sellers, nonprofit debt counseling agencies and check cashers.
Bureau of Insurance – (804) 371-9741. For insurance companies and agents,
prepaid legal and health service plans, health maintenance organizations, premium
finance companies, continuing care providers, home protection companies, automobile
clubs, viatical settlement providers and multiple employer welfare providers.
Communications – (804) 371-9420. For local exchange telephone companies,
intrastate long distance companies, and private pay telephone providers.
Energy Regulation – (804) 371-9611. For gas and electric companies, electric
cooperatives and companies furnishing water or sewerage facilities, heat, chilled water and
chilled air.
Public Service Taxation – (804) 371-9679. For the assessment of all property of
electric, gas, water and telecommunication companies, state license tax on electric,
gas and water companies, rolling stock of certificated motor vehicle carriers of
passengers, and the special regulatory revenue taxes on public service companies.
Public Utility Accounting – (804) 371-9950. For public service companies and gas and
electric companies that issue and/or dispose of assets and/or securities.
Railroad Regulation – (804) 371-9368. For railroads.
Securities and Retail Franchising – (804) 371-9051. For publicly offered
securities, broker-dealers, securities salesmen, financial planners and investment
advisors, retail franchises, and intrastate trademarks and service marks.
Uniform Commercial Code (Clerk’s Office) – (804) 371-9733 or (866)722-2551
(Toll-free in Virginia). For financing statements, amendments, termination statements,
assignments and releases by secured parties under the UCC-secured
transactions; for notices of tax liens against corporations and partnerships under the
Uniform Federal Lien Registration Act.

The Federal Employer Identification Number is often used by state agencies as a means of
cross-referencing businesses. The State of Virginia strongly encourages all business
entities to acquire and use a federal EIN. You are required by law to obtain a federal EIN if
you meet one of more of the following conditions:
You are a sole proprietor with at least one employee or a Keogh Plan.
Your business is a partnership.
Your business is a corporation.
You are a new owner of an existing business which is required to use a federal EIN. (The
federal EIN of a former owner cannot be used.)
You are a sole proprietor who enters into a partnership or corporation. The
partnership or corporation must obtain its own federal EIN.
Certain nonprofit organizations (churches, clubs, etc.), estates, and trusts are
required to obtain a federal EIN. Contact the Internal Revenue Service to determine
if you are required to obtain a federal EIN.
For more information, call toll free 1-800-829-1040.
To obtain federal tax forms, call toll free 1-800-829-3676.
DETERMINE IF YOU ARE REQUIRED TO OBTAIN A FEDERAL EMPLOYER
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (EIN)
STEP 4
DETERMINE IF YOU WILL BE LIABLE FOR VIRGINIA UNEMPLOYMENT TAX

Your business is subject to Virginia unemployment tax if one or more of the following
conditions are met.
Your business has at least one employee (ten for agricultural businesses) for some
portion of any day, in each of 20 different weeks in a calendar year.
Your business has $1,500 in total gross quarterly payroll ($20,000 agricultural business or
$1,000 for domestic labor) in any calendar quarter.
Your business has acquired a business subject to the tax.
Your business is subject to the Federal unemployment tax.
Your business is a governmental operation or political subdivision.
Your business is a nonprofit organization and has four or more employees for some
portion of a day during any 20 different weeks in a calendar year in Virginia.
REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE VA EMPLOYMENT COMMISSION
If your business is subject to Virginia unemployment tax based on the above criteria, then
you need to complete the Virginia Employment Commission Report to Determine Liability
for State Unemployment Tax (Form VEC-FC-27). A copy of this form is provided at the end
of this step. You can also download the latest version of this form via the Internet from the
Virginia Employment Commission’s web site at www.vec.state.va.us, under Employer
Services.
OFFICES OF THE VIRGINIA EMPLOYMENT COMMISSION
You should use these if you have questions about registering, and to submit forms to the
Employment Commission. Once your employer account number has been assigned, the
Virginia Employment Commission will send you a packet of information that includes a copy
of the Employer Handbook. This handbook will explain in detail the kinds of reports, notices,
requests for information, or other communications you will receive from the agency.
www.vec.state.va.us


Virginia Employment Commission - Report to Determine Liability for State Unemployment
Tax
1. Federal ID Number (FEIN)_____________________ E-Mail
Address_______________________________________
2. Type of Organization: Sole Proprietor___ Partnership___ Limited Partnership___ Corporation___ Other___ LLC
Sole Proprietor___ LLC Partnership___ LLC Corporation ___ Government or Political Sub-Division ___
3. Name of Employer / Organization: (Enter exact name of legal entity)
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
__
Trade Name________________________________________________ Telephone
Number_____________________
c/o (if applicable)_________________________________________________ Fax Number
_____________________
Mailing Address ______________________________________________________________Zip
Code____________
Virginia BUSINESS Location Address ____________________________________________Zip
Code____________
(If more than one Virginia location, attach list of other addresses)
4. If you are a contractor involved with buildings, and/or roads, state the type:
__________________________________
Do you have a base of operations in any state other than Virginia? Yes____ No____
5. When did you first have employees working in Virginia? _________________________ (MM/DD/YYYY)
Number of employees working in Virginia_____. If the business is INACTIVE give date employment ceased
________.
Name of successor, if
any___________________________________________________________________________
6. Do you work individuals in the course of your business, or in your home, that you do not consider employees?
Yes___No___
7a. GENERAL EMPLOYERS: Did, or will your business have a quarterly payroll of $1,500 or more in Virginia
during the current or preceding 3 years? Yes___ No___. If “Yes,” enter the earliest quarter and year: Qtr.____ Year
____.
If “Yes,” enter the date that you reached $1,500 or more: ________. Enter number of weeks during the current or
preceding 3
years you had one or more workers performing services for you for some portion of a day in Virginia:
Wks. ____Yr.____ | Wks. ____Yr.____ | Wks .____Yr.____ | Wks. ____ Yr.____. Enter the date you reached the
20th week for the first time with one (1) or more workers: ______________.
7b. AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYERS: Did, or will your agricultural operation have a quarterly payroll of $20,000
or more in Virginia during the current or preceding 3 years? Yes____ No____. If “Yes,” enter the earliest quarter
and year: Qtr. ____ Year ____. If “Yes,” enter the date that you reached $20,000 or more: _____. Enter number of
weeks during t he current or preceding 3 calendar years you had ten or more agricultural workers performing
services for you for some portion of a day in Virginia: Wks.____Yr.____ | Wks.____Yr.____ | Wks.____Yr.____ |
Wks.____Yr.____. Enter the date you reached the 20th week for the first time with ten (10) or more workers:
_________.
7c. DOMESTIC EMPLOYERS: Did, or will you have a quarterly domestic payroll of $1,000 or more in Virginia
during the current or preceding 3 years? Yes____ No____. If “Yes,” enter the earliest quarter and year: Qtr.____
Year____
If “Yes,” enter the date that you reached $1,000 or more: ____________________. VEC FC-27 (4/ 01)
8. NONPROFIT EMPLOYERS: Is your organization exempt from Tax under Section 501(a) and 501(c)(3) of the
Internal Revenue Code? Yes ___ No___. If “Yes,” attach a copy of your letter of exemption from the IRS and
specify below the number of weeks during the current and preceding 3 years you had four or more workers
performing services for you for some portion of a day in Virginia: Wks. ____Yr.____ | Wks .____Yr.____ | Wks.
____Yr.____ | Wks. ____ Yr.____.
If “Yes,” enter the date you reached the 20th week for the first time with four (4) or more workers: ____________.
9. Have you acquired a business in Virginia? Yes____ No____. If “Yes,” did you acquire all or part? All ____ Part
____
Date acquired: ________________ (MM/DD/YYYY). From whom did you acquire the business (enter legal entity
name and trade
Name)____________________________________________________________________________________.
Previous owner’s VEC Account Number: _____________ (See instructions on Acquisitions).
10. Are you now, or have you ever been, liable for the Federal Unemployment Tax? (This is not to be confused with
Social Security or Workers’ Compensation) Yes____ No____. If “Yes,” what year(s):
_____________________________.
11. Describe the kind of business in Virginia, giving specific details of items, customers, etc., such as retail-
women’s clothes; wholesale-office equipment; construction-single family homes, etc. (See instructions)
___________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
___.
12. Is the Virginia business primarily performing services for other units of the same company? Yes ____ No ____
If “Yes,” indicate: Administrative (Headquarters, DP center, etc.) ______ Research, Development or Testing
_______
Storage (Warehouse) ________ Other (Specify) ________________________________________
13. Name the Virginia CITY or Virginia COUNTY in which the business is located (Specify the location where
work is actually performed). ___________________________________.
14. List the Name, Social Security Number, Residence Address & zip code of the Owner, Partners, or Corporate
Officers.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
_______________________________________
I certify that the information contained in this report is true and correct to the best of my knowledge.
Employer’s Signature: ___________________________________________________ Date: ______________
Mail completed form to: VEC, Employer Accounts - Room 108, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23218-1358
or FAX to 804-786-5890
The VEC is an Equal Opportunity Employer/Program. Auxiliary aids and services available upon request to individuals with disabilities.
*********************************************************************************************
*********
ACCOUNT STATUS CODING (FOR VEC USE ONLY)
EMP-ACCT-NO ________________ NEW-ACCT-CD _______________ TRADE-NAME-CD ________________
ADDRESS-CD ________________ HOW-LIABLE-CD ______________ CONTRBTR-CD ________________
AC-STATUS-DTE ________________ AC-STATUS-CD _______________ FIRST-EMP-DTE ________________
LIABILITY-DTE ________________ ACQ-CD _______________ COMBINED-AC-CD ________________
ACQ-DTE ________________ SUBSID-AC-NO _______________ MASTER-AC-NO ________________
WAGE-RPT-CD ________________ TYPE-BUSINESS-CD _______________ FOREIGN-CTR-CD ________________
VEC-20 ________________ SUCC-ACCT-NO _______________ PRED-ACCT-NO ________________
ATTACH/EST-QTR/YR ______________ VERIFIED _______________
AREA-CD _______________ SIC-OWN-CD _______________ AUX-CD ________________
MULTI-PLANT-CD _______________
VEC FC-27 (4/ 01)
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING FORM VEC-FC-27
Enter your responses in the spaces provided, sign, and return the completed form VEC~FC-27 to the Virginia
Employment Commission, Employer Accounts -Room 108, PO Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23218-1358, or fax to (804) 786-
5890. Questions should be directed to the office nearest you. A list of VEC field offices is available online at
www.vec.state.va.us. Form VEC-FC-27 is required by law if you have or had any employees. Under Federal Law Section 6103-
D of the Internal Revenue Code, the VEC obtains information from the IRS. Such information may be
disseminated to other governmental agencies and the Virginia Department of Taxation under Section 2.1-377 of the Code of
Virginia. If you do not agree with our liability determination, Section 60.2-500 of the Virginia Unemployment Compensation Act
allows you to submit a written request for a hearing. WHO IS AN EMPLOYEE? One who performs a service for remuneration
under any contract of hire written, oral, expressed or implied. An individual proprietor of a proprietorship is not an employee.
Partners of a partnership are not employees. Officers of a corporation are employees if they perform a service and expect to be
paid. WHAT ARE WAGES? All remuneration payable for personal service, including commissions, tips, bonuses and the cash
value of all remuneration payable in any medium other than cash. Please keep in mind the cash value of remuneration means
board, lodging, or any other pay ment in kind, considered as payment for services performed by the worker. However, the value
of meals and lodging furnished to an employee at the premises of the employer is not considered as wages if these benefits are
furnished for the convenience of the employer. HOW AM I LIABLE? You are subject to the Unemployment Tax if you have met
one of the following criteria) One or more employees (ten employees if your operation is agricultural) for some portion of a day
during any 20 different weeks in a calendar year, or 2) A $1,500 or more total gross quarterly payroll ($20,000 if your business is
agricultural; $1,000 if domestic labor), or 3) Acquired a business subject to this tax, or 4) Been subject to the Federal
Unemployment Tax, or 5) You are a governmental operation or political subdivision, or 6) A nonprofit organization under
Section 50 1(c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code and had four or more employees for some portion of a day during any 20
different weeks in a calendar year. The law requires that you contact us anytime you meet the criteria mentioned
above.GENERAL EMPLOYERS (Question 7a): Those employers who operate any kind of a business. Do not include
agricultural or domestic employees in answering question 7a.
AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYERS (Question 7b): Includes those operations in which the service is performed on a farm, in
connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity,
including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur bearing animals
and wildlife. Do not include agricultural labor when answering question 7a.
DOMESTIC EMPLOYERS (Question 7c): Occupations usually considered as domestic services in private households cooks,
laundresses, aids, sitters. butlers, personal secretaries, managers of personal affairs, nurse's aides, companions, porters, gardeners,
caretakers, chauffeurs, and other maintenance workers. Do not include domestic labor in answering questions 7a and Th.
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (Question 8): If the answer to Question 8 is yes, do not complete questions 7 or 10.
ACQUISITIONS (Question 9): TOTAL ACQUISITIONS--The rate experience will automatically pass to the successor.
PARTIAL ACQUISITIONS-The predecessor has thirty (30) days from the date of notification to submit form VEC-FC-45 in
order for the partial successor to obtain the predecessor's experience record.
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS/LABOR (Question 11): In describing business, be specific as to kind of items, customers, etc.
Use a separate sheet if necessary. If you have domestic labor only, please indicate.
TAXABLE WAGE BASE: $8,000.
TAX RATES FOR NEWLY COVERED EMPLOYERS: 2.5%* for the years 1997 through 2001. *Out of state contractors of
buildings and/or roads are assigned the maximum rate (6.2% for the years 1997 through 2001) if the principal place of business
(main office, corporate headquarters, executive offices. etc.) is located in another state or country. Upon receipt of this
information, a determination will be made, a number will be assigned if liable, and/or adjustments will be made to your account.
VEC-FC-27B (R-4-01)
A company doing business in Virginia must register with the Department of Taxation for all taxes which
may apply to operation of the business.
REGISTRATION FORM – To register with the Department of Taxation, complete a Combined
Registration Application Form (Form R-1). This form, with instruction, is located at the end of this STEP
and is used to register for the twenty taxes listed below.
DETERMINE IF YOU WILL BE LIABLE FOR VIRGINIA TAXES
Corporation Income Tax – (804) 367-8037. Corporations conducting business in Virginia or receiving
income from Virginia sources must file a corporation income tax return. The following exceptions apply:
Public service corporations (other than railroads);
Insurance companies; and
Corporations not conducted for profit, which are exempt from federal income tax.
Small business corporations (S corporations) are not liable as corporations under Subchapter S of the
Internal Revenue Code; however, the business is required to file a return of income even though there is
no tax liability.
Employer Income Tax Withholding – (804) 367-8037. If wages are paid to one or more employee(s),
the employer is required to withhold state income tax from those wages and remit the tax to the
Department of Taxation.
Retail Sales Tax – (804) 367-8037. Retail sales are defined as sales of tangible personal property to any
person for any purpose other than for resale. If retail sales of tangible personal property are made in
Virginia during the regular course of business, sales tax must be collected on the gross receipts and sent
to the Department of Taxation. The tax must be collected from customers by separately showing the
amount of tax and adding it to the price.
Use Tax/Consumer Use Tax – (804) 367-8037. The use tax applies to tangible personal property used,
consumed or stored in Virginia, but purchased outside the state, that would have been subject to sales
tax if purchased in this state. The use tax also applies to purchases, leases or rentals made in Virginia if
the sales tax was not paid at the time of purchase, lease or rental.
Litter Tax – (804) 367-8037. This tax does not apply to individual consumers. This tax is imposed on
every business in the state that, on January 1 of the taxable year, was engaged as the manufacturer,
wholesaler, distributor, or retailer of the following products: food for human or pet consumption; groceries;
cigarettes and tobacco products; soft drinks and carbonated waters; beer and other malt beverages;
wine; newspapers and magazines; paper products and household paper; containers made of glass,
metal, or plastic; fiber containers made of synthetic material; cleaning agents and toiletries; non-drug
drugstore sundry items; distilled spirits; and motor vehicle parts.
Tire Tax – (804) 367-8037. The tax is levied for each new tire sold at retail in Virginia. The tax may be
passed on to the retail customer if separately stated.
Dealers Aircraft Sales and Use Tax – (804)367-8098. This tax is paid by the aircraft dealer upon the
gross receipts derived from the rental or lease of aircraft in Virginia. Enter the Virginia commercial fleet
aircraft license number (assigned by the Virginia Department of Aviation), the date issued and the
expiration date. Also enter the number of aircraft owned during the preceding calendar year. To qualify for
the dealer’s exclusion under the Virginia Aircraft Sales and Use Tax Act, the dealer must own five or more
aircraft during the calendar year.
Motor Vehicle Fuel Sales Tax – (804) 367-8037. This tax is imposed in certain Northern Virginia
localities on the retail sale of motor fuels.

REGISTRATION REQUIREMENT FOR THE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
STEP 5
Vending Machine Sales Tax – (804) 367-8037. This tax is imposed on dealers placing vending
machines through which they sell tangible property.
Watercraft Sales & Use Tax – (804) 367-8037. This tax is imposed upon the purchaser of any
watercraft sold in Virginia, and upon the user of any watercraft not sold in Virginia, if required to be titled
with the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries for use in Virginia.
Corn Assessment – (804) 367-8098. This assessment is levied on corn produced for sale in Virginia.
The handler (including any farmer who sells his or her corn out of state) is responsible for payment of the
assessment. It is deducted from payments to farmers for corn purchased.
Cotton Assessment – (804) 367-8098. An assessment is levied on any cotton sold in Virginia. The
handler is responsible for deducting the assessment from payments for cotton purchased from the owner.
For purposes of this tax, “handler” means a commercial enterprise which gins cotton.
Egg Excise Tax – (804) 367-8098. This assessment is levied on shell eggs and egg products sold or
consumed in Virginia. The handler of such eggs is responsible for collecting and remitting the tax.
Generally, the last handler who sells eggs to a Virginia retailer or food service establishment is liable for
the tax.
Forest Products Tax – (804) 367-8098. This tax is levied on every person in Virginia engaging in the
business of manufacturing, shipping, or severing timber or any other forest products from the soil for sale,
profit or commercial use.
Peanut Excise Tax – (804) 367-8098. This tax is levied on peanuts grown and sold in Virginia for
processing. The processor is liable for the payment of the tax on all peanuts such processor
purchases.
Sheep Assessment – (804) 367-8098. This is an assessment levied on sheep and lambs sold in
Virginia. The handler is responsible for the payment of tax on all sheep and lambs. The Assessment must
be deducted by the handlers from payments to owners of the sheep and lambs.
Small Grains Assessment – (804) 367-8098. This is an assessment on all sales of wheat, barley, rye
and oats produced in Virginia. The handler of small grains who purchases such grains produced in
Virginia shall deduct from payments made to the farmer the amount of the assessment and remit this
amount to the Department of Taxation. The term “handler” includes any farmer who transports and sells
his own grain out of state.
Soft Drink Excise Tax – (804) 367-8098. This tax is levied on every wholesaler or distributor of
carbonated soft drinks in Virginia.
Soybean Assessment – (804) 367-8098. The first buyer (whoever pays the producer-country
elevator, terminal, processor, seedsman, trucker, or extruder) is responsible for collecting a soybean
assessment from the producer. First-buyers will be required to collect on all soybeans purchased
(provisions are in place to identify soybeans checked-off at previous sale point) regardless of the state of
origin. In addition to the taxes listed above, you may be liable for any of the miscellaneous taxes listed
below. To register for the following miscellaneous taxes, you must contact the Department of Taxation.
Bank Franchise Tax Cigarette Tax Public Facilities Tax Special Fuel Tax Forms and additional
information may be obtained at the department’s main office. A complete list of the Department of
Taxation addresses is located on the following page.
If you have access to the World Wide Web, you can obtain most Virginia tax forms by connecting to
www.tax.state.va.us.
CONTACT YOUR LOCAL COMMISSIONER OF THE REVENUE OR TOWN
ADMINISTRATOR TO SATISFY LOCAL LICENSE TAX REQUIREMENTS
Regardless of the type of business, one or more local licenses may be needed. You must
contact your county or city Commissioner of the Revenue to determine which licenses you
will need, within 30 days of starting your business. In addition, you should check with your
local zoning or planning department to verify that you can operate your business at your
desired site. If your business is operated in a town, contact the town administrator to
determine what licenses are required. Telephone numbers are listed in local directories.
You may need to contact other state agencies or boards. Below is a list of state agencies
which administer particular licenses, permits or have other registration requirements for
various occupations and business activities in Virginia.
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services – (804) 786-2373. Registers
charitable organizations that intend to solicit contributions in Virginia. Enforces Virginia food
laws which relate to most commercial food processing, storage and retail operations.
Registers every pesticide manufactured, distributed, sold, offered for sale, used or offered
for use in Virginia.
Alcoholic Beverage Control Board – (804) 213-4400. Licenses businesses involved in the
production, distribution, storage, transportation and/or sale of alcoholic beverages.
Department of Aviation – (804) 236-3624. Distributes rules and regulations governing the
licensing of airmen, aircraft, and airports.
State Board of Bar Examiners – (804) 786-7490. Examines and licenses attorneys-at-law.
State Certified Seed Board – (804) 746-4884. (Cooperative Extension Service of Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University of Blacksburg.) Certifies agricultural and
vegetable seed and potato tubers.
Department of Conservation and Recreation – (804) 786-1712. Regulates, manages,
and licenses state parks and outdoor recreational facilities. Issues permits for
concessionaires in state parks. Approves and inspects floodwater structures.
Department of Corrections – (804) 674-3000. Regulates and approves community group
homes and other private residential facilities for offenders who are in the state’s care.
Department of Environmental Quality – (804) 698-4000. Issues pollution control permits
for any business that emits particles or gases into the air, water discharge, and
management of solid and hazardous waste materials.
Department of Education – (804) 225-2020. Accredits, licenses, or regulates private
schools (elementary, secondary, nursery schools, trade, technical, business, and
correspondence schools, and schools for the handicapped).
Department of Forestry – (804) 977-6555. Licenses and regulates the use of state
forests, forest reserves including mineral exploration; develops and administers forest
management plans for state owned lands; and provides reforestation Assistance to
landowners.

CONTACT OTHER STATE AGENCIES TO DETERMINE WHICH LICENSES OR
PERMITS APPLY
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries – (804) 367-1000. Regulates the taking,
possession, and sale of wild animals, birds, and freshwater fish and endangered species of
any form of wildlife. Licenses shooting preserves, fur farming and dealing, hunting dog
trails, commercial trout rearing, fishing, seine hauling, breeding and raising game birds and
animals, game bird and animal exhibits, and stuffing and mounting of birds and animals.
Also titles and registers motorboats, licenses watercraft dealers, regattas and boat races,
and drilling and dredging in the Back Bay area.
Department of General Services – (804) 786-6152.
Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services – (804) 786-1155. Inspects,
approves, and certifies laboratories; approves forms used for blood and breath
alcohol tests; licenses persons to administer breath tests and regulates methods
and equipment for breath tests.
Division of Purchases and Supply – (804) 786-3842. Sets procurement
regulations for state agencies, which procure nonprofessional services and issues
manuals, forms, and materials for bidders, and state agencies.
Department of Health – (804) 786-3561. Licenses emergency medical agencies, vehicles,
and attendants, bedding and upholstery service businesses; and commercial blood banks;
inspects businesses to certify health standards; prescribes standards governing planting,
taking, and marketing of fish, crustaceans, and shellfish; licenses hospitals, nursing homes,
and related institutions, home health agencies, hotels, summer camps, campgrounds, and
other lodging facilities, restaurants, milk processors, radiation materials and equipment,
siting and construction waterworks serving the public, water supply systems, sewage
disposal systems and sewage treatment works, and migrant labor camps; regulates
sanitation facilities at public gathering places, septic tanks, construction of private wells, and
the production and use of toxic substances.
Department of Health Professions – (804) 662-9900. Provides investigative inspection
and administrative services and promotes policy coordination among twelve health
regulatory boards, which regulate audiology and speech pathology, dentistry, funeral
directors and embalmers, medicine, nursing, nursing home administrators, optometry,
pharmacy, professional counselors, psychology, social work, and veterinary medicine.
State Council of Higher Education for Virginia – (804) 225-2137. Registers private
higher education institutions, which offer or intend to offer continuing education courses or
programs. Approves contracts between private colleges and public colleges or education
agencies for the provision of services.
Department of Historic Resources – (804) 786-3143. Designates historical landmarks,
buildings, structures, districts, objects, and sites, and issues permits for field investigations,
explorations, and recovery operations on state-controlled or on state archaeological sites.
Department of Housing and Community Development – (804) 371-7000. Administers
uniform building codes and a statewide fire prevention code, which are enforced by local
government agencies; regulates construction, maintenance, operation, and inspection of
amusement devices; establishes regulations for local licensing of plumbers, electricians,
and building-related mechanical workers; regulates construction standards for industrialized
building units and manufactured homes; prescribes minimum regulations for equipment and
appliances for storage, handling, transportation and utilization of liquefied petroleum gas;
accepts applications for designation and operation of Enterprise Zones; administers bond
programs for housing development; and coordinates housing programs.

Department of Information Technology – (804) 371-5900. Approves data processing and
telecommunication procurement for state agencies. Contracts for procurement of
telecommunications services.
Department of Labor and Industry (DOLI) – (804) 371-2327. Administers and enforces
compliance programs: Occupational Safety and Health Compliance (in all public and private
sector commercial and industrial establishments including construction, logging, demolition,
and excavation sites), Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety (administers inspection and
certification), and Labor and Employment Law (maintains child labor programs, and
enforces the Commonwealth’s right to work law, the employees’ right to receive pay that is
due, minimum wage, and appropriate day of rest). Additionally, Virginia Occupational Safety
and Health (VOSH) issues permits for lead and asbestos abatement projects and
administers the laws affecting emission of these pollutants. DOLI helps employers develop
their workforce through the administration of the Apprenticeship Program. Additionally,
DOLI provides onsite
Safety and Health Consultation and administers Voluntary Protection Programs, which
enable Virginia companies with exemplary safety and health programs to be recognized for
their efforts and to be exempted from generally scheduled inspections.
Marine Resources Commission – (757) 247-2200. Licenses the taking of various
fish,shellfish, and organisms below the fall line on tidal waters; licenses the exportation of
oysters, purchasers of shellfish and the conversion of oyster shells to lime; assigns and
leases oyster and clam planting grounds; designates certain public grounds closed and
open areas; fixes and alters open seasons; restricts methods of taking; fixes minimum size
and maximum size and maximum quantity of catch; makes other regulations for the
conservation and promotion of the seafood industry; inspects records and vessels;
prescribes guidelines for the use of wetlands; issues general permits for the use of state-
owned underwater beds; and establishes bulkhead and private pier lines on or over waters
under state jurisdiction.
Dept of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse Services –
(804) 786-3921. Licenses facilities and providers of service to persons with mental illness,
persons addicted to drugs or alcohol, and persons with mental retardation.
Milk Commission – (804) 786-2013. Supervises, regulates, and controls the production,
transportation, processing, storage, distribution, and sale of milk; licenses and audits
distributors of milk; establishes prices paid to producers and prohibits sales of fluid milk
products at less than cost; allocates marketing areas; establishes accounting system for
distributors.
Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy – (804) 692-3200. Administers and enforces
the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Licenses and regulates coal
surface mining and exploration and surface mining of minerals other than coal. Licenses the
operation of commercial mines. Licenses certain coal mining occupations. With respect to
oil and gas, registers drillers, owners and operators; licenses drilling and approves location
of wells, mining operations in the vicinity of wells and various other operations, material and
devices. Administers statutes governing the development of geothermal resources.
Department of Motor Vehicles – (804) 367-0538. Licenses motor vehicle manufacturers,
factory branches, distributors, dealers, renters, and lessors who dispose (at retail) of motor
vehicles, and licenses salesmen; approves new or different franchise or sales agreements;
makes regulations to prevent unfair trade practices and protect interests of retail buyers;
registers dealers in salvage vehicles or parts, rebuilders, salvage pools and demolishers;
collects taxes on the sale, use and rental of motor vehicles and mobile homes; and issues
overload permits to trucks.
Potomac River Fisheries Commission – (804) 224-7148. Licenses and regulates the
taking of seafood from the Potomac Ricer; and licenses boats, vessels, and equipment
used to take seafood from the Potomac River.
Department of Professional and Occupation Regulation – (804) 367-8500. Regulates
practice of the following professions: accounting, architecture, professional engineering,
land surveying, landscape architecture, auctioneers, barbers, contracting, cosmetology,
geology, hearing aid specialists, interior designers, opticians, professional soil scientists,
branch pilots, real estate sales and appraisers, water and wastewater works operators.
Also licenses polygraph examiners, asbestos and lead abatement occupations, tradesmen,
and waste management facility operators.
Virginia Racing Commission – (804) 966-7400. Licenses racetrack owners and operators
and issues permits for employment opportunities in connection with pari-mutuel (wagering)
horse racing, including racetracks and satellite wagering facilities; horse owners, trainers,
jockeys, grooms, race officials, stewards, track management and administrative employees,
concessionaires, and employees.
Department of Social Services – (804) 692-1787. Licenses and regulates fourteen types
of public and private facilities offering day and residential out-of-home care to children or
adults. Included are child and adult day care centers, licensed and voluntarily registered
family day homes, private child placing and adoption agencies, children’s residential
facilities, and adult care residences offering residential or assisted living levels of care. The
department also provides for interdepartmental coordination among four state agencies that
regulate specialized children’s residential care services and facilities.
Department of Transportation – (804) 786-2801. Regulates the use of state highways;
issues permits for use of highways and adjacent areas; licenses outdoor advertising, the
use of highways by public utilities, and the construction, maintenance and operation of toll
bridges and toll roads; constructs, maintains and/or operates bridges, tunnels, ferries, rest
areas, weigh stations, and commuter parking lots.
Department of Treasury – (804) 225-2142. Regulates the disposition of abandoned
property held by financial institutions, public utilities, life insurance companies and all other
business and non-profit entities; requires the delivery of abandoned property held by all
such entities; and hears, determines and pays claims from abandoned property held by all
such entities; and hears, determines and pays claims from abandoned property in the
Department’s custody. The Department also prescribes terms and conditions under which
financial institutions may serve as depositories for public funds.

Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired – (804) 371-3140. Licenses and
supervises the operation by the blind of vending facilities; and licenses the use of stamps or
labels identifying articles made by the blind.
Virginia Workers’ Compensation Commission
(formerly Industrial Commission of Virginia) - (804) 367-8600. Collects the taxes
imposed to finance the Workers’ Compensation Act from insurers and self-insured
employers; adjudicates claims by workers and their dependents for the death and disability
awards arising from occupational diseases or injury.




Re CD biz cards: http://www.link2pro.com/featuresCompared.html
From James Long
1. Yes we will drop ship anywhere in the United States. Because of US and other countries Tariff
constraints out of the US becomes the responsibility of the sales originator.
2. CD Business card in English and Spanish is no problem. I'm not clear on your need. Two distinct
cards or one containing both languages?

3. We would have no problem setting you up as a reseller if you so choose.

4. We do develop flash web sites as an offshoot of the CD business cards. The site would be very much
like the CD business card and the price is incredibly inexpensive. May be something to think about. You
would likely need some type of web site to provide information on items that change frequently i.e., price
changes, product line adds/deletes and so forth.
Fr Schahara Hudelson,
To: <free@musicmessage.com>
Subject: Affiliate_Details

Music Message International has many products to market:
1. We prefer to answer our affiliates personally with each inquiry. In an
effort to address each affiliate personally, we
have opted to work directly with our affiliates rather than send them
through automation.
2. When you become an affiliate of MMI, you are in on a REAL ground floor
opportunity because our affiliate program is just getting started, so there
is just enough info on the net to show our legitimacy, but not so much that
you can't market VERY effectively.
3. For sale are instructional music videos, books, CD's, Cassettes.
All may be viewed on our host page: http://www.musicmessage.com and
our online catalog at: http://www.musicmessage.com/onlinecatalog.htm
4. NO STOCKING of products for you unless you want to be the wholesaler and
set your own retail prices, and do your own shipping and
handling.
5. Under the affiliate program you will receive an Affiliate-$5, per item on
which you generate sales. We do the shipping and handling.
You receive a copy of each order when it is placed. We take all major credit
cards. See URL for Affiliate payout details:
http://www.musicmessage.com/affiliate.htm
6, HOW YOU MAY MARKET: You might market one page, for example, Motivational
Music: http://www.motivationmusic.com
Or you might market the entire catalog:
http://www.musicmessage.com/onlinecatalog.htm
by using links from your own home pages to mirror affiliate pages of these
URL's that are created uniquely for you with your own personal extension;
Or you can use the URL in mass marketing opt-in lists, or your own
newsletters, Music Message International
http://www.musicmessage.com
Movie Review Time
http://www.schahara.com
The Living Jukebox
http://www.thelivingjukebox.com

or any legitimate marketing tactic.
http://www.musicmessage.com/onlinecatalog.htm
FREE music offers! http://www.mp3.com/rusty_hudelson
7. We don't make you sign any agreements. You market at your own pace.
Indicate which of our pages you would like to market.
We will set you up within 48 hours.



First aid products: frprod@first-aid-product.com

We can drop ship for you quite easily...for now you may use the attached
form...in 3 months we will have a direct affiliate pass through, where you
can link your clients directly into our site, and your image will appear at
the top of each page ...the sales will be credited to you, and you will
receive a monthly profit check!
As an environmental company, we offer no printed catalogs of our products.

The entire line is available, including wholesale direct pricing for
fundraisers, paper-use free, at http://www.first-aid-product.com/ , catalog
downloads are available at:
http://www.first-aid-product.com/ofinterest/contact.htm
You may find this site: www.first-aid-store, easier to navigate...from
this home page, scroll down and find all items listed by category, and
specific product type!

You may wish to see our FREE ($40 set-up fee) custom labeling program:
http://www.first-aid-store.com/help_custom.htm
or : www.healthsafety.com
On-site Training Worldwide is americancpr.com for CPR and First Aid cpr-
mannequin.com   CPR Equipment first-aid-product.com    Discount & Wholesale
online-safety-training.com
 Online training and certification

safety-training-products.com
 Safety Videos, CD's, Booklets, Posters, and Compliance Manuals

osha-compliance-training.com
 OSHA Compliance

environmental-health-and-safety.com
 Safety Management and Consulting

cpr-training-classes.com
Online CPR Video Demo, Instructor Links, and Easy Online Quotes for Group
Safety Training in over 60 OSHA Topics!

Matthew M. Henry; Safety Consultant, EMT
American Environmental Health & Safety / American CPR Training ~ Training,
Consulting, Products, Management, and Services
Corporate Offices: 449 Santa Fe Drive, Suite 127, Encinitas, CA 92024-5134
(760)944.1048

ALL SCHEDULING FOR TRAINING THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE IS
CONVENIENTLY HANDLED THROUGH THIS ONE CENTRAL LOCATION!
Websites: www.healthsafety.com <http://www.healthsafety.com/> ,
www.americancpr.com <http://www.americancpr.com/> &
www.first-aid-product.com <http://www.first-aid-product.com/>

Accident Investigation/Adult, Child, & Infant CPR /AED (Automated External
Defibrillation)/Asbestos Awareness/Back Safety/Bloodborne
Pathogens/Compressed Gas Cylinders/Confined Space Entry/Crane Safety/Disaster
Preparedness/DOT HAZMAT - General Awareness/DOT
HAZMAT - Safety Training/Driving Safety/Electrical Safety/Emergencies in the
Laboratory /Emergency Planning/Ergonomics /Eye Care and Safety/Fall
Protection/Fire Prevention and Safety/First Aid/Flammables and
Explosives/Forklift Safety/General Laboratory Safety/Hand and Power Tool
Safety/Hand, Wrist and Finger Safety/HAZCOM/Healthcare CPR/Hearing
Safety/Heat Stress/Indoor Air Quality/Industrial Ergonomics/Laboratory
Glassware/Laboratory Hoods/Ladder Safety/Lockout Tagout/Materials Handling
Safety/MSDS's /Office Ergonomics/Office Safety/OSHA 10 & 30 Hour
Training/OSHA Laboratory Standard/OSHA Lead Standards/OSHA's Formaldehyde
Standard /Personal Protective Equipment/Preventing Contamination/Respiratory
Safety/Rigging Safety/Right-To-Know /Chemical Hazards/Safety Audits/Safety
Housekeeping and Accident Prevention/Safety Orientation/Safety Showers and
Eye Washes/Slips, Trips and Falls/The ANSI Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS)/Tuberculosis/VDT Safety/Welding Safety/Wellness and Fitness/Winter
Safety/Workplace Stress/Workplace Violence

ASK ABOUT OUR LOCAL TRAINING SERVICES IN EVERY MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREA
Subject: Affiliation proposal
For the general public visiting our site, the Auto and sports medicine kit
would also work.


Promo prods:
http://www.bagwellpromotions.com/patriotic-promotional-products.html

Click on the home page’s left side near the top for a section called "IDEAS"
and left click on it!
http://www.killerpromotions.com/catalog/index.html

http://www.entrepreneur.com/

http://www.free-bookstore.com/cgi-bin/bookstore/index.html

Fundrsg opptys
http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153375%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

Fndrsg Opptys
http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153379%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153380%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153381%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153382%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153383%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153385%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153559%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153560%2526M%253D50
088,00.html

http://www.lifeway.com/lwc/article_main_page/0,1703,A%253D153386%2526M%253D50
088,00.html



MOBILE HOMES

Note: Virginia’s Mobile Home Lot Rental Act deals directly with renting mobile home lots.
       For purposes of the Act, a “mobile home” is:

a home “which in the traveling mode is 8 body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in
length, or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent
chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when
connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and
electrical systems contained therein.”

A “ ‘mobile home lot’ means a parcel of land within the boundaries of a mobile home park
provided for the placement of a single mobile home and the exclusive use of its occupants.”

Under the Act, an agreement to rent a mobile home lot must be in writing and signed by the
parties to the agreement. Within seven days after the agreement is signed, the landlord or lessor
(the person who rents the lot to the mobile home owner) must give a copy of the Mobile Home
Lot Rental Act, or a statement of its obligations of landlords and tenants, to the home owner. If
the landlord does not give the tenant a written signed agreement, the tenant can get from the
landlord an amount equal to the greater of either the tenant’s monthly rental payment at the time
of the violation or actual damages and reasonable attorney’s fees.

         The rental agreement cannot include a provision forbidding the mobile home owner from
selling the mobile home. The agreement also cannot require any “recurring charges except fixed
rent, utility charges or reasonable incidental charges for services or facilities supplied by the
landlord.”

      In addition, the landlord shall not demand or collect:
   1. An entrance fee for the privilege of leasing or occupying a mobile home lot;

   2. A commission on the sale of a mobile home located in the mobile home park (unless the
      tenant expressly employs the landlord to perform a service in connection with such sale
      and the employment is not a condition or term of the initial sale or rental);

   3. “A fee for improvements or installations on the interior of a mobile home, unless the
      tenant expressly employs him to perform a service in connection with such entrance,
      installation, improvement or sale; or

   4. A fee, charge or other thing of value from any provider of cable television service,
      satellite master antenna television service, direct broadcast satellite television service,
      subscription television service or service of any other television programming system in
      exchange for giving the tenants of such landlord access to such service; and no landlord
      shall demand or accept any such payment from any tenants in exchange therefore unless
      the landlord is himself the provider of the service. Nor shall any landlord discriminate in
      rental charges between tenants who receive any such service and those who do not.”

      A landlord can require that the mobile home owner or the company supplying services,
   such as cable television give a reasonable assurance that the service or installation won’t
   harm the lot or mobile home park. This could include a reasonable security deposit.
   Any guests of the mobile home owner or renter (the tenant) has the right to visit the lot
without charge or registration>

    the mobile home lot owner can set reasonable requirements governing the style< size or
quality of the mobile home< or other structures placed on the mobile home lot. However,
except for the lease of a new lot (never before rented or leased), the landlord cannot limit
from whom the tenant may buy his or her mobile home. The landlord cannot restrict the
tenant in the tenant’s decision of where to buy or get “goods or services.”

   Landlord’s obligations

The Act requires that the landlord:

    1. comply with laws governing health, zoning, safety and other matters pertaining to
       mobile home parks;
    2. make all repairs and do whatever is necessary to keep the mobile home park in a fit
       and habitable condition; this includes but is not limited to maintaining in a clean and
       safe condition all faciiites and common areas provided by the landlord for the use of
       two or more lot tenants;
    3. maintain in good working order all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating,
       ventilating, air conditioning and other facilities and appliances supplied or required
       to be supplied by the landlord;
    4. provide and maintain trash receptacles except when door to door garbage and waste
       pickup is available within the mobile home park; and
    5. provide reasonable access to electric, water and sewage disposal connections for
       each mobile home lot.

   If the landlord violates these or any other part the Act, the tenant can complain to the
   local city or County Attorney who can, but doesn’t have to, have the courts enforce the
   law.

   Tenant’s obligations

   Under the Act, the mobile home lot renter must:
      1. comply with the laws affecting mobile home owners and lessors;

       2. keep and maintain the exterior of his mobile home and his lot as clean and safe as
          possible.

       3. place all garbage and other waste in the appropriate receptacles, which shall be
          provided by the tenant when door to door garbage and waste pickup is provided;

       4. use all facilities and appliances in the mobile home park in a reasonable and
          orderly manner, and require guests to do so;

       5. conduct himself or herself and require any guests to conduct themselves in a
          manner that will not disturb his neighbors’ peaceful enjoyment of the premises;
           6. abide by all reasonable rules and regulations imposed by the landlord; and

           7. in the absence of express written agreement to the contrary, occupy his/her mobile
              home only as a dwelling unit.

Ending the lot lease

        Unless the rental agreement says otherwise, either the landlord or the tenant may
terminate (end) a rental agreement which is for a term of sixty days or more by giving written
notice to the other at least sixty days before the termination date. If the lease end is because of a
change in the mobile home park, including its rehabilitation, a 120-day written notice is required
to terminate a rental agreement. The 120-day period cannot be changed in the basic rental
agreement. The landlord and tenant can agree in a separate writing for a different period.

        A landlord may not evict a tenant by measures such as willfully interrupting gas,
electricity, water or any other essential service, or by removing the mobile home from the lot.

Sale of the mobile home

        Under the Act, the landlord shall not un reasonably refuse or restrict a tenant’s sale or
rental of a mobile home located in the landlord’s mobile home park. Prior to selling or leasing
the mobile home, the tenant must give notice to the landlord. It is never reasonable for a
landlord to refuse because of race, color, religion, national origin, parenthood, elderliness,
handicap, or sex, but a mobile home park can lawfully operate an all-adult or all-elderly housing
community, or maintain all-adult or all-elderly sections of a housing community.

NO reprisals

       A landlord may not increase the tenant’s rent, decrease services, or try to evict the tenant
because the tenant has:

   1. complained about the landlord to a government agency in charge of correcting health and
      safety housing or building codes;
   2. syed the landlord for a violation of the Mobile Home Rental Act
   3. testified against the landlord; or
   4. helped organize or become a member of a tenant’s organization.
POWER OF ATTORNEY

POA is a legal instrument by which an individual (the grantor), gives another individual (the
attorney-in-fact) the authority to act for the grantor, either for some particular purpose, or in
general.
The attorney-in-fact does not need to be a lawyer and usually is not. May be a spouse or any
other individual 18 and over.
POA permits the atty in fact to act on behalf of the grantor, but it does not make another person
accept that attorney-in-fact’s acts.
For example, if the attorney-in-fact sells the grantor’s car to someone, the buyer is protected if
the car sale was permitted by the power of attorney, even if the grantor disagrees with it. But, if
the car buyer doesn’t want to accept the attorney-in-fact as the same as the grantor, the buyer
doesn’t have to.

        Within the terms of the POA (the paper that creates the power), the a-in-fact has full
authority to deal with the grantor’s property as if it were his or her own. Therefore, such
authority should only be given, with extreme caution, to someone who is complexly trusted.
Powers of attorney can be divided into general powers and special powers. A general power is
almost unlimited and is more useful—and more dangerous if used improperly.

        The “special power of attorney” gives an atty-in-fact authority to act in the grant’s behalf
for a specifically named transaction; common for things such as shipping household goods,
endorsing checks, authorizing medical or dental care and executing legal documents. A special
power of attorney may be written to authorize another to do virtually an act which the grantor
might do if personally present.

        The general POA is considered “legal dynamite” because it gives an atty-in-fact power to
conduct almost all of the grantor’s business: buy, sell property, borrow money in grant’s name,
and is rarely, if ever, needed.

       Naturally, no one has to accept the POA, so check with them first.

        POA end on the death of the grantor, the termination (end) date in the power, or on the
disability of the grantor (unless the grantor specifically grants what is called a “durable” power
of atty which includes language like, “This power survives my disability.”)
Taxes on property
http://www.ci.richmond.va.us/applications/citizensrequest/frmPrintRequest.as
p
PROPERTY ADDRESSES: 1019 PORTER ST
MAP REFERENCE NUMBER: S0000043019
GPIN: 1131
OWNER: THOMAS CAROLYN N & GEORGE W JR
ASSESSMENT MAILING ADDRESS: 3987 PATSY ANN DR
ASSESSMENT MAILING ZIP CODE: 2323400000
PROPERTY CLASS DESCRIPTION: 520 Multi Fam Duplex Conv 1HS
LAND USE DESCRIPTION: Duplex (2 Family)
LAND VALUE: 7,400
IMPROVEMENT VALUE: 45,100
TOTAL VALUE: 52,500
STORIES: 2.0
NUMBER OF ROOMS: 13
SQFT OF FINISHED LIVING AREA: 3040
YEAR BUILT: 1920
GIS CALCULATED PROPERTY SQUARE FOOTAGE: 5,119
SALE INFORMATION:
Date Consideration Grantor Deed Reference No.
7/25/1991 27,000 unavailable ID000274 00425
 9/27/1991 24,992 unavailable ID000280 01167
 10/11/1991 34,000 unavailable ID00281 2141
ASSESSMENT INFORMATION:
 EFFECTIVE DATE LAND VALUE BUILDING VALUE TOTAL VALUE
 1/1/1998 7,000 43,000 50,000
 1/1/2002 7,300 44,700 52,000
 1/1/2003 7,400 45,100 52,500
MAP REFERENCE NUMBER: S0000043019
GPIN: 1131
LAND USE: NO
PLANNED LAND USE: NO
ZONING CODE: R-53
ZIP CODE: 23224
PLANNING DISTRICT: OLD SOUTH
NEIGHBORHOOD: MANCHESTER
CIVIC ASSOCIATION: MANCHESTER CIVIC ASSOCIATION
CITY OLD & HISTORIC DISTRICT: NO
NATIONAL HISTORIC DISTRICT: Manchester Residential/Commercial
TRAFFIC ZONE: 1153
CARE AREA: NO
ENTERPRISE ZONE: South
NEIGHBORHOODS IN BLOOM: NO
REDEVELOPMENT CONSERVATION AREA: Southern Gateway
CHESAPEAKE BAY PRESERVATION AREA: NO
100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN: NO
500 YEAR FLOODPLAIN: NO
NATIONAL WETLAND INVENTORY: N
1990 CENSUS BLOCK: 124
1990 CENSUS BLOCK GROUP: 0601001
1990 CENSUS TRACT: 601
2000 CENSUS BLOCK: 1025
2000 CENSUS BLOCK GROUP: 0601001
2000 CENSUS TRACT: 601
MAP REFERENCE NUMBER: S0000043019
GPIN: 1131
POLICE BEAT: 410
POLICE PRECINCT: 4
FIRE DISTRICT: 13
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ZONE: PATRICK HENRY
MIDDLE SCHOOL ZONE: MOSBY SATELITE
HIGH SCHOOL ZONE: KENNEDY
REFUSE PICKUP DAY: FRIDAY
LEAF COLLECTION DATE: Feb 9 / Mar 22
BULK TRASH PICKUP DAY: TUESDAY
STREET CLEANING DATE: March 31-April 3 / June 2-5 / July 28-31 / Oct. 13-16
1019 PORTER ST
COUNCIL DISTRICT: 6
VOTING PRECINCT: 609
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT: 3
STATE SENATE DISTRICT: 16
STATE HOUSE DISTRICT: 70
Real Estate
$1.37955 per $100 of assessed value
Dept of Eco Devlopmt from www.richmondgov.com
Description of Enterprise Zone:
The Virginia and City of Richmond Enterprise Zones were created in 1982 by the Virgina General
Assembly for the purpose of assisting business development and expansion in specially targeted,
economically depressed area. Businesses within these areas, called Enterprise Zones, are offered a
package of local and state benefits in order to stimulate private investment
and create jobs. Local incentives include a real estate abatement, loans toward machinery, equipment or
structural improvements, facade improvement funding, and job grants. State incentives include a tax
income credit, real estate improvement tax credit, and job grants. Enterprise Zones in the City are
designated by City Council through a resolution.
Coordinates:
Virginia State Plane (South), NAD 83, Units = Feet


Ownership: Economic Development, Lisbeth Coker, Email: cokerlm@ci.richmond.va.us
Phone: 646-3792
Creator: Economic Development - (Lisbeth Coker) Creation Date: Spring 2001
Latest Update: Spring 2003
The latest revison of Enterprise Zones increases approximately 117 acres of new zone along Midlothian
Turnpike, Jefferson Davis Highway, and Hull Street, in the South Enterprise Zone. Additionally, the
creation of a noncontiguous subzone in the Stony Point commercial development area was adopted as
part of the East Zone. North of the James River, new areas were
adopted in the downtown, Broad Street, and Cary Street areas.
Source Data: Vector GIS Parcel Layer
Orthophotography
Hardcopy Enterprise Zone Maps
NOTES & RELATED LINKS:
For further information, please contact the Department of Economic Development at (804) 646-5633.
ESL: Teachers/Tutors: post these strategies in your room where they will become familiar and
helpful friends to your struggling readers as they move towards competency:


Think About the Meaning of the Story - This is key. Students must learn to rely on the context and
meaning of the story in order to forge meaning of unfamiliar words. As adults, we sometimes have to do
this in our own reading, so this is an extremely important skill that you must help your
students to master.
Chunk It - Teach your students to break the word up into more "know-able" parts. For example, the word
"unbelieveable" looks quite daunting. But, when chunked up in to "un-be-lieve-able," it will almost certainly
be more manageable.
Get Your Mouth Ready to Say the Sound - If a student has reached a total stumbling block, they might
need to take it letter by letter.
Reread - Sometimes the students will have to read, read, and read again in order to get the intended
meaning of the text. Teach your students to be persistent and they will reap the rewards of reading
comprehension. Skip, then go back. - If the student is totally lost, they might want to try skipping a little
bit of the text and perhaps the meaning will become more clear as they move ahead. Then, they can go
back and fill in the blanks, using the added information they gained from moving ahead.
Look at the picture. - Usually, this is the students' favorite strategy because it's relatively easy, effective,
and fun. Don't let them get stuck on this single strategy. It's definitely a good one, but sometimes it can be
the easy way out at the expense of students learning the more in-depth
strategies.
Give these strategies a try with your young readers. They need to live them, love them, and learn them.
Comprehension and reading enjoyment are right at their fingertips, but they do have to work at it until it
comes more naturally. Have fun with the excitement of reading with these enthusiastic young minds!


Using Context
The use of contextual clues can be one of the best ways to improve students' reading skills.
Unfortunately, students often insist on understanding each word when reading. Realizing that a text can
be understood in a general sense by using contextual clues can go a long way towards helping students
cope with increasingly difficult texts. At the same time, the use of contextual clues can also provide a
means by which students can rapidly increase their existing vocabulary base.


This lesson provides a number of pointers helping students identify and use context to their advantage. A
worksheet is also included which helps students recognize and develop the skill of contextual
understanding.


Aim: Increased awareness and usage of contextual reading clues
Activity: Awareness raising concerning the use of contextual clues, followed by worksheet practicing
contextual reading


Level: Intermediate - upper intermediate
Outline:
Write this example sentence on the board: "Tom decided that he desperately needed the glockum if he
were to solve the problem" Ask students what they do if they are reading an English text and do not
understand a specific word. Ask students what they do if they are reading a text in their native language
and do not understand a specific word. Ask students what 'glockum' means. Once students have
established that they don't know what a 'glockum' is, ask
them to guess at what it might be. Ask students what part of speech a 'glockum' is (i.e. verb, noun,
preposition etc.)
Have students explain how they arrived at their guesses, which clues did they use?
Explain the concept of reading in "chunks" i.e. looking at the text surrounding the unknown word for clues.
Show them an article from an advanced level magazine (Wired, National
Geographic, The Economist etc.) Ask students to identify the probable vocabulary areas that may be
used in the example article.
Explain the importance of activating vocabulary by first quickly glancing at the text to be read. This idea is
very important as the brain will begin to focus on related concepts thus preparing the student for what is
to be read. Point out that by using all of these clues (i.e. "chunking", part of speech, logical deduction,
vocabulary activation), students can arrive at a much fuller understanding of difficult texts - even if they do
not understand each word
Have students divide into small groups and complete worksheet.
Reading Clues




Deduction - What does the sentence concern? Which words does the unknown word seem to relate to?
Part of Speech - Which part of speech is the unknown word? Is it a verb, noun, preposition, adjective,
time expression or something else?
Chunking - What do the words around the unknown word(s) mean? How could the unknown word(s)
relate to those words? - This is basically deduction on a more local level.
Vocabulary Activation - When quickly skimming through the text, what does the text seem to concern?
Does the layout (design) of the text give any clues? Does the publication or type of book give any clues to
what the text might be about? Which words can you think of that belong to this vocabulary category?
Make logical guesses about the meaning of the unknown words in the following paragraph.


Jack quickly entered the didot and cleaned the various misturaes he had been using to repair the wuipit.
He had often thought that this job was extremely yullning. However, he had to admit that this time things
seemed to be a bit easier. When he finished, he put on his redick and went back to the study to relax. He
took out his favourite pipe and settled into the beautiful new pogtry. What a fantastic schnappy he had
made when he had bought the pogtry. Only 300 yagmas!
What could a 'didot' be?


What part of speech is 'misturaes'?
If Jack used the 'misturaes' to repair the 'wuipit' what do you think the 'mistraes' must be?
What could 'yulling' mean? - What part of speech is often used with an ending '-ing '?
Which synonym could be used for ' yulling '?


fun
difficult
expensive
What type of things do you put on?


Based on the above question, what kind of thing must a 'redick' be?
Is a 'pogtry' used inside or outside?
Which words let you know that the 'pogtry' was cheap?
What must 'yagmas' be?


Clothes
Cigarette type
Type of money


Reading Clues
Deduction - What does the sentence concern? Which words does the unknown word seem to relate to?


Part of Speech - Which part of speech is the unknown word? Is it a verb, noun, preposition, adjective,
time expression or something else?


Chunking - What do the words around the unknown word(s) mean? How could the unknown word(s)
relate to those words? - This is basically deduction on a more local level.


Vocabulary Activation - When quickly skimming through the text, what does the text seem to concern?
Does the layout (design) of the text give any clues? Does the publication or type of book give any clues to
what the text might be about? Which words can you think of that belong to this vocabulary category?
Make logical guesses about the meaning of the unknown words in the following paragraph.
Copyright © 2003 About, Inc. About and About.com are registered trademark of About, Inc. The About
logo is a trademark of About, Inc. All rights reserved.


The lesson also helps them improve their descriptive adjective vocabulary while they discuss perceived
differences between nations through stereotypes.


Aim: Discussion of stereotypes, explaining, improving character adjective vocabulary


Activity: Discussion and comparison of National Stereotypes


Level: Intermediate to advanced


Outline:
Write the word 'Stereotype' on the board and ask students what the word means. If students are unsure,
help them by asking them to finish the phrase, "All Americans..." or something similar.
Once students have understood the concept of what a stereotype is, ask them to mention a few of the
stereotypes about their own country. Include a few provocative stereotypes of your own at this point in
order to get students thinking about the negative or shallow aspects of thinking in
stereotypes. Example: American food is fast food. OR Americans love guns. Ask students to divide into
pairs and choose two of the listed adjectives to describe each nationality. Tell them that they will need to
explain their reasons for the adjectives provided. Go through the sheets asking different students to
explain their reasoning for the adjectives they have chosen. Ask other students whether they agree or
disagree to promote conversation. Once you have finished your discussion of stereotypes, ask students
why stereotyping can be often be bad and which stereotypes of their own country or region they do not
like. Ask them to explain why. As homework, have students write a short composition comparing their
own region or country to another one. Ask them to include various stereotypes, as well as examples from
their own experience that either confirm or refute the stereotypes they mention.


Stereotypes
Choose two adjectives that you think describe the nationalities listed below. Choose two countries of your
own to describe.
punctual
tolerant
romantic
respectful
hard-working
emotional
outgoing
nationalistic
well-dressed
humorous
lazy
sophisticated
hospitable
talkative
sociable
serious
quiet
formal
aggressive
polite
rude
arrogant
ignorant
casual


Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as


Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter


(most) principle verbs e.g. visit, construct


Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting


Adverbs e.g. often, carefully


Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as


Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few


Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were


Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite


Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as
Pronouns e.g. they, she, us


Glossary of Advertising Vocabulary
The use of this lexical approach is essential for successful language acquisition in English for Specific
Purposes. However, teachers are often not equipped with the exact English terminology required in very
specific trade sectors. For this reason, core vocabulary sheets go a long way in
helping teachers provide adequate materials for students with English for Special Purposes needs.


These core vocabulary reference sheets provide between 150 and 240 key words and phrases for each
industry. Each series is divided into three pages that, when combined, form an alphabetical list. In taking
this lexical approach to attaining key vocabulary, students should be encouraged to translate the specific
words and phrases into their native tongues as each phrase has a very specific translation in each
language.


advertisement - ad market coverage
advertiser mass advertising
advertising - publicity mass communication
advertising agency mass media - media
advertising agent media buyer
advertising budget media buying
advertising campaign media buying agency
advertising columns media department
advertising consultant media planner
advertising dealer media planning
advertising effectiveness media strategy
advertising expenses merchandising
advertising in the yellow pages misprint
advertising man - adman mural advertising
advertising manager neon sign
advertising media news agency
advertising planner newsletter
advertising poster (GB) - advertising board (US) number of copies
advertising rate opinion leaders
advertising support opinion maker
advertising to sales ratio opinion poll
announcement - press release order card
art director outdoor sign
audience pay-off
audience composition peak time
average audience periodic
average circulation pocket edition
billboards (GB) - hoardings (US) point of purchase advertising (POPA)
billsticking - billposting point of sale material
bleed page popularity rating - audience
blow-up poster (GB) - board (US)
body copy - copy posting
booklet press agent
brand image press cutting - clippings
broadcasting press office


brochure press release
campaign briefing to promote
campaign evaluation promoter
campaign testing promotion
campaign turnover promotional action
caption promotional campaign
cartoons promotional costs
cast promotional support
circulation publisher
classified advertisements publishing
clip radio commercial
clipping agency ratings
close-up readership
column recall
column width reportage
columnist sales incentive
commercial salesforce promotion
commercial break script
communication shop display
communication plan shop sign
comparative advertising shop window
complimentary copy short
consumer acceptance short commercial
consumer advertising sketch
consumer promotion sky-writing
copywriter slide
corporate advertising slogan
corporate campaign socio-economic groups
creative department sponsor
creativity to sponsor
cross advertising sponsorship
daily paper spot
direct advertising storyboard
door-to-door advertising strategic planning
economy size strengthening of the campaign


editor subheading
editorial advertising subliminal advertising
editorial article subscriber
effective reach subtitle
exhibitors' area support campaign
feedback supporting promotion
follow-on campaign tabloid
follow-up campaign tailor-made promotion
frame target group
gag tax on advertising
gatefold technical magazine
graphic designer television audience measurement (TAM)
graphics test campaign
headline testimonial
high circulation throwaway - flier
high-circulation weekly magazine tied-in advertising
house agency tied-in campaign
house magazine total ratings
household panel trade journal
image trade magazine
informative advertising transfer (GB) - decal (US)
insertion - advertisement transport advertising
inside cover TV network
in-store demo TV spot - commercial
in-store promotion visual
jingle visual appeal
key-account manager visual proposal
large print run to visualize
layout visualizer
leaflet (GB) - folder (US) window bill
leit motiv window display
lettering window streamer
local advertising window-dresser
magazine circulation zapping
mail advertising
editor subheading
editorial advertising subliminal advertising
editorial article subscriber
effective reach subtitle
exhibitors' area support campaign
feedback supporting promotion
follow-on campaign tabloid
follow-up campaign tailor-made promotion
frame target group
gag tax on advertising
gatefold technical magazine
graphic designer television audience measurement (TAM)
graphics test campaign
headline testimonial
high circulation throwaway - flier
high-circulation weekly magazine tied-in advertising
house agency tied-in campaign
house magazine total ratings
household panel trade journal
image trade magazine
informative advertising transfer (GB) - decal (US)
insertion - advertisement transport advertising
inside cover TV network
in-store demo TV spot - commercial
in-store promotion visual
jingle visual appeal
key-account manager visual proposal
large print run to visualize
layout visualizer
leaflet (GB) - folder (US) window bill
leit motiv window display
lettering window streamer
local advertising window-dresser
magazine circulation zapping
mail advertising


Banking/Stocks
In taking this lexical approach to attaining key vocabulary, students should be encouraged to translate the
specific words and phrases into their native tongues as each phrase has a very specific translation in
each language.


to accept a bill exchange controls
account exchange rate
account overdraft exchange-rate fluctuations
actual yield to exercise an option
after-hours trading to expire
at 30 days after sight expiry date - due date
at 60 days after date financial market
at a discount fixed exchange rate
at a premium - above par fixed term sale
at best float due to collection
at closing floating-rate loan
at par foreign bank
at sight - on demand foreign currency
to backdate - to antedate foreign exchange market
bank forward market - futures market
to bank - to deposit future transaction - forward transaction
bank account futures - forward contracts
bank balance to grant a loan
bank branch gross yield
bank clearance to honour a bill
bank counter hostile takeover
bank credit in the red
bank deposit interest
bank guarantee interest accrual
bank lending rates interest rate
bank loan investor
bank merger irrevocable
bank rate rise irrevocable letter of credit
bank sector issue price
bank suretyship - bank guarantee issuing bank
bank transfer issuing house
bank transfer order junk bond
banker's draft - bank draft legal interest
banking letter of credit
banking secrecy loan
banking system merchant bank
banknote (GB) - bill (US) money laundering
bear money market
bear market negotiable
bearer bill negotiable bill
bearer bond net yield
bearer cheque official discount rate
bearer share official Stock Exchange list
bill for collection on deposit - on consignment
blank cheque to open an account
blank endorsement ordinary share (GB) - common stock (US)
bond - debenture out-of-town cheque
bond certificate to overdraw
bond holder - debenture holder parity - at par
bond issue payable at sight
bonus share - free share payable to bearer
borrowing rate payment order
bounced cheque - uncovered cheque to postdate
bull market preference share (GB) - preferred stock (US)
to buy back premium deal
call option - call private bank
to cash a cheque promissory note - note of hand
cash against documents to protest a bill
cash market - spot market protest charges
cash overdraft rate
cashier - teller recipient - beneficiary
to charge an account registered share
cheque (GB) - check (US) to renew the bill
cheque book repayment date - refund date
collection revocable
collection charges revocable credit
commodity exchange revocable letter of credit
confirmed irrevocable credit right of veto
confirmed letter of credit safety deposit box
contract note savings bank
convertibility savings deposit
convertible to sell forward
convertible bond to settle a debt - to pay off a debt
correspondent bank settlement of a bill
crash on the Stock Exchange share - stock
credit share certificate
credit card share index
credit opening share issue
crossed cheque short-term bill
currency exposure short-term debt
current account (GB) - checking account (US) sight bill - bill on demand
current account deposit speculative bubble
date of issue spot exchange
debit balance stock dividend
default interests - interests on arrears Stock Exchange
to deposit Stock Exchange capitalization
deposit book Stock Exchange index
deposit certificate - deposit warrant stock market
depositor stock option
discount rate stockbroker - stockjobber
dividend to stop a cheque
dividend warrant to stop an account
domiciled bill subject to collection
Dow Jones index surcharge
to draw a cheque suretyship - guarantee
drawer to take out a loan
drawer's signature take-over bid (TOB)
end of month (EOM) town cheque
to endorse - to back transferable
to endorse a cheque unacceptance
endorsement unpaid - unsettled
endorsement for collection to value at market price
endorser voting share
exchange to write out a cheque
exchange broker - stockbroker yield


Bookkeeping and Financial Admin
accelerated depreciation industrial and commercial equipment
account book intangible assets
accounting - book-keeping interests earned
accounting criteria - accounting standards interests paid
accounts payable inventories - stock
accrual to inventory
accrued liability - accrued expense inventory accounting - stock
accounting
accrued revenue - accrued income inventory book
actual cost inventory records - stock records
added value inventory turnover index
adjustment inventory value
administrative expenses investment
advances invoicing - billing
affiliated company land and buildings
allocation of the dividend legal reserve
amortization - depreciation liabilities
to amortize - to depreciate liabilities side
annual general meeting (AGM) limited liability company
to approve a balance limited partner - sleeping partner
articles of association limited partnership
asset liquid assets
assets liquidity
assets and liabilities long-term financing
assets side loss
assets value loss on credits
associated companies major shareholder
auditing - audit majority interest
auditors' certificate majority shareholder
balance sheet to make a list of inventory
balance-sheet analysis to manage a company
balance-sheet consolidation management buy-out
balance-sheet items memorandum of association
balance-sheet ratios minority interest
board of directors the minutes of a meeting
book profit net assets
book value net margin
Book Keeping loss net profit
break even point (BEP) non-taxable income
break-up value on first call
budget one-man business
buildings tax opening balance sheet
business consultant - expert in commercial law opening stock - opening
inventory
to call a general meeting operating loss
capital operating profit
capital goods ordinary partnership
capital increase outstanding credits
capital loss overhead costs - overheads
to capitalize owner
cash cow product owner's equity
cash flow partner - shareholder
chairman of the board of directors patent
chart of accounts periodical report
clean factoring personnel costs
closing balance plant and equipment
closing stock plant and machinery
company - firm to post a contra-entry
company merger pre-tax profit
company profitability production costs
consolidated statement production value
controlling company professional accountant
corporate books profit and loss account (GB) - income statement (US)
corporate purpose profit distribution
corporate tax provision
cost centre provision for doubtful accounts
cost of goods sold proxy vote
costs and revenues to put into liquidation
credit quorum
to credit an amount to quote a company
credit column - credit side raw materials inventories
credit note real estate
current assets - floating assets records
day book - journal book registered office
debit and credit reserve fund - reserve
debit column - debit side return on investment (ROI)
debit note revenue - earnings - incomes
debt revenue tax
debtor revenues and expenses
deed of association - company statute rounding down
deferred expense - deferred charge rounding up
deferred income - deferred revenue running costs - operating costs
deferred tax semi-finished goods inventories
depreciable assets to set up a company
depreciation share capital (GB) - capital stock (US)
depreciation allowance - capital allowance shareholders' meeting
depreciation fund - amortization fund shareholders register
double entry shareholders’ calling
entry stamp duty
entry date state-controlled enterprise
equity tax statement of account - account statement
expenditure - outflow - expense statutory balance
expense centre stocks and work in progress (GB) - inventories (US)
expense receipt subscribed capital - underwritten capital
extraordinary meeting subsidiary
false accounting subsidiary company - controlled company
false factoring substitutive tax
fee take-over
to fill in a VAT return tax
final balance tax accounting
to finance tax assessment
financial leasing tax audit - tax inspection
financial management tax base
financial resources tax credit
financial statement tax exemption - tax allowance
financing - funds tax payer
finished products inventories tax rate
fiscal year - financial year tax register
fixed assets (GB) - capital assets (US) tax return - income tax return
fixed costs tax revenue
fully paid-up capital taxable value - assessment
general accounting taxation
general partner taxes and dues
general partnership - ordinary partnership temporary balance
goodwill expenses - start-up costs total current assets
gross margin trial balance
gross operating margin value added tax (VAT)
gross operating profit variable costs
gross profit VAT return - VAT declaration
in the black to veto
income tax withholding tax
industrial accounting cost year-end inventory


to abandon an action lease contract
according to law legal action - lawsuit
arbitration legal adviser
arbitration clause legal assistance
assessment of damage legal charges - legal fees
assignment legal department
attorney - proxy holder legal domicile
to authenticate legal proceedings - legal action
to award a contract legal representative
bankruptcy lessee - tenant
bankruptcy petition letter of intents
to be in force liability in contract
bilateral agreement licensee
binding lien creditor
breach of contract limitation period
to break an agreement magistrate - judge
to break the law to mortgage
cancellation date notary public
certificate notice
to certify to notify
to cheat - to swindle omission
code partial agreement
to come into force to patent
to come to terms patent
competent court patent holder
Legal
conflict of interests patent office
contracting party patent pending
copyright per procurationem - by proxy
declarant power of attorney - proxy
to declare null and void prescription
to decline any responsibility principal
deed of gift procedure
defendant - accused protest
to defraud proxy
to dishonor (GB) - to dishonor (US) public officer
dispute to put on record - to take minutes
to draw up a contract quittance - aquittance
effective date to refund - to pay back
to endorse - to back to register a trademark
to enforce a law registered
exclusion clause - exemption clause registration charges - registration
fees
fair rent rent - lease - hire
to file documents resolution
fine responsibility - liability
first mortgage revenue stamp
fixed term contract to revoke
fraud - swindle rights on industrial patent
gentlemen's agreement royalties
to give due notice rule - regulation
guarantee deposit second mortgage
to have full legal powers separate signature
to honor (GB) - to honor (US) to settle a dispute
illegal - unlawful to sign a receipt
illegally signature by proxy
to implement an agreement specimen signature
in case of controversy subcontractor
in force sublease - sublet
in good faith to sublease - to sublet
indictment to sue
industrial property to summon witnesses
to infringe to take legal action
injunction to take someone to court
insolvent tax fraud
to invalidate tenant
jointly and severally tenderer
judge the regulations in force
judgment third mortgage
jurisprudence third-party guarantee
justice trial venue
lack of evidence un-patented
to lapse - to be statute-barred upon notice
lapsed verbal agreement
law courts verdict
lawyer (GB) - attorney (US) witness
to lease - to rent - to let written agreement


Biz & Spec Purps
to act on behalf of on arrival of the goods
to agree with on behalf of
always at your service on condition that - provided that
as agreed on delivery
as far as I'm concerned on receipt of the order
as far as the payment is concerned on short notice
as follows on written request
as per invoice order to be confirmed
as per to the conditions our best attention
as per your request our offer is still open
as requested outside address
as soon as possible to pay the maximum attention to the matter
at your convenience payable in advance
at your earliest convenience please allow us
at your expense please send us
awaiting your reply please send us your instructions
to be able to prices are increasing
to be authorized to reach the destination
to be characterized by to refer to
to be confident in to return a letter to the sender
to be delighted to sell at the best
to be held responsible for to send under separate cover
to be in arrears with payments sender address
to be in difficulty short term
to be interested in similar to sample - up to sample
to be late to stop negotiations
to be overrun with orders to submit a sample
to be prepared to - to be willing to suit the quality - to meet the quality before the date we agreed upon to
take into consideration
Best regards the aim of this letter
body of the letter the following items
circular letter the goods are available in our warehouse
claim - letter of complaint the goods are not similar to sample
to come to a decision the goods are sold out
to come to an agreement - to reach an agreement the goods arrived in good
conditions
complimentary close the letter remained unanswered
to cope with the competition the matter in reference
to correspond to the sample the meeting was cancelled
to correspond with to our mutual benefit
covering letter to the kind attention of
due to oversight under separate cover
enclosure - attachment up to an amount of
to fix an appointment utmost care
following your instructions we acknowledge receipt of
from order receipt we apologize again for
further to our letter - following our letter we apologize for
goods listed below we apologize for the delay
greeting we apologize for the mistake
half-price we are sorry to have to
to have the pleasure to we are sorry to inform you
to have the power to we have received
hereby we hope we'll receive the goods soon
in case of need we look forward to your kind reply
in compliance with - accordingly we must apologize for
in due time - in due course we remain - our kindest regards
in good condition we sent you
in our favor we thank you in advance
in partial payment we wish to inform you that
in reply to your letter we would appreciate it if you could answer
in the absence of we would appreciate your reply
to inform in due time with no obligation - without commitment
inside address with reference to - in reference to
to let someone know in advance with the compliments of
letter opening - beginning of the letter with the utmost care
letter heading - heading with two weeks' notice to look forward to within the end of the month
looking forward to an early reply within which
looking forward to hearing from you without delay
to make the goods available without notice
to meet a demand would you please let us have
to meet customer's requirements would you please let us know
to meet the demand you ordered
Messrs you requested
to notify in advance about you sent us
on advanced payment Yours faithfully (GB) - Yours truly (GB)


Human Resources
absentee overtime pay
absenteeism overtime work
absenteeism rate partial disability
accident at work - industrial injury part-time
applicant - candidate part-time job
application form to pay
to apply for a job pay formula - retribution diagram
to appoint a person pay increase for merit
apprenticeship payroll - payroll ledger
aptitude test pay slip
to ask for a rise pension
assessment of applicants pension fund
assistant period of notice
back pay permanent disability
bargaining power permanent job - steady job
basic salary permanent staff
to be dismissed - to be fired personnel - staff
to be laid off personnel department
to be on probation - to be on trial personnel requirements
to be on strike planner
to be out of work prevention
business hours - office hours production bonus
Christmas bonus professional qualifications
clerical work - office work professional training
company bargaining - company negotiation programmer
compensation for permanent disability public holiday (GB) - national
holiday (US)
concealed work - moonlighting purchasing manager
contractual situation redundancy payment
cost of living allowance re-employment
credentials refresher course
day shift relationship management
direct labor remuneration
disability pension to resign (chairman) - to give notice (employee)
disciplinary measure - disciplinary sanction resignation (chairman) -
notice (employee)
to dismiss - to fire to retire
dismissal retirement
dismissal for cause retirement age
dismissal without notice right to strike
early retirement risk indemnity
employer role clash
employment agency salaried workers - employees
employment card - working papers salary
employment contract - labor contract salary range - wage band
employment for a trial period seasonal employment
employment office seasonal workers
employment rate secondary job
executive cadres secure employment
executive personnel to select candidates
exit permit senior clerk - senior employee
experienced person severance pay - dismissal pay
family allowances short-term employment
to fill a vacancy sick leave
to freelance skilled labor
full employment skilled work
full time skilled workers
full-time employment social costs
general strike social insurance - national insurance
to go on strike social security
gross wages and salaries sole director
to have an accident at work staff costs - personnel costs
health care strike
higher education - advanced education striker
to hold a position to take measures
holiday (GB) - vacation (US) to take one's holidays
human relations - human relationships temporary disability
independent unions temporary staff
index-linked wages t the job is still vacant
indirect labor top manager
industrial relations (GB) - labor relations (US) total disability
industrial tribunal - labor court trade-union (GB) - labor union (US)
internal regulations to train
interview training
irregular work - discontinuous work training period
job - employment trial period
job application under contract
job description underemployed
job evaluation unemployment
job satisfaction unemployment benefits
job security union dues - union subscription
job sharing union officer - trade unionist
junior clerk - junior employee unjustified dismissal
labor costs unpaid leave
labor disputes unskilled labor
labor force - manpower unskilled worker
labor market vacancy - vacant position
labor mobility wage bargaining - pay negotiations
labor relations - trade-union relations wage ceiling
labor retraining wage claims
labor supply wage dynamics
learning by doing - learning by practice wage freeze
leave wage indexation scale
letter of appointment wage pressures
lock-out wage-cost spiral
management training wage-earning workers
managing director wage-packet (GB) - pay envelope (US)
middle management welfare contributions
minimum rate of pay work at home
motivation to work overtime
night shift work sheet
occupation - employment worker - blue-collar worker
office hours working day
office manager working hour
office staff - office personnel workload
on the job training workplace
outsourcing work shift


Insurances
act of God insurance franchise
acts of vandalism insurance in favor of another
adjuster insurance policy
against all risks - full cover insurance premium
all-risks policy to insure
annual premium to insure against all risks
annuity to insure baggage against loss
annuity due to insure one's life
annuity policy insured
to assess a damage to issue a policy
to assess the value lapsed policy
assistance branch level premium
to be covered by the insurance level premium insurance
to be insured liability insurance
to bear all risks life assurance
bilateral agreement life policy
block insurance to make out a policy
burglary insurance malpractice insurance
car insurance marine insurance
cargo underwriter marine insurance company
casualty insurance marine underwriter
ceding company master policy
certificate of insurance multiple-line underwriter
change of profession multi-risk policy
civil commotion non-cancelable policy
claim form non-medical policy
claims department obligatory insurance
claims manager open policy
co-insurance ordinary life assurance
co-insurer partial disability
compensation for damages period of insurance
comprehensive motor policy permanent disability
to cover all risks perpetual annuity
credit insurance policy
damage in transit policy holder
damage survey policy to bearer
dangerous activities policy to order
deferred annuity premium adjustment
deferred premium private insurances
disability recovery of damages
disability insurance to redeem a policy
to disallow a claim to refund for a loss
to draw up a policy to refuse to settle a claim
endowment life policy registered policy
endowment policy reinsurance
estimate of damages re-insurance company
extended coverage to reinsure
extended guarantee reinsured
extended term insurance re-insurer
fire insurance retirement annuity
fire risk only riots
first premium risk evaluation
first-loss policy risk spreading
fixed annuity self-insurance
fleet policy to settle a claim
fortuity settling agent
general insurance single premium
goods-in-transit policy single-premium policy
government subsidized insurances social security insurances
green card spontaneous combustion
guaranteed annuity standard policy
hail insurance step-rate premium insurance
hidden damage sum insured
householder's policy temporary annuity
hull underwriter theft
hybrid annuity theft policy
in case of theft time policy
increasing annuity total disability
to indemnify - to refund uncovered
industrial accident insurance underwriting
insurance variable annuity
insurance against damages voluntary insurance
insurance company voyage insurance
insurance contract war risks
insurance coverage whole life assurance


Marketing
to act on the price market penetration
after-sales activities market potential
after-sales service market research
assisted brand identification market segmentation
to be competitive market share
to be out of stock market size
behavior pattern market survey
blind product test market test
brand equity marketing goals
brand extension marketing mix
brand loyalty marketing plan
brand positioning marketing techniques
brand preference mass-market product
brand range maturity phase
brand strategy memory research
brand switching merchandiser
brand value    mini-market
branded product mission
buy for fun multi-pack
buying frequency niche strategy
buying habit one-stop shopping
buying motivation open question
call planning own brand products
cannibalization panel - consumer panel
cartel price parallel import
case history penetration index
cash and carry perceived quality
certificate of guarantee pilot scheme
chain of retailers pilot shop
cluster analysis pilot survey
commercial strategy point of sale (POS)
competition to position
competitive advantage positioning
competitive products potential market
competitiveness premium price




competitor prestige product
competitor profile price competitiveness
consumer association price limit
consumer panel price perception
consumer survey price/quality effect
convenience goods price-sensitive buyers
convenience store price-sensitive product
corporate identity product image
corporate image product life cycle
cost per call product manager
cost per contact product oriented
coverage product policy
customer loyalty product range
customer satisfaction propensity to consume
customer service psychological threshold
cut-throat competition public relations (PR)
demand and supply curve purchase headquarters
demand components purchasing group
department stores qualitative interview
discount superstores qualitative research
display material quality management
distribution quantitative interview
distribution chain quantitative research
distribution channel random sample
distribution cost random sampling
distributor redemption
domestic market redemption costs
driving effect reference price
economic model reference value
empirical research registered trademark
entry barriers repositioning
excess of supply retail outlet
exhibition - show retail prices
exhibition stand retailer brand
exit barriers sales analysis
experience curve sales promotion
fashion product sales response
first entry advantage sales tactics
foreign dumping sell-in activity
franchising selling methods
free sample sell-out activity
game theory semiotic analysis
gap analysis shop in the shop
group interview shopping centre (GB) - shopping mall (US)
guided interview single brand distribution
historical brand social-economic factors
hypermarket socio-economic characteristics
imitation sole selling price
imitative effect to sound out the market
incentive price specialized store
in-store survey statistical survey
international competitiveness sub-brand
interviewee - answering person substitute products
introductory offer supply curve
introductory stage targeted distribution
key factor of success taste test
to launch a product telephone research
law of demand and supply trade fair
long term forecast trade mark
loss leader price trademark - brand name
loss of competitiveness trend
mail-order company unbranded product
mail-order sale unfair competition
to make a survey unstructured interview
market amplitude - market scope user
market analysis value chain
market area value system
market elasticity variety store (GB) - variety shop (US)
market evaluation wholesale stores
market expansion wholesaler brand
market niche win-win strategy
market oriented


Production & Manufacturing
Anti-slip to pack
to assemble to pack - to wrap
assemble-to-order product packaging room
assembly - assembly process packing - packaging
assembly line packing department
automation personnel management
auxiliary materials personnel rotation
backlog personnel turnover - personnel replacement
bar chart piece - item
bar code piece-work
batch pilot plant
breaking load plant manager
bulk production price tag
by-product processing method
colleague to produce - to manufacture
computer-designed producer - manufacturer
computer-integrated manufacturing product analysis
consumption per unit product design
continuous processing line product mix
custom-made goods product range
defect product specialization
to design production - output
designer production constraints
direct cost production cost
direct product profitability production cycle
distribution expenses production factors
to draw a plan production index
dynamometer - tensile-strength tester production management
electrostatic charge production manager
endurance test production methods
energy costs production overheads
equipment production planning
equipment purchase production potential
factory production prices
factory overheads - industrial overheads production process
faulty - flawed production progress
feasibility production standards
final inspection production statement
finished goods inventory production time - manufacturing time
finished product production volume ratio
fixed manufacturing costs production worker
floor manager - department manager productive
flow production productive capacity
flowchart productivity
goods lift (GB) - goods elevator (US) productivity indicators
hanging tag to program - to schedule
in process of completion progress control
in progress project
in stock project management
industrial area project manager
industrial espionage project planning
industrial plant prototype
industrial processes quality certificate
industrial production quality circle (QC)
industrial property quality control
inflammable quality criteria
to innovate quality of output ratio
innovation randomized sample
innovative raw material
input research and development (R&D)
to invest in equipment research laboratory
job order safety device
know-how safety measures
to label safety stock - safety inventory
label scatter chart
laboratory semi-finished goods
laboratory test semi-finished product
labor cost per output unit sequencing
labor hand-work - manual labor shortage of raw materials
large scale production spare part
learning curve specific-purpose equipment
line worker sticker
logistics stock (GB) - inventory (US)
machine stock card - inventory listing
machine loading stock depletion
machine tools stock level
machine-hours stock turnover - inventory turnover
machinery and equipment storage costs
main product to store - to stock
maintenance store - warehouse
Maintenance and Repair Handling (MRH) substandard
to make to order - to make on request supplier
manometer - pressure gauge tag
manufacturer's brand technical consultant
manufacturing technical sheet
manufacturing cost technological gap
manufacturing expenses tension meter
manufacturing industry test
manufacturing overheads tester
manufacturing plants throughputs
mass production timing - time scheduling
to mass-produce total output
notice board toxic
off-the-shelf twist counter
one-off production to unpack
operations scheduling unsold stocks - leftover stocks
optical scanner - reader warehouse - stockroom
order warehouseman - storekeeper
order backlog waste
out of order waste goods
output work order cost
output of a plant working conditions
overcapacity work-in-process products
overhead costs - overheads workstation
to overproduce zero-defect purchase
overproduction


Sales & Acquisition
actual price market supply - market offer
agency contract maturity rate
agreed price to meet a deadline
all-in price missing goods
allowance - reduction to negotiate
amount - sum negotiation
amount of an invoice net price
approximate price non delivery
article - item non-returnable packing
as per sample old stocks - oddments
assortment - range on account
assortment of sizes on credit
back order - outstanding order order
backlog of orders order acquisition
bargain order approval
to bargain over the price order book
batch - lot of goods order confirmation
business card (GB) - calling card (US) order from catalogue
to buy by installments (GB) - to buy on the installment plan (US) order
processing
to buy for cash packing charged at cost
to buy in bulk - to buy wholesale packing excluded
to buy on credit packing included
buyer - purchaser packing list
to cancel an order to pass an order
to cash - to collect to pay in advance
cash before delivery payment
cash discount payment by cheque
cash on delivery (GB) - collect on delivery (US) payment by installments
cash sale payment in advance
cash with order payment on account
catalogue (GB) - catalog (US) point of sale - sales outlet
catalogue price poor quality
cheap - inexpensive price ceiling
claim - complaint price decrease - price reduction
to collect a debt price fluctuation
collection price list
color reference price marked up by 10%
commercial agent price range
commercial invoice price recommended by the manufacturer
commercial letter price reduction
commission - fee price tag
company store - factory outlet price/quality ratio
competitive price pricing
complaints department pro-forma invoice
complimentary - free purchase invoice
to confirm an order quality defect
contract of sale quality standards
customer - client quotation
customer assistance to raise prices
customer portfolio receipt
customer service department reduction
cut in prices - lowering of prices to refuse an order
date of expiry (GB) - expiration (US) regular customer
date of receipt representative office
deadline retail price
defective - faulty retail sale - retailing
del credere commission retail trade - retailing
delay in delivery retailer - retail dealer
delay of payment runner
delayed delivery sale - selling
delivery sale by sample
delivery charges sales commission
delivery date sales department
delivery order sales discount
discount on quantity sales force
discount price sales invoice
discount scale sales meeting
to distribute sales period
drop in sales sales proposal
dumping price sales returns
duty-free shop sales target
to enclose sales volume
enquiry - inquiry salesman - seller
estimate sample
everyday article sample collection
exclusive agreement sample only - of no commercial value
exclusive contract sampling
exclusive right of sale second-hand
execution of an order second-hand items
ex-factory price second-rate
to export seconds
exportation - export to sell by sample
extension of payment to sell in bulk
factory price to sell off
faulty goods to sell on commission
first choice to sell out
to fix a price to sell wholesale - to wholesale
for sale selling expenses
foreign branch settlement of the invoice
free gift - complimentary gift shop - store (US)
free trial shopkeeper
full price slump in prices
goods sold
goods in stock sole agency
goods on consignment sole agent
to grant a delay of payment solvency
to grant a discount special offer
to guarantee (GB) - to warrant (US) specified price
guaranteed free of faults spot goods - on-the-shelf goods
illustrated catalogue steady prices
immediate delivery sub-agent
to import to submit an invoice
import license suggested price - recommended price
importation - import to supply
importer to suspend payments
to increase sales temporary import
intermediary - middleman terms of payment
to invoice terms of sale
invoice - bill time of delivery
invoice price top quality
to keep prices down trade practices
lead time trade price
list price trial order
loss of customers unit price
to lower prices unsold
low-quality wholesale
lump sum price wholesale discount
to make a delivery wholesale price
to make an estimate wholesale trade
market prices wholesaler


Logistics (Transportation)
a nonstop flight handling costs
actual time of departure harbor dues - harbor fees
advance freight - prepaid freight harbor office
advice of shipment - shipping notice - advice note heavy traffic
agreed airport of departure hold
agreed tare home delivery
air waybill (AWB) - air consignment note house air waybill (HAWB)
allowed tolerances import duties
all-up weight import license
at the border in bond - waiting for clearance
average survey in bulk
backed note in transit
barrel inch
batch number inspection certificate
bearer bill of lading kilo gram - kilo
below deck landed terms
berth - mooring landing
bill of entry landing card
bill of lading (B/L) landing order - discharging permit
boarding card litre (GB) - liter (US)
bonded warehouse - customs warehouse loading and unloading charges
border - frontier loading area
bulk cargo loading unit
by mail - by post lorry (GB) - truck (US)
cardboard box - carton lot
cargo - load luggage (GB) - baggage (US)
cargo insurance metre (GB) - meter (US)
cargo plane - freight plane mile
carriage - transport (GB) - transportation (US) millimetre
carriage by sea - sea transport moorage
carriage forward net tonnage
carriage paid net weight
carrier on arrival
certificate of origin on board
certificate of shipment on deck
charter party ounce
CIF value outward journey
clearance overland forwarding
clearance agent overload
clearance certificate owner's risk rate
clearance documents packing list
clearance duty part load
cleared - ex bond - duty paid part shipment
collection of goods payload
consignee place of delivery
consignor place of departure
consignor's name place of destination
consular invoice port - harbor (GB) - harbor (US)
container port authorities
container terminal port of arrival
containership port of call
cost and freight (C&F) port of departure
cost, insurance and freight (CIF) port of destination
cubic port of discharge - port of delivery
cubic volume - cubic capacity porterage
custom-house - customs postage
customs declaration form poste restante (GB) - general delivery (US)
customs formalities pound
customs guard - customs officer preferential rate
customs invoice preliminary inspection
customs officer product loss during loading
customs rate protective duty
customs regulations rail shipment - rail forwarding
declared value reply paid
delivered at frontier (DAF) right of way
delivered duty paid (DDP) road transport - haulage
delivery ex warehouse rummaging
delivery notice scheduled time of arrival
delivery weight scheduled time of departure
destination sender
dock - quay - wharf sender's name
docker (GB) - longshoreman (US) ship - vessel
documents against acceptance shipment
documents against payment ship owner company
driver shipping agent
duty shipping company
duty paid shipping cubage
duty unpaid shipping documents
duty-free shipping instructions
entry visa shipping note (S/N)
ex factory - ex works single ticket (GB) - one-way ticket (US)
ex ship specified port - agreed port
ex warehouse storage - warehousing
excess luggage (GB) - excess baggage (US) storage costs - warehousing
costs
export permit stowage charges
failure - damage subject to duty
flat-rate tare - tare weight
foot terms of delivery
forwarder's receipt time zone difference
forwarding agent tolerance
forwarding station toll-free
free carrier ton
free delivered tonnage
free delivery trailer
free in and out (FIO) transhipment - transloading
free of all average transport by rail
free of charges transport plane
free on board (FOB) unit of measurement
free on board airport unloading operations
free on quay (FOQ) - free at wharf unpacked
free on truck warehouse receipt
free port warehousing - storage
freepost waybill - consignment note
free-trade area weighing
freight - freightage weight
freight charges weight limit
freight payable at destination weight specified in the invoice
freight prepaid yard
freight rate the high seas
from port to port to charter a ship
full container load (FCL) to clear the goods
goods handling to dock
goods train (GB) - freight train (US) to land
goods wagon (GB) - freight car (US) to rent a car
goods yard (GB) - freight yard (US) to send goods - to ship goods
gram - gram to ship
gross to store
gross weight to stow
hand luggage to tranship
handle with care to weigh




Stocks
Definition: The Black-Scholes equation is an equation for option securities prices on the basis of an
assumed stochastic process for stock prices.


The Black-Scholes algorithm can produce an estimate the value of a call on a stock, using as input:


an estimate of the risk-free interest rate now and in the near future current price of the stock
exercise price of the option (strike price) expiration date of the option an estimate of the volatility of the
stock's price From the Black-Scholes equation one can derive the price of an option.(Econterms) Terms
related to The Black-Scholes Equation:
Definition of Stocks: A stock (also known as an equity or a share) is a portion of the ownership of a
corporation. A share in a corporation gives the owner of the stock a stake in the company and its profits. If
a corporation has issued 100 stocks in total, then each stock represents a 1% ownership in the company.


Option Definition: A contract which gives the holder of the contract the right to buy or sell a commodity or
financial asset for a given price before a specified date.


My Exam is One or Two or Three Weeks Away
Ask your instructor for an exam outline and what to expect on the exam Overview - review your notes and
any assignments you had Big Ideas - review the course's main ideas Small Ideas - for each big idea
review its sub-topics and supporting details Practice - use old exams to get a feel for the style of
questions you might be asked.
Hints:
Be realistic - no one can study for 8 hours a day. Make sure you get plenty of food, sleep and relaxation.
Try to study in the same place at the same time every day. At the beginning of each study period review
the last thing you studied for 10 minutes. Rewrite your notes - it can help you retain information. Read
your notes out loud. If you don't complete a particular task, don't worry just carry it over to your next
session.
Don't simply memorize facts - ask yourself broad open-ended questions about the material that's been
covered.
Night Before the Exam: Sleep! Try to just review - don't try to learn anything new. Picture yourself
succeeding - One of the key elements for many world-class performers is visualization
Day of the Exam: Eat - don't skip the meal before your exam - not eating can result in
tiredness and poor concentration. Arrive just a few minutes before your exam to avoid the usual wide-
spread and contagious panic In the Exam:


Use a cheat sheet - Even if you're not allowed to:
Make a cheat sheet of the material you are certain will help; take it to the exam; throw it out before you sit
down, then recopy it from memory, somewhere on the exam booklet, as soon as you can. Read all of the
questions (except multiple choice) before beginning, and write notes on the paper for anything important
that occurs to you as you read. If you're having a problem with one question move on and return to the
problem question if you have time left at the end.
Watch the clock. While no one really recommends cramming, sometimes that's what you have to do. So
here are some hints to get you through it: Pick the most important subjects from your material. Look over
your lecture notes, or someone else's if you don't have any, and see what the lecturer focused on.
Concentrate your cramming on these broad areas. You don't have time to learn specifics. The key to
cramming is memorization so it only works for "knowledge"
questions. Focus on material that can be memorized. Spend 25 percent of your time cramming and 75%
drilling yourself. Recite and Repeat the information. Relax: being upset at yourself for not studying earlier
won't help and may hurt your performance in the class. Remember how you felt while studying and while
writing the exam and plan to study earlier next time!
Hints: Be realistic - no one can study for 8 hours a day Make sure you get plenty of food and sleep. Try
to study in a quiet place. Rewrite your notes - it can help you retain information
Read your notes out loud.
Day of the Exam: Eat - don't skip the meal before your exam - not eating can result in
tiredness and poor concentration. Arrive just a few minutes before your exam to avoid the usual wide-
spread and contagious panic.
In the Exam: Use a cheat sheet - Even if you're not allowed to: Make a cheat sheet of the material you
are certain will help; take it to the exam; throw it out before you sit down, then recopy it from memory,
somewhere on the exam booklet, as soon as you can. Read all of the questions (except multiple choice)
before beginning, and write notes on the paper for anything important that occurs to you as you read. If
you're having a problem with one question move on and return to the problem question if you have time
left at the end. Watch the clock


Using your computer: To begin with, I want to provide some understanding of what these terms are so
that when you read about the latest malicious code spreading through the Internet and how it gets into
and infects your computer you will be able to decipher the techie terms and determine if this affects you
or your computer and what steps you can or should take to prevent it. For Part 1 of this series we will
cover Hosts, DNS, ISP’s and Backbone.


The term “host” can be confusing because it has multiple meanings in the computer world. It is used to
describe a computer or server that provides web pages. In this context it is said that the computer is
“hosting” the web site. Host is also used to describe the companies that allow people to share their server
hardware and Internet connection to share these as a service rather than every company or individual
having to buy all their own equipment.


A “host” in the context of computers on the Internet is defined as any computer that has a live connection
with the Internet. All computers on the Internet are peers to one another. They can all act as servers or as
clients. You can run a web site on your computer just as easily as you can
use your computer to view web sites from other computers. The Internet is nothing more than a global
network of hosts communicating back and forth. Looked at in this way, all computers, or hosts, on the
Internet are equal.


Each host has a unique address similar to the way street addressing works. It would not work to simply
address a letter to Joe Smith. You have to also provide the street address- for example 1234 Main Street.
However, there may be more than one 1234 Main Street in the world, so you must also provide the city-
Anytown. Maybe there is a Joe Smith on 1234 Main Street in Anytown in more than one state- so you
have to add that to the address as well. In this way, the postal system can work backward to get the mail
to right destination. First they get it to the right state, then to the right city, then to the right delivery person
for 1234 Main Street and finally to Joe
Smith.


On the Internet, this is called your IP (Internet protocol) address. The IP address is made up of four
blocks of three numbers between 0 and 255. Different ranges of IP addresses are owned by different
companies or ISP’s (Internet service providers). By deciphering the IP address it can be
funneled to the right host. First it goes to the owner of that range of addresses and can then be filtered
down to the specific address its intended for.


I might name my computer “My Computer”, but there is no way for me to know how many other people
named their computer “My Computer” so it would not work to try to send communications to “My
Computer” any more than addressing a letter simply to “Joe Smith” would get delivered properly. With
millions of hosts on the Internet it is virtually impossible for users to remember
the addresses of each web site or host they want to communicate with though, so a system was created
to let users access sites using names that are easier to recall. Internet Definition: Originally a project
called Arpanet created by the United States government in conjunction with various colleges and
universities for the purpose of sharing research data. As it stands now,
there are millions of computers connected to the Internet all over the world. There is no central server or
owner of the Internet- every computer on the Internet is connected with every other computer. As far as
the Internet is concerned a Host is essentially any computer connected to the Internet. Each computer or
device has a unique IP address which helps other devices on the Internet find and communicate with that
Host.
An IP Address is used to uniquely identify devices on the Internet. In IPv4, the current standard, it is a 32-
bit number made up of 4 8-bit blocks. In standard decimal numbers, each block can be any number from
0 to 255. A standard IP Address would look something like "192.168.45.28".


Part of the address is the newtork address which narrows the search to a specific block- similar to the
way your postal mail is first sent to the proper zip code. The other part of the address is the local address
that specifies the actual device within that network- similar to the way your
specific street address identifies you within your zip code. A subnet mask is used to determine how many
bits make up the network portion and how many bits make up the local portion.
The next generation of IP (IPv6 or IPng) has been created and is currently being implemented in some
areas. It has a 128-bit address which will allow for an exponential increase in the number of available
addresses as the Internet continues to explode.


The Internet uses DNS (domain name system) to translate the name to its true IP address to properly
route the communications. For instance, you may simply enter “yahoo.com” into your web browser. That
information is sent to a DNS server which checks its database and translates the address to something
like 64.58.79.230 which the computers can understand and use to
get the communication to its intended destination.


DNS servers are scattered all over the Internet rather than having a single, central database. This helps
to protect the Internet by not providing a single point of failure that could take down everything. It also
helps speed up processing and reduce the time it takes for translating the names by dividing the workload
among many servers and placing those servers around the globe. In this way, you get your address
translated at a DNS server within miles of your location which you share with a few thousand hosts rather
than having to communicate with a central server half way around the planet that millions of people are
trying to use.


Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) most likely has their own DNS servers. Depending on the size of the
ISP they may have more than one DNS server and they may be scattered around the globe as well for
the same reasons cited above. An ISP has the equipment and owns or leases the telecommunications
lines necessary to establish a presence on the Internet. In turn, they offer
access through their equipment and telecommunication lines to users for a fee.


The largest ISP’s own the major conduits of the Internet referred to as the “backbone”. Picture it the way
a spinal cord goes through your backbone and acts as the central pipeline for communications on your
nervous system. Your nervous system branches off into smaller paths until it gets to the individual nerve
endings similar to the way Internet communications branch
from the backbone to the smaller ISP’s and finally down to your individual host on the network.


If something happens to one of the companies that provide the telecommunications lines that make up
the backbone it can affect huge portions of the Internet because a great many smaller ISP’s that utilize
that portion of the backbone will be affected as well.


This introduction should give you a better understanding of how the Internet is structured with the
backbone providers supplying communications access to the ISP’s who in turn supply that access to the
individual users such as yourself. It should also have helped you understand how your computer relates
with the millions of other “hosts” on the Internet and how the DNS system is used to translate “plain-
English” names to addresses that can be routed to their proper destinations. In the next installment we
will cover TCPIP, DHCP, NAT and other fun Internet acronyms. The Domain Name System (DNS) was
created to provide a way to translate domain names to their corresponding IP addresses. It is easier for
users to remember the domain name, such as yahoo.com, than to try and remember the actual IP
address (for example 65.37.128.56) of each site they want to visit. The DNS server maintains a list of
domain names and IP addresses so that when a request comes in it can be pointed to the correct
corresponding
IP address.


Keeping a single database of all domain names and IP addresses in the world would be exceptionally
difficult, if not impossible. For this reason the burden has been spread around the world. Companies, web
hosts and ISP's and other entities that choose to do so maintain their own DNS servers. Spreading the
workload like this speeds up the whole process and provides
better security instead of relying on a single source. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet
Protocol) is a suite of protocols which make up the basic framework for communication on the Internet.


The first part, TCP, helps to control how the larger data is broken down into smaller pieces or packets for
transmission. TCP handles reassembling the packets at the destination end and performing error-
checking to ensure all of the packets arrived properly and were reassembled in the correct sequence.


IP is used to route the packets to the appropriate destination. It is the IP protocol which manages the
addressing of the packets and it is the IP protocol which tells each router or gateway on the path how and
where to forward the packet to direct it to its proper destination.


Other protocols associated with the TCP/IP suite are UDP and ICMP. Also Known As: Transmission
Control Protocol / Internet Protocol Definition: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to
automate the assignment of IP addresses to Hosts on a network. Each machine on the network must
have a unique address. Rather than manually having to enter the
IP address, track which ones are in use and remember to put addresses back in the pool when devices
are removed, DHCP handles all of this automatically. Each device that is configured to use DHCP will
contact the DHCP server when it starts up to request an IP address. The DHCP server will assign an IP
address from the range its been configured to use. The IP address has a lease duration. When the device
is removed from the network, or when the lease expires, the IP address is placed back in the pool to be
used by another device. NAT, otherwise known as Network Address Translation, is used to mask the true
identity of internal computers. Typically, the NAT server or device has a public IP address that can be
seen by external Hosts. Computers on the local network use a completely different set of IP addresses.
When traffic goes out the internal IP address is removed and replaced with the public IP address of the
NAT device. When replies come back to the NAT device it determines which internal computer the
response belongs to and routes it to its proper destination.


An added benefit is the ability to have more than one computer communicate on the Internet with only
one publicly available IP address. Many home routers use Network Address Translation to allow multiple
computers to share one IP address. Also Known As: Network Address Translation
New Yrs Resolution
The new year is a beginning, so new goals and resolutions, new plans, new dreams, and new directions
fuel your thoughts. Whether it’s your fiscal year, your budget year, your religious year, the new year, or
the first year of the new millennium, goals and resolutions are on your mind. These tips will help you
achieve your goals and live your resolutions. What is it about this annual “new” that causes us to reflect
upon our lives and our accomplishments? I believe each of us has a natural inclination to grow our self-
esteem and capability through new accomplishments. Most of us want to make a difference in the world.
Most of us want to live life as fully as we can. Thus, we annually draw a new line in the sand and claim a
starting point for our next chapter.


Yet, for all the initial enthusiasm, keeping yourself motivated, committed, and moving is sometimes tough.
Tired of setting goals and making resolutions which fade fast from your daily thoughts and actions?
Consider adopting some or all of these tips to experience awesome success this year in accomplishing
your goals and living your resolutions. The Goal Is Yours – You Own the Goal. Whether the goal is a
promotion at work, a streamlined work process, a new
customer, a published article, an exercise program, or weight loss, it must be your goal. You are unlikely
to achieve your manager’s goal, your spouse’s goal, or the goal you think you “ought” to work on this
year. Your goals must generate excitement when you ponder their accomplishment. You must believe
there is something in it for you to accomplish them.


Sometimes, especially at work, if you perceive the end reward is worth the work, you will take on
challenges in support of the organization’s goals. These goals might not be as close to your heart, as
your personal goals, but you work to achieve them for the good of the organization and your success
there.


Base Your Goals Firmly in Your Values
Hyrum Smith, the founder of Franklin Quest, later Franklin-Covey, Inc., developed a model of goal setting.
Smith's "Success Triangle" puts governing values at the base of the goal setting process. Smith
recommends that every goal is linked specifically to a governing value. For example, if diversity in the
workforce is a value espoused by an organization, then there must be
at least one goal which furthers diversity. Every goal should be linked to a governing value.


Short-term, mid-term, and long-term goals are then established based upon the solid foundation of your
values. If the goal you set is congruent with and allows you to live your most important values, you are
more likely to accomplish the goal.


According to Gene Donohue, of TopAchievement.com, set goals in all aspects of your life, to maintain
your life balance. The balance also helps you accomplish goals as each aspect of your life is represented
in your goals. You are less likely to experience warring priorities if every aspect of your life has a value-
based goal. He suggests goals in these arenas. (See sidebar.)


Family and Home
Financial and Career
Spiritual and Ethical
Physical and Health
Social and Cultural
Mental and Educational


From My Favorite Quotation File
"Until one is committed, there is hesitancy, the chance to draw back, always ineffectiveness. Concerning
all acts of initiative and creation, there is one elementary truth the ignorance of which kills countless ideas
and splendid plans: that the moment one definitely commits oneself, then
providence moves too. All sorts of things occur to help one that would never otherwise have occurred. A
whole stream of events issues from the decision, raising in ones favor all manner of unforeseen incidents,
meetings and material assistance which no man could have dreamed would have come his way. I have
learned a deep respect for one of Goethe's couplets: 'Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it!
Boldness has genius, magic, and power in
it.'" (Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe)


W.H. Murray, of the Scottish Himalayan Expedition
Believe You Can Accomplish the Goal
Each of us has a little voice in our head. It is the voice of our sub-conscious, judging self. On a daily
basis, we engage in self-talk; we comment on each situation we encounter. We discuss events and plans
in our minds. Our commentary is both positive and negative. Positive thoughts and planning support the
accomplishment of our goals. Negative thoughts and comments undermine our self-esteem and self-
confidence, and negatively impact our ability to accomplish our goals.


Listen to the voice. You can change its tone by believing in yourself and in your ability to accomplish your
goals and resolutions. Use this unconscious critic to positively support your success.


If you are a manager, one of your more important tasks is to support the development of positive self-
esteem by your staff members. Your positive outlook and belief in their ability to accomplish great goals
fosters their increased self-esteem and self-confidence. This, in turn, magnifies their
ability to accomplish more and contribute more to your business.


Paint a Vivid Outcome
Traditionally, goals were established around measurable outcomes. This works well when the outcomes
are measurable. Don’t tie yourself to setting only measurable goals, however; you may find yourself
concentrating on the trivial, because it is measurable, rather than on your most important outcomes.
Sometimes the most important goals, the non-urgent, critical goals, are hard to measure. “Explore
alternatives for a business in the World Wide Web,” is tough to measure, whereas the steps, once you
make a decision, are easy to measure. “Learn about new options and thinking around performance
management,” is tough to measure in any significant way. The
next step, “design a new appraisal system,” is easier to define and measure.


As you move up the management ranks, you may find more of your goals are harder to measure. The key
measurable aspects of your job will likely be the results produced by your reporting staff.


With goals that are hard to measure, start with a picture in your mind, that you commit to paper, that
describes the outcome you are seeking. Make the picture as vivid as you can. I have a published book in
my mind, while I am still thinking about and exploring potential topics.
Write Your Goals
Writing out your goal is your commitment to achieving the goal. Writing a goal is a powerful statement in
comparison with half-formulated thoughts in the back of your mind. It is the conscious promise to yourself
to pay attention to the accomplishment of the goal. Writing out potential action plans and due dates
makes the goal even more powerful.


Share Your Goals With People Who Are Important to You
If you are certain your significant others will support the accomplishment of your goals, share them. Your
manager is likely to support your goal accomplishment as your success is her success. Honestly assess
the ability of family members, peers, and friends to provide support. In close relationships, many different
feelings, experiences, and historical events are at play. If you don’t believe you will have whole-hearted
support, keep the goals to yourself.


Check Progress Regularly
One of the weaknesses of any annual appraisal system is the lack of frequency with which progress and
success are measured and tracked. You are most likely to accomplish the goals you set if you review
them daily as part of your normal planning process. (You do have a normal planning process, don’t you?)
Whether you use a paper planner or a hand held computer, you can enter your goals, and schedule daily
and weekly actions that support their accomplishment. The discipline of the daily review is a powerful goal
accomplishment tool.


Take Action to Identify and Eliminate Obstacles
Simply tracking your goals daily is not enough. If you’re unhappy with your progress, you need to assess
what is keeping you from accomplishing the goal. Ask yourself questions such as, “Is this goal really
important?” (If not, why did you pledge to accomplish it; maybe it’s not important, or less important than
other goals.) ”Are there specific obstacles you are experiencing which are interfering with your ability to
accomplish the goal?” (In this case, make action plans to remove the obstacles or seek help from a co-
worker, friend, or family member.)


If you are not making progress on a particular goal, attempt to do a root cause analysis to determine why.
Only by honestly analyzing your lack of progress can you determine steps to take to change this picture.
In this era of the hand-held computer, picture your goals automatically forwarding for 365 days! Talk
about a daily reminder about failure!


Seven Habits Revisited
“Begin With the End In Mind is the endowment of imagination and conscience. If you are the programmer,
write the program. Decide what you're going to do with the time, talent, and tools you have to work with:
"Within my small circle of influence, I'm going to decide."
Stephen R. Covey


Reward Yourself and Celebrate
Even the accomplishment of a minor goal is cause for celebration. Don’t depress yourself with thoughts
about all you still have to do. Celebrate what you have done. Then move on to the next milestone.


Goals Change!
Periodically look at the goals you have set for this year. Are the goals still the goals? Give yourself
permission to change your goals and resolutions based on changing circumstances. Don’t spend an
entire year failing to achieve a particular goal. Your time is better spent on
achievement than on beating yourself up for lack of progress. Maybe you made the goal too big; maybe
you set too many goals. Do an honest assessment; change what needs to change periodically, and move
on.




Paying attention to these ten guidelines can make all the difference in your year. Will this year be a year
of triumph for you, a year of awesome success? Whatever your goals and resolutions, these tips can help
power your success!


Before setting your New Year’s resolution, take the time to follow some simple steps to help improve your
chance of success.
1)    Choose one goal to work toward. Don’t begin to list everything you want to change at once. Help
yourself to stay focused by choosing only one.


2)    Make a commitment to your goal. Acknowledge setbacks and promise yourself that a setback will
not allow you to abandon your goal. Each Monday you will begin again as if it is New Year’s Day.


3)    Break it down to manageable slices. Instead of choosing a resolution to keep for an entire year,
why not set up small goals each month. Maybe your resolution can be that you will choose a goal at the
beginning of each month to work toward. That way, you don’t have to imagine
continuing toward the goal for 365 days, only for 30 days. If that is still too long, try for a goal each week.
Whatever it may be, your first goal should be to make your goals attainable, not to set yourself up for
failure.


4)    Make a plan of action. Determine what you should do and when you should do it. Be prepared to
alter some of your behaviors in order to make the change happen.


5)    Put your plan in writing.


6)    Send yourself reminder notices. Buy postcards and write one out to yourself for each month. Ask a
friend to put one in the mail at the beginning of each month. You can also use free services on the
internet to send yourself email reminders. Use your computer or PDA to set a reminder system.


7)    Plan your rewards. There isn’t always much incentive on a daily basis to keep up with a change in
behavior. Set up a reward system to help you going. Each day you follow your plan, put a dollar in a jar.
Use the money to go out or buy something as a reward for following through.


8)    Remember no plans are set in concrete. If you find yourself feeling like a failure because you can’t
follow through, reevaluate your plan and your goals to make sure they are realistic.


Hints for Resolution-Makers
If you are the type who makes, but never keeps, New Year's resolutions, have a look at these tips to help
you set practical -and attainable - goals this year.


1. Don't abandon the idea of setting resolutions because you have broken them in the past. You may
need to simply readjust the type and number of goals you're setting for yourself.
2. Do be realistic. A resolution to run a marathon by year's end is likely unrealistic for an inexperienced
exerciser. Likewise, resolving to stop all your unhealthy habits at once is likely to fail. Pick a safe,
attainable goal with a realistic time frame.


3. Don't make too many resolutions. There's no rule that you have to cover all areas you'd like to change
in your resolutions. Pick one or two themes - such as anger management, stress control, healthy eating,
smoking cessation, fitness improvement, career advancement - that are most important to you, and set
reachable goals within these areas.


4. Don't set resolutions whose success is based upon factors beyond your control. Saying "I resolve to
have a new job by summer" depends not only upon your own initiative, but also upon external factors
(the economy, the job market in your field) over which you have no control. Instead tell yourself "I resolve
to have updated my resume and sent it out to X companies
by summer." That way, the success of your resolution is entirely within your control.


5. Do set resolutions based upon your own wishes, desires, goals, and dreams, and not those of society
or those persons close to you. While this seems obvious, many people waste time trying to meet society's
- or another person's - expectations. A resolution is bound to fail if it isn't from your heart.


6. Do plan intermediate goals if it helps you maintain control. Decide where you'd like to be in three or six
months, and check yourself then. Achieving these smaller goals also gives you a sense of
accomplishment and motivation for the bigger projects.


7. Do use the buddy system. Rely on your friends to support you in your resolutions, and do the same for
your friends. Social support can be a great strengthener of motivation.


6. Do plan a reward for yourself when the resolutions - or intermediate goals - are met.


One way to keep from sliding into this pattern of failure is to set attainable goals, which are followed with
specific objectives. As one applies this method to scrapbook resolutions, the seemingly lofty becomes
attainable. What are your plans for your scrap booking this year? Do you have specific goals in mind?
Have you laid out several objectives which will help you work toward those goals? This article is a "How-
To" for those of you who wish to keep your 2002 scrap booking resolutions. Let's examine four different
types of resolutions:


Whether you have just joined a club whose goal is for each participant to complete 500 pages this year,
or you simply want to get 10 pages done, setting some goals and objectives is essential to being able to
keep this resolution. To begin, try dividing the number of pages by the number of
weeks in year (you can use a rough estimate here). For example, if your goal is 500 pages this year (yes,
a seemingly unreachable goal), then you must realize that you are resolving to complete about 10 pages
each and every week. So your next step would be to come up with specific objectives that will help you
reach the goal of ten pages a week. Write this goal at the top
of a clean sheet of paper and jot down beneath it things you can do to help yourself meet this goal. Some
ideas include:


Go to a weekly cropping party. Most scrapbook stores offer weekly times for scrap bookers to gather to
work on albums. These events can be very productive because any supplies you may need (i.e. paper
and stickers) are readily available for purchase.


Gather regularly with friends who share your scrapbook goals. Meet together with friends to crop at times
when a formal crop may not be the best option or is not available. Be creative with the times, i.e. nap
times, while laundry is washing, while waiting for the kids to get home from school on the bus.


Set up page kits ahead of time. Begin organizing your photos, paper, stickers, die-cuts, etc. based on
page layouts. Store these with your scrapbook pages and essential supplies in an easy-to-pull-out
anytime location. This way when you have a few extra minutes, you can put together a
page quickly.


Evaluate whether your scrapbook style and your current goals will work together. If you absolutely adore
pages that include a lot of paper piecing, punch art, or pen embellishing, and take hours to complete each
layout, then you can see that even 10 pages a week would simply be a full time job! If you don't want to
change your style, then this may be the time to adjust your goals.


What if your goal is more general in nature? How about, "I resolve to get 'caught up' on my scrap
booking?"


The first thing to realize with rather ambiguous goals, such as getting "caught up," is that in order to
achieve a goal you must have a clear idea of the objective. Do you have a certain box of pictures that
when they have been put into a scrapbook you will feel caught up? Will it matter that the pictures from
your daughter's birthday party last week are still in the camera, meaning you are not completely caught
up? So to begin, clarify this goal. Write down exactly what you need to get done. "I need to complete a
wedding album and three baby albums." That would be a clear goal. Next, break the goal into
manageable bits and write down objectives for each portion. Some more ideas to help with this goal
include:
Organize your photos into one photo-safe storage box per album that you need to complete. Then using
acid-free paper begin to organize the photos into potential pages, dividing each with a slip of the paper
and jotting down any details such as dates, names, etc. that will be important for journaling that page.


Try to get the family involved in the project. Many hands make light work. See if you can convince your
husband to do some journaling for you. You will love having his words in the album and everything he
takes care of is one less thing for you to do. Try sisters, your mother, or older children, when considering
recruiting more scrap bookers.


When you have a good pile of your photos organized jump right in and set some pages goals for yourself.
Use the steps on page one of this article to set-up a time frame and stay on track.


For more tips on getting caught up, read the article Getting Caught Up and Staying That Way.


"I resolve to get organized!"
Letting you in on a little secret, this is my personal goal for 2002. My scrapbook supplies and projects
need to be "taken-in-hand." The solution to every organizational project is to buy more plastic containers.
Right? Well, maybe that is not the best solution. Let's apply the goals and objectives format to this
resolution as well.


First, determine if your scrapbook goal is to organize your photos, your supplies, and/or your work area.
Any of these make terrific goals, but being specific about which one you are hoping to attain, or in what
order you want attain them, will help you write some manageable objectives. Some ideas include:
Determine which supplies you use most often. Organize these supplies in a convenient and portable
organizer. These will be the "must have" supplies for each scrapbook project.
Find an order that makes sense to you for the rest of your supplies. The punches, paper dolls stencils,
that new thing that you bought and never have used, find a place for each of these things so that you
know where they are when the inspiration strikes to use them.


Just as in the getting caught up resolution, organize your photos based on the albums you will be creating
with them. Divide the pictures into separate photo safe storage containers based on album themes. Label
the boxes. And, choose a box to begin scrap booking. Having family over can help you sort through
pictures of relatives or events that have grown foggy in your memory.


Set-up (if at all possible) a location that is just for scrap booking. I know this is something that we would
all love to have, and for many of you it may not be a possibility. However, if you can organize a place in
your home that is your scrap booking workstation, your productivity will soar. You will be able to organize
this area based on your work habits and likes. If a permanent location is not feasible, organize your
supplies in such a way that you can get them out and put them away quickly and easily. The time spent
preparing to scrapbook by organizing supplies, is not time spent completing pages.


Other Resolutions:
Have you resolved to lose weight? Stop smoking? Begin an exercise program? Use the goals and
objectives format discussed above to break down each resolution into specific goals. Then, write down
the objectives (or steps) that you will take to meet each of these goals. This process changes a resolution
from a wish to a plan of action.


Set Specific Goals
Setting goals is important. That is how you convert good, but ephemeral, IDEAS (cut expenses, increase
sales) into specific, measurable TARGETS (reduce G&A expenses by 5%. before the stockholder
meeting in May; increase sales of the retail brands by at least $60,000 per quarter).


This is not the time to worry about whether or not you can reach these goals. You will have plenty of time
for that later. This is the time to “draw the line in the sand” and publicly announce “this is what we are
going to do, and this is when we will do it.”


If you set easy goals - keep expenses at this year’s levels; increase sales of our flagship product by 2%
this year - you will fail. Oh, you won’t fail to meet those goals, but you will fail to satisfy yourself. And you
will fail to keep the business alive, because your competitors will set, and
reach, more aggressive goals.


If you set difficult, yet reasonable, goals it won’t really matter if you reach them. The effort to reach them
will force you to push yourself. It will make you use the resources you have to the best of your ability. It
will teach you what you really can do when you focus on specific goals.


However, I suspect you will get pretty close to those goals. Who knows? You may even reach and
surpass them. And your reward for doing that? Self-satisfaction in knowing that you really are ‘the best’
and the privilege of competing again next year in the cut-throat world of business.


Set Measurable Goals
In setting your goals, it is important to be as specific as you can. Nobody knows your business like you
do. Nobody knows what your people are capable of as well as you do. And only you know what is really
important to you. So you have to be the one to set the goals and communicate them to everyone else.


The more specific and more measurable your goals, the easier it will be to tell when you reach them.
For instance, if you set a goal “to increase sales” how do you know if you have succeeded? If your month
on month sales figures for January exceed last year’s January sales figures have you met your goal?
What about the fact that you have four more stores this January than last January? Were sales really hot
last January, because of that freak storm? If you’ve met your
goal by the end of January, what will you use to test yourself for the rest of the year.


If, on the other hand, your goal is “to increase net sales for each region by at least 5% per quarter and 7%
by year end”, you have something you can measure, track progress against, and use to push yourself to
new successes.


If you decide to “reduce turnover of full-time staff to under two percent for the entire year, and cut the drop
out rate of help-desk staff by half” you are better off than simply deciding “to increase employee morale”.


Rewards
Don’t wait for this time next year to sit back and look at this list and see how you did. Post your goals
where you, and everyone else, can see them. Measure how you are doing against your goals, and adjust
as necessary. Do this at all the measurement points you built into the plan (monthly, quarterly, whatever
intervals you selected).


That way, when this time next year does get here you can sit back and reflect again. Rejoice in your
successes. Learn from your misses. And then set tougher goals for the following year.




NEXT WEEK
Let’s start the new year off right by reducing risks. What does a corporate safety program entail? How can
you implement a safety strategy or improve the one you have?
John -- While you started out well, by setting a specific goal to achieve, you didn't perform any action to
help you achieve the goal. What's missing from this scenario is a strategy to help you accomplish the goal
you have set.


Without a strategy, or series of actions, that you are going to use to work towards the goal, whether or not
you achieve the goal you have set is just a matter of blind chance. And blind chance is no way to run a
successful business! To be successful, you need to make things happen, not just let things happen.


So when you're setting business-related goals (or any other goals!), use a formula that incorporates a
strategy or strategies for accomplishing the goal. For example, suppose that you want to increase sales.
When you're setting this goal, don't just write, "I will increase sales." This goal is too general.
First, specify the goal. "I will increase sales this month by 25%". Setting a specific goal builds in the
criteria you will use to evaluate your success; in this case, at the end of the month, you'll either have
increased sales by 25% compared to the previous month, or you won't.


Then, specify the strategy that you will use to work towards accomplishing the goal. "I will increase sales
this month by 25% BY offering a 10% off sale on all inventory and advertising this sale in local media."


Every goal you set needs to follow this basic formula: "I will (specific goal) BY (specific actions I will follow
to accomplish the goal)." As in the example above, you may have several specific actions you will take to
achieve your goal, rather than just one.


What happens when you go beyond the basic step of setting a goal? Evaluating your success or failure is
easy, because your goal is specific rather than general. And suddenly, instead of just having a goal that
you may or may not achieve, depending on chance, you have a specific battle plan to follow to achieve
the goal you've set. Instead of setting yourself up for failure,
you've set yourself up for success.


Goal Setting for Your Business Life and Your Personal Life
Last week I finished an assignment that has been eating up 14-16 hours of my day. I also celebrated my
birthday (yet again). Both of these events caused me to stop and reflect. Where am I going with my life?


It is important for business managers to know where they are going. It is your job to motivate other to
work together toward a common goal. Trust me, that is a lot easier to do if you know what the goal is.


It is equally important that you know where you are going in your personal life. Here again, you have a
greater likelihood of reaching that goal if you know what it is, and even more if you decide what it will be.
The more successful you are in setting, and reaching, your personal goals, the
greater the probability that you will be successful in setting and reaching the business goals that will make
your personal goals achievable.


So how do you succeed in setting and achieving your goals? For starters, you might try setting goals, or
reviewing those you set earlier.


From the makers of the Motivator Pro 4.0 software, here is an excellent article on the process of goal
setting Not ready to jump right in? Start by doing a self assessment.


Here’s a couple of tests for starters.
Or you might prefer to have someone else do the analysis, based on your handwriting.
Maybe you should start by finding a coach who can help you. Here are a couple of examples:


This is a great site with a lot of information, but start here.
Here’s a more personal approach to coaching. However you choose to get there, I encourage you to find
your goals and set your course toward achieving them. You will be happier, more satisfied by those
around you, and a better manager as well. Goal Setting is the commonly accepted name for the process
of setting and working towards goals. Most personal development systems, as described in books and at
seminars, present goal setting as the route to success.
Although the numerous experts in personal development offer slightly different methods for goal setting,
they are unanimous in the importance of doing so. Simply put, goal setting is a skill that is an effective
method for achieving success.


The practice of goal setting is really an art. It is a learned human skill that can be extremely powerful and
rewarding. Mastering goal setting will prove invaluable as you work towards every achievement, whether
large or small, throughout your life. Once goal setting is mastered it becomes a way of life. You will
pursue your goals with confidence, and literally control your destiny. No longer will you wonder what the
outcome will be--you will be in control.


Although the study of personal development systems is a relatively recent undertaking, the personal
qualities that make someone successful today are the same qualities that made people successful in the
past, and will continue to make people successful in the future. This may appear to be a strong claim, but
if you study successful people (and many have) you will find they share a very similar quality. This quality
is the ability to create a vision and to steadfastly hold to that vision until it becomes a reality. This requires
a commitment to determine and accomplish all that is necessary to ensure achievement. And that is the
essence of goal setting.


To succeed with goal setting you must first establish a goal-setting routine that is based on proven
principles, which will keep you motivated and progressing forward towards a success you define.
Motivator Pro was created based on these sound principles, which you should find easy to understand.
Once you have learned this effective goal-setting process, you must continue
with it and regularly review your goals, and your routine, in order to stay focused. A regular review
increases your ability to make your goals a reality, because you are more capable of performing actions
you are familiar with than actions that are unfamiliar. This is why Motivator Pro has a Daily Review
feature. Offering an array of reports and graphs that monitor and display your performance in all aspects
of your goal-setting routine, the Daily Review feature allows you to customize your review efforts to suit
what serves you best. It will keep your goal-setting routine in focus, familiarize you with the success life
you desire, and keep you on the path to that success.
Before you actually start using Motivator Pro, to build your goal-setting routine, which will lead you to new
levels of success, you must first consider and document who exactly you are. To do this, you should list
those values, principles, and beliefs that are inherent and important to you. You can compile this list in
Motivator Pro, where it is referred to as the Success Creed. You will find having a Success Creed comes
in handy as you are confronted with choices while working towards your goals. The Success Creed will
help to motivate you and reflect the limits you will place on your own ambitions.


To ensure that the success you are building for will endure, that success must be based on strong values
and principles. As with a building, durability is dependent on the strength of its foundation. The value of
the building will also be dependent on the quality of this foundation. Your
foundation, or Success Creed, therefore, must reflect your value system. The Success Creed you present
must be clear, direct, durable, decisive, and positive. And it must be based on beliefs you consider to be
strong.


Experts in personal development believe that success comes easier to those who really know who they
are. Although you may not feel confident to write a very lengthy Success Creed at this point, you should
still make an attempt. To assist you, Motivator Pro has a number of sample Creed Statements, within the
program, which you can review and import into your Success Creed, and your goal-setting routine, if you
so desire. If you see a Creed Statement that describes a belief you admire in others, but feel unworthy, or
uncertain, of calling it your own, add it to your Success Creed anyway if it is something you aspire to. In
this way it will also become a goal of sorts. A goal that leads you to becoming a person you will better
admire.


Once you have documented who you are by creating your Success Creed, you will be ready to start the
actual goal-setting process, which begins with defining your Objectives. The Objective is the pinnacle of
a goal-setting routine. It is the clear vision in your mind of what your definition of success is. It represents
the destination that you would like your goal-setting routine and efforts to
lead to. Objectives are generally long-term, sometimes even lifetime, but don't have to be. They do,
however, have to be important to you and as large as you can realistically realize. Objectives must be
worth pursuing or establishing a goal-setting routine wouldn't be worth doing. Goal setting will help you
reach your Objectives, so don't sell yourself short by setting easy Objectives. Your Objectives should
reflect a level of success you truly desire. And by learning and practicing goal setting these Objectives will
be realized. You will become a success.


Basically, goal setting is the process of breaking down a person's Objectives into smaller and more
specific goals. These smaller goals are in turn broken down into even smaller parts, which are a lot easier
to focus on and accomplish. The accomplishment of these small goals, which are known as Tasks, leads
to the accomplishment of the larger goal it supports, which in turn leads to the achievement of the
Objective. This process works because it allows a person to concentrate on the easy-to-achieve steps
leading to an Objective, rather than on the Objective itself. By concentrating our thoughts and efforts on
the easier-to-achieve Tasks, we progress towards our
Objectives while gaining confidence with every little success we have. As we gain this confidence we
enter a success cycle. This cycle sees us setting more goals, accomplishing more Tasks, and acquiring
even more confidence in our abilities. This all happens as we progress towards Objectives that by
themselves seemed difficult, far away, and even overwhelming. And it all
starts with a good Objective.


Objectives can be set in a number of categories. These categories could be titled Career, Education,
Family, Financial, Happiness, Health, Knowledge, Material, Retirement, Spiritual, or anything else you
feel importantly about. Motivator Pro lets you set Objectives in however many categories you like,
although at the beginning it is best to only set a few, while you are getting used to your goal-setting
routine, as you don't want to start out feeling swamped. As you learn effective goal-setting skills, and start
to work towards your goals, you will feel more confident about your abilities. You will gain strength from
all your small successes and see a decrease in
the antidote of success--procrastination. This will lead you to set new. Objectives, enabling you to
become a success in all areas of your life. You will eagerly set new support goals for these Objectives as
well, and happily work towards them until you reach the big successes, the ones that might have
originally looked overwhelming--your Objectives.


The Objective is your vision. It must be worth pursuing, high enough to strive for yet not unrealistic. When
clarifying your vision you must also solidify your Reasons for wanting to achieve this Objective. Do you
want to retire a millionaire at age 50? Why? Do you desire to lose 25 pounds? How Come? Do you want
to own a huge house? What for? Do you want to be company
president? Why would you? Do you want to go to Africa and help the poor? Should you? Do you want all
these things? Why not?


When you set a particular Objective, Motivator Pro will prompt you to input the date you intend to
accomplish the Objective by. You will also be prompted to define your Reasons for meeting the Objective.
If you don't, or if the Reasons are not strong enough, you may as well stop there, as you will not reach
your Objectives. This may seem harsh but it is entirely accurate--you will only succeed if you have
compelling Reasons to succeed.


There is only one reason for setting Objectives and goals, and that is to become successful at what you
set out to do. There can, however, be numerous Reasons for setting a particular Objective. As with a
salesman searching for a customer's "hot spot" in order to close a deal, you have to find your "hot spot"
for wanting to reach a particular Objective. This hot spot is your Reason, and it will be unique to you. It
must be compelling and clear to you or you won't succeed. As with your Objective, it must be worth
pursuing. If it isn't, come up with another Reason or another Objective--or fail.


Reasons should be written in a "straight from the heart" manner that will help to keep you motivated
towards the Objective. Often, people keep adding to their Reasons as they progress towards their
Objectives. Doing this keeps you working even harder, towards your Objectives, as having more Reasons
will make all your activities seem more worthwhile and effortless. Motivator
Pro knows the importance of strong Reasons and, therefore, allows you to keep adding to your Reasons
without limit.


Reasons should be reviewed regularly to help motivate you as you pursue your goal-setting routine. If
they are not helping to motivate you, perhaps they are not as compelling as you thought. Spend some
time working on your Reasons before continuing with goal setting. People have lots of dreams, and it's
easy to set goals. It is not easy to come up with compelling Reasons. And without them your goals will
remain dreams.


As we have said, an Objective must be the clear vision of what you desire to achieve through your goal-
setting efforts. Experts are in agreement that the clearer you can get the vision into your mind the better
your probabilities are for achieving success. To assist you with this, Motivator Pro lets you actually attach
an image to any Objective, Major Goal, or Stimulant. Image
will appear in any report where the item it is attached to appears (except the Goal Tree). To attach an
image to one of these items, on the image step in the item’s wizard, browse to the location on your
system where the image is located and select it. Images may be obtained from image CDs that you
purchase from your local computer retail outlet, downloaded from the Internet, or imported from Motivator
Pro's expanding Image Bank, if one is applicable to your requirements.


Motivator Pro also offers a feature that keeps you working on expanding your goal-setting routine. This
feature is called the Goal Coach. Just as a regular review is important in keeping you focused on how you
have been doing, and in what you must do, the Goal Coach keeps prompting you into expanding and
improving your goal-setting routine. By constant interaction with the Goal Coach, you will develop
stronger success habits and a goal-setting routine that will lead to considerably greater success than you
initially thought possible. The Goal Coach also prompts you to add mental stimulants to your routine,
which will help keep your mind on what you have
to do to meet your goals and Objectives. These success enhancements are called Success Questions
and Success Stimulants.


Success Questions are exceedingly powerful, and should be used continuously throughout the life of your
goal-setting routine. These questions effectively control the focus of your thoughts, which should be
directed towards achieving the goals you have set for yourself. Success Questions should be directly
related to a particular goal and relevant to your goal-setting routine. You should enthusiastically ask
yourself these questions a number of times each day. As soon as you find your mind wandering from the
achievement mindset you need to reach your goals, review your Success Questions immediately. This
will get your subconscious mind back on your side--the side of success.


Success Questions must be positive. These Success Questions must override your negative internal
questions so your subconscious starts working with you instead of against you. The following are
examples of Success Questions that would give mental stimulation towards someone's goals:


How can I earn a $1,000,000 as a successful __________ by my 40th birthday?
How can I stop smoking immediately, enjoy the process, and become a relaxed and happy non-smoker?
How can I ensure good things happen to me, and continue to do so? What is the most important thing I
could do right now?
Success Stimulants are motivating statements that, like Success Questions, work on keeping your mind
focused on achievement. These could be a motivating phrase you have come up with, or an inspirational
thought from a famous person. As with Success Questions and Creed Statements, Motivator Pro offers a
variety of samples to review and/or import into your routine. The Goal Coach will also prompt you to keep
adding fresh Success Stimulants and Questions to your routine. Doing so will prove to be very important.
By giving yourself a number of Success Questions, and by considering some inspiring Success
Stimulants, you will find you are more motivated in keeping to the route you have planned. The route to
success.


Once you have entered your Success Creed, Objectives, Reasons, Success Questions, and Success
Stimulants into Motivator Pro, and have an understanding of the Goal Coach, it will be time to continue
expanding your goal-setting routine into something that will make sure you reach your Objectives. As we
have already discussed, goal setting is a process of breaking your Objectives down into smaller and
smaller goals and Tasks, which when accomplished allow you to meet your Objectives. By breaking our
Objectives down into these smaller parts, we increase our possibilities for achieving success. This is
because we focus on the smaller pieces more
easily than the big picture. By focusing on the smaller pieces we don't become overwhelmed. We also
gain confidence through successfully completing all these smaller goals and Tasks. This increase in
confidence keeps us working towards our Objectives, and propels us to setting other goals which will
further help us reach these Objectives. The goals that lead us to our Objectives are called Major Goals,
and correctly setting and reaching them will ensure you reach your Objectives.


Many Objectives will have a number of Major Goals supporting them. These Major Goals should be
directly linked to a particular Objective. Major Goals can be specific or broader in scope, whichever allows
you to more easily establish the smaller, more specific, Tasks that will in turn support them. Major Goals
should include as many details known at this point about what you plan to achieve. If applicable, keep
updating these details as more facts become known. This is because it is important to keep your attention
focused on what is current.


Major Goals have an Accomplishment Date to keep you moving forward with your goal-setting efforts. If
you do not achieve your Major Goals in the time allotted, you won't achieve the Objective it supports in
time, or maybe even at all. This Accomplishment Date, therefore, should be realistically reachable and
also capable of stimulating you into action. If your Objective will take a long period of time to reach, so
might some of your Major Goals. If this is the case, set shorter Accomplishment Dates for the Major
Goals and renew and/or revise them as they are met. This will help you achieve constant successes
instead of being overwhelmed by your Major Goals as well. Remember, the Accomplishment Date for a
Major Goal cannot be past the Accomplishment Date for the Objective it supports. Also, remember to add
a picture that reflects your Major Goal if possible. As with your Objectives, you can scan the picture into
Motivator Pro, download it from the Internet, load it on disc, or take it from Motivator Pro's Image Bank.


Major Goals are in turn broken down into smaller goals called Tasks. Before we discuss Tasks, it is
important to mention a supporting element of a Major Goal that Motivator Pro features: the Quota Goal.
Quota Goals are very common in business situations, but also in personal goal-setting routines as well.
They can be written as a quantity number or as a monetary amount. Often salesman will set a Quota
Goal to sell a certain number of units in a certain time period. While this could be the salesman's
Objective, it really should be written as a Major Goal, with a supporting Quota Goal, which leads to a
greater Objective of a certain income, being chosen top salesman, or of being promoted to a better
position or territory that the salesman desires (and has reason to want). A person might also write a Major
Goal to save a certain amount of money by a certain period of time, or for a company to achieve a certain
volume of sales in a particular period (either number of units or monetary amount). All of these examples
could be set up in
Motivator Pro, in the Quota Goal function, which will establish a contribution schedule that monitors
existing contributions to the total established, and the amount still required. As with everything in
Motivator Pro, you can edit what you have entered, which in this case you might use to reflect busier
selling months than others, or seasonal variances in budgets.


As you progress towards your long-term Objectives, you will constantly achieve some Major Goals, and
Quota Goals, be working on others, while still setting new ones. Often, you may not have even visualized
these new Major Goals when you originally established the Objective. This is normal, and not to be
feared, as once you get used to goal-setting, new goals will just come
to you. These new goals will be welcomed and seen as another challenge that will be met. Setbacks will
be seen in a more positive light, and mistakes will be learned from.
The smallest elements of a goal-setting routine are the Tasks. Although they are the final step in
establishing a goal-setting routine, they are the first step a person works on as they start progressing
towards their Major Goals and Objectives. As we have said, the primary purpose of breaking down
Objectives into smaller steps is to make the achievement of the larger goal easier to conceive. This keeps
your attention focused on each step as you go, rather on the complexity of the entire project. This
eliminates the possibility of becoming overwhelmed, and allows for maximum positive reinforcement as
you successfully achieve each small step--your Tasks.


Unlike Objectives and Major Goals, where some latitude is permitted, Tasks must be written very
specifically. Each Task should directly support a particular Major Goal (or Objective), and should, when
completed, directly lead to the fulfillment of that Major Goal. Often, a Major Goal will require
dozens of Tasks be completed in order to achieve the Major Goal. Completing each Task could be simple
or difficult, quick or long depending on what is required. Whatever the case, each Task must be as small
a step as possible, or perhaps it should be stated as a Major Goal with other Tasks supporting it.


Tasks can be a one-time act like going to the library to get a particular book, which can be done anytime,
or a one-time act like going to a certain seminar, which must be done on a particular date. Tasks can also
be one-time endeavors that are ongoing as with taking a university course. Sometimes, as with holding a
staff meeting every Monday, we have to do the same Task on a
regular basis in order to achieve our goals. No matter how the Task is to be completed, you must assign it
an Accomplishment Date. As with Major Goals, this Accomplishment Date must be realistically possible,
but still not so far away that it doesn't help to push you forwards. And the timely accomplishment of your
Tasks should literally launch you towards your Major Goals.


Motivator Pro, amongst its many performance graphs and reports, has a number of them devoted to
monitoring the number of Tasks you have, and your history of performing them on time. Also, when you
turn Motivator Pro on, you will be reminded of what Tasks were to be done by that date. You will then be
required to indicate whether or not they were done. These are in the program because it is vitally
important to achieve your Tasks when you intend to do so. As most Tasks are quite simple this shouldn't
be difficult to do. And if you do, your dreams will be realized--you will reach the level of success that you
defined.


Through regular use of the Daily Review function you should have no difficulty in keeping the elements of
your goal-setting routine organized in your mind. You should know what Tasks support which Major
Goals, and what Objective is in turn supported by that Major Goal. For a quick reminder you may check
Motivator Pro's Goal Tree feature, which organizes all your
Objectives and their corresponding supporting elements, Major Goals, Quota Goals, and Tasks, into a
hierarchical diagram. Also, any time you enter an item in support of another, you may view the Parent
item to ensure that the item directly supports its Parent.


When people are on a regular goal-setting routine, their mind really focuses on achievement. Where once
they thought that success had passed them by, they now see success possibilities all around. Instead of
letting these opportunities pass them by, those with an achievement mindset will try to grab the
opportunity when it presents itself. Because these opportunities
usually come to mind at surprising times, and often well-disguised, it is important to document them. To
help with this, Motivator Pro has a feature called the ScratchPad. The ScratchPad is basically a user-
friendly word-processor, which you can quickly access to document these brainstorms when they come to
you. The unique thing about this feature is that you can
convert these entries into any element in your goal-setting routine when you are able to do so. This allows
you to keep up with your success-oriented thoughts when they occur, and organize them to your
advantage when you have the time!


Many success practitioners also instruct people to document their success efforts in a written journal.
Keeping a journal allows a person to review what they were doing and thinking at a particular moment in
their goal-setting routine. By documenting these everyday efforts, and thoughts, you can learn from things
that went wrong, and relive the positive feelings you received from the achievement of a particular Task
or goal. A journal also helps you to put a human face on your goal-setting routine, as it lets you describe
your thoughts about the whole process while you are part of the process. Because we also feel it is
important to keep this sort of journal, Motivator Pro has been setup to allow you to keep this journal within
your goal-setting routine. The feature that is designed for this purpose is called the Daily Journal. Regular
use, and review, of it will help you develop your success skills, and ensures you get the most from your
experiences, which will lead you towards even more success.


Many people don't have access to their goal-setting routine at all times, usually because they don't have
continual access to a computer as they go about their day. To let your goal-setting routine go with you,
Motivator Pro is set up so you can print out any or all of your routine. Although you can print whatever
parts of your Daily Review you desire, many people just use
this feature to give them a printed reminder of their Tasks-to-do for the day. Once again, this just keeps
your routine in the forefront of your thoughts, which will, of course, enhance your prospects for the
successful achievement of your Tasks, Major Goals, and ultimately, your Objectives.


To keep your mind thinking positively, Motivator Pro has a feature we call the FlashCard Creator. This
feature lets you print your Success Stimulants, Success Questions, and Success Creeds onto small cards
that you can keep permanently with you. A quick review of these a few times a day will prove to be
extremely motivating.


Motivator Pro will assist you towards meeting your Objectives. It is an easy-to-use system that is
enjoyable to operate, and thorough in its approach. Motivator Pro, when utilized to its full capabilities, will
lead you to successes you may not yet have even dreamed about. It does this by
keeping your goal-setting efforts organized, and through constant evaluation of how you are succeeding
with these efforts. It will keep reminding and motivating you to progress forward with your goal-setting
routine, and to keep evolving this routine into one that is more thorough and efficient, which will be
necessary for you to continually reach success after success. Motivator Pro helps you develop effective
success habits and a mindset for success. It will force you to become the person it takes to achieve your
goals. With Motivator Pro, you will reach the level of success you desire and deserve. You will become a
success.


Beware the Misuse of Goal Setting


Why don't most people set and achieve personal goals, career goals and business goals? Goal setting is
a positive, powerful practice when it ignites enthusiasm and provides clear direction.


When practiced poorly, however, goal setting also has a serious downside which can undermine your
success. Poor goal setting makes people cynical, wastes their time and fosters confusion about where to
concentrate actions and energy. How does such a potentially successful practice as goal setting, go
wrong, so often?


If you’ve read my work for any length of time, you know that I am a proponent of setting goals and
measuring your progress in achieving them. A recent exchange with William Hamilton, President of
TechSmith Corporation, and several other executive managers (who wish to remain anonymous)
reminded me that goal setting, executed poorly, thoughtlessly, or for the wrong reasons, can have a
significant negative impact on both people and your organization business plan.


Avoid these five misuses of a potentially positive, powerful practice: goal setting for personal goals,
career goals and business goals.


Just Do It: The Art of Intimidation
Organizations often fail to achieve goals and strategic planning targets that are set top down, by
executives who lack crucial information and are out of touch with staff challenges. The goals are
unrealistic and they fail to consider organization resources and capabilities. Staff members don't
believe that the rewards they will receive for goal accomplishment will equal the energy they invest to
achieve them. Frequently, managers are intimidated when they fear job loss for failure.


A former Siebel Systems executive says, "My favorite goal setting story of all time was how Siebel set
sales goals for its District Managers: everyone's quota was $3.5 million. There, no more thought needed
to go into it, no discussion - just do it or you're fired! So the District Manager calling on Citibank had the
same quota as the District Manager calling on
the States of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Guess which guy got fired?


"I also remember how I used to spend the last day of every sales quarter at Siebel performing unnatural
acts to close business and save my job. At the end of the year, I had to work until 10:00 p.m. on the last
day of the sales quarter (while we had company over at home) to get one last deal closed. This deal
saved my job. I was one of two state and local district managers that avoided the axe two weeks later."


Goals Intended to Impress, Not Guide Efforts
William Hamilton says, "During the roaring, crazy days of the dot.com nineties, using goals to impress
was common place, although organizations also utilized this technique long before the Internet arrived. In
this process, management creates goals based on the desire to impress or mislead outside groups."


According to Hamilton, this process is, “also used to avoid serious analysis of the company and the
marketplace. At the end of the time period, these goals can then be used by senior management to pass
the buck and the blame for the failure to meet the goals.


"To internal staff members, who were often unconvinced and unmoved by the unrealistic, 'show goals,'
senior management’s actions produced serious morale and competency-questioning issues. To staff
members who bought into the euphoria, failure to achieve the goals was a deadly downward spiral."
Hamilton gives these examples of negative actions people take to meet
unrealistic goals. "They:


Focus development efforts on the next sale. Offer deep discounts on products to move future sales into
the current period. Push expenses into the future, rather than accounting for them when incurred. Use
expensive promotions that actually generate less in sales than they
cost. Fail to carefully develop long term strategic efforts, when 'strategic' means the payoff is not within
the next goal time period." A former IBM manager illustrates this point with this story. "One ridiculous
process was the way IBM used to set sales quotas. In the later years there, when the company was
showing very slow growth, you could count on a 25-30 percent increase in quota. It didn't matter that most
IT (Information Technology) budgets were stagnant, so the quota process was demoralizing in a big way.
The way to make dollars there, was to find a job where they weren't sure how to set the quota - some kind
of new area - and clean up and move on. Some people specialized in this sort of behavior."


Goal Setting Becomes About the Plan, Not the Execution
Hamilton says a potential serious downside occurs when "the ratio of energy, time and creativity that goes
into creating the goal outstrips (and comes out of the hide) of actually managing the product."


In one small manufacturing company, a management group decided to use gantt charts to track goal
accomplishment. After starting with a huge investment of time in making the charts for all of their goals,
the management group soon abandoned the charting. When questioned later, they affirmed that the
charting was taking too much of the time they needed to accomplish the
goals. But, they had awesome charts while they were keeping them up.


Another example of this is when an organization spends time and energy to develop a comprehensive
business plan, and then the plan sits in a drawer. While the act of making the plan was important, the
follow-up is the critical piece. Regular review and follow-up make a plan live - and serve.


Too Many Goals Make Nothing a Priority
In my work with small and mid-sized manufacturing companies, I often find that people wear so many
hats, they are overwhelmed with the sheer number of goals they are expected to meet. I once facilitated a
strategic planning session during which people analyzed and established priorities. They moved non-
priority items to a “B” list and believed they had successfully created
an “A” list of the most important, achievable goals.


You can imagine my consternation when, at the end of the session, the senior manager looked at the list
of goals on the “B” list and said, “These are all givens. We have to accomplish these anyway.”


People with too many goals experience these issues.


They never feel as if they accomplish a complete task. It is difficult to tie their goal accomplishment to a
reward and recognition system that recognizes their accomplishments. They don't know what is most
important to accomplish next. They fall prey to the "check it off the list" syndrome in which they check
tasks off their list before the actions have been integrated by the organization. Goal setting is a positive,
powerful, business practice when it tells your staff where you are going. Effective goal setting also
demonstrates what success will look like during the journey and upon arrival. When practiced poorly,
however, goal setting can negatively impact your organization in all the ways described, and more.
 ~ Susan M. Heathfield
How many people do you know who have actually accomplished what they resolved to accomplish?
Have you done it yourself? If so, you're a rare breed!


It's difficult to understand why people put themselves through the resolution ritual every single year. But,
the onset of a fresh new year seems to put people in a "new me" mood. The appeal of new year's
resolutions is particularly dangerous to people with anxiety disorders. The process
normally consists of making impossible resolutions, not accomplishing them, and feeling like a failure.
People with anxiety disorders tend to be perfectionists who are terribly hard on themselves when they
don't live up to their own expectations.


Setting Goals
So, should you resolve not to resolve?
Not making any resolutions is an option, of course. However, there are other options, and, as with any
part of your recovery, you must make the decision that is best for you. The beginning of the new year
does inspire most of us to make some changes. If you're recovering from an anxiety disorder, you
probably have many changes you can make. Goal-setting can be an important part of recovery. Rather
than making a long list of inflexible resolutions, consider using this time to create flexible recovery goals.


Why Set Goals?
Recovering from anxiety disorders is, for most of us, a lengthy process. Some changes come rapidly, but
many take some time. Goals help you visualize the big picture. On days you feel frustrated by your lack of
progress, you can look at your goals and remember that not all changes happen overnight. You can also
keep track of your progress and see how far you've come.
Without some sort of written log of where we've been and where we're going, we have a difficult time
giving ourselves credit for our accomplishments. Goal-setting also helps you break down big tasks into
manageable ones. This way, you're not overwhelmed, and you can give yourself credit for each step in
the process.


Flexibility
I cannot emphasize enough the need to be flexible when creating goals. In fact, you might not even want
to call them "goals." Do what feels right for you. For me, goal-setting has become more of a list of
processes that I would like to accomplish. For example, I could set a goal to try deep muscle relaxation
exercises every day for a month. The overall goal is to improve
my ability to relax, but rather than set a date when I should feel more relaxed, I'm setting goals to learn
new relaxation methods. I can be flexible about the methods I use, and I can keep track of my progress
over time.
In setting my goals, I try to look as far ahead as possible -- not to create a rigid plan for every day of my
life but to understand my own reasons for doing what I'm doing now. Why do I want to practice relaxation
every day? What kind of person am I trying to be? In what ways will I be different if I learn to relax more
easily? With positive images of the future, I'm more likely to stick to tasks which might seem tedious on
some days.


My way of creating goals won't work for everyone. By reading different articles and books on treatment
methods and goal setting, I learned to create a goal plan that works for me. You can do the same. Be
creative. Be flexible. Be well.




Affiliate


http://www.vonna.com/rsearch.asp?k=Affiliate+Program


another is
http://ask.elibrary.com/login.asp?c=&host=ask%2Eelibrary%2Ecom&script=%2Fget
doc%2Easp&query=pubname%3DUnited%5FPress%5FInternational%26puburl%3Dhttp%7EC
%7E%7ES%7E%7ES%7Ewww%2Ecomtexnews%2Ecom%26querydocid%3D47489591%40urn%3Abigc
halk%3AUS%3BLib%26dtype%3D0%7E0%26dinst%3D0%26refid%3Dalleffort&title=&pubna
me=United%5FPress%5FInternational&author=&date=&ctrlInfo=&refid=alleffort#


AP's Web site for breaking news: | feedback@ap.org
What is the reach of The Associated Press?


More than a billion people every day read, hear or see AP news.


In the United States alone, AP serves 1,550 newspapers and 5,000 radio and television stations. Add to
that the more than 8,500 newspaper, radio and television subscribers in 112 countries, and you'll have
some idea of AP's reach.


3. Where can I send a press release?


Send an e-mail (no attachments) to pr@ap.org If you have a story of local significance, you should send
your idea to a local AP bureau. The AP has a bureau in every state capital.
If your story has national or international significance, you can mail your press release to AP's
General/National Desk or International Desk at Associated Press, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N.Y.
10020.


VA office for api Richmond, 700 E. Main Street, Suite 1380, Richmond VA 23219-2684
(804) 643-6646 , 643-6223 Fax, 780-1634 Statehouse


When sending e-mail messages to the Associated Press, do not send attachments. As a result of the
huge volume of e-mail received daily, we may be unable to provide a response. However, all comments
are read and taken into consideration.
For general questions and comments: info@ap.org


Departments, Editors and Writers
Individual phone numbers and e-mail addresses are not available to the public. To send press releases to
specific departments, consult this list of AP editors and writers or send e-mail to info@ap.org (no
attachments).




AP Feature Services Calendar, A list of topics and deadlines for 16 special edition packages.


THE AP STYLEBOOK, Edited by Norm Goldstein: An essential handbook for all writers, editors, students
and public relations specialists. Order books online or call: 212-621-1820.
The journalist's "bible," the style manual is an essential tool for all writers, editors, students and public
relations specialists. It provides guidelines on spelling, capitalization, grammar, punctuation and usage,
with special sections on business and sports. Included is a guide on media law,
with practical guidelines on libel law, privacy, copyright and access to places of information, and a special
section on Internet and computer terms, a comprehensive effort to unify spelling and usage of computer-
related terms, from Web site and e-mail to URLs and "cyber-" prefixes. This segment also offers Internet
searching tips and cautions.
General Orders ($12.50) College Bookstores ($10.50) -- register for discount AP Members ($7.75),
Shipping (all orders): $4 for up to nine books, $8 for shipping 10 books or more


THE ASSOCIATED PRESS GUIDE TO PUNCTUATION By Rene J. Cappon
The definitive guide to punctuation, from the when and how of the apostrophe to the rules for dashes and
slashes, commas and colons, periods and parentheses. And more. This easy-to-use guide, from the
author of AP's "Guide to News Writing," is an invaluable source for information on one of the most
important aspects of clear and precise writing.
AP Members and Staff ($5 per book, plus $1 shipping/handling)
Others:http://www.perseuspublishing.com/focus5.asp?ISBN1=0738207853


THE ASSOCIATED PRESS BROADCAST NEWS HANDBOOK By Brad Kalbfeld
The revised 2001 edition of the AP Broadcast News Handbook, a 476-page soft-cover book, deals with
the practical aspects of writing and delivering news in all electronic media. The Handbook provides expert
guidelines on how to find, research, write, edit, produce, and deliver authoritative, accurate, and engaging
news stories in the studio or from the field. It also offers indispensable advice on key technical aspects of
the job, from how to handle a microphone to how wire services work. A key feature is "The Specifics of
Broadcast Style," an A-to-Z quick-reference style guide offering concise definitions of hundreds of key
words and phrases.
AP Members and Staff ($15 per book, plus $3.50 shipping/handling), Others Call McGraw-Hill Customer
Service 1-800-722-4726
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS GUIDE TO INTERNET RESEARCH AND REPORTING By Frank Bass, AP's
director of computer-assisted reporting, provide the nuts-and-bolts of online research and reporting
techniques in this comprehensive guide.It includes Internet search techniques; spreadsheets, databases
and mapping; special sections for specific beats, from government and sports to the environment and
business; and a separate chapter on Internet copyright


AP Members and Staff ($10 a book, plus $2.50 shipping. Others www.perseusbooks.com


THE ASSOCIATED PRESS GUIDE TO NEWS WRITING By Rene J. Cappon
The updated 2000 edition of the classic writing guide formerly known as The Word, this practical
handbook explains the essentials of top-quality newswriting and demonstrates techniques to give your
stories clarity, precision and polish. An established resource for professional journalists.
AP Members and Staff ($12 per book, plus $3.50 shipping/handling) Others Call 1-800-338-3282 or
access www.thomsonlearning.com


THE ASSOCIATED PRESS GUIDE TO PHOTOJOURNALISM, By Brian Horton
The revised 2001 edition of the AP Guide to Photojournalism, a soft-cover book with some 200
photographs, goes beyond the basics of lenses and exposure times to offer a rare, insider's perspective
on the art and craft of photojournalism. While author Brian Horton does provide useful instruction on
technical considerations, his main concern is with the less tangible, indispensable elements of content,
style, and the creative process. Using some 200 photographs from AP archives to illustrate his points,
Horton analyzes what constitutes great news photos of every type, including portraits, tableaus, sports
shots, battlefield scenes, and more. He offers unique insights into composition and style, along with
invaluable advice on how to develop a style of your own. And, a timely chapter explores the pros and
cons of digital photography and rocessing. AP Members and Staff ($12 per book, plus $3.50
shipping/handling) , Others Call McGraw-Hill Customer Service 1-800-722-4726
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS REPORTING HANDBOOK By Jerry Schwartz
Journalism has gone through dramatic shifts in this fast-moving, high-tech Information Age. Yet, the
basics of good reporting remain constant. Source development, solid interview techniques, organizational
skills – and objectivity – still are necessary to effectively communicate a story to a
reader. The Associated Press Guide to News reporting is designed to provide a new generation of
journalists with guidance in learning these indispensable basics, whether for print, broadcast or the
Internet. Written by Jerry Schwartz, a veteran reporter and editor with The Associated Press,
this handbook offers detailed information on all aspects of reporting, whether local, national or
international. Schwartz makes extensive use of the best reporting from the AP, with examples from
working specialty beats, whether in politics, entertainment, or science, to utilizing a range of
investigative tools, including computer-assisted reporting. Also gathered are first-hand advice and
anecdotes from outstanding AP reporters, who both entertain and inform with their hard-earned wisdom
and insights. AP Members and Staff ($12 per book, plus $3.50 shipping/handling)
Others Call McGraw-Hill Customer Service 1-800-722-4726


THE ASSOCIATED PRESS SPORTS WRITING HANDBOOK By Steve Wilstein, the author of "The
Associated Press Guide to Sports Reporting," has won 17 sports writing awards since 1988, including the
1999 AP Sports Editors award for breaking the news of Mark McGwire's use of a
muscle supplement, considered the "story of the year." A veteran AP sports writer and columnist, Wilstein
continues to cover major sports events around the globe. With fascinating and instructive anecdotes --
and writing examples from some of the best in the business -- Wilstein has provided required reading for
aspiring and working sports reporters. The book deals with the techniques of
sports writing as well as how to get started as a reporter; the differences in local, national and feature
writing; the influence of the Internet; and where the business is headed in the next decade. AP Members
and Staff ($15 per book, plus $3.50 shipping/handling) Others Call McGraw-Hill Customer Service 1-800-
722-4726


MANUAL DE TECNICAS DE REDACCION PERIODISTICA By Jorge Covarrubias
A handbook of writing techniques for Spanish-language print and broadcast journalists.
General Orders ($13.95) | AP Members ($11.95) Shipping: $1 for up to five books, $2 for six plus


UPI Spanish Service includes daily reports related to the latest developments that affect the Spanish-
speaking world. Based in Santiago, Chile, the UPI Spanish desk has a veteran staff experienced in
reporting, understanding and analyzing affairs that relate to Latin America. In the
fall of 2003, UPI will introduce a new Spanish language service that will focus on issues that affect the
Hispanic community in the United States. Editorial Inquiries If you would like to comment on any UPI
article or have a news tip, please contact us at tips@upi.com
If you have a press release that you would like sent to the newsroom, please send it to
pressreleases@upi.com or fax to 202-898-8064.


Below is a list of writers who offer their e-mail addresses to the public. This list is offered for readers who
would like to contact a specific reporter regarding specific stories or story tips.


Latin America Sales, For General Inquiries: Contact: Fernando Lepe +1-202-898-8268 or
flepe@upi.com


For Customers in Chile: Contact: Daniel Ortiz +56-2-696-0162 or dortiz@upi.com


Corporate Communications/Marketing, Director of Market Development: Marjorie Poltilove
mpoltilove@upi.com


Marketing Manager: Amy Vogel        avogel@upi.com


Marketing Associate: Kate Bouterie kbouterie@upi.com


Customer Service Coordinator: Kami Arbnot-Cason support@upi.com
United Press International World Headquarters
1510 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005, 202.898.8000, FAX:.202.898.8057
United Press International – Chile: Nataniel Cox 47, piso 9, Santiago, Chile
Telephone: +56.2.696.0162; Fax: +56.2.698.6605


Hpx tv stations by State: http://www.anuariohispano.com/Files2002/02-Television.pdf
in va is WZDC-TV Channel 64, ZGS Communications, Inc., 2000 N. 14th Street #480
Arlington, VA 22201, Wendy Thompson, Gen. Mgr., 703-522-6464, Fax 703-522-2420
e-mail: telemundo64@mindspring.com               Programming: Telemundo affiliate.


in DC: Latin American Desk, Associated Press Television News
1825 K St. #800, Wash, DC 20006, Gus Valcarcel, Deputy Regional Editor
202-736-9596, 202-736-9579 fax, e-mail: GValcarcel@ap.org


in Maryland: WIAV-tv Channel 58; LatinoVision
7501 Greenway Center Dr. #740, Greenbelt, MD 20770
Salvador Serrano, General Manager; 301-345-2742301-345-9404 fax
e-mail mbhope@aol.com
Programming: Hispanic Community Channel and WMDO-TV Channel 30
Entravision Communications Corporation
962 Wayne Ave #900, Silver Spring, MD 20910, Rudy Gernica, Gen. Mgr
301-589-0030, 301-495-9556 fax, e-mail      rgernica@wmdotv.com
Programming: Univision affiliate


Property Mgmt - M P Apts      JOB DESCRIPTION
Director of Facility Management    Join a widely recognized, expanding, “Top 20” Continuing Care
Retirement Community dedicated to living its vision of “Improving the lives of those we serve every day.”
We are seeking a FT Director to manage facility operations; responsibilities include: planning, scheduling
and supervising departmental employees engaged in the operations,
maintenance, repair and safeguarding of the facility. The ideal candidate will have a minimum of 5 years
experience in maintenance/plant operations; must be knowledgeable of boilers, compressors, generators,
etc. as well as various mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems; must be knowledgeable in building
codes, safety regulations, OSHA, air quality control and
industrial hygiene.


Recreation Specialist Health Care Center M-F, 9 a.m.-5:30 p.m. with occasional evenings and
weekends. Experienced activities professional to work with intermediate and skilled care residents in our
Health Care Center. B.S. Degree in Therapeutic Recreation with CTRS desirable. Responsible planning
and implementing a balanced program of daily recreation activities. Strong program and leadership skills
required. Qualified candidates must
have excellent organizational skills. Previous experience working with older adults required.


Social Worker needed for our community outreach program; Mon-Fri 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m. and occasional
weekend or evening hours; MSW preferred; previous case management and geriatric experience
preferred; knowledge of community resources for the elderly and long-term care experience a plus;
Responsibilities will include: working directly with our in-house home
health agency, providing case management services to clients in the community, coordinating services
when clients move in to the facility and marketing services to the community. The ideal candidate must
have excellent communication and interpersonal skills.


Security Officer – 3 - 11 p.m. Sat. & Sun., two weekends on, one off and fill in as needed
11 p.m. - 7 a.m. Fri. & Sat., two weekends on, one off and fill in as needed. Patrolling inside & outside
property. Considerable walking; key rounds; alarm system; CCTV. Law
Enforcement/Security/Investigative experience preferred. Excellent pay. Current (within 30 days) driver’s
record required at time of interview. Valid VA drivers’ license & excellent attendance and punctuality
required. Resumes must be accompanied by an application.
US Dot, Office of Inspector General, “Contract and grant misuse” info:
"Public Service is a Public Trust"
The Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch (5 C.F.R Part 2635) state that
federal workers have a responsibility to the United States Government and its citizens to place loyalty to
the Constitution, laws and ethical principles above private gain. Among other
things, employees are prohibited from holding financial interests that conflict with their job duties,
engaging in financial transactions using nonpublic Government information, or accepting gifts from those
regulated by the agency. Further, government employees must act impartially, protect and conserve
federal property, refrain from engaging in outside activities, including seeking employment, that conflict
with official Government duties, and disclose waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate
authorities.


While DOT employees are recognized for their dedication, honesty, and hard-work, like any large
organization, there will always be a few who will try to personally benefit from their official position.
Preventing and detecting such waste, fraud, and abuse is a major goal of DOT OIG.


Depending on the nature and severity of the misconduct, an employee found to have engaged in such
activity may receive administrative sanctions, such as termination, suspension, or rreprimand. Cases also
may be referred to the Department of Justice for possible civil or criminal prosecution.


Americorps Sending Us an E-mail
If you decide to send us personally identifying information, such as in an e-mail, that information may be
subject to disclosure. It will be handled in accordance with the Privacy Act and the Freedom of
Information Act, which restrict our use of it, yet permits certain disclosures.
If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, or your dealings with this
website, you can contact us at: Corporation for National Service, 1201 New York Ave., NW
Washington DC 20525, 202-606-5000, webmaster@cns.gov


Huh ????
Privacy Act Statement: In compliance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the following information is provided.
The collection of this information is authorized by the National and Community Service Act, as amended
by the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993. The primary purpose of the user account is to
provide a means that allows individuals to record, track, and provide comment on their volunteer services.
Users may also elect to be provided with additional information about other service opportunities.
Providing this information is voluntary. All information contained in each user account is available only to
the Corporation, on behalf of USA Freedom Corps, and will not be provided to any organization outside
the Corporation.
PRIVACY ACT NOTICE: Recipients are advised that providing information herein
requested is voluntary and will not be disclosed outside the Corporation for
National Service (Auth. 42 USC 12501 et seq.) without your consent.


Public Comments: Comments on the burden or content of this instrument may be
sent to the Corporation for National Service, 8th floor, Attn: AmeriCorps
Recruitment Office, 1201 New York Avenue, NW Washington, D.C 20525


Gossiping with Southside
PRIVACY ACT NOTICE: The Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C § 552a) requires that the following notice be
provided to you: The authority for collecting information from you in this application is contained in 42
U.S.C 12592 and 12615 of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 as amended, and 42 U.S.C.
4953 of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 as amended. You
are advised that submission of the information is entirely voluntary, but the requested information is
required in order for you to participate in AmeriCorps programs. The principal purpose for requesting this
personal information is to process your application for acceptance into an AmeriCorps program, and for
other general routine purposes associated with your participation in an AmeriCorps program. These
routine purposes may include disclosure of the information to federal, state, or local agencies pursuant to
lawfully authorized requests, to present and former employers, references provided by you in your
application, and educational institutions, for the
purpose of verifying the information provided by you in your application. In some programs, the
information may also be provided to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies to determine the
existence of any prior criminal convictions. The information will not otherwise be disclosed to entities
outside of AmeriCorps and the Corporation for National Service without your prior written permission.
http://www.nationalservice.org/about/foia/


Annual FOIA Reports
Corporation's Freedom of Information Act Report for 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002.


Privacy Act Regulation
The basic policies of the Corporation governing the maintenance of its system of records which contains
personal information. for more info, email foia@cns.gov


FOIA Information
The Freedom of Information Act gives Americans the opportunity to gather information about government
activities. If you need more info, please let us know by emailing foia@cns.gov.


Privacy Act   http://www.nationalservice.org/about/foia/
How the AmeriCorps grant was given:
AmeriCorps State and local Governments, Program purpose To engage AmeriCorps members in
providing direct service to address unmet community needs. Local programs design service activities for
a team of members serving full-time/part-time for one year or during the summer.


Sample activities: restore parks, tutor youth, assist crime victims, or build homes. for an application
deadlin state commissions set their own deadlines. Check with your state commission as early as
possible. and a match requirement: The Corporation requires a 15% cash match for AmeriCorps member
support cost and 33% cash or in-kind match of the overall operating
program costs. State commissions may add additional match requirements. Available resources is approx
$175M.
Virginia Commission on National and Community Service website: www.vaservice.org
B. J. Northington, AmeriCorps Manager, e-mail: bjn2@email1.dss.state.va.us
Fifth Floor, 7 North Eighth Street, Richmond, VA 23219, Toll Free: (800) 638-3839
Main Phone: (804) 726-7064, E-mail: info@vaservice.org




Glossary of Volunteerism and National and Community Service Terms
ACTION – The Federal domestic volunteer agency, established in 1971 to administer Volunteers in
Service to America and the senior volunteer programs — Foster Grandparents, Senior Companions,
Retired and Senior Volunteer Program. ACTION became part of the Corporation for National and
Community Service in April 1994.


Acquirers of service – People who benefit from the service provided by participants in national service
programs.


Association for Volunteer Administration (AVA) – the international membership organization of
professionals in the field of volunteerism and volunteer administration. AVA’s mission is to shape the
future of volunteerism by promoting and strengthening the profession of volunteer administration.


Capacity building – creating the infrastructure necessary to support needed programs and services in
communities. Helping a nonprofit housing program establish a volunteer network and creating a
community watch program to reduce crime are examples of capacity-building activities. Other examples
include providing funding or helping an organization develop management systems.
Charitable donation – a tangible gift in the form of money or goods to a public or private nonprofit
organization. A biennial survey commissioned by the Independent Sector consistently reports a high
correlation between giving and volunteering in the United States.


Civic education – the multiple processes through which children and young adults acquire the knowledge,
skills, and dispositions needed for effective democratic citizenship. Civic knowledge and participation are
not passed down through the genetic code — they require that each generation of students learn civic
facts, explore democratic ideals and connect such concepts to the responsibility of citizenship.(From the
website of the National Alliance for Civic Education (NACE), http://www.cived.net/)


Commission on National and Community Service – established by the National and Community Service
Act of 1990 to coordinate and fund service activities nationwide. The Commission became part of the
Corporation for National and Community Service in October 1993.


Community-based agency – a private nonprofit organization (including a church or other religious entity)
that is representative of a community of a significant segment of a community; and is engaged in meeting
human, education, environmental, or public safety community needs.


Community service – within the context of the National Community Service Trust Act, “encompasses any
human act serving the common good; in the interest of the community.”


Corporate volunteer program – a volunteer program based in the workplace. Employers may demonstrate
a major or minor commitment, through having a volunteer coordinator to plan activities or simply allowing
employees to participate in community service on company time.


Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) – chartered by Congress in 1993 through the
National Community Service Trust Act (NCSTA) to provide a broad range of opportunities to Americans of
all ages and backgrounds to serve the community and the nation. CNCS administers AmeriCorps, Learn
and Serve America, the National Senior Corps, and others.


Corps members – The members of AmeriCorps and other Corps programs.


Direct service – providing service directly to the community, community residents or both. Direct service
may be tutoring, cleaning a river bed, teaching English, painting a home, assisting a teacher, counseling
a crime victim or teaching someone CPR. It includes activities that directly benefit an organization’s
primary acquirers of service or mission.
DSVA – Domestic Volunteer Service Act. This statute authorized Volunteers in Service to America
(VISTA) and the National Senior Service Corps in 1970. VISTA was originally authorized under the
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964.


Education award – a benefit of $4,725 (full-time) or $2,363 (part-time) that AmeriCorps members may
receive after successful completion of a term of service. The award is paid directly to a lending or
educational institution and may be used to pay off federal student loans (Perkins, Stafford, PLUS etc.) or
to finance college, graduate school or approved vocational training. The education award in not an
entitlement; it is not a cash award; it is not a “scholarship.” The award cannot be transferred to another
person, including a family member.


Ethic of community service – implies that all citizens are always encouraged to act in ways that enhance
the community’s welfare.


FTE – Full time equivalency. Two part-time AmeriCorps members fill approximately one FTE position.


Governor’s Award for Volunteering Excellence (GAVE) – Statewide volunteer recognition program
established by a joint resolution of the Virginia General Assembly in 1984 to provide increased visibility
for the achievements of volunteers throughout the Commonwealth. The award became the Governor’s
Community Service and Volunteerism Awards program in 1995.


Governor’s Community Service and Volunteerism Awards – Established in 1995 by Executive Order, this
statewide volunteer recognition program was developed by the then Governor’s Commission on
Volunteerism and Community Service (now Governor’s Commission on National and Community Service)
and staffed by the Virginia Office of Volunteerism (VOV) until 1999. At that time, the Virginia Commission
assumed responsibility for the award with assistance from VOV.


Host site – this is an entity that acts as a project sponsor and is responsible for the actual site on which a
project is to be performed. This entity may provide task specific training, technical assistance supervision,
or other services as agreed to in a “contract” between the programs and the host site.


Independent Sector – a national leadership forum, working to encourage philanthropy, volunteering,
nonprofit initiatives and citizen action to better serve people and communities.


In-kind donation – a voluntary contribution of materials that may or may not accompany volunteer work.
The Virginia State Government Volunteers Act also recognizes opportunities made available to an
organization’s clients—a camp scholarship, a job referral, an introduction to a benefactor—as an in-kind
donation.
Living allowance – a living allowance is a stipend. It is provided to corps members enrolled and active in
an AmeriCorps program. A living allowance is not a “wage”; it is not a “salary”; it is not based on the
number of hours a corps member serves. Other national service programs providing living allowances
include Peace Corps, Foster Grandparents and Senior Companions.


National identity – The sense of purpose and membership in a common program that all AmeriCorps
members share. National identity can be strengthened by everything from buttons and T-shirts to
reflection activities, common national service projects and civic education.


Points of Light Foundation (POLF) – a national non-partisan nonprofit organization whose mission is to
engage more people more effectively in volunteer community service to help solve serious social
problems. The POLF sponsors and works closely with the National Volunteer Center Network, which
connects and supports Volunteer Centers across the country.


Program – a coordinated group of activities linked by common elements such as recruitment, selection
and training of participants and staff; regular group activities and assignments to projects organized for
achieving the mission; and goals of national and community service.


Project – an activity or a set of activities carried out through a program. For example, a Learn and Serve
program may conduct a drug awareness project.


Service learning – an educational method by which participants learn and develop through active
participation in service that is conducted in and meets the needs of a community. Service learning is
coordinated with a school or community service program and with the community. It is integrated into and
influences the lifelong learning of a participant and includes structured time for the participants to reflect
on the service experience.


Service site – withing the context of national service programs, a service site is not a work site; it is not a
job site. It is a service site — a place where service is being performed by corps members and perhaps
other people who are volunteers or employees.


State commission – a 15-25 member independent, bipartisan commission appointed by a governor to
implement service programs in the state. Each state commission receives funding from the Corporation
for National and Community Service and is overseen by an Executive Director. The state commission’s
duties include developing a state plan, submitting the state
applications to the Corporation and overseeing funded programs.
State plan – a policy document that describes the mission and goals of a state as well as how the state
will promote, coordinate and support national and community service.


Successful completion of a term of service – the term of service is determined by each program and must
contain at least 1700 hours served within 9 to 12 months (full-time). Part-time members serve a minimum
of 900 hours within 2 years. Those serving in education-only terms (part-time) may take up to 3 years to
complete their terms of service. A term may include the satisfactory completion of a training or
educational component. It may also include other factors as set forth by individual programs in a written
agreement.


Campus Outreach Opportunity League (COOL) – anational nonprofit organization that promotes and
enhances campus based volunteer service and service learning. Virginia COOL operated from 1990
through 2001, when it became Virginia Campus Compact. Campus Compact is a similar program.


Virginia Commission for National and Community Service – Governor appointed body that oversees the
Unified State Plan for Community Service and Volunteerism. The Commission administers the funding of
sub-grants to AmeriCorps programs in Virginia and promotes all types of volunteer service throughout the
Commonwealth.


Virginia Youth Service Council (VYSC) – a statewide group of young persons who promoted youth
volunteerism and community service in Virginia. VYSC was co-sponsored by VA COOL, Virginia Office of
Volunteerism and the Virginia Department of Education. The VYSC ended in 2002.


Voluntarism – refers to anything voluntary, such as philanthropy and voluntary associations.


Volunteer – a person who volunteers; to volunteer is to choose to act in recognition of a need, with an
attitude of social responsibility without concern for monetary profit, going beyond what is necessary to
one’s physical well-being. (Susan J. Ellis and Katherin H. Noyes, in By the
People: A History of Americans as Volunteers, Philadelphia, 1978)


Volunteer Administration – the profession of managers of volunteer programs and leaders of volunteer
efforts. Members of the profession have titles such as volunteer coordinators, volunteer directors,
volunteer service managers, managers of volunteer resources, volunteer program directors and the like.
Persons in fields such as social work, library science, education, the
ministry, health care and others, often manage volunteer resources as part of their work, and may also
identify with the field of volunteer administration.
Volunteer Center or Voluntary Action Center (VAC) – a local clearinghouse for volunteers and volunteer
opportunities. Most are private nonprofits or a service of United Way; several centers in Virginia are part
of local government. Most volunteer centers embrace some variation of this mission statement: To meet
community needs through volunteer resources.


Volunteerism – anything having to do with volunteering or volunteers.


Average Dollar Value of Volunteer Time The national dollar value of volunteer time is released each year
by Independent Sector (IS). IS calculates the figure by using the average hourly earnings of all production
and non-supervisory workers on private non-farm payrolls (as released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics)
and increasing it by 12% to account for fringe benefits. The current value is based on 2001 figures
released in early 2002.
The 2002 National Average Hourly Value of Volunteer Time is $16.54, (Effective March 2003 - February
2004) This represents an average value of volunteer roles and activities. It ranges from basic, simple
tasks that might be valued at minimum wage, up to professional services given by doctors, lawyers,
accountants, etc. that would be valued very highly. This figure is an increase from the 2001 figure of
$16.05 per hour and the 2000 figure of $15.39 an hour. Contact the
Research Department at the Independent Sector at (202) 467-6100 for more information or visit their Web
site at http://www.independentsector.org/.


Virginia has comparable data, which is usually higher than the national average. The Economic
Information Services Division of the Virginia Employment Commission (VEC) determines the covered
employment wage. The 2002 average figure, $17.88 per hour has been increased by 12% to allow for
benefits.
The 2002 Virginia Average Hourly Value of Volunteer Time is $20.02
Please note: The figure is an estimated value. (Effective July 2003 - June 2004)
Contact VEC by phone at (804) 786-5881, or e-mail at smciver@vec.state.va.us


Training & Resources » Publications
The Virginia Commission for National and Community Service offers a number of technical assistance
booklets on volunteer resources management and related topics. Most booklets contain reprints of
articles and sample materials from the Resources Library, although a few are based on original research
and writing contributed by staff.Single copies of the booklets are available to Virginians at no cost, and to
residents of other states at minimal cost. A publication request form lists topics and includes ordering
instructions.


Virginia Commission for National and Community Service Publication Request Form
Single copies of publications are available without charge to residents of Virginia and at $5.00 per copy to
persons outside of Virginia. We are not able to ship outside of the United States.
If you need multiple copies of a publication, please call toll free in Virginia (800) 638-3839, or send e-mail
to info@vaservice.org.
Fax this completed form to (804) 692-1999 or mail to Virginia Commission for National and Community
Service, Eighth Floor, 730 East Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23219-1849. Please allow two to three
weeks for delivery. Publication Request Form - [PDF - 21kb]
A Common-Sense Approach to Developing & Managing a Volunteer Program: Basic overview of
volunteer program development & management; includes samples, activities, articles & management;
includes samples, activities, articles Volunteers (revised 2002): Ideas, approaches, and resources for
keeping volunteers happy and productive. Risk Management for Volunteer Programs (1999): Helps
organizations understand the process of identifying, evaluating and managing risk for volunteers.


Virginia Commission on National and Community Service, Virginia Office of Volunteerism Merge
In a move designed to expand and invigorate community and volunteer service in the Commonwealth, the
Virginia Commission on National and Community Service (Commission) and the Virginia Office of
Volunteerism have merged. Both entities are housed in the Virginia Department of Social Services.


Announcing the merger, Commissioner of Social Services Maurice Jones, commented, “The merging of
these two units will lead to an organization that is going to be stronger and better able to promote and
support service and civic engagement in Virginia.”


The Commission is a major partner with the newly created Virginia Corps Initiative. Governor Warner
unveiled this initiative in September 2002, with the aim of making it easier for Virginians to find
opportunities to become involved in volunteer service and homeland security and preparedness in their
communities.


The Virginia Commission on National and Community Service is the state arm of the Corporation for
National and Community Service. The Commission, a presence in the state for eight years, oversees the
AmeriCorps program, and also discharges responsibility for the Unified State Plan, encompassing federal
Streams of Service such as Senior Corps (Foster Grandparents Program, Retired Senior Volunteer
Program, and Senior Companions), AmeriCorps VISTA, Learn and Serve, and other state volunteer
networks. The Virginia Office of Volunteerism has a twenty-four-year history of equipping organizations
and communities across Virginia to mobilize and support
volunteer resources. Together, the new organization proposes to be the leader of the community service
and volunteerism movement in Virginia by working with groups engaged in strengthening their
communities and meeting human needs.
The Commission proposes, among other undertakings, to expand AmeriCorps programs, increase the
capacity of local volunteer centers and other volunteer organizations to apply volunteering and national
and community service to meet needs and solve problems, and increase the number of programs that
have service opportunities for people with disabilities.


A Commission of 25 members, chaired by Gregory Werkheiser, a Fairfax attorney, oversees the Virginia
Commission on National and Community Service. BJ Northington, an eight-year veteran of the program,
serves as its Executive Director. Ms. Northington’s experience spans both the private and public sectors,
with a previous term as a state agency head.


For more information, or if you are currently a VOV newsletter subscriber and would like to be added to
our Commission newsletter distribution list, please call (800) 638-3839 or send e-mail to
info@vaservice.org. The CNCS newsletter will be distributed electronically unless a hard copy is
requested.


Training Opportunities: Details for these training events are as follows:


Examples: : “Legal Liability and Risk Management in Your Volunteer Program” , “Leading Volunteers So
They Can Follow”, “Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Nonprofit Board of Directors” ,


Gov Warner supports of Volunteer efforts , says their website.


Planning Programs
All organizations that wish to operate a Virginia AmeriCorps program must first engage in a year of
planning and preparation. In 2004, these programs will be poised to apply to be full-fledged operating
programs ready to engage AmeriCorps members.


Community Housing Partners Corporation
This program will address the needs of at-risk youth in the counties of Montgomery and Floyd, and in the
cities of Charlottesville, Richmond, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach. Major components of the planning
process will include strengthening and expanding the partnership infrastructure;
identifying and preventing possible program obstacles; refining and planning detailed program activities
and outcomes assessments; creating a strategy for community strengthening through community
volunteer recruitment, national days of service and community-wide service projects; establishing
member training and development; obtaining further knowledge on AmeriCorps
history, objectives, and requirements; and creating a plan for future program sustainability.
http://www.communityhousingpartners.org
http://www.vaservice.org/pdf/pub_order_form.pdf


Virginia Crime Prevention Association
This statewide program plans to increase the number of Neighborhood Watch programs and the number
of organizations that sponsor them. Programs will be based on successful existing models. The program
has identified 68 rural communities lacking neighborhood watch support in which AmeriCorps members
can serve.    http://www.vcpa.org/


Virginia Department of Social Services
In the Virginia Community Corps, AmeriCorps members will serve in 30 communities across the
Commonwealth. Host sites include local community action agencies, local departments of social services
and the department's statewide programs. Members help increase self-sufficiency among low-income
families, improve access to quality services and mobilize volunteers in the
community.


THIS LOOKS LIKE MY PROGRAM:
City of Richmond – Human Services Commission
Members in the AmeriCorps ACES (Action for Community Enhancement Services) program, provide
services in three priority issue areas. The Youth Employment Corps enhances the education of high
school students and out of school youth in job readiness and career development skills resulting in an
increase in employed youth. Community Revitalization Corps members help renovate and rehabilitate
existing low-income housing resulting in an increase in the stock of affordable housing. The
Neighborhood Safety Corps enhances the efforts of community assisted public safety initiatives resulting
in an increase in community involvement in crime prevention efforts. This community development
approach addresses not only the rehabilitation of neighborhood housing, but also the necessary
economic and safety supports needed to truly revitalize our community. In addition to their direct service,
AmeriCorps members will also engage and support community volunteers to assist in all three initiatives.
AS SEEN
http://www.vaservice.org/americorps/program.html



To learn more about AmeriCorps, please visit the following sites: http://www.americorps.org/
Created in 1993, Americorps is part of the Corporation for National and Community Service. This is the
Corporation's official AmeriCorps site and features help for members and program directors, as well as
information of general interest.
• National AmeriCorps Association - http://www.lifetimeofservice.org/
With over twenty thousand members and growing, the National AmeriCorps Association is the only non-
profit organization solely dedicated to serving the needs of AmeriCorps alumni and members. The
association offers assistance to AmeriCorps members, alumni and program directors.


• City Year - http://www.cityyear.org/
City Year was founded in 1988 and is now an AmeriCorps program. The organization has been built on
the belief that one person can make a difference, and with the vision that one day service will be a
common expectation—and a real opportunity—for citizens all around the world.


• National Service Resource Center - http://nationalserviceresources.org/
(NSRC) is part of a network of over twenty organizations providing training and technical assistance to
programs funded by the Corporation for National and Community Service. It is a central point for sharing
training and technical assistance information and resources with Corporation-funded programs, State
Commissions, other training and technical assistance
providers, and the Corporation. The site is searchable and contains a wealth of assistance for
AmeriCorps programs and any service or volunteer program looking for assistance in improving its
effectiveness.


• Find additional resources for AmeriCorps programs such as program director handbooks, recruitment
tools and more. TAKES YOU TO http://www.americorps.org/resources/index.html
ONE OF ITS FEATURES IS: Grant Guidelines, Applications Instructions, & Toolkits
AmeriCorps Guidelines (116K PDF)
Amendment to 2003 Guidelines January 23, 2003 (59K PDF)
The 2003 AmeriCorps Guidelines, Application Instructions, and Toolkits are now available. You should
use these guidelines and amendment if you are applying for one of the following types of programs
below.


For answers to many frequently asked questions on the 2003 AmeriCorps program guidelines, please
read FAQs on 2003 Guidelines. The questions are organized by the following topics: (last updated April 4,
2003).
• Capacity Building
• Citizenship
• Performance Measurement
• Evaluation
• Audit and Financial Information
• Application Due Dates/eGrants
• Tutoring
• Work Study
• Homeland Security
• Education Award Programs


AmeriCorps*Indian Tribes: Coming Soon!!
AmeriCorps Education Awards Program: Application Instructions (394K PDF)
AmeriCorps*National Program: Application Instructions (484K PDF)
(nonprofit organizations operating a program in two or more states)
AmeriCorps Promise Fellows: Application Instructions (312K PDF)
(Please note the due date has changed to July 15, 2003. Only current grantees are eligible.)
Technical Assistance and eGrants Resources
Technical Assistance Conference Calls
AmeriCorps*State/National eGrants Resources




AmeriCorps Applicant Toolkits: Question and Answers (164K PDF) for filling out application.
Performance Measurement Toolkit and Multimedia Presentation
Tutoring Toolkit (185K PDF)
Faith-Based and Community Initiatives Toolkit
Citizenship and Member Development Toolkit
Capacity Building with Members Toolkit (Coming Soon)


If you are interested in applying to be an AmeriCorps*VISTA project sponsor, visit
www.americorps.org/vista, or to sponsor an AmeriCorps*NCCC team, visit www.americorps.org/nccc.


REMEMBER Most states have Governor appointed commissions for national and
community service which administer more than 700 local programs.


The Corporation for National and Community Service connects Americans of all ages and backgrounds
with opportunities to give back to their communities and their nation through voluntary service. More than
2 million Americans serve their fellow citizens each year through the Corporation's three main programs:
AmeriCorps, Senior Corps, and Learn and Serve America. In
partnership with nonprofit groups, faith-based organizations, schools, and other public agencies,
participants in these programs tutor children, build and renovate homes, provide immunizations and
health screenings, clean up and preserve the environment, serve on neighborhood crime-prevention
patrols, and respond to disasters. They also recruit and manage volunteers and otherwise help to build
the strength and effectiveness of nonprofit organizations.


President's Call to Service
The Corporation and its programs are a proud part of the USA Freedom Corps, a broad-based effort by
President Bush to coordinate citizen volunteer efforts both here and abroad. Announced in the 2002 State
of the Union address, USA Freedom Corps reflects the President's desire to foster a "culture of service,
citizenship, and responsibility."


President Bush, in that same speech, called on all Americans to devote the equivalent of at least two
years of their lives – 4,000 hours – to service and volunteerism. National service programs are one way to
answer the President's call. AmeriCorps gives citizens the opportunity to perform
intensive service over an uninterrupted period, while Senior Corps taps the skills, talents, and experience
of older Americans to help solve pressing social problems. Learn and Serve America, which links
classroom studies with service in the community, is an important and effective way of instilling the habits
of good citizenship and fostering a lifelong ethic of service.


Legislative History
Created in 1993, the Corporation for National and Community Service connects Americans of all ages
and backgrounds with opportunities to give back to their communities and their nation through voluntary
service. More than 2 million Americans serve their fellow citizens each year through the Corporation's
three main programs: AmeriCorps, Senior Corps, and Learn and
Serve America.


Building on a long tradition of service, the Corporation merged the work and staff of two predecessor
agencies, ACTION and the Commission on National and Community Service. For the two decades,
ACTION administered VISTA and the three programs which make up the Senior Corps - the Retired and
Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP), Senior Companions and Foster Grandparents, which engage nearly a
half million older Americans in service to their communities. ACTION was authorized by the Domestic
Volunteer Service Act of 1973 as amended.


The rapidly expanding grassroots service movement led to the passage of the National and Community
Service Act of 1990. This legislation, signed by President George H.W. Bush, created both a private,
nonprofit organization -- the Points of Light Foundation, and a new independent
federal agency, the Commission on National and Community Service. Through grants and national
coordination, the Commission supported four streams of service: service-learning programs for school-
aged youth, higher-education service programs, youth corps, and national service demonstration models.


In 1992, a bipartisan group of Senators, working with the Bush Administration, drafted legislation to create
the National Civilian Community Corps as a demonstration program to explore the possibility of using
post-Cold War military resources to help solve problems here at home. The NCCC, enacted as part of
the 1993 Defense Authorization Act, is a residential service program modeled on the Depression-era
Civilian Conservation Corps and the United States military. The NCCC became a part of a network of
national service programs when the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993 was signed into
law.


The National and Community Service Trust Act was drafted by the Clinton administration with the
assistance of Congress and introduced by a bipartisan coalition of Members of Congress in June of 1993.
The bill passed nine months later and was signed into law on September 21, 1993. The
legislation created the Corporation for National and Community Service to administer AmeriCorps, Learn
and Serve America, and the other national service programs.


President George W. Bush, in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, called on all
Americans to serve their country for the equivalent of two years and announced the creation of USA
Freedom Corps. He proposed more service opportunities through AmeriCorps and Senior Corps,
programs of the federal Corporation for National and Community Service.


In April of 2002 the President unveiled the Principles and Reforms for a Citizen Service Act to reform and
enhance AmeriCorps, Senior Corps and other programs administered by the Corporation for National and
Community Service.


Download the legislation from the General Counsel's Office section of this website.
SEE http://www.nationalservice.org/about/leg_history.html


September 1994
The first class of AmeriCorps members - 20,000 strong - begin serving in more than 1,000 communities.
In swearing in these Americans, President Clinton says: "Service is a spark to rekindle the spirit of
democracy in an age of uncertainty....When it is all said and done, it comes down to three simple
questions: What is right? What is wrong? And what are we going to do
about it? Today you are doing what is right - turning your words into deeds."
REPORTS http://www.nationalservice.org/about/perfplans.html


Department of Research and Policy Development
The Corporation’s Department of Research and Policy Development (R/PD) is responsible for developing
and cultivating knowledge that will enhance the mission of the Corporation. R/PD will lead the agency in
establishing appropriate and effective performance measurement and accountability systems for the
Corporation’s programs. This includes improving the management of community service programming by
developing a better understanding of civic behavior. As part of the CEO’s office, R/PD has four main
roles:
Conduct high quality, rigorous social science evaluation research designed to measure the impact of
CNCS programs and shape policy decisions, while monitoring and evaluating program expansion to
assure accountability, quality, and continued innovation in policies and programs;


Document compliance with the Government Performance and Results Act to encourage a culture of
performance and outcome-based measurement; Assist in the development and assessment of new
initiatives and innovative demonstration projects designed to shape future policy decisions;


Create a community of scholars (from the academy, think tanks, and philanthropic organizations) and
practitioners (from non-profit organizations, and federal, state, and local governments) who can
collectively enhance understanding of service as a mechanism for addressing current social problems.


The Role and Value of Senior Companions in Their Communities (NEW) 414K PDF Volunteer station
survey to examine the impact of the Senior Companion Program on agencies, clients and
families/caregivers served (March 03). Final Report of the Senior Companion Quality of Care Evaluation
(NEW) 2.8M PDF Findings of the national evaluation of the Senior Companion Program (March 03)


Urban Institute Report on Performance Measurement 392K PDF. Outcome Indicators and Outcome
Management (July 02)


National and Community Service: Making the Vision Succeed in the 21stCentury 14.5M PDF
Recommendations of the Board of Directors of the Corporation for National Service to the President and
Congress (Oct 00) ON http://www.nationalservice.org/research/index.html


MORE SOURCES OF EXPECTATIONS
http://www.nationalservice.org/news/nsn/index.html
AND ALSO HERE http://www.americorps.org/news/index.html


RESCH http://www.nationalservice.org/partners/become/other.html


CONTACT OTHER VOLUNTEERS http://www.americorps.org/members/index.html
Key Economic Indicators
THE INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY — the amount an employee produces per hour of work — reported
by the Labor Department. The third-quarter’s productivity gain,is based on more complete data. For the
economy’s long-term health and for rising living standards, productivity gains are vital. They allow the
economy to grow faster without triggering inflation. Companies can pay workers more without raising
prices, which would eat up those wage gains. And, productivity can bolster a company’s profitability.
That’s particularly important in the current economic climate. As profits improve, companies may be more
willing to boost capital investment and hiring — two crucial ingredients to the economy’s sustained
recovery. Businesses in the third quarter pumped out more and actually increased workers’ hours,
compared with a long string of quarters where hours were either cut or were flat. Companies’ output in the
third quarter surged -- That was better than the #.# percent growth rate previously estimated for the third
quarter and
up from a #.# percent pace in the second quarter.
    Workers’ hours, meanwhile, increased at a 0.8 percent rate in the third quarter, the best showing
since the first quarter of 2000. That was stronger than the 0.7 percent growth rate first estimated and
better than the 2.2 percent rate of decline registered in the second quarter.
    Companies’ unit labor costs fell at a rate of 5.8 percent in the third quarter, boding well for profit
margins. That was better than the 4.6 percent rate of decline previously estimated for the third quarter
and the 3.2 percent rate of decline reported for the second quarter.


Housing Starts
A good indicator to assess demand for housing and construction industry health. Represents the number
of new residential buildings, including single-family and multifamily homes, where construction was
started. Expressed as a seasonally adjusted annual rate. Construction was started on 1.7 million new
residential structures in 2002, the highest level since 1986.


A good indicator to assess demand for housing and construction industry health. Represents the number
of new residential buildings, including single-family and multifamily homes, where construction was
started. Expressed as a seasonally adjusted annual rate. Construction was started on 1.7 million new
residential structures in 2002, the highest level since 1986.
Retail Sales: A broad measure of consumer spending trends. Includes sales of motor vehicles, clothing,
food at both grocery stores and restaurants, electronics, building materials drugs and other items.
Expressed as a percent change from previous month, adjusted for seasonal variations but not price
changes.


What is GDP
The gross domestic product is the broadest measure of the economy, comprising the value of all goods
and services produced in the United States. It is reported quarterly with frequent revisions. Generally
expressed as a percentage change from the previous quarter in “real” or inflation-adjusted terms.
Economists presume real GDP is capable of growing at an annual rate of about 3.5 percent over the long
term. When GDP declines over a sustained period of time the economy is considered to be in recession.


ISM Index
The first major indicator reported each month, considered a reliable assessment of how the
manufacturing sector is performing. Based on a survey of executives done by the Institute for Supply
Management, formerly known as the National Association of Purchasing Management. Responses are
compiled and reported as an index number. A reading above 50 percent indicates the manufacturing
sector is expanding, while a reading below 50 indicates it is shrinking.


Factory Orders
Data on new orders for manufactured goods, adjusted for seasonal variation, offer a good indicator of the
manufacturing sector's health, closely watched because it is the most volatile part of the economy.
Expressed as percent change from previous month.


Unemployment
One of the best known and most politically powerful economic indicators, the rate is calculated from a
monthly survey among a sample of about 60,000 households. The rate is adjusted for seasonal
variations, but unlike most economic statistics it is never revised.


Employment Situation
Represents the month-to-month change in jobs on payrolls of the nation’s business, government and non-
profit establishments. Generally considered a more accurate indicator of labor market health than the
unemployment rate. Analysts estimate the economy should add about 150,000 jobs monthly to keep up
with the nation’s growing work force. Based on a sample of 300,000
establishments employing nearly a third of the nation’s workers, the figure is adjusted for seasonal
variations and frequently revised.


Consumer Inflation
The most widely known and used measure of inflation, the Consumer Price Index is based on the price of
a “basket” of goods including food, beverages, fuel, medical care and clothing. Value refers to year-over-
year change in "core" prices, excluding volatile food and energy categories.


Home Sales
One of the bright spots of the economy in recent years, driven at least in part by historically low mortgage
rates. Figure represents the sum of new and existing single-family home sales, expressed as a
seasonally adjusted annual rate. In 2002, a record 6.5 million homes were sold.
Mktg, Idea: 'Be slightly Famous' tips (become an affiliate)
Cause-Related Marketing May Be The Key To Your Target Market Altruism. Corporate responsibility.
Philanthropy. These are often used to describe cause-related marketing, an activity in which businesses
join with charities or causes to market an image, product, or service for mutual benefit.


Embracing a cause makes good business sense. Nothing builds brand loyalty among today's increasingly
hard-to-please consumers like a company's proven commitment to a worthy cause. Other things being
equal, many consumers would rather do business with a company that stands for something beyond
profits.


Powerful Marketing Edge
Cause-related marketing can become a cornerstone of your marketing plan. Your cause-related
marketing activities should highlight your company's reputation within your target market. Cause-related
marketing can positively differentiate your company from your competitors and provide an edge that
delivers other tangible benefits, including:


Increased sales
Increased visibility
Increased customer loyalty
Enhanced company image
Positive media coverage
By choosing a cause you are passionate about, cause-related marketing is emotionally fulfilling. It's a way
to merge your profit center with your "passion center" and build a business that mirrors your personal
values, beliefs and integrity. If your cause also resonates with your target market,
your activities will generate tremendous goodwill and media attention can be its side effect.


Real-World Cause-Related Marketing Success
Cosmetic dentist Mark McMahon made himself a media mini-celebrity with a thriving practice due in part
to his high-profile pro bono work in his community, a strategy that landed him radio and TV appearances
in areas where he worked.


McMahon established partnerships with local charities, including a homeless shelter and a shelter for
battered women, and offered free dental services to their members. Before each event, he contacted
local media and let them know what he was up to. Several TV crews showed up, filmed him treating
patients, and later aired the segments on the evening news.
"These events were surprisingly easy to arrange, and every year, they'd help us get press simply by doing
these charitable promotions," McMahon says. "Local television news stations loved the emotional
element. And it was obviously rewarding to see patients after we'd treated them who'd been in pain for
months talking about how glad they were to be relieved of their toothaches."


Another project involved the Delancey Street Foundation, a residential education center for former
substance abusers and ex-convicts. "I agreed to treat some of their members' acute dental needs,"
McMahon says. "I quickly appreciated the media appeal of transforming the appearance of these rough-
looking guys with terrible smiles."


McMahon captured the event with before and after photos. "These guys had missing teeth and terrible
smiles," he says. "So I had a professional photographer capture before pictures of these guys in street
clothes with their snarling faces. After I fixed their teeth, we took more pictures, but
this time dressed the guys in suits and ties, now looking like lawyers and accountants, with me sitting
right in the middle. The media loved it, and it was great seeing these men looking like new."


McMahon's TV appearances created name recognition. "After I did the story on a local television show, I
was recognized in my gym by a masseuse who had seen the show," McMahon recalls. "She said, 'I was
thinking about you this morning while I was flossing my teeth.' She became a great source of
referrals."(Excerpted from the book Get Slightly Famous: Become a Celebrity
in Your Field and Attract More Business with Less Effort, by Steven Van Yoder.)


Steven Van Yoder explains how you can get started with cause-related marketing. Cause-related
marketing yields mutual benefit. Look for partners with a similar agenda whose goals can be better
achieved by partnering with your business. Take inventory of the assets that make you an appealing
partner in a cause-related venture.


There are many types of mutually beneficial relationships you can form with your cause-related partner,
including special events, sales promotions and collection plans. An easy way to embrace a cause is to
team up with a charity.


Whenever Johnny "Love" Metheny, a slightly famous nightclub owner in San Francisco, opens a new
club, he shares the limelight with a local charity. "I have a history of including the Leukemia & Lymphoma
Society in my grand openings," says Metheny, who was voted the society's Man of the Year in 1991. "It's
not only something I feel good about, but it helps us market our businesses to the community and media
at the same time."
Volunteer with an organization. When Eunice Azzani, an executive recruiter, volunteered to serve on the
board of the San Francisco AIDS Foundation, she didn't anticipate that it would connect her with
executives from Mervyn's, Bank of America, and Wells Fargo Bank, all of who eventually hired her to
work for them.


"People don't hire a piece of paper or a process. They hire people they trust," Azzani says. "Volunteering
for a position at a local organization makes you very trustworthy." She advises business owners to target
causes they believe in. "If you're helping with a cause you believe in, people will see that you care. And
they'll realize you will probably care as much about your work."


As your partnership takes shape, become ambassadors for each other. Talk about the charitable
organization and have flyers available. Promote the organization (and your partnership) on your website
and in your newsletters. Ask your partner to extend the same courtesies to you.


Never lose the marketing focus of your community partnership efforts. Even though the work is
philanthropy, your cause should generate interest in your company and motivate people to buy from it.
Select a cause that is important to your target market, and make sure your target market sees that
connection.


Steven Van Yoder is author of Get Slightly Famous: Become a Celebrity in Your Field and Attract More
Business with Less Effort. Visit http://www.getslightlyfamous.com to read t he book and learn about
'slightly' famous teleclasses, workshops, and marketing materials to help small
businesses and solo professionals attract more business.


more text at
http://64.4.18.250/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=ad997f6e40a81dfb52a33395cab9c
7db&lat=1069905296&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2egetslightlyfamous%2ecom%2f
Slightly_Famous_guide%2epdf




GERD
The week of Thanksgiving is usually a time for overeating and the heartburn that may come with it. It also
marks the fifth annual GERD Awareness Week. The International Foundation for Functional
Gastrointestinal Disorders (IFFGD) is sponsoring the fifth annual GERD Awareness Week. More than 21
million Americans suffer from GERD and it's the goal of IFFGD to educate
people about the symptoms and risks of untreated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).
Individuals experiencing symptoms that may be GERD-related, are encouraged to call the IFFGD
Heartburn Helpline at 1-888-964-2001 to receive information and support regarding GERD. Also available
is the 7-day Diary. This diary helps individuals keep track episodes of heartburn and the specific foods,
beverages, and circumstances that may trigger those episodes.
www.aboutgerd.org Children with motility disorders involving the stomach and small bowel may
have symptoms and signs of GERD. In the child with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms associated with
a generalized gastrointestinal motility disorder, a gastrostomy alone is often useful. The gastrostomy may
be used to empty the stomach of gas and fluid when the child is feeling bloated, nauseated, or in pain. A
food supplement may be infused into the gastrostomy tube to provide nutrition for children who can't or
won't eat. A longer, thin plastic tube may be threaded through the gastrostomy into the small bowel to
provide a route for slow continuous tube feedings.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Dyspepsia
Incontinence
Pelvic Floor Disorder
Functional Abdominal Pain
Other (please specify    )
What are your common symptoms? (check all that apply)
Abdominal Pain
Diarrhea
Constipation
Gas
Bloating
Heartburn
Reflux
Belching
Feeling of Fullness


TAX HAVENS       (write piece on why this does not help our USA economy and is even self-defeating in
taxes, social services and patriotic spirit and our country’s improvement of ill and the enhancement of its
future and the protection of the estate and children/family members you may leave behind)
Since the line between legitimate tax avoidance and illegal tax evasion is often hazy, professional
tax advice should always be sought before deciding to place capital offshore. There are many legitimate
uses of tax havens. The main one, of course, is to attempt to minimize or avoid high tax rates in the
investor's home country. Although the use of tax havens to avoid, defer or minimize tax is perfectly legal,
the use of such havens to evade tax is not. In choosing a tax haven country, there are many factors that
should be considered, some of which are:
Ease of company formation
Secrecy laws
Legal system
Tax legislation
Tax treaties
Low tax rates for non-residents
Currency restrictions
Political stability
Foreign exchange laws
Location and proximity
Communication infrastructure
Languages
Financial institutions and Banking systems
Residency laws
Corporate filing requirements
(AND YET, THE SAME PERSONS ARE NOT WILLING TO PUT IN VOLUNTEER HOURS OR SET UP
AN ENDOWMENT OR OTHER SOCIAL JUSTICE ENDEAVOR EFFORTS THAT WOULD PROBABLY
BE LESS THAN THE EXTENTIVE TO DO AS EXPLAINED HERE)


The following lists the essential attributes of some of the most popular tax havens which many investors
consider to be relatively "safe" jurisdictions for placing money offshore.
Barbados: Language: English; Currency controls: none for offshore banks & insurance;
Preferred legal entities: company, public company, offshore bank; Taxes: 2.5% income tax on offshore
banks and international business companies


Tax treaties: tax treaties with 5 major countries: Bermuda: Language: English; Currency controls: none
for nonresidents; Bank secrecy: moderate; Preferred legal entity: nonresident company; Local taxes: no
income, profit, sales, withholding, or capital gains taxes; Tax treaties: no double-tax treaties.


Ireland: Language: English; Currency controls: none; Bank secrecy: moderate; Preferred legal entity:
nonresident company; Taxes: only on Irish operations; Tax treaties: many double-tax treaties;


Luxembourg: Languages: French, German, English; Bank secrecy: moderate; Currency controls: none;
Preferred legal entity: holding company; Taxes: holding companies pays only 10% registration fee on
issued; Tax treaties: many double-tax treaties;


Switzerland: Languages: French, German, Italian, Romansch; Currency controls: none; Bank secrecy:
moderate to good; numbered accounts available; Preferred legal entity: AG (stock company under Laws
of Obligation); Taxes: 3.6-9.8% worldwide income tax for operating companies, 35%; Tax treaties: many
double-tax treaties;
Disability-Friendly Strategies for the Workplace


Employers who include disability issues in corporate diversity policies enrich and enhance workplace
benefits in the new economy. Such benefits include diverse leadership, innovation, increase in overall
morale and the ability to cast a wider recruiting net. Outlined below are strategies to successfully
incorporate persons with disabilities into the workplace.


4 Make a corporate commitment to include persons with disabilities among your stakeholders.
Is the CEO committed to a disability friendly workplace? Do corporate policies, procedures and practices
specifically mention disability? Do person with disabilities serve on the board? Are workers with
disabilities employed at all skill levels in the workforce, including senior management
positions? Are your products or services marketed to customers with disabilities?


4 Educate all staff on disability.
Does new staff orientation include disability awareness training? Are training materials available in
alternate formats such as large print, Braille, and captioning? Do employees with disabilities serve as
mentors for new hires who do not have disabilities?


4 Provide ongoing information on disability.
Is staff familiar with legislation pertaining to disability? Is disability information provided routinely in the
company newsletter or on an intranet site? Are disability resources in the community contacted to help
injured workers return to the workplace as soon as possible?


4 Form a disability support group.
Do employees with disabilities meet to discuss disability employment issues? Does this group have
authority to make recommendations to management? Is all staff aware of this group and the contributions
it makes to corporate success?


4 Provide accessible facilities and services.
Are buildings, parking areas, work spaces, and communication systems accessible to persons with
disabilities?


4 Accommodate applicants and workers with disabilities.
   Is there a central source and budget for accommodations? Are applicants and employees informed
that accommodations are available if needed? Does staff routinely stay abreast of new developments in
universal and assistive technology?
4 Project a disability-friendly image to attract candidates and customers with disabilities.
Do college recruiters target students with disabilities when making campus calls? Do recruiters search for
resumes on disability-related Web sites? Are recruiters and other personnel responsible for establishing
working relationships with community agencies serving applicants with disabilities?


4 Hire applicants with disabilities.
Do recruiters regularly attend employment fairs for candidates with disabilities or target students at
colleges with known populations of students with disabilities such as Gallaudet University and the
National Technical Institute for the Deaf?


4 Train and advance workers with disabilities.
Do employees with disabilities routinely participate in employer-sponsored training opportunities? If not,
has this issue been brought before the Disability Support Group for recommendations? Are procedures in
place to promote qualified employees with disabilities to management and supervisory positions?


4 Encourage staff to volunteer in the community.
Is staff encouraged to build relationships with disability community service organizations? Does staff
make regular visits to high schools to inform administrators, teachers and students with disabilities about
open houses or job trends in your industry? Va Business Leadership Network, "Put Ability to work"
http://www.vdrs.org/downloads/dfb/Workplacestrategies.doc


Cognitive/Psychiatric Impairments:
Employers should consider ways of communicating with people who have cognitive impairments. For
example, some individuals may benefit from pictures of buddies, color coding of escape doors and areas
of rescue assistance, and information on tape or cd-rom.


Employers should consider the effects of training for emergency evacuation. Some individuals with
psychiatric impairments benefit from frequent emergency drills, but for others practice drills may trigger
anxiety. Notifying employees of upcoming practice drills and allowing them to opt out
of participation may be a reasonable accommodation. In this case, another form of training for emergency
evacuation procedures may be needed, for example providing detailed written instructions.


After effective accommodations are chosen, employers should decide who will be involved in
implementing the evacuation plan, commit the plan to writing and share it with employees for feedback,
practice the plan to make sure it works, and modify the plan as needed.
http://www.jan.wvu.edu/media/emergency.html


A D A, the ADA protects a person who is regarded (or treated by an employer) as if s/he has a
substantially limiting impairment. Sometimes, a person may be covered even if s/he has no impairment
or has a minor impairment, particularly if the employer acts based on myths, fears,
or stereotypes about a person's medical condition. Example: An employer may not deny a job to
someone who has a history of cancer because of a fear that the condition will recur and cause the
employee to miss a lot of work.
Harassing someone because of a disability is just as serious as harassing someone because of race,
sex, religion, or national origin. If an employee complains to you that s/he is being harassed because of a
disability, respond to the complaint right away by conducting an appropriate
investigation and, if necessary, taking action to correct the situation. Do not place medical information in
regular personnel files. Rather, keep medical information in a separate medical file that is accessible only
to designated officials. Medical information stored electronically must be
similarly protected (e.g., by storing it on a separate database). You must be careful not to exclude a
qualified person with a disability based on myths, unsubstantiated fears, or stereotypes about that
person's ability to safely perform the job. The harm must be serious and likely to occur, not remote and
speculative. Example: An employer may not reject an applicant who had been treated for major
depression but had worked successfully in stressful jobs for several
years based on speculation that the stress of the job might trigger a future relapse.


Job Accommodation Network (JAN)- provides lists based on specific disabilities as well as links to various
other accommodation providers. P.O. Box 6080, Morgantown, WV 26506-6080; (800) 526-7234 or (304)
293-7184; www.jan.wvu.edu


U.S. Department of Labor, For written materials: (800) 959-3652 (voice); (800) 326-2577 (TTY)
To ask questions: (202) 219-8412; www.dol.gov


ADA Disability and Business Technical Assistance Centers (DBTACs) – 10 federally funded regional
centers to provide assistance on all aspects of the ADA. (800) 949-4232


RESNA Technical Assistance Project - can refer individuals to projects offering technical assistance on
technology-related services for individuals with disabilities. (703) 524-6686 (voice); (703) 524-6639 (TTY)
www.resna.org
Access for All Program on Employment and Disability
School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 106 ILR Extension, Ithaca, NY 14853-3901
(607) 255-7727 (voice); (607) 255-2891 (TTY), ilr_ped@cornell.edu


Business Leadership Network 1331 F Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20004-1107
(202) 376-6200, ext. 35 (voice); (202) 376-6205 (TTY), dunlap-carol@dol.gov
www.usbln.com
Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, http://www.sba.gov/advo/.


Resch http://careeronestop.org/
Brief Description of Services Provided at this Site (Narrative), Get information about schools and training
programs, Learn about community resources, Improve your current job skills
Learn how to start your own business; Get help with living expenses while in training
on-line courses
http://www.newhorizons.com/retail/English/courseCatalog/CourseLibraries.asp


JOB DESCRIPTION
"Radiologic technologist" means an individual, other than a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy,
podiatry, or chiropractic, or a dentist licensed pursuant to Chapter 27of the Code of Virginia, who (i)
performs, may be called upon to perform, or who is licensed to perform a comprehensive scope of
diagnostic radiologic procedures employing equipment which emits ionizing radiation and (ii) is delegated
or exercises responsibility for the operation of radiation-generating equipment, the shielding of patient and
staff from unnecessary radiation, the Appropriate exposure of radiographs or other procedures which
contribute to any significant extent to the site or dosage of ionizing radiation to which a patient is exposed.


The Board shall establish a testing program to determine the training and educational achievements of
radiologic technologists or radiologic technologists, limited, or the Board may accept other evidence such
as successful completion of a national certification examination, experience, or completion of an
approved training program in lieu of testing and shall establish this as a prerequisite for approval of the
licensee's application. "Radiologic technologist, limited" means an individual, other than a licensed
radiologic technologist, dental hygienist or who is otherwise authorized by the Board of Dentistry under
Chapter 27 of the Code of Virginia and the regulations pursuant thereto, who performs diagnostic
radiographic procedures employing equipment which emits ionizing radiation, which is limited to specific
areas of the human body.


OTHER JOBS FOR THOSE WITH DISABILITY
Real Estate Appraiser (CHECK Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation)
May be called: “Board for Real Estate Appraisers”
Real Estate Appraiser Trainee
Qualifications for licensure as an Appraiser Trainee. An applicant for licensure as an appraiser trainee
shall meet the following educational, experience, and examination requirements.
1. Within 12 months after being approved by the board to take the examination, the applicant shall have
registered for and passed a written examination provided by the board or by a testing service acting on
behalf of the board.
2. The applicant shall have successfully completed 75 hours of approved real estate appraisal courses
from accredited colleges, universities, junior and community colleges; adult distributive or marketing
education programs; local, state or federal government agencies, boards or commissions; proprietary
schools; or real estate appraisal or real estate related organizations. The classroom hours shall include
15 hours relative to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice.
3. There is no experience requirement for the appraiser trainee classification.
4. Responsibilities of supervising appraisers are described in this subdivision.
a. The appraiser trainee shall be subject to direct supervision by a supervising appraiser who shall be
state licensed or certified in good standing.
b. The supervising appraiser shall be responsible for the training and direct supervision of the appraiser
trainee by:
           (1) Accepting responsibility for the appraisal report by signing and certifying the report is in
compliance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice.
           (2) Reviewing the appraiser trainee appraisal report(s); and
           (3) Personally inspecting each appraised property with the appraiser trainee until the
supervising appraiser determines the appraiser trainee is competent in accordance with the Competency
Provision of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice for the property type.
c. The appraiser trainee is permitted to have more than one supervising appraiser.


Real Estate Appraiser
General qualifications for licensure: Every applicant to the Real Estate Appraiser Board for a certified
general, certified residential, or licensed residential real estate appraiser license
shall meet the following qualifications:
1. The applicant shall be of good moral character, honest, truthful, and competent to transact the
business of a licensed real estate appraiser in such a manner as to safeguard the interests of the public.
2. The applicant shall meet the current educational and experience requirements and submit a license
application to the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation or its agent prior to the time
the applicant is approved to take the licensing examination. Applications
received by the department or its agent must be complete within 12 months of the date of the receipt of
the license application and fee by the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation or its
agent.
3. The applicant shall be in good standing as a real estate appraiser in every jurisdiction where licensed
or certified; the applicant may not have had a license or certification which was suspended, revoked or
surrendered in connection with a disciplinary action or which has been the subject of discipline in any
jurisdiction prior to applying for licensure in Virginia.
4. The applicant may not have been convicted, found guilty or pled guilty, regardless of adjudication, in
any jurisdiction of a misdemeanor involving moral turpitude or of any felony. Any plea of nolo contendere
shall be considered a conviction for purposes of this subdivision. The record of a conviction authenticated
in such form as to be admissible in evidence under the laws of the jurisdiction where convicted shall be
admissible as prima facie evidence of such conviction.
5. The applicant shall be at least 18 years old.
6. The applicant shall have successfully completed 90 hours for the licensed residential classification, 120
hours for the certified residential classification, and 180 hours for the certified general classification, of
approved real estate appraisal courses, including a course of at least 15
hours on the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, from accredited colleges, universities,
junior and community colleges; adult distributive or marketing education programs; local, state or federal
government agencies, boards or commissions; proprietary schools; or real
estate appraisal or real estate related organizations. The classroom hours required for the licensed
residential real estate appraiser may include the classroom hours required for the appraiser trainee. The
classroom hours required for the certified residential real estate appraiser may include the classroom
hours required for the appraiser trainee or the licensed real
estate appraiser and may also include 30 hours of related courses in topics specified in the code of
Virginia. The classroom hours required for the certified general real estate appraiser may include the
classroom hours required for the appraiser trainee, the licensed residential real estate
appraiser, or the certified residential real estate appraiser and may also include 30 hours of related
courses in topics specified in the code of Virginia. All applicants for licensure as a certified general real
estate appraiser must complete an advanced level appraisal course of at least 30 classroom hours in the
appraisal of nonresidential properties.
7. The applicant shall execute an affidavit as part of the application for licensure attesting to his
experience in the field of real estate appraisal. All applicants must submit, upon application, sample
appraisal reports as specified by the board. In addition, all experience must be supported by adequate
written reports or file memoranda which shall be made available to the board upon request.
a. Applicants for a licensed residential real estate appraiser license shall have a minimum of 2,000 hours
appraisal experience obtained continuously over a period of not less than 24 months. Hours may be
treated as cumulative in order to achieve the necessary 2,000 hours of appraisal experience.
b. Applicants for a certified residential real estate appraiser license shall have a minimum of 2,500 hours
of appraisal experience obtained continuously over a period of not less than 24 months. Hours may be
treated as cumulative in order to achieve the necessary 2,500 hours of appraisal experience.
c. Applicants for a certified general real estate appraiser license shall have a minimum of 3,000 hours of
appraisal experience obtained continuously over a period of not less than 30 months. Hours may be
treated as cumulative in order to achieve the necessary 3,000 hours of appraisal experience. At least
50% of the appraisal experience required (1,500 hours) must be in
nonresidential appraisal assignments and include assignments which demonstrate the use and
understanding of the income approach. An applicant whose nonresidential appraisal experience is
predominately in such properties which do not require the use of the income approach may satisfy this
requirement by performing two or more appraisals on properties in association with a certified general
appraiser which include the use of the income approach.
8. Within 12 months after being approved by the board to take the examination, the applicant shall have
registered for and passed a written examination endorsed by the Appraiser Qualifications Board and
provided by the board or by a testing service acting on behalf of the board.
9. Applicants for licensure who do not meet the requirements set forth in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this
section may be approved for licensure following consideration of their application by the board.


Real Estate Sales Agent
To become licensed as a real estate salesperson in Virginia an applicant must: have a reputation for
honesty and fair dealing; have completed a four semester hour or six quarter hour course, or equivalent ,
in the Principles of Real Estate; not have had a real estate agent or real estate broker
license revoked; not have been convicted of certain crimes; be at least 18 years old; and pass an
examination by the Real Estate Board.
To become licensed as a real estate broker, an applicant must have been employed as a real estate
sales person for 36 or 48 months prior to making an application for the examination, must have the
specified broker-related courses, and must pass an examination. The applicant must apply in writing on
the proper forms prepared by the Real Estate Board and must meet the same
qualifications as a real estate sales person except the applicant does not have to be employed by a real
estate broker. There is a license fee and a biennial renewal fee.
Qualifications for licensure.
Every applicant to the Real Estate Board for an individual salesperson's or broker's license shall have the
following qualifications:
1. The applicant shall have a good reputation for honesty, truthfulness, and fair dealing, and be
competent to transact the business of a real estate broker or a real estate salesperson in such a manner
as to safeguard the interests of the public.
2. The applicant shall meet the current educational requirements by achieving a passing grade in all
required courses of the Code of Virginia prior to the time the applicant sits for the licensing examination
and applies for licensure.
3. The applicant shall be in good standing as a licensed real estate broker or salesperson in every
jurisdiction where licensed and the applicant shall not have had a license as a real estate broker or real
estate salesperson which was suspended, revoked or surrendered in connection with a disciplinary action
or which has been the subject of discipline in any jurisdiction prior to
applying for licensure in Virginia.
4. The applicant shall not have been convicted or found guilty, regardless of adjudication in any
jurisdiction of the United States of a misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, sexual offense, drug
distribution or physical injury, or any felony, there being no appeal pending therefrom or the time for
appeal having elapsed. Neither shall the applicant have been found to have violated the fair housing laws
of any jurisdiction. Any plea of nolo contendere shall be considered a conviction for purposes of this
subdivision. The record of a conviction authenticated in such form as to be admissible in evidence under
the laws of the jurisdiction where convicted shall be admissible as prima facie evidence of such conviction
or guilt.
5. The applicant shall be at least 18 years old.
6. The applicant, within 12 months prior to making application for a license, shall have passed a written
examination provided by the board or by a testing service acting on behalf of the board. Complete
applications must be received within the 12-month period.
7. The applicant shall follow all rules established by the board with regard to conduct at the examination.
Such rules shall include any written instructions communicated prior to the examination date and any
instructions communicated at the site, either written or oral, on the
date of the examination. Failure to comply with all rules established by the board with regard to conduct at
the examination shall be grounds for denial of application.
8. Applicants for licensure who do not meet the requirements set forth in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this
section may be approved for licensure following consideration by the board in accordance with the Code
of Virginia.
Additional qualifications for brokers: An applicant for an individual license as a real estate broker shall
meet the following requirements in addition to those set forth:
1. The applicant shall meet the current educational requirements of the Code of Virginia.
2. The applicant shall have been actively engaged as defined in the Code as a real estate salesperson for
a period of 36 of the 48 months immediately preceding application.


Concurrent licenses shall be issued by the board to brokers active in more than one separate legal entity
upon receipt of a concurrent license form and written affidavits stating that written notice of the (?)


QUESTION: Are there any specific financial assistance programs or scholarships available for individuals
with disabilities who want to go to college?
ANSWER: There are many types of assistance for people with disabilities who want to attend college. A
good place to start is HEATH , a national clearinghouse on post-secondary education information for
individuals with disabilities. You can contact HEATH through its website,
http://www.heath.gwu.edu/            by telephone at 202-973-0904 or 1-800-544-3284 (voice) or by fax at
202-973-0908 (fax). Other education resources can be found by checking with your state's vocational
rehabilitation agency and exploring the various education-related links at DisabilityInfo.gov.       Financial
Aid for Students with Disabilities, 2003 Edition


HEATH's annual revision of this popular resource guide is now available. The 2003 edition contains
completely updated and revised information to help individuals with disabilities to seek and obtain
financial assistance for postsecondary education. The guide describes federal financial aid programs,
state vocational rehabilitation services, and regional and local sources. A
listing of nationally awarded grants and a pre-college checklist to organize the search for funds complete
the guide.
The George Washington University, HEATH Resource Center, 2121 K Street, NW Suite 220
Washington, DC 20037; Voice/TTY: 202.973.0904 or Toll Free 1.800.544.3284
Fax: 202.973.0908 E-mail: askheath@heath.gwu.edu
 Webmaster: webmaster@heath.gwu.edu
http://www.heath.gwu.edu/PDFs/2003%20Finaid%20Document.pdf
The HEATH Resource Center of The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and
Human Development, is the national clearinghouse on postsecondary education for individuals with
disabilities. Support from the U.S. Department of Education enables the clearinghouse to serve as an
information exchange about educational support services, policies,
procedures, adaptations, and opportunities at American campuses, vocational-technical schools, and
other postsecondary training entities. HEATH participates in national conferences, training sessions, and
workshops; develops training modules; publishes resource papers, fact sheets, directories, and website
information; and fosters a network of professionals in the arena of disability issues.


In operation since 1984, HEATH was acquired by The George Washington University on October 1,
2001, and responds annually to thousands of electronic, mail, and telephone inquiries. HEATH resource
papers, fact sheets, guides, and directories focus on topics such as accessibility, career, development,
classroom and laboratory adaptations, financial aid, independent living, transition resources, training and
postsecondary education, vocational education, and rehabilitation. HEATH is one of three clearinghouses
authorized by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/Policy/IDEA/index.html to provide specialized educational
information to people with disabilities, their families, and the professionals who work with them. The
clearinghouse gathers and disseminates this information to help people
with disabilities reach their full potential through postsecondary education and training.


WHAT EXPENSES ARE CONSIDERED DISABILITY RELATED?
The student with a disability is often faced with additional expenses not incurred by other students.
These may include:
• Special equipment (related to the disability) and its maintenance.
• Cost of services for personal use or study, such as readers, interpreters, note takers, or personal care
attendants.
• Transportation, if traditional means are not accessible.
• Medical expenses not covered by insurance that relate directly to the individual’s disability.
Students should be sure to inform the aid administrator of disability-related expenses that
may previously have been covered by the family budget. These may include food and veterinary bills for
guide dogs, batteries for hearing aids and a Typed Text (TTY) [previously called a
Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD)], or the cost of recruiting and training readers or
personal care attendants. Leaving home often necessitates the purchase of new or additional equipment
that will allow the student to be independent at college. For example, the student’s secondary school may
have furnished
an adapted computer or other disability-related equipment, but that equipment belongs to and
remains at the high school after the student graduates. Students with disabilities should seek
assistance from the Office of Disability Support Services and/or the Financial Aid Office to
determine disability-related expenses. Once these expenses have been identified, students
should provide the financial aid administrator with documentation of any disability-related expense that is
necessary to ensure attainment of the student’s educational goal. Where applicable, this documentation
should also state the amounts that will be covered by insurance and other assisting agencies. Depending
on the institution, documentation may be simply a written statement of explanation by the student or an
official statement by a doctor or Vocational Rehabilitation counselor. To be certain of the appropriate
documentation, the student should check with the institution’s financial aid office. By virtue of provisions
within the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) and The Rehabilitation Act (1973), all public and private
postsecondary institutions are required to provide reasonable accommodations for students with
documented disabilities who request them. Some special equipment and support services may be
available at the postsecondary institution, through public or private community organizations, through the
state Vocational Rehabilitation Agency, or through organizations for people with disabilities. The student
should check with the Student Services Personnel, 504 Coordinator, or Office of Disability Support
Services at the postsecondary institution.
Probably the most valuable resource to a new student is the network of students with disabilities
already on campus. Students with disabilities who have had similar experiences and similar needs are
likely to have practical advice and low-cost solutions to problems that incoming students with disabilities
frequently encounter. Regardless of whether the student is able to obtain any special equipment or
services through the institution or elsewhere, it is still important to let the financial aid administrator know
of any anticipated expenses. Such information is considered in the determination of the student’s financial
need, on which all aid decisions are based. It is also important to understand that disability-related
expenses that are covered by other assisting agencies cannot also be covered by financial aid from the
school.


HOW DOES VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION FIT INTO THE FINANCIAL AID PROCESS?
Assistance to students with disabilities is often provided by state Vocational Rehabilitation (VR)
agencies. In some states there are two agencies: a general agency and one for people who are blind or
visually impaired. In other states, there is one agency serving all people with disabilities. State Vocational
Rehabilitation agency titles vary from state to state, and thus may be hard to locate in the telephone
directory. You may contact a state education agency, public library, or Governor’s Committee on
Employment of People with Disabilities for the telephone number and address of your local VR agency.
The local Vocational Rehabilitation agency has VR counselors who can help a person with a disability
determine his or her eligibility for assistance. The VR program is an eligibility program, rather than an
entitlement program. To be eligible for services, an individual must have an impairment that results in a
substantial impediment to employment and can benefit from and requires VR services for employment.
The primary goal of a VR counselor is to assist the client in becoming employed; therefore, the counselor
will look closely at a student’s educational plans in terms of job potential. While initial counseling and
evaluation are open to all, the While initial counseling and evaluation are open to all, the counselor may
determine that a client is not eligible for other services based on state agency policies governing
economic need, order of selection, or other criteria. Among the services that may be provided by VR
agencies to a student who is a client are:
• Help with tuition expenses.
• Room and board.
• Transportation/ commuting expenses.
• Books and supplies.
• Reader services for people who are blind or who have learning disabilities; interpreter services for
people who are hearing impaired; and/or individually prescribed aids and devices.
• Telecommunications, sensory, and other technological aids and devices.
• Other goods and services that help an individual with a disability become employed.
Services provided to an individual must be authorized in advance in an Individualized Plan for
Employment (IPE) developed by the client and approved by a VR counselor.
The above items may differ from state to state, and may be subject to a test of a client’s ability to pay.
They require the use of resources from another agency (“comparable benefits”) before a
commitment of VR funds is made. There are differences between states’ VR programs because
each participating state administers its own program through the provisions of a state plan that has been
developed under the guidelines of the act and approved by the U.S. Department of Education. For
additional information, request Vocational Rehabilitation Services: A Consumer Guide for Postsecondary
Students from HEATH.


IS THERE COORDINATION BETWEEN THE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AGENCIES AND THE
FINANCIAL AID OFFICES?
Most states have developed working agreements between state associations of financial aid
administrators and Vocational Rehabilitation administrators. These agreements allow for a
coordinated effort in providing funds for students with disabilities in participating states. The
agreement, or memorandum of understanding, establishes the process a VR agency and postsecondary
educational institution will follow in determining the aid to be granted to a VR
client/student. It is important to note that the federal Rehabilitation Act, as amended, requires that
students served by a VR agency apply for student financial aid.
Through standardized information exchange forms, the VR and financial aid offices are kept abreast of
what the other is doing. The process is not a simple one; it takes time and requires a constant effort by
both offices and the student. Often a student’s aid package is recalculated several times as new
information is provided by either office. The best advice for a student with a disability in the quest for
financial assistance is to contact as early as possible both the VR agency where the student is a client
and the financial aid office of the institution the student plans to attend to be sure to meet both their
deadlines. The institution will determine the student’s eligibility for financial assistance and develop an
award package. Meanwhile, VR will also determine the student’s additional disability related needs and, if
possible, award funds. Whatever is not covered by the VR agency can be recalculated by the institution
into the student’s expenses, and, if funds allow, the student’s aid may be increased. Even with excellent
cooperation between the financial aid administrator and the Vocational Rehabilitation counselor, there still
may be a need for additional family funds or loans.


IS FINANCIAL AID AVAILABLE FOR GRADUATE STUDY?
The increasing importance of graduate or professional degrees has caused concern over the
availability of funds for such study. After a student completes an undergraduate degree program, he or
she is no longer eligible for certain federal and state funds. Other programs may serve graduate students,
but only after all undergraduates have been served. Because there is the expectation of employability
after completion of a technical, community college, or undergraduate degree program, state VR agencies
may be reluctant to fund graduate studies. Nevertheless, there are sources of funding available
specifically for advanced degrees.
1. Easy Access for Students and Institutions (EASI) offers information about the financial aid system:
http://www.easi.ed.gov/.
2. Financial Aid for Students, through the U.S. Department offers information and links relating
to federal student assistance programs: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSFAP/students/sfa.h
tml.
3. The Financial Aid Information Page is a comprehensive resource that will connect students with mailing
lists, news groups, loan information, and scholarships for special interest groups such as females,
minorities, veterans, etc.: http://www.finaid.org.
4. College Board Home Page includes an instant profile search of available grants and
scholarships: http://www.collegeboard.org/.
5. FastWEB (Financial Aid Search Through the WEB) is a searchable database of more than is a
searchable database of more than 180,000 private sector scholarships, fellowships, grants, and loans.
Used by colleges across the United States, fastWEB is now available to you at no charge through the
World Wide Web, courtesy of the Financial Aid Information Page and Student Services, Inc.:
http://www.fastweb.com.
6. CASHE (College Aid Sources for Higher Education), provided free through Sallie Mae’s Online
Scholarship Service, is a database of more than 180,000 scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans,
internships, competitions, and work-study programs sponsored by more than 3,600 organizations:
http://www.salliemae.com/.
7. CollegeNET MACH25 is a free Web version of the Wintergreen/Orchard House Scholarship
Finder database. This database contains listings of more than 500,000 private sector awards from 1,570
sponsors. The database is updated annually http://www.collegenet.com/mach25/.
8. The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators’ (NASFAA) home page
includes two free downloadable publications for students and their parents, Cash for College and
TIPS: Timely Information for Parents and Students. The site also contains links to other financial aid-
related web sites: http://www.nasfaa.org.
9. College Quest is a comprehensive site devoted to the process of searching, choosing, applying, and
paying for college that contains a database of more than 850,000 scholarships and grants for
postsecondary study: http://www.collegequest.com/.


The Foundation Center, with headquarters in Washington, DC, and New York and cooperating
collections in nearly 100 cities across the country, can provide the names of private foundations that
donate money for particular activities or causes. The Foundation Center has a volume of listings called
Foundation Grants for Individuals arranged in broad categories. It can be used there or purchased for $65
plus $4.50 for shipping and handling. Call (800) 424-9836 to find the address of the nearest cooperating
collection. The Big Book of Minority Opportunities (1997),
edited by Willis L. Johnson, lists employment opportunities, financial aid sources, and career
information services for members of minority groups. Although the volume is not specifically for
those with disabilities, many students may find it an important resource. This well-organized directory lists
more than 4,000 general sources of financial aid. Programs cited include scholarships, fellowships, and
loans for college study; job training and retraining activities; summer employment and internship options;
occupational information and career-guidance assistance; and employment skills banks and talent bank
services. It is available by prepaying $39.95 plus $1.50 for shipping and handling to Garrett Park Press,
P.O. Box 190A, Garrett Park, MD 20896, or by calling (301) 946-2553.
Dollars for College: The Quick Guide to Financial Aid for Students with Disabilities (1998), edited by
Elizabeth A. Olson, is a compendium of 525 listings of organizations (including state rehabilitation
services, training programs, some colleges and universities, and some colleges and
universities, and organizations serving veterans) that offer some type of financial aid for students with
disabilities, or offer programs to train people with or without disabilities to prepare to work in the disability
service field. In addition, there are several annotated lists of organizations established to assist people
with disabilities in areas other than financial aid. There is a description of Federal Financial Aid
Programs, a glossary of Financial Aid Terminology, a section of Useful Books, and contact information for
a short list of Associations Concerned with People with Disabilities. The Index assists readers in locating
programs of relevance to their own needs. Dollars for College, one of a series of special focus books on
the subject, is available for $7.95
plus $1.50 for shipping and handling from Garrett Park Press, P.O. Box 190B, Garrett Park, MD
20896; (301) 946-2553. FAQs http://www.heath.gwu.edu/usefulanswers.htm
More http://www.heath.gwu.edu/FeaturedResources.htm
Resch various links thru http://www.disabilityinfo.gov/Education/


Research http://www.icdi.wvu.edu/Others.htm


Neith Housg Sevc http://www.nhsrichmond.org/


Research more http://www.nw.org/network/home.asp


http://www.nhsrichmond.org/html/12steps.htm

http://www.servicelocator.org/search/detail-info.asp?Category=WorkersService
s&ParentID=26521
Write letter to report my issue on what happened to me that I reported that led to DOL deciding against
me when I asked for unemployment after working for Comprhnsv Hlth Care, LIC. , Unemployment L. I.
City branch manager at L.I. City: 25-01 Queens Plaza North, Long Island City, NY 11101, Telephone:
718-706-5590, Fax: 718-472-2901,
Office of Deputy Inspector General:
To report allegations of impropriety by Department employees, write to: NYS Department of Taxation
and Finance, Office of the Deputy Inspector General, Building 9 - Room 481
W.A. Harriman Campus, Albany, New York 12227,
include that LR uses my ssn, chg of address AND go to site and read thru regulations for all reminders of
what happened to me:
http://www.labor.state.ny.us/searchright.asp?qu=administrative+law&CT=dolint
ernet
and
http://www.labor.state.ny.us/searchright.asp?qu=regulations&CT=dolinternet
and
Rexcg or perhaps report to http://www.ripoffreport.com/search.asp
Executive Director: job descp, even within legislature background
The Executive Director must be able to:
·    understand and apply knowledge of laws and administrative policies governing non-profits
organizations and related financial practices and procedures
·    communicate effectively, both verbally and in writing, with a wide range of stakeholders
·    use judgment and discretion in working with volunteers, staff, and clients of varied levels of
achievement and understanding and Prototype of ED functions:
Name of Organization:
Position: EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Job Description, Job Title and Attributes
The Executive Director represents (the org), directs and coordinates the operations of (org, location), and
manages all programs in a manner consistent with the mission of org and its parent organizations.
Reporting Relationships
The Executive Director reports to the Board of Directors of org. and fulfills the responsibilities of the
position in accordance with Board-defined directives.
Designated representatives from the NAMED ORG Board of Directors review and evaluate the Executive
Director’s performance annually.
The Executive Director supervises both paid and volunteer staff. He/she conducts timely reviews and
performance evaluations of staff and archives these in the organization’s personnel records.
Key Responsibilities of the Executive Director:
·    upholds the bylaws of ORG and conducts himself/herself in a manner consistent with the policies
and procedures of the organization and its parent organization
·    maintains organizational accreditation
·    bears fiscal responsibility to regularly review and monitor income and expenditures in order to
adhere to the annual operating budget developed jointly with the Board of Directors
·    provides related periodic financial statements to the Board of Directors
·    identifies sources of grants and funding and assists in fundraising
·    manages existing and new programs by locating needed resources, staffing programs appropriately,
evaluating results, and making any necessary changes
·    manages collection of program data and statistics, prepares related requisite reports, and provides
detailed status reports to the Board on a regular basis
·    assesses community needs periodically and submits recommendations to the Board for program
improvement, revision, and/or enhancement
·    manages the organization’s paid and unpaid staff and volunteers, to include tutors, instructors,
program managers, outside service providers, coordinators, fundraisers, and office assistants, and holds
meetings as necessary with these persons and other stakeholders
·    supervises training of volunteers and staff in conformance with certification requirements,
organizational requirements, and general organizational needs
·    oversees recruitment of volunteers
·    attends Board of Directors meetings regularly and committee meetings as deemed necessary
·    represents Named Org. at designated community events and serves as a spokesperson for the
organization within the community
·    networks with other non-profit organizations and agencies with related missions
·    performs other duties that may be assigned by the Board of Directors.


Abilities and Competencies Required
The Executive Director must be able to:
·    understand and apply knowledge of laws and administrative policies governing non-profits
organizations and related financial practices and procedures
·    understand and use modern office and accounting technology
·    communicate effectively, both verbally and in writing, with a wide range of stakeholders
·    use judgment and discretion in working with volunteers, staff, and clients of varied levels of
achievement and understanding
·    work well with others as part of the Named Org team
·    balance teamwork and managerial responsibilities
·    adapt easily and quickly to new situations
·    generate new ideas to benefit the programs and operations of Named Org.
·    make competent decisions.




LEGISLATURE ADVOCACY AND GLOSSARY
Virginia House of Delegates 2003
Delegate Viola O. Baskerville
Member Since 1998
D - 71st District
County of Henrico (part); City of Richmond (part)
General Assembly Building
P.O. Box 406
Richmond, Virginia 23218
Phone: (804)698-1071
Fax: (804)786-6310
Constituent Viewpoint: (800)-889-0229
Email: Del_Baskerville@house.state.va.us
Room Number: 525
Legislative Assistant: Christy Williams
Secretary During Session: Barbara Pritchard
District Offices is P. O. Box 406
Richmond, VA 23218
Phone: (804)698-1171, Fax: (804)321-5545
Email: Del_Baskerville@house.state.va.us
Committee: Health Welfare and Institituions, Hamilton, Phillip A.
(Chair)Tues and Thurs 8:30 a.m. House Room D
Science and Tech Com , Chairman: May, Joe T. (Chair) Mondays 4 pm, House Room D.
House District#: 71st
District Description: County of Henrico (part); City of Richmond (part)
Congressional District: 3rd and 7th
Personal Information
Birth Date: Richmond, VA, October 29, 1951
Gender: F
Race: African American
Religion: Episcopal
Education: The College of William and Mary in Virginia (B.A., 1973)
University of Iowa College of Law, IA (J.D., 1979)
Virginia Colleges and Universities:
The College of William and Mary
Occupation/Profession: Consultant
Membership & Affiliation: Episcopal Church
Make Women Count (advisory board)
Richmond Renaissance
Coalition of 100 Black Women
Ginter Park Residents' Association
Sorensen Institute for Political Leadership (statewide advisory board)
The Virginia Foundation for Women (board member)
Historic Richmond Foundation (advisory board)
National Council of Negro Women (life member)
Spouse: Archer Lewis Baskerville, M.D.
Awards: Virginia Women Attorneys Association Advocacy (2002)
American Institute of Architects, James River
Chapter Citation (2002)
Planned Parenthood Federation of America
Responsible Choices (2002)
Omicron Delta Kappa, College of
William and Mary Chapter (2001)
Outstanding Domestic Violence Advocate, Richmond Domestic Violence
Coordinating Committee (2001)
American Lung Association of Virginia
Excellence in Advocacy (2001)
Mary Ann Rennolds Award for Reproductive Freedom (2001)
Pi Lambda Theta International Excellence (2001)
National Council of Negro Women Vision,
Henrico Chapter (2001)
Golden Hammer-Margurite Crumley Preservation Award (2000)
Center for Women's Policy Studies National
Honor Roll of State Legislators (1999)
Flemming Fellows Leadership Institute, Class of 1999
YWCA Outstanding Women's , government (1998)
Fulbright (1973)


Who's my Legislator
http://conview.state.va.us/whosmy/lookup.asp?Title=Ms.&firstname=Sophina&Las
tName=Aryvz&Address1=1019+Porter+Street&City=Richmond%2C&Zip=23224&Homephone
=&Email=sophway1@hotmail.com&Submit1=Lookup


Addition to the glossary
Language of the Floor
It may seem that legislators have a language all their own. Below are some frequently used phrases and
their meanings to assist you in understanding what is happening on the floor of the House or Senate.


"Waive the reading" Members use this phrase in motions to eliminate the reading of documents.


"Sending to the Clerk's desk a report" This is how the Chair of a committee reports the legislation the
committee has acted upon favorably. The Chair does not report unfavorable action on
legislation.


"Leave of absence"
If a legislator needs to be absent from a daily session, the legislator will ask his or her deskmate to state
the reason for the absence and to request permission for the absence from the presiding officer.


"Point of Personal Privilege"
This phrase is used by a legislator to request to speak on a matter of great interest to him or her. Usually
this privilege is requested just after the opening of the daily session and before any legislation is
considered.
"Point of order."
Members use this phrase to question a procedure which is being followed. Members may raise a point of
order at any time during a debate.


"Dispense with the constitutional reading"
This motion is usually made by the Floor Leader and is a time saving procedure. If the motion is agreed
to, then the Clerk does not have to read the title (summary) of the bill or bill(s). There is a constitutional
requirement that a bill's title must be read unless the body moves to dispense (eliminate) its reading.


"en bloc"
Bills may be acted upon en bloc or in groups. The House and Senate often advance or pass bills en bloc
to save time in the legislative process.


"The Chair recognizes the Senator or Delegate from…"
The presiding officer says this when calling on each member who wishes to speak in a debate.




"Will the Senator or Delegate from … yield for a question?"
Members wishing to question another member may ask that member to rise and respond to a question.
Even though a member is requesting answers from another member, he or she still addresses all remarks
to the presiding officer.


"Shall the bill(s) pass?"
This question is put to the body by the presiding officer when a bill is voted on for passage. In order for a
bill to pass, a minimum of a majority of members voting must vote "Yea". This is a recorded vote.


"Shall the amendment(s) or substitute be agreed to?"
This question is put to the body by the presiding officer when the amendment(s) or substitute are voted
on for agreement. In order for amendments to be adopted, a majority of members voting must say "Yea".
This is a voice vote unless the presiding officer is in doubt of the outcome.




The Va General Assembly meets every January for 30-60 days. They meet to create or change the laws
of Va. The GA is made up of two groups of people: The Senate and the House of Delegates. There are
40 Senators and 100 Delegates. They are elected by the people of VA. They meet in Richmond in the
Capitol. The lawmakers get ideas for laws from different people. The senators and the Delegates must
vote to pass a bill. The governor must then sign the bill to make it a law.
The first representative assembly in America at Jamestown in 1619. The capital was moved to
Williamsburg in 1699 and then to Richmond in 1780. The Capitol was designed by Thomas Jefferson
and first used in 1788. The design was based on the Maison Carree in France where Jefferson served as
US Ambassador. Wings were added to the Capitol for more space and put into use in 1906.


The General Assembly is made up of the Senate and the House of Delegates.
The people of Virginia elect 40 Senators and 100 Delegates to represent them in the G A. Each Senator
serves a four-year term and represents approximately 155,000 people. Each Delegate serves a two-year
term and represents approximately 62,000 people. In the Senate, the Lieutenant Governor is the
presiding officer. He is elected in a statewide election and serves a four-year term.


The Speaker is the presiding officer in the House of Delegates. He is a member of the House and is
elected by the House in even-numbered years for a two-year term.


The General Assembly meets every year beginning the second Wednesday in January. In even-
numbered years, it meets for 60 calendar days. In odd-numbered years, it meets for 30 calendar days.
(This session can be extended up to 30 additional days.)


How a Bill Becomes Law
Drafting and Introduction The Senators and Delegates meet with their constituents to develop proposals
to be introduced as bills. They work with the legislative staff to draft a bill that would create a new law, or
change or repeal the current law. In January, when the General Assembly meets in Richmond, The
Senators and Delegates introduce their bills in their respective houses.


Committee Action
After a bill is introduced in the Senate, it is referred to the appropriate standing committee. In the Senate,
bills are referred by the Clerk of the Senate. In the House, bills are referred by the Speaker. The
standing committees have scheduled meetings or public hearings every week to address the bills referred
to them. In these meetings, legislators and the public may present their opinions on the bill. After
listening to the testimony, the committee will vote to recommend the passage or defeat of the bill. They
may also offer changes (called amendments) at this time. If the committee recommends passage of the
bill, it then goes before the entire 40-member Senate for consideration.


FLOOR ACTION
In accordance with our state constitution, the title of the bill must be read three different times. The bill
may be amended once it has been read a second time. The pros and cons of the bill may be debated on
the third reading. A final votes is taken after the third reading. If the bill
passes, it is then sent to the House of Delegates where it will go through a similar process of committee
action, floor debate and voting. If the bill passes both houses without any amendments, it then goes to
the Governor. If the bill is amended in the House, it is then returned to the Senate for approval. If each
house insists on its own form of the bill, a committee of
conference is usually created. A compromise report from the committee is sent to each house for
approval, then sent to the governor.


GOVERNOR'S ACTION                  The Governor may
* sign the bill into law
* take no action and after a specified time, the bill may become law without his signature
* ammend the bill and return it to the General Assembly.
* veto the bill and return it to the General Assembly. If the bill is vetoed, the Senate and House of
Delegates may override the Governor's veto with approval of two-thirds of the members of both houses.


Virginia was founded in 1607 in Jamestown. Named for Queen Elizabeth I of England, the Virgin Queen.
the 10th state to ratify the US Constitution (June 26, 1788); the location of the first major battle of the Civil
War (Manassas, 1861); was where more than 60% of the Civil War Battles were fought.; the state where
the capital of the Confederacy was located (Richmond, 1861-65); the first state to elect a black governor
in 1990.
Virginia is 12th in population among the 50 states (6,377,00 as of 1992) is composed of 95 counties, 41
independent cities and 188 incorporated towns. is one of four states referred to as a commonwealth
(Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania). is the "Mother of States" because seven other states
were formed from land that was once part of Virginia (Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, West
Virginia, and part of Minnesota).; is the "Mother of Presidents" because eight US Presidents were born in
Virginia (George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Henry
Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, and Woodrow Wilson); is home of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-
Tunnel, the world's largest bridge-tunnel complex (17.6 miles).; is known as the Old Dominion. King
Charles II gave it this name because
Virginia remained loyal to the crown during the Civil War in England.


GLOSSARY
Acts of Assembly
Those bills passed by the General Assembly and signed by the Governor. An act is given a number which
represents the numerical sequence in which the bill was signed. This number refers to the "chapter" of the
Acts of Assembly, i.e. Senate Bill 79 became Chapter 23 of the Acts of Assembly, being the twenty-third
bill signed into law by the Governor. After the session, all acts are bound into volumes referred to as the
Acts of Assembly. Joint resolutions amending the
Constitution of Virginia are also assigned a Chapter number, but are not signed by the Governor, and are
placed in the Acts of Assembly.


Adjournment
Termination of a session for that day, with the hour and day of the next meeting being set prior to
adjournment.         Adjournment Sine Die: The final adjournment of a legislative session. The Latin
translation is - without a day, an indefinite period.


Amendment
A change made to legislation in committee or on the chamber floor that adds to, revises, or deletes
language from the legislation.


Amendment, Constitutional
A joint resolution that affects the Constitution and is passed by two General Assembly sessions separated
by a general election of the House of Delegates. At the second session, a bill must also be passed to
place the proposal on a ballot. Final approval is given by voters at a general election.


Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute
A substantive redrafting of legislation that incorporates the changes in a new version referred to as a
"substitute." An amendment in the nature of a substitute may be offered by a standing committee, on the
chamber floor by a member, by a conference committee, or by the Governor.


Biennium
A two-year term of legislative activity, usually used in association with the budget.
Bill
A proposal to amend, repeal, or add sections to the Code of Virginia or the Acts of Assembly.
Bill Status
The database system for tracking legislation and the daily activities of the House of Delegates and the
Senate.
Budget Bill
Recommended appropriations of state revenue presented by the Governor to the General Assembly for
its consideration during the legislative session.
By Request
A member may add "by request" to his name when introducing a bill, which indicates that the bill has
been introduced at the request of a constituent, a governmental agency, or an organization.
Calendar
The daily printed agenda of business for each house. The Calendar also contains scheduled committee
meetings and public hearings.
Caucus
An informal meeting of a group of members, most often called on the basis of party affiliation or regional
representation.
Chapter
A bill passed and signed into law by the Governor. The term also applies to Constitutional Amendments
passed by the General Assembly and to bills passed, notwithstanding the Governor's objections or
amendments.
Charter Bill
Legislation relating to powers of counties, cities, and towns specifically granted by the General Assembly.
Charters and changes thereto, are not codified and are found only in the Acts of Assembly.


Code of Virginia
A compilation of the laws of the Commonwealth that is arranged alphabetically by subject, with each
subject heading being referred to as a "Title."
Committee
A group of legislators from the House of Delegates or the Senate organized for the purpose of
considering and deciding on the disposition of a bill or resolution.
Committee Actions
Carry Over (Continue) - Action which removes the measure from consideration during an even numbered
year session and provides for its reconsideration at the next regular session of the General Assembly. No
bill may be carried over in an odd-numbered year session. A carry-over bill retains its assigned bill
number in the odd-numbered year session.


Fail to Report (Defeat) - The committee rejects a motion to report a bill to the full house.
Incorporate - The committee incorporates one or more bills into another bill.


No Action Taken - No motion is made on the bill and it dies at the time of the committee deadline.
Pass By Indefinitely (PBI) - This action allows the committee to reconsider legislation at a later meeting. If
the committee takes no further action, the bill is "dead."
Report - The majority of the committee approves the bill and it is reported to the floor. The bill may be
reported three ways: without amendment(s), with amendment(s), or with an amendment in the nature of a
substitute. A bill may also be reported and referred to another committee.
Strike - The bill is removed from the docket. This action frequently occurs at the request of the patron.
Committee Docket
A list prepared by the committee clerk of all legislation pending before a standing committee or a
subcommittee. The order in which bills are taken up is determined by the chairman of the committee.
Conference Committee
An even number of legislators, half of them from the House and half of them from the Senate, who meet
to resolve differences between versions of a specific bill or joint resolution passed by their respective
bodies. This usually includes three members from each body.
Conflict of Interest
A position taken by a legislator on a matter that threatens the legislator's ability to vote impartially due to
some personal interest in a legislative issue (pursuant to House Rule 69 or Senate Rule 36).
Constituent: A citizen residing within the district of a legislator.
Constitution
A written instrument embodying the fundamental principles of the state that guarantees powers and
duties of the government and certain rights to the people.
Dillon Rule
Restricts the authority of local governments with respect to the enactment of ordinances. Local
governments only have powers granted by the Constitution of Virginia and/or passed by the General
Assembly.
Division
A method of voting; a request that members stand or raise hands to be counted when the outcome of a
voice vote is unclear or in dispute.
Docket
A list of all legislation that is pending before a standing committee, prepared by the committee clerk. (See
Committee Docket.)


Effective Date
Date on which a Chapter of the Acts of Assembly becomes a law. Laws become effective July 1 in the
year they are passed, unless otherwise specified. Laws passed at a special session become effective on
the first day of the fourth month following adjournment, unless otherwise specified.
Emergency Clause
Due to an emergency, the law becomes effective when signed by the Governor.
Engrossed
A stage in the legislative process when a bill passes the second reading in the house of origin. If
amended, the engrossed version of the legislation is printed incorporating all amendments that are
agreed to. If not amended, the introduced version of the legislation becomes the engrossed
bill, and if an amendment in the nature of a substitute is agreed to, the substitute becomes the engrossed
bill.
Enrolled
Legislation which has passed both the House of Delegates and the Senate. It has been signed by the
Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate and it has been sent to the Governor, but not yet
signed. If signed by the Governor, the bill becomes a law and a Chapter of the Acts of Assembly.
Fiscal Year
A 12-month accounting period used in the State Budget. In Virginia, the fiscal year begins July 1 and
ends June 30 of the following year.
Floor
That portion of the chamber reserved for members, staff, and other persons granted access during the
session.
Floor Leader
Refers to majority and minority leadership in each house.


Gallery
Balconies of each chamber from which visitors may view the proceedings.
Germaneness
The relevance or appropriateness of amendments or substitutes.
Interim
The interval between annual sessions.


Journal
The compilation of legislative actions and proceedings of the House of Delegates and the Senate which
are published by their respective Clerk's office. The Journal is the official record of each legislative body.


Leave of Absence
Permission granted to a member to be absent for a day.
Legislative Intent
The purpose for which a measure is introduced and/or passed.
Legislator
An elected member of a legislative body.
Legislature (General Assembly)
The branch of state government responsible for enacting laws.
Lobbyist
A person who represents a particular interest or group of interests before the General Assembly.
Majority Leader
A member of the majority party designated to be its floor leader.
Majority Party
The political party having the greater number of members in either house of the legislature.
Mini Journal
A document consisting of the condensed daily floor actions of the House of Delegates, committee reports,
and referrals.
Minority Leader
A member of the minority party designated to be its floor leader.
Minority Party
The political party having the fewer number of members in either house of the legislature.
Minute Book
A document consisting of the condensed daily floor actions of the Senate, committee reports, and
referrals.
Morning Hour
A period at the beginning of each day's session when members may introduce distinguished visitors to
their colleagues or speak on any subject by asking for a "Point of Personal Privilege."
Motion to Reconsider
A motion which, if successful, returns the question to its status before the vote.
Parliamentary Inquiry
A question posed to the presiding officer for clarification of a point in the proceedings.
Patron
A legislator who introduces a specific piece of legislation. Other legislators may show their support by
signing on as co-patrons.
Reading
The presentation of a bill before either house requiring the reading and printing of the bill number or title.
This formal procedure is required by the Constitution and the Rules of each house and indicates to the
legislators and the public a stage in the enactment of a measure. The Constitution
requires that bills receive three readings on three different days, or three printings, by title, on three
different calendars in each house, unless the readings are waived.
Reapportionment
A redrawing of legislative district boundaries to provide equality of representation according to population.
Recommital
In the Senate, this is the reassignment of legislation to the last committee that considered it.
Reconsideration
A motion which, when granted, results in another vote annulling or reaffirming an action previously taken.
Such a motion may be offered only by a member having voted previously on the prevailing side.
Reconvened Session
A session held on the sixth Wednesday after adjournment of each regular or special session when the
legislature meets to consider and act on the Governor's proposed recommendations to legislation and
vetoed bills.
Referendum
A method by which a measure adopted by the legislature may be submitted to the voters.
Referral
The assignment of legislation to a committee. In the House of Delegates, referral is initially done by the
Speaker of the House. In the Senate it is done by the Clerk of the Senate.
Rereferral
In the House of Delegates, this is the reassignment of legislation to the last committee that considered it.
Referral is initiated by a member from the floor and a vote is taken.
In the Senate referral is the reassignment of legislation to another committee. It is done by the committee
that is considering it or by a member from the floor.
Resolution
Legislation which requests a study, or expresses legislative opinion or sentiment on a particular issue.
Resolutions do not have the force of law and do not require the signature of the Governor. Constitutional
amendments, however, are signed by the presiding officer of each house and are assigned chapter
numbers.
Session
The period of time for which the legislature meets. In even-numbered years, the session meets for 60
days; in odd-numbered years it meets for 30 days. The session may be extended for a maximum of 30
days. The odd-numbered year sessions are usually extended to 46 days.
Standing Committees
Regular committees of the legislature set up to perform certain legislative functions, and to consider
legislation regarding certain areas of the law. For example, the Transportation
Committee considers legislation regarding highways.
Subcommittee
A group of legislators who are members of a standing committee selected by the committee Chairman to
consider certain categories of bills. Subcommittees make recommendations to the full committee.
Sunset
The expiration date of a legislative measure.
Suspension of the Rules
Parliamentary procedure whereby actions can be taken which would otherwise be out of order. A 2/3 vote
is required to suspend the rules.
Veto
Action by which the Governor refuses to sign legislation passed by the General Assembly. The Governor
returns the vetoed bill to its house of origin. A 2/3 vote of each body is required to overturn a veto.
Vote
Formal expression of will or decision by the legislative body.
Vote, En Bloc
The disposition of several items, such as a series of bills or amendments, by taking one vote.
Vote, Recorded
A roll call vote in which each member electronically votes yea, nay, or abstain. The vote is recorded in the
Journal of each legislative body.
Vote, Voice
Oral expression of the members when a question is submitted for their determination. Response is given
by "yeas" and "nays," and the presiding officer states his decision as to which side prevails. Only the
result is recorded, i.e. the amendment is agree to.
Yield
The relinquishing of the floor by one member to another member to speak or ask a question during
debate.


More TERMS to know:
Bill
Election
Vote
Veto
Amendment
Represent
Preside
Term
Committee
Session
Debate
yea
nay


Virginia Online Legislatures
(Joint Senate and House website_
http://legis.state.va.us/vaonline/v.htm


Legislative Information System
for bill status and research
http://leg1.state.va.us/


Senate of VA
http://senate.state.va.us/


House of Delegates
http://hod.state.va.us/


Other Legislative Agencies, links to other legislative agencies
http://legis.state.va.us/agencies.htm
Commonwealth of VA's site
http://www.state.va.us/


For more info: Senate Clerk's office
Susan Clarke Schaar
Clerk of the Senate
Legislative Information and Constituent Services
P O Box 396, Richmond 23218, 804-698-7410, 888-892-6948


ANOTHER PUB IS DEVEL, PRODD AND PUBD BY House of Delegates Information and Public
Relations Office. Graphic services provided by House Computer Operations. Bruce F. Jamerson, Clerk of
the House of Delegates, Jeffrey A. Finch, Deputy Clerk, Legislative Operations, Carmela C. Bills,
Information & Public Relations Officer


The Virginia General Assembly first met as the House of Burgesses at Jamestown in 1619. It is now
known as the “oldest continuous law-making body in the New World.” Today, the General Assembly of
Virginia is made up of two houses, the House of Delegates and the Senate. All members of the General
Assembly are elected by the voters from their respective districts. The primary duties of the General
Assembly are to amend and pass laws. Sessions last for 60 days in even-numbered years and 30 days
in odd-numbered years. The governor may call a special session when it is deemed necessary or when
petitioned by two-thirds of the members of both the House and the Senate. A reconvened session is held
after adjournment of each regular or special session to consider the governor’s recommendations and
vetoed legislation.
The General Assembly meets annually starting on the second Wednesday in January. The sessions last
for 60 days in even-numbered years and 30 days in odd-numbered years. The governor may call a
Special session when it is deemed necessary or when petitioned by two-thirds of the members of both the
House and the Senate. A reconvened session is held after adjournment of each regular or special
session to consider the governor’s recommendations and vetoed legislation.
The House of Delegates consists of 100 members who serve a term of two years. The presiding officer of
the House of Delegates is the Speaker of the House who is elected by its members for a two year term.
The Speaker’s duties include assigning bills to committees and appointing members to the 20 House
standing committees.
The Clerk of the House is elected by the House of Delegates in even numbered years and continues in
office until another is chosen. The Clerk is responsible for the administration of the House. The Senate of
Virginia is composed of 40 members who serve a term of four years. The Lieutenant Governor is the
presiding officer of the Senate and is elected in a statewide election for a term of four years. If the
Lieutenant Governor is absent, the President pro tempore carries out the duties of the presiding officer.
The President pro tempore is elected by the members of the Senate for a four-year term and must be a
senior member of the majority party. The Clerk of the Senate is elected by the Senate and is responsible
for the administration of the Senate and referring bills to committee. The Virginia State Capitol in
Richmond, designed by Thomas Jefferson, is the second oldest working Capitol in the United States,
having been in continuous use since 1788. The State Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia symbolizes
victory over tyranny. Virginia’s Motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis (Thus Always to Tyrants) appears at the
bottom of the seal.


CAPITOL SCAVENGER HUNT
When you visit the Capitol, be sure you see the...
q Statue of George Washington
q State Seal
q House Chamber
q Senate Chamber
q Statue of Robert E. Lee
q Busts of Virginia’s U.S. Presidents
q Paintings of Virginia’s Governors
q Mace of the House of Delegates
q Old House Chamber
q Old Senate Chamber
q Governor’s Office
q Thomas Jefferson’s Model of the Capitol


The Constitution of Virginia was first approved in 1776. This document outlining Virginia’s fundamental
law has been completely revised on five occasions. Minor changes or amendments have been made
many more times. Changes or revisions may be proposed by either the General Assembly or a
constitutional convention established by the General Assembly. Any changes must be approved by the
voters of Virginia. The last major revision occurred in 1971 but other amendments have been adopted
since that time. For example: In the year 2000 two changes were made to the Constitution of Virginia;
one section was added declaring the right of the people to hunt, fish and harvest game and another
section was added establishing a Lottery Proceeds Fund for all revenues from any state-run lottery. The
lottery proceeds must then be spent locally for public education.
Two major components of the Constitution are the provisions for the three separate and distinct branches
of state government and the election process for all statewide elected officials, legislators, local governing
body members, and local constitutional officers. All branches are guided by the Constitution of Virginia.
State government is divided into three branches; executive, legislative and judicial.
? The legislative branch of the Commonwealth is the General Assembly, which consists of a Senate and
House of Delegates, and other related agencies. The members of the General Assembly establish public
policy through legislation.
? The executive branch of the Commonwealth executes or carries out that policy.
? The judicial branch interprets the laws which establish the policy.
? Virginia’s General Assembly held its first session in Jamestown
in 1619. ?Jamestown was the capital of the colony until 1699, when Williamsburg became the seat of
government.
???In 1780 the General Assembly moved the capital to Richmond.
The Assembly met in a building then known as the Cunninghame Warehouse, located on the corner of
Cary and 14th Streets, until the Capitol could be built.
? The Virginia State Capitol building is the second oldest working Capitol in the United States, having
been in continuous use since 1788 (Maryland has the oldest working Capitol, located in Annapolis). The
cornerstone of the Virginia State Capitol was laid on August 18, 1785; the building was completed in
1792.
? Thomas Jefferson designed the central section and modeled it after the Maison Carree in Nimes,
France. Its most outstanding feature is an interior dome that is positioned twenty feet below an a-line roof
and cannot be seen from the exterior. Flanking wings were added to the Capitol between 1904 and 1906.
? Virginia’s most treasured work of art, a life size statue of George Washington, is located in the Capitol
Rotunda. This sculpture by Jean Antoine Houdon is the only statue of Washington for which he posed.
? The Capitol Rotunda also houses the Houdon statue of Marquis de Lafayette, carved from life, and the
busts of the other seven Virginia-born presidents: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe,
William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor and Woodrow Wilson.


The capital of VA is divided into 40 Senatorial Districts and 100 House of Delegates Districts. Each
citizen is represented by a member of the senate and a member of the House of Delegates. District
maps are available in the Legislative Information and Constituent Services Offices (888-892-6948) or on
the Division of Legislative Services    website http://dls.state.va.us/


Each member of the Senate is elected for 4 years and each House member is elected for two years. The
Const of VA does not limit the number of terms a legislator may serve. The Lieutenant Governor is the
presiding offices of the Senate and is elected in a statewide election for a term of four years. In the event
of his/her absence, the President pro tempore performs the duties of the presiding officer. The President
pro tempore is a senior member who is elected by the members of the Senate for a four-year term. The
Senate has a Majority Leader and a Minority Leader who are elected by their respective caucuses (a
caucus is a group of representatives belonging to the same political party). The Speaker of the House is
the presiding officer of the House of Delegates. The members of the House of Delegates elect the
Speaker from its membership in even-numbered years for a term of two years. The Majority Leader and
the Minority Leader are elected by their respective caucuses.
The Clerk of the Senate is elected by the Senators for a four-year term. The Clerk is the Chief
Administrative Officer of the Senate. Among the duties of the Clerk are keeping a daily
Journal of proceedings, assigning office space and seating for the members, referring bills and
resolutions to the appropriate standing committee, and providing staff during the legislative session.
Legislative assistants aid Senators in carrying out their duties. Their tasks might include helping to draft
speeches and remarks, constituent services, acting as a liaison between the member and state agencies,
etc., Senate Pages and Messengers are students from across the state ages 13 to 15 who serve during
the General Assembly session. They learn about the legislative process by running errands, filing bills,
and assisting at committee meetings.


The Sergeant-at-Arms is elected by the Senators for a four-year term and, along with the Chamber and
Gallery Doorkeepers, clears the Senate floor of unauthorized persons before the session beings. He
announces anyone bringing a message from the House of Delegates.


In the early years the Capitol served simultaneously as a church, a courtroom, a legislative chamber and
office of the Governor. Until 1895, the State Library was located where the Governor's office is located
today.


Senators make $18K a year and serve 176,000 citizens each. 25 of senators were born in VA.


Throughout the year Senators are busy attending meetings and public hearings in Richmond and around
the Commonwealth. These meetings are often called to study a particular issue. Ideas for new legislation
may result. Senators also meet with constituents and civic groups, visit schools, and receive suggestions
for proposed legislation. A Senator wishing to introduce legislation would request the Division of
Legislative Services to draft the bill. Only members of the General Assembly may introduce legislation
Pg5: http://hodcap.state.va.us/publications/capitolscript.pdf


Get involved! Find out who your representatives are and what they stand for, read the newspaper,
volunteer in your community, be aware of issues and how they affect you; realize that you can initiate
change and remember that every vote counts. Your vote and your voice can always make a difference.


During the General Assembly session, Senators and Delegates can be reached at their offices in the
General Assembly Building in Richmond. The address is 910 Capitol Square, Richmond, Virginia 23219.
The Senate and House of Delegates jointly operate a toll-free, intrastate telephone message center to
accept calls from citizens of the Commonwealth wishing to express an opinion on legislation. The
messages are received by the center and will be relayed to the senator/delegates’ office as requested.
The telephone number is 1-800-889-0229. Richmond area residents may call 698-1990. For the address
or telephone number of a Member’s District Office, call Legislative Information toll-free at 1-888-892-6948
or 1-804-698-7410.


SAMPLE LETTERS
100 Main Street
Anytown, VA 23222
December 18, 2000
Dear Senator ___________:
I am _____ years old and attend ____________ ( school name). I am writing to you
because I am concerned about _____________ ( issue you would like to talk about ).
I think________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________.
Please vote for/against this measure when it comes before the Senate because ________________. Many
people would appreciate it.
Sincerely,
Jane Smith (sign your name here and make sure it’s legible)




Who can vote? Virginia citizens can vote at age 18. Persons eligible to register can obtain registration
applications and register to vote at any of the following locations: local voter registration office, armed
forces recruitment offices, most public libraries, the State Board of Elections office (and website), and the
Department of Motor Vehicles. For more information contact the State Board of Elections at 1-800-552-
9745 or 1-804-786-6551 or their website: www.sbe.state.va.us


Tours are offered daily from 9 a.m. until 4:15 p.m. Call 1-804- 698-1788 to schedule a tour with the
Capitol Hostesses. The public may view the Senate and House sessions from the galleries located on
the mezzanines of the Capitol. Tickets are not required, but seating is limited. Senate and House
sessions are broadcast via closed circuit television in various committee and conference rooms in the
Capitol and General Assembly Building. To schedule a tour of the Executive Mansion call 1-804-371-
2642.


Class Activity: Pinpoint a problem or issue that you see in your school or community. Research the
issue. Examine and evaluate solutions. Develop an action plan. Present it to your school board if it is a
school issue or to your city or county government if it is a local community issue. You can create change
in your community.


Things to Think About
• Should schools require students to pass through metal detectors before entering the building? What are
some other ways to make schools safer?
• Should manners be taught in schools? / character? What traits would you include?
• Should school-based extracurricular activities like chorus, band or the debate team, be voluntary or
mandatory? Why or why not?
• Should schools require students to wear school-determined uniforms? If not, should they mandate a
dress code? What types of restrictions should be placed on student appearance, if any?
• Should school be held year-round? What are some advantages to year-round schooling?


Why is Virginia a commonwealth?
Commonwealth is defined as “a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people.” When Virginia
adopted its first Constitution in 1776, the term which had been used previously then dropped, was
reintroduced. This was most likely done to emphasize that Virginia’s new government was based upon
the sovereignty of the people united for the common good, or common wealth. Kentucky, Massachusetts
and Pennsylvania are also Commonwealths. The 2000 census population count for Virginia was
7,078,515. What are the official emblems of Virginia?     Date May 13, 1607
Beverage: Milk
Bird: Cardinal
Boat: Chesapeake Bay Deadrise
Dog: American Foxhound
Flower: American Dogwood
Fish: Brook Trout
Folk Dance: Square Dance
Fossil: Chesapecten Jeffersonius
Insect: Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly
Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis (Thus Always to Tyrants)
Shell: Oyster Shell
Song Emeritus: “Carry Me Back to Old Virginia”
Artisans Center: “Virginia Artisans Center,” Waynesboro
Emergency Medical Services Museum: “To the Rescue,” Roanoke
Folklore Center: The Blue Ridge Institute, Ferrum
Language: English
Motor Sports Museum: “Wood Brothers Racing Museum and Virginia
Motor Sports Hall of Fame,” Patrick County
Name: The Commonwealth of Virginia
Outdoor Drama: “The Trail of the Lonesome Pine Outdoor Drama,” Big Stone Gap
Sports Hall of Fame: “Virginia Sports Hall of Fame,” Portsmouth
War Memorial Museum: “Virginia War Museum,” Newport News
When was Virginia founded? June 25, 1788
When did Virginia attain statehood? Virginia was the 10th state to attain statehood.


What the Citizen Advocacy training will do for us: 1) I often read the newspaper to learn about an issue
that is important to me.   Name an issue that you have been following recently:
2) I discuss my views on current issues with friends and members of my family. Identify at least one issue
you have recently debated or discussed:
3) I try to understand points of view that are different from my own. Give an example of at least one issue
for which you have tried to listen to views from “the other side:”
4) I can identify my representatives in the state legislature. Name your state representatives (Senator and
Delegate):
5) I can identify at least one major state issue currently being debated in the state government.
6) I can identify my representatives in the U.S. Congress.
Name your representative in the House of Representatives:
7) I can identify the two U.S. Senators from my state as well as their parties. Name 2 Senators and their
parties.
8) I can identify the mayor of my town or head of the local council/government. Name the head of your
local government:
9) I can identify at least one major local issue currently being debated by local government officials:
Name that local issue: succinctly make a topic sentence about it.
10) I am involved in a community service or volunteer activity. Name or describe the activity:
11) When I become eligible, I plan to register and vote. Give at least two reasons why it is important to
be an informed voter:


Of the first five presidents of the United States, all but one were Virginians. The one exception was John
Adams of Massachusetts, who succeeded George Washington to the presidency in 1797. So, for 32 of
the first 36 years of our federal government (1789-1825), the Presidency of the United States was filled
by Virginians. When Richmond became the Confederate capital in 1861, Virginia’s capitol building did
double duty housing both the state and Confederate legislatures. On April 27, 1870, the Supreme Court
of Appeals, which met on the third floor of the Capitol Building, was hearing a case which attracted too
many spectators.
The floor collapsed and 62 people died, 251 people were injured. Postponement of major repairs
contributed to the collapse. After the collapse resolutions were offered to pull down the Capitol and build a
new one. Fortunately, the decision was made to repair the old building. There were several unsuccessful
legislative efforts in the mid-1970s to turn the entire Capitol into a museum and erect new legislative
chambers elsewhere on the grounds as had been done in other states. According to the Washington
Post, Virginians “turned out in droves” to voice their opposition. In 1989 Lawrence Douglas Wilder was
elected Governor of Virginia. He was the first African American to be Governor in the United States since
Reconstruction. In 1997 John H. Hager was elected Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. He was the first
Lieutenant Governor in the United States who uses a wheelchair. Virginia has named three individuals
honorary Virginians. The first person to be named an honorary Virginian was the Marquis De Lafayette in
1785. The second was John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in 1942. The first and only woman to be named an
Honorary Virginian was former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1998. Displayed in the Senate
Chamber is the “Signers Tablet,” commemorating the Virginians who wrote, signed, and substantiated the
Declaration of Independence in 1776. There were seven Virginians who signed: George Wythe, Richard
Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee and Carter
Braxton.
The First Amendment of the Bill of Rights, which guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of religion,
was based on the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.
Who’s my Legislator?, Legislative Information, Visitor’s Center and Kid’s Korner:
http://legis.state.va.us/vaonline/v.htm
Legislative Information System, Bill Status and Research http://leg1.state.va.us/
Senate of Virginia: http://senate.state.va.us
Senate of Virginia’s Online Internship Program grades 10-12http://sov.state.va.us/intern.nsf
House of Delegates http://hod.state.va.us
Other Legislative Agencies http://www.vipnet.org/vipnet/state-agency-index.html
Commonwealth of Virginia http://www.state.va.us
Department of Motor Vehicles http://www.dmv.state.va.us/
Board of Elections http://www.sbe.state.va.us/
Secretary of the Commonwealth http://www.soc.state.va.us/
information@sov.state.va.us
hinformation@house.state.va.us


There are Capitol Hostess for tours: During the General Assembly Session, which begins on the second
Wednesday in January and continues through February or March depending on the year, the public may
view the Senate and House sessions from the galleries located on the mezzanines of the Capitol. Tickets
are not required, but seating is limited. Senate and House sessions are broadcast via closed circuit
television in various committee and conference rooms in the Capitol and General Assembly Building. To
schedule a tour of the Executive Mansion call (804) 371-2642. Online Internship Program . This program
allows students in grades 10-12, whose teachers have enrolled in the program, to research issues that
are or may come before Virginia state lawmakers. At the beginning of each Session in January, legislative
staff will identify several public policy issues. Participating students will then choose one of these issues,
research it, and develop a one to two page research paper. These papers will be submitted to a database
on the Senate of Virginia’s Intranet where they will be available to Senators and legislative staff.
For more information visit the Online Internship website: http://-sov.state.va.us/intern.nsf or call toll
free (888) 892-6948 or (804) 698-7410.
The following steps depict the normal procedure whereby a bill becomes a law. Bills may originate in
either the House of Delegates or the Senate. Delegate Accomack Lee, as requested by constituents,
prepares to introduce legislation permitting the governing bodies of localities to prohibit the sale and use
of certain fireworks. Delegate Lee then explains exactly the proposal he has in mind to a staff attorney in
the Division of Legislative Services. The staff attorney checks existing law and the constitutionality of the
proposed legislation. A bill is then drafted by the Division of Legislative Services. Draft copies of the bill
are made and delivered to Delegate Lee, who knows the bill is amendable. The Committee then reports
the bill favorably to the House.
First Reading: The bill title is printed in the calendar or is read by the Clerk, and the bill advances to
second reading. and referred to the Committee on Counties, Cities and Towns. The members of the
Committee on Counties, Cities and Towns—in public session—familiarize themselves with the bill and
decide to approve it without amendments. Bills may originate in either the House of Delegates or the
Senate. Delegate Accomack Lee, as requested by constituents, prepares to introduce legislation
permitting the governing bodies of localities to prohibit the sale and use of certain fireworks. Delegate
Lee then explains exactly the proposal he has in mind to a staff attorney in the Division of Legislative
Services. The staff attorney checks existing law and the constitutionality of the proposed legislation. A bill
is then drafted by the Division of Legislative Services. Draft copies of the bill are made and delivered to
Delegate Lee. Delegate Lee signs his name on the bill and introduces it by laying the original and
duplicate copies on the desk of the Clerk of the House of Delegates. The bill is ordered printed Second
Reading: The next day the bill title appears in the printed calendar on second reading. Bills are
considered in the order in which they appear in the calendar. The Clerk reads the title of the bill a second
time. A bill on second reading is amendable. The Committee then reports the bill favorably to the House.
First Reading: The bill title is printed in the calendar or is read by the Clerk, and the bill advances to
second reading. Bills may originate in either the House of Delegates or the Senate. Delegate Accomack
Lee, as requested by constituents, prepares to introduce legislation permitting the governing bodies of
localities to prohibit the sale and use of certain fireworks. Delegate Lee then explains exactly the
proposal he has in mind to a staff attorney in the Division of Legislative Services. The staff attorney
checks existing law and the constitutionality of the proposed legislation. A bill is then drafted by the
Division of Legislative Services. Draft copies of the bill are made and delivered to Delegate Lee.
Delegate Lee signs his name on the bill and introduces it by laying the original and duplicate copies on
the desk of the Clerk of the House of Delegates.
The bill is ordered printed Second Reading: The next day the bill title appears in the printed calendar on
second reading. Bills are considered in the order in which they appear in the calendar. The Clerk reads
the title of the bill a second time. A bill on second reading is amendable. time. A bill on second reading A
bill that has passed second reading with or without amendments is engrossed. If amendments are
adopted the bill is reprinted in its final form for passage. The bill is explained by its patron (Delegate Lee)
who answers any questions that may be asked. By voice vote the House votes to advance the bill to third
reading. A bill that has passed second reading with or without amendments is engrossed. If amendments
are adopted the bill is reprinted in its final form for passage.


Third Reading: The next day, the engrossed bill title appears in the House calendar on third reading. The
bill is read by title a third time by the Clerk. By recorded roll call vote the bill is passed by the House of
Delegates. Communication: When passed, the bill is sent to the Senate either by the Clerk in a
communication or by a member in person, informing the Senate that the bill has passed the House and
requesting the concurrence of the Senate.


In the Senate: The bill goes through substantially the same procedure as it did in the House. The bill is
read by title a first time, referred to a standing committee, considered and reported by the committee,
read a second time and a third time before passage by a constitutional majority.


After being signed by the Governor, the bill is sent to the Clerk of the House (Keeper of the Rolls of the
State) and is assigned a Chapter number. All Chapters of a session are compiled and bound as the Acts
of Assembly. Bills enacted at a regular session (or the reconvened session which follows) are effective
the 1st day of July following adjournment of the regular session, unless another date is specified. Bills
enacted at a special session (or reconvened session) are effective the 1st day of the 4th month following
the adjournment of the special session, unless another date is specified. Bills enacted at a special
session (or reconvened session) are effective the 1st day of the 4th month following the adjournment of
the special session, unless another date is specified. The General Appropriation Act is usually effective
July 1st and Emergency Acts become effective when signed by the Governor.
hinformation@house.state.va.us


more specifics here: http://hodcap.state.va.us/publications/VGIB.pdf


The Practical Protocol Guide was first compiled and published in 1977. The many visiting dignitaries and
official functions encountered during the 1976 bicentennial year in Virginia brought about many questions
regarding protocol and procedure. The Guide was developed for use by the Governor’s Office and those
directly associated with the office and its activities. It was intended as a concise reference outlining
recommended, acceptable practices consistent with modern lifestyle and approved social usage. It was
not meant to address all contingencies but to set forth some rules that could be applied and lead to logical
solutions. There were many people and agencies involved in the original Guide, including personnel in
the Governor’s Office, the Department of Military Affairs, the Military District of Washington, the
Department of Planning and Budget, the Virginia House of Delegates, the Virginia Senate, the Division of
Capitol Police, the Department of General Services, the Office of the Attorney General, and the Special
Events Office of Colonial Williamsburg. Anne Geddy Cross and Trudy E. Norfleet performed in-depth and
Wide ranging research and Martha U. Pritchard and Robert H. Kirby contributed significantly
through extensive review and suggestions to content.. Additional questions arose and subsequent
expanded editions of the Guide were produced in 1987 and 1989. In 2002, copies were no longer
available so an organized a group of knowledgeable state employees to produce this publication.
Assistance also came from staff at the Supreme Court of Virginia, the Office of the Secretary of the
Commonwealth, the Virginia Economic Development Partnership, the Library of Virginia, the Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts, and the Executive Mansion and most of the original agencies mentioned. The
procedures and guidelines suggested in this publication will assist users in formulating answers to their
questions based on accepted practices and common sense.
CONTINUES HERE: http://hodcap.state.va.us/publications/Protocol.pdf
BACKGROUND:
I am setting up a commercial web-site geared at community action. I will be selling services and products
of mine and from other parties. My biz will be a for-profit as a partnership of 3 to 4 persons with me as
the president. I feel that product liability, consultancy and advice liability may become a possible threat
as the content is of my own opinion and experiences. Since it will be home based, with possible biz car
leasing and much business travel, what kind(s) of insurance should I be researching?


1) I have opened an account with Wachovia but when I register my business, is it best to open a separate
account that will use on-line banking with Wachovia?


2) Are ONLINE FEES FOR PERSONAL ACCOUNTS different from Wachovia's for Business accounts?


3) Wachovia's site says, "Online Banking/BillPay Fees No charge" and in the same site says, "Online
BillPay per month $6.95*,**,***, (first three (3) months free)" Which is it?


4) "Online Banking and Online BillPay include access from the Internet, Microsoft Money and Quicken."
Does this mean any one of these or internet WITH MSN Money OR Quicken?


5) A. "Telephone BillPay $6.95** first three (3) months free" is this a separate sign up? B. Is a
transaction statement of my bills paid by phone that won't be reflected in my account's monthly
statement? C. Does this actually mean each payee is on one separate 'Payee List'? {Site quote: "For
Telephone BillPay customers a $1.00 fee will be applied for every additional Payee List ordered."}


6) "A $.50 fee will be applied if a Personal Service Representative initiates a payment on your behalf."
Whose PS Rep do you mean: Wachovia's ? so that I would, perhaps call your customer svc and they
would continue the bill pay via phone or online on my behalf? Or are you referring to my regular payees
would call Wachovia to initiate payment from me?


7) Are Wachovia's ONLINE FEES FOR NON-PERSONAL ACCOUNTS, such as Online Business
Banking Basic mean access is through the Internet, with no charge per month?


8) Check Image Retrieval is for the first 20 Check copies, per month at no charge? Over 20, each copy
is $1.00 per month


9). But if I get the checks to be reported to my Microsoft® Money, Quicken® or QuickBooks®, Wachovia
will charge me $12.95 per month, first three (3) months free?
10) A.Why does Wachovia describe Online Business Banking Basic with BillPay separate? Is it because
"Access through the Internet, per month is $6.95 (first three (3) months free ALONE?
B. Internet COMBINED with "Access through Microsoft® Money, Quicken® or QuickBooks®, is $19.95
per month (first three (3) months free) OR is it INSTEAD OF INTERNET ACCESS?




Learn To Fundamentals of Marketing
Enhance your company's performance with an understanding of basic marketing principles.


Principles of Marketing
The two courses in the Principles of Marketing curriculum introduce marketing concepts, terms, and
strategies.


Topics include stages of the product life cycle; steps to implement the market segmentation process;
classification of consumer and business products; brand equity; new product development strategies;
packaging and labeling strategies; the consumer adoption process; and product development strategies.


Apply appropriate terms or language to marketing situations.
Identify the four components of the marketing mix.
Identify the stages of the product life cycle.
Use proper methods to extend a product's life cycle.
Identify characteristics to consider when implementing a market segmentation strategy.
Apply the steps of the market segmentation process.


Audience
Managers, supervisors, and employees who want to learn basic marketing principles in order to influence
the marketing goals of their organization.


Marketing: Product Strategy
Apply a big-picture view to marketing your company's products or services.


Learn To
Identify the elements of a product mix evaluation.
Select the characteristics of an effective brand name.
Apply the appropriate branding strategy.
Identify the four product development strategies.
Identify the stages of the consumer adoption process.


Topics include preparing telesales scripts; communication techniques; locating telesales prospects;
maintaining a positive attitude; identifying
the components of the soft sell; cross-selling techniques; resolving telesales objections; and closing a
sale.


Professional Selling Over the Phone: Closing a Sale
This course offers the student examples of cross-selling techniques.


The program provides processes for gaining feedback from customers, addressing rejection, resolving
telesales objections, and closing a sale.


In addition, the program offers the student guidelines for preparing to close sales with customers.


       guidelines for preparing the teleselling workspace and maximizing telesalescalls.


The program provides processes for preparing telesales scripts and managing telesales calls.
In addition, the program offers the student examples of communication techniques, such as implementing
components of an effective voice, listening to feedback, and asking questions to increase sales.


Learn To e-mail etiquette
Identify the guidelines for writing subject lines.
Identify how you should construct your e-mail messages to prevent apathetic reactions.
Identify the factors you should consider when writing an e-mail message.
Identify the guidelines for ensuring the tone of your message enhances its effectiveness.
Identify when it is not appropriate to use emoticons and electronic abbreviations.


Audience
Managers, employees, and anyone who needs to learn how to use e-mail in order to communicate more
effectively at work.


General Information
What is the difference between shared Web hosting and dedicated Web hosting? Can I transfer my
existing Web site to Verizon Online with little or no down time? What is the difference between Verizon
Online's Web hosting service and the hosting I receive with my dial-up or DSL account? Will Verizon
Online help me register a domain name for my Web site? Who controls the content on my Web site,
Verizon Online or me?


Features
How can I expand storage space on my Web site? Can Verizon Online help me drive traffic to my Web
site? How can I measure the effectiveness of my Web site? How can Verizon Online help my business
design a Web site? Can I sell my products or services via my Web site?


E-mail Services
What type of e-mail service comes with my hosting account? Do I have administration rights to my e-mail
services?


Support Services
What type of technical support does Verizon Online offer my business? Why should I choose Verizon
Online for Web site services?


Technology
What is a domain name?
Why should I register more than one type of domain name?
How is Web server security maintained?
Will my Web site have redundancy?
What if I go over my allotted storage amounts?
Which operating system do I need? What is the operating system of your Web server?
Will I need to change my server technology? What is the difference between shared Web hosting and
dedicated Web hosting?


With dedicated hosting there is only one Web site on a server. Shared hosting, such as that from Verizon
Online, allows you to share space on a server thereby reducing the cost of hosting your Web site. The
needs of most small businesses are satisfied with shared hosting.


Can I transfer my existing Web site to Verizon Online with little or no down time? We can help you
transfer your site to Verizon Online. Consultants are available at an additional cost of $149/hr. to assist
you. Verizon Online does not guarantee the transfer of your Web site to be interruption free.
What is the difference between Verizon Online's Web hosting service and the hosting I receive with my
dial-up or DSL account? The Web site you receive with a dial-up or DSL account may offer only
limited storage space. Our shared hosting packages offer multiple levels of storage and data transfer
space and are easy to upgrade as the needs of your business change. In addition, Verizon Online will
monitor your Web site around the clock to insure that your site is up and running for your business.


Will Verizon Online help me register a domain name for my Web site? Yes. Verizon Online provides fast
and affordable services that assist you in the domain name registration process. First, we recommend
you make a list of several possible domain names that are unique to your business to ensure that one will
be available. Then we will assist you with the rest of the process. Registration typically takes only three to
five days to complete. Verizon Online does not guarantee your company name or other name choices
will be available for use as a domain name. Domain name registration is
limited to .net, .com and .org extensions. Your domain name is not registered until you accept the Verizon
Online and VeriSign Terms of Service.


Who controls the content on my Web site, Verizon Online or me? You will manage the content of your
site by making updates, as you feel necessary. However, if you would like assistance in maintaining your
site, Verizon Online Web design specialists are available for an additional fee.


How can I expand storage space on my Web site? Verizon Online offers three shared hosting plans with
different levels of storage space for either Windows or Linux operating systems. If your business needs
have changed we can upgrade your package with additional storage capacity or features. Simply call
(888) 649-9500 to speak with a representative.


Can Verizon Online help me drive traffic to my Web site? Yes. Your Web site can be optimized for the
top Web search engines. Verizon Online Web Traffic Generator will give you the self-service tools to
register your Web site with up to 100 Internet search engines. This helps you achieve a top site ranking,
and helps your Web site be the one returned most often in your customers' searches.


How can I measure the effectiveness of my Web site? You may want to consider using the tracking
analysis feature, WebTrends, to analyze the overall effectiveness of your site.


How can Verizon Online help my business design a Web site? By using one of our Web site design
specialists, you have a creative designer that will build an initial site in five business days. Once your
site is built, we hand over the controls to you for any future modifications you may want to make, or you
can opt to have one of our Web site designers make changes and updates for you for an additional
charge.
Can I sell my products or services via my Web site? Yes. The Merchant Web Site Package allows you to
create and maintain an online storefront. This package includes all of the features of the Standard
Web Site Package, plus it enables you to build an online storefront, including a shopping cart and
unlimited SKUs.


What type of e-mail service comes with my hosting account? Verizon Online Shared Web Hosting has
many standard features, one of which is domain name e-mail. This feature includes E-mail
Autoresponders and E-mail Forwarding so you can respond to e-mail requests quickly. If you feel
you need more e-mail functionality you also have the option to upgrade at any time.


Do I have administration rights to my e-mail services? Yes. Your company administrator will have control
over monitoring, policy changes, mailboxes, and security policies of your e-mail system. Verizon Online
provides an administration system, which directly manages all the information and features of your e-mail
service through a Web interface.


What type of technical support does Verizon Online offer my business? Verizon Online provides e-mail
support from 7am to 7pm CST. Technical support for all other products can be obtained 24/7. If you need
assistance, please call (888) 649-9500.


Why should I choose Verizon Online for Web site services? Verizon Online provides a comprehensive
Web site services product portfolio, including Web site design, shared Web hosting, domain name
registration, and promotional tools all designed to drive traffic to your site. We help keep your Web site up
and running with around-the-clock monitoring of systems and equipment.


What is a domain name? This is a naming system used by computers on the Internet to translate
computer ("host") names into IP addresses. Your domain name is the core of your Internet identity. It is
how you represent yourself and your company to the Internet world. You should choose a domain name
that is easy for your customers to remember. A domain name usually consists of the name of an
organization, followed by a period (called a "dot") and an ending abbreviation signifying the type of the
organization. Abbreviations include com for commercial organizations, edu for educational institutions,
gov for governmental agencies, int for international organizations, mil for the United States military, net for
Internet service providers and org for non-profit organizations. If you already have a Web site and your
domain name is not registered with VeriSign, you will need to contact your registrar to initiate the transfer.
Contact the company to find out what information them need from you and from Verizon Online to
complete the transfer. We will give you the information you need to share with your registrar.


Why should I register more than one type of domain name? Verizon Online recommends that you
consider registering several different domain names that best resemble and portray your business. The
key is to select a name that can easily be remembered and best describes your business. If possible, use
your business name. By doing a search on the Internet, you will find out if someone already has rights to
the name you want for your Web site. Doing a name search in advance will save you both time and
money.


How is Web server security maintained? Verizon Online offers SSL Certificates that can be purchased
for your Web hosting account. These certificates provide encryption to help ensure data confidentiality.
Verizon Online also has CD-ROM Back-up Services. This service makes sure your Web site and
database files are routinely backed-up. Each month you'll receive a non-erasable CD-Rom disk
containing the latest versions of your site and/or SQL database. Verizon Online monitors 24/7 with
active virus and security management, which provides you with the peace of mind knowing you are
protected. Also, our personnel will not allow unauthorized persons to access your site.


Will my Web site have redundancy? As your Web hosting provider, Verizon Online has a large amount of
available bandwidth for your business. We ensure that the bandwidth is redundant at several levels
including the data center and Internet routing functions. In the data centers there are several pipes from
different ISPs to ensure that your site can be accessed at all times. In the event an ISP has an outage,
another ISP can be used as a back up. This will help ensure your Web site will be redundant and offer
greater reliability for your customers.


What if I go over my allotted storage amounts? There is no charge for data transfer overages, however,
you should upgrade to another plan. When the need arises to expand your service, Verizon Online
will assist you in the process of upgrading to another package. We can reevaluate your needs and meet
your company's specific requirements for services, storage, and communications.


Which operating system do I need? What is the operating system of your Web server? Verizon Online
offers both Windows Server Plans and Linux Server Plans. Many customers choose Windows plans
because they find it easier to build and maintain a Web site using tools such as Visual InterDev, Access
and MSSQL database and to implement Active Server Pages. A customer may select Linux because they
need Telnet access, PHP or want to implement a MySQL database.


Will I need to change my server technology? Either the Windows or Linux-based Server plan should fit
the needs of your particular Web site. The Basic Shared Web Hosting plan for either platform is usually
sufficient for most businesses, giving you ample storage space, transfer capacity, and room to grow as
your Web business prospers. You can easily add additional features or capacity when you're growing
company is ready.


Verizon Online - Printable Web Site Starter Guide, Step 1
What is the primary purpose of your Web site? To attract new customers? Improve customer service?
Interact with business partners? Who will use your Web site? Customers or Clients? Suppliers or
Vendors? Employees? How will they use your Web site? How often will you need to change the
information on your Web site? Will the products or services change frequently? Will you want to feature
special offers? Will customers expect to see something different each time they visit? So many questions!
Help your business and your customers get the most from your Web site by thinking through these
questions, and the rest is a breeze. Here are a few ideas to help get you started.


Customers may use your Web site to get general information about your business such as your name,
location, hours, and contact information. Other things to consider having customers do on your site
include: View samples of your work
Get detailed product information
Purchase or order products
Ask questions or contact someone to get more information
Schedule an appointment
Review the progress of a project
Download information, like brochures, or audio/video files
Vendors or Business Partners may view their account balances with your company on your Web site.
Perhaps they may also: Access custom catalogs and pricing
Order products for use in their business
Employees may use your Web site to collaborate with other employees and offices. And they may:
Reduce paperwork by moving some administrative functions online
Easily access the latest company information
Share best practices within the organization
All are unique audiences with different needs, implying different depths and types of interaction on your
Web site. Seems overwhelming? Try starting with one primary use for your Web site, and add additional
functions in the future to address other needs. You may also want to talk to your employees, customers,
and suppliers for their ideas on the best purposes for your Web site.


Step 2: A "Domain Name" is how your customers will find you on the World Wide Web - it is your Web
site address. Just like the sign and address above your front door, it lets your customers know where to
look for you. Select a Domain Name that is easy for your customers to remember. It might refer to the
name of your business, or relate in some way to the business that you do. Make sure that you select a
domain name that is not used or trademarked by another company. This will help protect your business
from the time and expense to change the domain later.


Domain names can be up to 62 characters long and can contain letters, numbers and dashes. You can
choose from several top-level domains (the part after the "dot") including:
.COM - Typically denotes a commercial enterprise
.NET - Usually reserved for businesses engaged in Internet infrastructure, like an Internet Service
Provider (ISP) or Web services company – like www.verizon.net
.ORG - Used primarily for non-profit organizations


More top-level domains are on the way, so you will have more selection in creating the right domain name
for your business. Once you've chosen your Domain Name, you must register it with an accredited
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names (ICANN) registrar. It is always a good idea to have a back-up
name, just in case the one you picked is already taken. Your domain name is your unique identification in
the Web world. Just like the name and address of your business, it helps your customers know how to
find you. Verizon Online offers several services to help you register, transfer, or house your domain
name.


Domain Registration*
Make sure your Web site visitors can reach you by giving them many ways to find you. Register all of the
top-level domains (.com, .net, and .org) for your domain name, as well as any alternative spellings.
Domain name registration is available with the purchase of Verizon Online Business Internet Services,
and is priced as follows: Pricing, 2-Year Domain Registration, $70, 5-Year Domain Registration, $140
10-Year Domain Registration, $250


Domain Pointer* Use our Domain Pointer service to point multiple domain names to your site.
Pricing: Quarterly Fee, $15/domain; Annual Fe $54/domain; Biennial Fee: $102/domain


Web Site Saver: Reserve a domain name and store it on our servers for only $25. This service
is free with a 5- or 10-year domain registration. make sure customers can find your Web site even if they
type in a similar-looking address, try registering your domain name under several extensions, or register
spelling variations of your address. Your domain name is your unique identification in the Web world.
Just like the name and address of your business, it helps your customers know how to find you. Verizon
Online offers several services to help you register, transfer, or house your domain name.


Domain Registration*
Make sure your Web site visitors can reach you by giving them many ways to find you. Register all of the
top-level domains (.com, .net, and .org) for your domain name, as well as any alternative spellings.
Domain name registration is available with the purchase of Verizon Online Business Internet Services,
and is priced as follows: Pricing: 2-Year Domain Registration, $70; 5-Year Domain Registration, $140;
10-Year Domain Registration, $250
Web Site Saver: Reserve a domain name and store it on our servers for only $25. This service
is free with a 5- or 10-year domain registration.


Step 3: Now that you have your own unique handle on the World Wide Web, it is time to design your
Web site. There are several options for developing a Web site, whether you want to create it yourself or
have someone create it for you.


Standard Web Site Package: Point-and-click Web page development software and more than 160
professionally designed templates enable you to quickly set up a Web site.
Merchant Web Site Package: Create a store in cyberspace in just hours with Site Merchant. Our
Merchant package includes all of the features of the Standard Web Site Package, plus online storefront
features, including a shopping cart and unlimited SKUs.


Scheduler Web Site Package: What if your existing and prospective clients could set appointments with
your company 24 hours a day, without being rushed or put on hold? Our Scheduler package includes all
of the features of the Standard Web Site Package, plus online appointment booking. Enable your clients
more time to make decisions, while freeing your employees to perform other work.


Features Details
Data transfer 5 GB per month
Disk space 150 MB
E-mail boxes 10
E-marketing Up to 50 names in e-mail database
Monthly fee $34.95 per month, one-year contract required
Set-up fee $49.95
Optional build-it-for-you pricing $199 design fee for up to five pages, or $699 design fee for up to 15
pages


Features:
Tools to get you online fast
Even if you've never developed a site before, point-and-click Web page development software helps you
to quickly set up your Web site. See how you can build your Web site in 4 easy steps using your choice of
more than 160 professionally designed templates.
Advanced Web site features
Add in tables, navigation rollovers and other high-end Web design elements.
Automatic page linking and updating features let you add, delete or move pages with ease.
Basic shared hosting plan
Our Basic Shared Web Hosting offers plenty of storage space and transfer capacity for most Web sites.
Hosted on Verizon Online servers, all accounts
include traffic reporting tools and 24x7 technical support.
Business-grade e-mail
Customers can easily access you through your Web site with 10 business-grade
e-mail boxes.
E-marketing
Stay in close communication with your customers and prospects effectively and cost-efficiently with
Constant Contact®. This do-it-yourself e-mail marketing manager enables you to build an e-mail
database, create professional HTML e-mail communications and manage e-mail campaigns, from
delivery and formatting to results reporting.


Search engine submission
Register your site with top search engines including Googgle, Lycos, Hotbot and more. This optional tool
even suggests key words you can use to better help search engines locate your site at no additional
charge.
Online help tools
From step-by-step instructions to assistance with specific problems, dynamic online help tools can answer
even your most challenging questions.


Glossary Terms


Data transfer
The amount of data that can be transferred between your Web site and its visitors each month.


Dedicated Hosting
In the Web hosting business, a dedicated server refers to the rental and exclusive use of a computer that
includes a Web server, related software, and connection to the Internet, housed in the Web hosting
company's premises. A dedicated server is usually needed for a Web site (or set of related company
sites) that may develop a considerable amount of traffic - for example, a site that must handle up to 35
million hits a day. The server can usually be configured and operated remotely from the client company.
Web hosting companies claim that the use of a dedicated server on their premises saves router, Internet
connection, security system, and network administration costs.


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small
businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL, such as
ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL. Assuming your home or small business is close enough to a telephone
company central office that offers DSL service, you may be able to receive data at rates up to 6.1
megabits (millions of bits) per second (of a theoretical 8.448 megabits per second), enabling continuous
transmission of motion video, audio, and even 3-D effects. More typically, individual connections will
provide from 1.544 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and about 128 Kbps upstream. A DSL line can carry
both data and voice signals and the data part of the line is continuously connected. DSL installations
began in 1998 and will continue at a greatly increased pace through the next decade in a number of
communities in the U.S. and elsewhere.


Disk space
The amount of space that your Web site's data, such as text and graphic images, can use on Verizon
Online's servers at any given time.


DNS
The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated into
Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a meaningful and easy-to-remember "handle" for an
Internet address.


Domain
On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain is organized in levels. The
top level identifies geographic or purpose commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or
a category such as "commercial"). The second level identifies a unique place within the top level domain
and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet (an IP address). Lower levels of domain
may also be used.


Strictly speaking, in the Internet's domain name system (DNS), a domain is a name with which name
server records are associated that describe subdomains or host. For example, "whatis.com" could be a
domain with records for "www.whatis.com" and "www1.whatis.com," and so forth.


Domain Name
A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. For example, the domain name
www.totalbaseball.com locates an Internet address for "totalbaseball.com" at Internet point 199.0.0.2 and
a particular host server named "www". On the Web, the domain name is that part of the Uniform
Resource Locator(URL) that tells a domain name server using the domain name system (DNS) whether
and where to forward a request for a Web page. The domain name is mapped to an IP address (which
represents a physical point on the Internet).


Downloading
Downloading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually smaller computer
system. From the Internet user's point-of-view, to download a file is to request it from another computer
(or from a Web page on another computer) and to receive it. In general, from the ordinary workstation or
small computer user's point-of-view, to download is to receive a file and to upload is to send a file.


Downstream
In telecommunications generally, a transmission from an information server toward an end user is
referred to as downstream and a transmission toward the server is referred to as upstream.


Downtime
Uptime is a computer industry term for the time during which a computer is operational. Downtime is the
time when it isn't operational. Uptime is sometimes measured in terms of a percentile. For example, one
standard for uptime that is sometimes discussed is a goal called five 9s - that is, a computer that is
operational 99.999 percent of the time.


DSLAM
A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) is a network device, usually at a telephone
company central office, that receives signals from multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
connections and puts the signals on a high-speed backbone line using multiplexing techniques.


Dynamic and Static
In computer terminology, dynamic usually means capable of action and/or change, while static means
fixed. Both terms can be applied to a number of different types of things, such as programming languages
(or components of programming languages), Web pages, and application programs.


When a Web page is requested (by a computer user clicking a hyperlink or entering a URL), the server
where the page is stored returns the HTML document to the user's computer and the browser displays it.
On a static Web page, this is all that happens. The user may interact with the document through clicking
available links, or a small program (an applet) may be activated, but the document has no capacity to
return information that is not pre-formatted. On a dynamic Web page, the user can make requests (often
through a form ) for data contained in a database on the server that will be assembled on the fly
according to what is requested.


Dynamic IP
A static IP is a number (in the form of a dotted quad) that is assigned to a computer by an Internet
Service Provider (ISP) to be its permanent address on the Internet. Computers use IP addresses to
locate and talk to each other on the Internet, much the same way people use phone numbers to locate
and talk to one another on the telephone. When you want to visit whatis.com, your computer asks a
domain name system (DNS) server (think telephone information operator) for the correct dotted quad
number (think phone number) for whatis.com and your computer uses the answer it receives to connect
to the whatis.com server.


It would be simple if every computer that connects to the Internet could have its own static IP number, but
when the Internet was first conceived, the architects didn't foresee the need for an unlimited number of IP
addresses. Consequently, there are not enough IP numbers to go around. To get around that problem,
many Internet service providers limit the number of static IP addresses they allocate, and economize on
the remaining number of IP addresses they possess by temporarily assigning an IP address to a
requesting Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) computer from a pool of IP addresses. The
temporary IP address is called a dynamic IP address.


Data transfer
The amount of data that can be transferred between your Web site and its visitors each month.


Dedicated Hosting
In the Web hosting business, a dedicated server refers to the rental and exclusive use of a computer that
includes a Web server, related software, and connection to the Internet, housed in the Web hosting
company's premises. A dedicated server is usually needed for a Web site (or set of related company
sites) that may develop a considerable amount of traffic - for example, a site that must handle up to 35
million hits a day. The server can usually be configured and operated remotely from the client company.
Web hosting companies claim that the use of a dedicated server on their premises saves router, Internet
connection, security system, and network administration costs.


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small
businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL, such as
ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL. Assuming your home or small business is close enough to a telephone
company central office that offers DSL service, you may be able to receive data at rates up to 6.1
megabits (millions of bits) per second (of a theoretical 8.448 megabits per second), enabling continuous
transmission of motion video, audio, and even 3-D effects. More typically, individual connections will
provide from 1.544 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and about 128 Kbps upstream. A DSL line can carry
both data and voice signals and the data part of the line is continuously connected. DSL installations
began in 1998 and will continue at a greatly increased pace through the next decade in a number of
communities in the U.S. and elsewhere.


Disk space
The amount of space that your Web site's data, such as text and graphic images, can use on Verizon
Online's servers at any given time.


DNS
The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated into
Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a meaningful and easy-to-remember "handle" for an
Internet address.


Domain
On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain is organized in levels. The
top level identifies geographic or purpose commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or
a category such as "commercial"). The second level identifies a unique place within the top level domain
and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet (an IP address). Lower levels of domain
may also be used.


Strictly speaking, in the Internet's domain name system (DNS), a domain is a name with which name
server records are associated that describe subdomains or host. For example, "whatis.com" could be a
domain with records for "www.whatis.com" and "www1.whatis.com," and so forth.


E-marketing
Stay in close communication with your customers and prospects effectively and cost-efficiently with
Constant Contact®. This do-it-yourself e-mail marketing manager enables you to build an e-mail
database, create professional HTML e-mail communications and manage e-mail campaigns, from
delivery and formatting to results reporting. Search engine submission Register your site with top search
engines including Google, Lycos, Hotbot and more. This optional tool even suggests key words you can
use to better help search engines locate your site at no additional charge.
Online help tools
From step-by-step instructions to assistance with specific problems, dynamic online help tools can answer
even your most challenging questions.


What are Easy Web Site Packages? They are simple-to-use, powerful web site building tools.


No HTML or other coding required. But if you know HTML, we have tools for advanced builders that you
can use to build your web site.


You work online - nothing to download.
Any changes you make to your web site will be automatically saved. The next time you want to update
your site, login, then click on the web site you want to edit.


Choose a Bix sub-category of available templates: PROfessional svcs, hospitality, blding & mftrg,
shopping and sales, health and family. (other categories may be personal, organization, express sites. )


Step 2
Choose one of our Designs that you can customize to match your business or personal style.


Step 3
Concentrate on Content:; Edit your web site; Click the buttons to replace or customize the sample
content. Click Add Picture to spruce up your web site with one of our pictures or upload your own.
Click Add Web Gem to promote your site and add multimedia, interactivity, and more. Click Add Page to
add pages to your web site. We'll handle linking them.


Step 4: Publish your web site.
Click Publish to Web to get your web site on the Internet and share it with the world. Click All My Sites to
create additional web sites. Each has a separate web address.


Web Hosting
Our Basic Shared Web Hosting package tends to be enough for most businesses, offering plenty of
storage space and transfer capacity for most Web sites. Choose the Basic Shared Hosting Plan if you do
not immediately need database functions, streaming media, or other advanced features on your Web site.


Linux Windows Monthly Price: $22.95 $27.95, Quarterly Price: $68.85; Monthly equivalent: $22.95,
$83.85; Monthly equivalent: $27.95; Yearly Price: $247.86; Monthly equivalent: $20.65 $301.86,
Monthly equivalent: $25.15, Bi-annual Price: $468.18, Monthly equivalent: $19.50 $570.18; Monthly
equivalent: $23.75
Setup fee: $49.95 $49.95; Web Storage Space; 150 MB 150 MB; Monthly Data Transfer, 5 GB 5 GB
Pop E-mail Accounts, 10 10


Standard Features
Site Statistics: All accounts come with WebTrends that allows you to generate daily, weekly
and monthly traffic reports.
Tech Support
Technical help desk is available 24x7, 365 days a year for Web site support.
Technical help desk for e-mail boxes is available 7 a.m.-7 p.m. CST.
Web-based Control Panel
Web interface that helps automate many day-to-day tasks of maintaining the site remotely.
Functions include:
Install and uninstall FrontPage® extensions
Setup an ODBC/DSN database connection on the fly
Password protect directories
View site statistics
Generate Web Trends reporting
FTP files
Setup anonymous FTP
Install sample scripts and ASP
Unlimited FTP Updates
Unlimited FTP access allows you to maintain and update your site as often as
you want, at no additional charge.
E-mail Forwarding
Forward your POP accounts to another e-mail address.
E-mail Auto-responders
Automatically send replies to an incoming e-mail messages
Microsoft FrontPage® Compatible
FrontPage extensions are available on request.
CGI-BIN Directory
Private CGI-BIN Directory. Some sample scripts are available.
Log File Access
Access to raw log files, which are stored in the root directory. The files
are segmented monthly.
Additional Windows Features


Active Server Pages
Deliver dynamic content viewable from almost any browser. Developers can use the scripting language of
their choice to give their Web site ability to create pages "on the fly," access databases, send e-mail, and
more.    ODBC/DSN Database Support: Optional Add-Ons


FTP Site Move
For a nominal fee, we will move your site content from your current provider to Verizon Online.*
FTP 200 MB Web site $100
FTP Additional 100 MB $100
* Transfer of your Web site is not guaranteed to be interruption free. Web Consultation
Web specialists are available for an hourly fee of $149 if you need assistance in developing, loading or
transferring your Web site. (1-hour minimum required) Web Site Backup Receive a non-erasable CD each
month containing the latest version of your Web site.
CD-Rom (up to 200 MB) $149/backup
Additional CD-Rom $100/copy of backup


WebTrends
WebTrends analyzes the log file of a Web server and provides a report of site activity. Daily, weekly or
monthly reports on the previous 30 days of site traffic can be provided. Log files are also maintained for
the previous 60 days. You can use a browser or FTP client to download the site's old log files. Because
the accuracy of Web Trends results cannot be guaranteed, it is not recommended that billing or similar
functions be based on WebTrends data.


ODBC/DSN
ODBC stands for Open Database Connectivity and DSN stands for Data Source Name. ODBC/DSN
database connectivity is utilized to ensure fast and consistent database connectivity for your Web site.
Scripting languages such as ASP, PERL, and ColdFusion can be used to connect to a database such as
SQL server. The goal of ODBC is to make it possible to access any data from any application, regardless
of which database management system (DBMS) is handling the data. ODBC manages this by inserting a
middle layer, called a database driver, between an application and the DBMS. The purpose of this
layer is to translate the application's data queries into commands that the DBMS understands. For this to
work, both the application and the DBMS must be ODBC-compliant -- that is, the application must be
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version 2.0, the standard supports SAG SQL. Two types of ODBC connections are as follows:
Jet Data Engine - This connection allows ODBC-compliant databases such as Microsoft Access, Foxpro,
D-Base and others. SQL Server - This allows ODBC connection via TCP/IP to a Microsoft SQL server.


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List Your Site With Directories and Search Engines, By Staff Writer, workz.com
Listing your site with the major search sites - that is, directories and search engines - can direct large
numbers of interested prospects to your site. Your goal is to make sure that your site shows up on the
"search results" screen when potential customers look for you. Although there are thousands of different
search engines, they all fall into two different categories.


True Search Engines
These search engines use software agents (called spiders, robots, or crawlers) to scour the entire Web
and index everything they find. (Two widely known examples are AltaVista and HotBot.) Search engine
link databases built this way create a more comprehensive, though less qualified, listing of sites. "All-in-
one search engines" (also known as "meta search engines"), such as Dogpile, provide a single page of
results created from the combined returns of simultaneous keyword searches across many search
engines.
Directories
These types of search engines organize information about sites into hierarchical listings, much like a
telephone directory. The most widely know examples are Yahoo!, Infoseek, and LookSmart. Qualified
directories, such as Yahoo!, About.com, Britannica Internet Guide, Open Directory, and Magellan,
review each site they list and make their reputation by linking only to the best sites.


Both types of search sites keep their listings in a proprietary index database. When you use a search site,
it looks in its database, not on the Web, to find sites that match your query. (For more information on
search sites, visit Search Engine Watch.) Here's how to submit your site to make sure search engines
return a link to your Web site when a prospective customer comes searching for you:


Submit Your Site to Yahoo!
Getting a listing in Yahoo! means traffic, and traffic means business. According to "NetRatings Search
Engine Ratings," Yahoo! ranks number one, getting approximately 51% of all directory and search engine
traffic. Approximately 22 million people use Yahoo! every day. Each site listed on Yahoo! has been
inspected by an editor - a Yahoo! surfer - before it has been listed. Give your site an edge, and prepare it
fully before submitting it. Then, be sure to fill out the forms properly and completely. If you do not receive
a listing, there are ways to resubmit and contact Yahoo! regarding your submission.


Submit Your Site to Other Directories
Although less numerous than search engines, there are still hundreds of directories that can potentially
drive traffic to your site. Locate and prioritize the directories you want to list your site, and then submit
your URL to each one. You might also consider using submission services or consultants to help you
make your submissions.


Submit Your Site to True Search Engines
Preparing your site for submission to true search engines is a fine art. The process entails identifying
keywords and phrases that your customers will use to find sites like yours, and then deploying those
keywords in specific ways throughout your HTML code, submitting your prepared site, and monitoring
your results to fine-tune your placement on each engine.


Evaluate Paid-For Positioning
Consider the advantages of free registration vs. paid-for positioning. Most search sites offer free
registration, but many are expanding their services to include pay-as-you-go options such as purchasing
keywords via auction, express listing services, and keyword / ad banner combinations. Paid-for
positioning offers some super advantages, including speedy registration and/or high relevance rankings
for your target audience. Weigh all these issues carefully before you begin submitting your site to search
sites.
Small Businesses Reap Large Returns with Broadband Access, The TransSynergy Group
High-speed Internet access isn't just for surfing any more.
Business owners and managers for years have bemoaned the challenges of Internet access. For small
companies that could only afford dial-up access, getting online could be more of a hassle than it was
worth. Plus, managers feared their employees might spend more time catching waves on the Internet
than working.


But thanks to the low-coast broadband services now available, even the smallest company can afford
high-speed Internet access. And businesses of all sizes are finding ways to reduce costs, boost
productivity and increase worker efficiency with broadband access.


What's more, unlike dial-up access, broadband services can be used by several workers at a single
location. With the help of a router, multiple employees can share one connection. The company even
saves money, since individual accounts usually do not have to be purchased.


Express delivery e-mail
E-mail has become the key method of communication for many businesses. Exchanging information with
customers, suppliers and employees can be accomplished inexpensively, quickly and easily with the click
of a mouse. With broadband Internet access, businesses can take their e-mail service to the next level.


In the past, dial-up accounts forced users to wait several minutes simply to download text e-mail
messages. With broadband services such as DSL, these e-mails are delivered at lightening speed.


Plus, broadband access enables businesses to quickly upload and download large e-mail attachments,
including files with graphics, audio and video clips. As a result, files that used to take minutes or even
hours - such as large spreadsheets, slide show presentations, .pdf files, graphics-intensive brochures,
software manuals and more - can be downloaded in mere seconds.


Companies also can use their high-speed connection to transfer large data files to and from suppliers,
customers and remote offices via FTP technology.


E-commerce comes alive
Shopping online with a dial-up connection creates too much frustration for the average computer user.
From getting booted off of the network to waiting endlessly for merchandise photos to load, e-commerce
via dial-up presents more challenges than opportunities.


But once small businesses have broadband access in place, a whole new world of online shopping opens
up to them. And it's not about wasting time window-shopping the 'net. It's about saving time and money.
Rather than making a trip to the office supply store, online shoppers can hunt for bargains and order
products via the Web. After orders are placed, customers can check on delivery status and know exactly
when their products will arrive.


Small businesses also can use the Web to save hundreds or thousands of dollars on travel expenses.
The Internet offers a myriad of discount travel providers. By booking air travel, hotel stays and rental cars
online, business managers can take control of their companies' travel budgets.


Another way small business can take control of their money is through online banking. With broadband
access, business managers can quickly and easily write electronic checks, get updated account
information and more.


Where business gets intelligence
Small and mid-sized businesses are always on the lookout. They must penetrate their market, keep on
top of competitors' activities and find new prospects. With broadband access, these businesses have one
more weapon in the fight for more sales.


The Internet is a prime source of business intelligence. There workers can find invaluable information
about their customers and prospects, including data on locations, employees, revenue and more. They
can also search for news about competitors' latest products, services and customer wins. There's
no faster way to learn so much, so inexpensively.


Up-to-date and in-touch
Effectively leveraging technology requires keeping computers and software up-to-date. This is especially
important in the area of anti-virus software programs, which must be periodically updated to recognize the
latest security threats stalking the Internet.


Who can wait for software updates to be sent in the mail? With broadband Internet access, users can
download software programs and updates quickly and easily. What once tied up the Internet connection
all day now can be accomplished in just minutes.


Broadband access also frees employees from their desks, enabling them to keep in touch with the office
from home. With high-speed access, workers can log in to the corporate network to send and receive e-
mail, download data files and remain productive, even when they're out of the office.


Mobile Technologies Free Workers from the Office , The TransSynergy Group
It looks so tantalizing in the sexy television ads: hard-working businesspeople break away from their
desks and become "mobile workers," released from the technology ties that once bound them to the
office. Now they roam free, conquering the business world while on the go, thanks to a briefcase full of
high-tech gadgets.


Does this seem like an impossible dream, or a scenario only plausible in the future? Well, it's not. With
commonly available technologies, any business manager or employee can become a more productive,
mobile worker today. Best of all, "going mobile" does not require a legion of expensive, high-tech toys.


The power to choose
Is becoming a mobile worker really worth the trouble? Can it live up to the hype? After all, many
employees cannot wait to leave the office each day. So they certainly don't want to take it with them,
right?


Wrong. Being a mobile worker is not about working more hours. Instead, it's about improving productivity
and giving each employee choices about how they want to work.


Consider the mobile phone. Once deemed a luxury affordable only for a few, it now frees employees from
waiting by a landline phone for important calls. As a result, they can go about other business, but still
remain in contact with key clients, colleagues and family members.


Plus, a truly mobile worker can take control of personal and business communications, enabling a
healthier balance between work and family life. Taking time off to deal with family matters, enjoy a child's
soccer game or go on vacation no longer means being cut off completely from the corporate network.
Rather, managers and employees can choose to keep in touch, even when they're out of the office, out of
town or out of the country.


Is it time to go home?
Probably the most common reason employees request access to mobile technologies is so that they can
work from home. With a technology-enabled home office, workers can:


Check e-mail and work on projects after-hours and on weekends, rather than being stuck in the office
Take advantage of the quiet atmosphere to work on thought-intensive projects Remain productive on
days they simply cannot come in to work, including sick days and bad weather days Take care of
pressing personal business - from meeting a home repairman to leaving the office early for a doctor
appointment - without sacrificing productivity
The tools needed to accomplish these tasks are simple: a PC or laptop and a high-speed Internet
connection can get any worker up and running at home. Rather than suffer through busy signals and tie
up their home phone line, many mobile workers choose to install DSL. This gives them broadband
Internet access, plus allows them to simultaneously use the same phone line for voice or fax.


Many DSL service packages include the option of dial-up access, so users can leverage their Internet
access even when away from their DSL-enabled home office.


Another connectivity option is Virtual Private Network (VPN). Employers can set up a VPN, which gives
workers remote access to the corporate network, regardless of the type of Internet access they use. This
offers better security than a simple, password-protected access solution.


Hitting the road
Mobile working extends far beyond the home office. Using mobile dial-up access, employees can reach
their employer's network or VPN while on the go - from a hotel room, meeting site or clients' office. No
longer must workers fear missing a key e-mail from a client, colleague or family member.


With the world now going wireless, Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) offers the hottest new tool for connectivity.
Workers simply must add a wireless access card to their laptop, personal digital assistant (PDA) or
PocketPC. Then jumping on the Internet is as simple as finding a "hot spot" set up by their Internet
service provider.


Hot spots generally are placed in high-density, urban centers. Using this technology, mobile workers can
access their e-mail, surf the Internet, send instant messages and more - all from the convenience of a
café, park bench or client's office.


So now workers can take their office with them. Or they can simply turn it off. With mobile technologies,
the choice is theirs.


E-mail Goes Pro, The TransSynergy Group
"If that was a real business, wouldn't it have a Web site and domain name?"


Fair question? Maybe not, but it's one that is asked every day. As consumers and businesses shop for
products and services, they are becoming more likely to check out company Web sites or request
information via e-mail.


So when a small business doesn't have a professional-sounding e-mail address, they might already have
one strike against them.
That's why more small companies are choosing to purchase business-grade e-mail solutions, which offer
domain name e-mail. Plus, with business-grade service, small businesses are less likely to suffer from
down-time and other problems.


What's in a domain name?
Domain name e-mail enables users to choose a professional-sounding e-mail address that best reflects
their small business. For example, John at ABC Company might register the domain name
abccompany.com. With business-grade email, his e-mail address could then be
john@abccompany.com.


This way customers immediately recognize their vendors' communications, since e-mail no longer is listed
as being from the Internet service provider, such as john@yourisp.net. Plus, with domain name service,
e-mail communications appear more comfortable and reinforce brand equity for even the smallest of
firms.


Big-business service at small-business prices
Most businesses of any size cannot survive without e-mail. They use this powerful tool to communicate
with clients and employees, take orders, request information and more. But consumer-grade e-mail
service simply was not designed to meet the rigors and demands of the business world.


In the past, business-grade e-mail was available only to large companies that could afford to set up and
maintain their own e-mail servers. But today, small businesses can purchase feature-rich, business-grade
e-mail services from Internet service providers.


Buying e-mail service frees small businesses from the capital outlays, upgrades and ongoing
maintenance required to operate even the simplest e-mail solution. Most providers offer system support
and maintenance, as well as automatic disaster recovery in the event of a system failure.


Each provider offers different packages, from bare bones to the gold standard. Businesses might choose
from these options: Virus protection helps block viruses, Trojans, worms and other malicious content
before it can do damage. Web access to e-mail enables users to retrieve messages from any hard-wired
computer with Internet access. Mailbox storage allows customize the amount of e-mail messages
maintained on the Internet service provider's servers. Personal preferences might include vacation
messaging and mail forwarding. System activity reports tell users about system traffic and efficiency,
enabling them to proactively monitor their account.


Small Businesses Put Safety First, The TransSynergy Group
It's a scenario that can strike fear into the hearts of business managers: intruders hack into the company
network, wreaking havoc on every technology asset the firm owns.


Unfortunately, attacks like this happen every day. And as the Internet becomes more prevalent, smaller
businesses are becoming targets.


The costs of such attacks can be staggering - lost productivity and sales as the network is restored to its
previous condition; loss of customer trust; high bills from technology consultants who are called in to
repair the damage, and more.


But this damage can be prevented. And with the affordably priced security solutions now available on the
market, even the smallest business can be virtually hacker-proof. Small and mid-sized businesses must
take three simple steps to secure their networks.


Step 1: Run anti-virus software
Viruses can come from anywhere. They can infect a network via e-mail attachments, floppy disks, Internet
downloads, shared files, CD-ROMs and online services. If just a single machine becomes infected, the
entire network is at risk. That's why every PC and laptop on the company network must be protected by
anti-virus software.


Anti-virus software monitors the computer's activities to protect against known viruses, Web attacks and
e-mail intrusions. If a virus is detected, the software quarantines the infected file so it cannot harm the
computer.


To be effective, anti-virus software must be continually updated with information on the most recently
developed threats. If traditional software was purchased, users can typically download free updates for a
prescribed length of time.


Alternately, some small-business owners choose managed anti-virus solutions. These subscription-based
services automatically update the anti-virus software on each of the company's PCs, without requiring
intervention from the user. That way the network has the most up-to-date protection available.


Step 2: Build a firewall
Any business that accesses the Internet needs a firewall. Once online, a PC is vulnerable to intrusion
from hackers, who seek out access points from which they can watch users' every move. In doing so,
they can steal credit card numbers, personal financial information and sensitive customer data.


There are two primary firewall options: desktop-based and network-based.
With the desktop-based variety, each PC erects its own individual firewall. The solution then can
safeguard system devices - including network cards and modems - by blocking suspicious and
unauthorized activity. Whether purchased as software or as a managed service, desktop firewalls must
be updated periodically with the latest information.


On the network level, firewalls include both software and hardware options. These can protect PCs,
laptops, routers, servers and more.


Step 3: Install a virtual private network
Businesses with multiple locations face a unique set of security challenges. This includes companies that
operate branch offices, as well as those where employees perform some work from home, a client office
or while traveling.


To get the most out of the IT infrastructure, these businesses must simultaneously keep intruders out,
while allowing employees and other authorized users in from other locations.


These firms might choose to install a virtual private network (VPN), which enables telecommuters and
other remote users to access the company network remotely and securely, regardless of the type of
Internet access they use. By dialing in or using a broadband connection, users can efficiently read
e-mail and pull data off of the network's servers, without creating security risks. Special encryption
technologies ensure that data remains safe.


Keep it all together
The powerful combination of anti-virus software, a firewall and a VPN provides the best defense against
growing threats on the Web. This includes the most threatening of security problems: blended threats.
These viruses enter the system through malicious and international attacks. Because they combine
elements of viruses and hack attacks, blended threats are the more pervasive and dangerous Internet
attacks.


But by installing a multiple security measures - with a special focus on placing both anti-virus and firewall
protection on each PC - companies will be posted to keep data from harm.


Publish an E-Mail Newsletter, By Staff Writer, workz.com


Producing a newsletter that's of interest to your target audience is a great way to build your lead
database, earn new customers, and develop an "expert's voice" in your field. A newsletter can be
anything from a few simple announcements and updates about your product to a detailed resource
of information with articles, reviews, and any other content that might be useful to your readers.
Increasingly, newsletters and discussion lists published via e-mail have become excellent sources of
advertising revenue. Here's a checklist you can follow for developing and delivering a consistent
e-mail-based publication:


Choose Your Newsletter Topic
Think about your readers: Are they customers? Clients? Potential customers or clients? If this is your first
experience with newsletters, starting with a modest free newsletter is often your best bet. You can always
expand with more detailed content later.


Set Your Publication Schedule
At the start, you will also need to decide how often to publish your newsletter - daily, weekly, monthly, or
at some other interval. You may want to start with a less-frequent schedule until you have ironed out all
your publishing procedures and have determined the workload associated with putting out issues on time.


Collect and Maintain a List of E-Mail Names
Once you have determined the model for your newsletter, you need to figure out how you will get people
to sign up to receive it. In addition to getting readers to sign up, you will need to think about how to
maintain your list over time. E-mail addresses can be especially volatile; you may have to update your list
each time you send out your newsletter.


Choose List Management and Distribution Software
There are a number of options to consider when deciding how you will manage your e-mail newsletter or
other list activity. ListBot is a Web-based utility that handles list sign-up and maintenance. A free version
is available, along with a more powerful commercial version. You simply put the ListBot button field on
your page and users enter their e-mail address and press "submit." Their address then goes into your
list's database. Majordomo automates the management of Internet mailing lists via e-mail. It is free but
only runs on UNIX servers. Check with your ISP to see if they support it or something similar.


Write the Newsletter
You will want to put together a newsletter that you will be proud of and that will benefit your readers. You
and your staff can write each issue, you can solicit contributions, or you can hire an agency to handle it
for you. Determine what your objectives are and what resources you have to get the job done right.


Distribute the Newsletter
Many of the products and services for collecting and maintaining e-mail addresses will also facilitate the
delivery of your newsletter. Because of their built-in maintenance features, this is often the easiest
method.
Smaller lists can be delivered using your standard e-mail package. If you use this method, be sure to put
the list of addressees in the "bcc" field so they wont be visible to every subscriber.


Sell and Manage E-Zine Advertising Space
You can increase your revenues by selling advertising in your own e-mail publication. Advertisers are
always looking for highly targeted e-mail newsletters or "e-zines" where they can promote their products.


E-mail Goes Pro, The TransSynergy Group
"If that was a real business, wouldn't it have a Web site and domain name?"


Fair question? Maybe not, but it's one that is asked every day. As consumers and businesses shop for
products and services, they are becoming more likely to check out company Web sites or request
information via e-mail.


So when a small business doesn't have a professional-sounding e-mail address, they might already have
one strike against them.


That's why more small companies are choosing to purchase business-grade e-mail solutions, which offer
domain name e-mail. Plus, with business-grade service, small businesses are less likely to suffer from
down-time and other problems.


Businesses of any size cannot survive without e-mail. They use this powerful tool to communicate with
clients and employees, take orders, request information and more. But consumer-grade e-mail service
simply was not designed to meet the rigors and demands of the business world.


In the past, business-grade e-mail was available only to large companies that could afford to set up and
maintain their own e-mail servers. But today, small businesses can purchase feature-rich, business-grade
e-mail services from Internet service providers.


Buying e-mail service frees small businesses from the capital outlays, upgrades and ongoing
maintenance required to operate even the simplest e-mail solution. Most providers offer system support
and maintenance, as well as automatic disaster recovery in the event of a system failure.


Each provider offers different packages, from bare bones to the gold standard. Businesses might choose
from these options: Virus protection helps block viruses, Trojans, worms and other malicious
content before it can do damage. Web access to e-mail enables users to retrieve messages from any
hard-wired computer with Internet access. Mailbox storage allows customize the amount of e-mail
messages maintained on the Internet service provider's servers. Personal preferences might include
vacation messaging and mail forwarding. System activity reports tell users about system traffic and
efficiency, enabling them to proactively monitor their account.


Manage Customer E-Mail Communication, By Lisa Picozzi, Contributing Author, workz.com


E-mail offers your online customers their only chance to "speak to the manager" to get additional
information or pursue resolution to a problem. Online shoppers expect people to answer their e-mail
message; they become dissatisfied with anything less than prompt, accurate responses to their
questions. How well you manage your customer e-mail communications can make or break your online
sales efforts.


Confirming the receipt of all incoming e-mail messages is the first step toward earning the trust of your
online customers. But that's just the tip of the iceberg. Routing and responding to incoming queries is
where most companies drop the ball. For example, if the message doesn't reach the right department, the
customer may receive a response that is inaccurate or incomplete, or worse, no response at all.


Finally, it should be noted that communicating via e-mail is something of an art. People often react
differently to the written word than to the spoken word. Understanding how to use e-mail effectively will
increase your company's chances for positive interaction with its customers. Savvy Web merchants are
even using e-mail proactively, enticing their customers back to their site with full-text articles, information
on new products and, services, news items, and other incentives.


Confirm Receipt of All Incoming E-Mail Messages
To many internet users, a late response is worse than no response at all. Confirming the receipt of all
incoming e-mail messages will give your customers confidence in your company's ability to serve their
needs. Further, confirming the receipt of e-mail inquiries gives you the opportunity to set expectations for
response times, which may vary from 15 minutes to 24 hours, depending on the nature of your business.
There are two options for accomplishing the confirmation of incoming e-mail: replying manually or via
auto-reply e-mail systems.


Route and Prioritize Incoming Customer E-Mail Inquiries If a customer's e-mail message doesn't make it
to the right person, there is little chance that the customer will receive an appropriate response.
Therefore, routing incoming customer inquiries is critical to the success of any online customer service
center. There are two basic strategies for routing e-mail: offering a single customer service address, or
offering multiple addresses pointing customers to specific individuals or departments. Offering a single
company address will require auto-routing technology, whereas offering multiple addresses gives
customers a more direct path to the department they need. Either way, all messages must be
prioritized for timely responses. For example, resolving a customer's problem should receive a higher
priority than responding to a customer's friendly suggestion.


Respond to Your Customers Effectively via E-Mail
Responding to customer inquiries is a challenge. People often respond differently to the written word than
to the spoken word, so communicating via e-mail can be something of an art. As a result, a special set of
guidelines has been established in an effort to bring a standard to Web-based communication. This
standard is commonly referred to as "Netiquette." Understanding and implementing these guidelines will
help ensure that your customers receive answers that are clear, concise, and effective in meeting their
needs.


Use an E-Mail Newsletter for Proactive Customer Service
On the Net, e-mail customer service extends beyond answering questions and complaints. You can use
e-mail proactively to give your customers important product and service information. An effective tool for
distributing this information is an e-mail newsletter, which allows you to "push" news, article teasers,
details on special promotions, and other important product information to your clientele while providing a
link back to your site for ordering information, full-text articles, news items, and other details. But
don't distribute your e-mail newsletters indiscriminately; invite visitors to your site to sign up for it through
a quick and easy registration process.


Growing you business online
3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You - Your Web site is your only face to many of your
customers. If you post your original content and forget about it, they will notice. You need to keep
refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in order to keep the interest of your
customers.


10 Design Tips for Improving Your Web Site - When you design a Web site, especially an e-commerce
site, you want people to visit often, for reasonably long periods of time, and to make purchases. To do
this, you must make your site easy to use.


Additional Features to Enhance Your Site - Here's a list of features that you might want to consider when
imagining your site. Some of these features go well beyond the basics of what you'll need for your site.
But you might find that some of them will be instrumental in maximizing your Web site profits.


Engage Your Customers With Online Surveys - People enjoy taking surveys when they feel their
opinions are valued, and they like learning what others are saying about an issue. Surveys are an
excellent way to get close to your customers, to offer them something interesting, and to keep them
coming back to your site.
How To Keep Content Current - Keeping a site accurate, literate and credible is the first priority of Web
site maintenance.


Make Your Site Design Work - Your Web design evolves in response to company growth and customer
needs. Measure the effectiveness of the changes you make along the way to make sure you are only
making the changes that improve sales.


Monitor and Analyze Site Traffic - You've built a company Web site, and it does a great job of presenting
your business to everyone who visits it. You've promoted your site wherever you could, and you've spent
your marketing budget wisely. So where do you begin to find out how your site is performing?


Promote Your URL on All Communications - Once you've invested time and effort to produce a great Web
site for your company, be sure to let your customers know it's there.


Steering Visitors in the Right Direction - Once you have visitors coming to your site and you have their
interest peaked, it's time to direct them to where you want them to go.


Fifteen Free or Low Cost Promotional Tips - Promoting your Web site doesn't have to be expensive. The
following tips can help you get the word out about your online business without ruining your bank account.


How to Promote Your Site: Reciprocal Links - Did you know reciprocal links are one of the most effective
ways to promote your company and increase traffic?


Build Traffic with Compelling Content - One of the most stunning mistakes site owners make is to pay too
much attention to first-time visitors to their sites, and too little to repeat visitors. Build Traffic with
Compelling Content ; By Staff Writer, workz.com
One of the most stunning mistakes site owners make is to pay too much attention to first-time visitors to
their sites, and too little to repeat visitors. "First-time visitors can be bought," says online ad-sales
consultant Kirk Tatnall. "Banner ads, site sponsorships, and other advertising efforts will bring some
people to your site - but only once. Getting them to come back generally means having compelling
content on the site for them to enjoy on that first visit, and a strong pull for them to come back again
soon."


An important rule of thumb: people who eventually do things on your site that you want them to do - like
registering personal information with you, signing up to receive a newsletter, or buying a product -
generally don't do these things on their first visits. They do them on their third, their
fifth, or even their twentieth visits. People tend to build trust in your site as they make more repeat visits,
and with their trust comes their patronage.


"So you have a real challenge here," says Tatnall. "How can your site be of value to people who don't
want to buy what you're selling, at least not the first time they come to your site. What can you offer those
people?"


Strong, original, unique content that promises to be updated regularly is right at the top of the list,
according to Tatnall. Each of these adjectives is very important, though. The content must be strong - not
just filling space. It must be the kind of material that rewards your site visitors more than all the other
things they could be doing. Strong content competes with television, talking with friends, and all the other
content out there on other Web sites. And your content must be original . Piping in news feeds and
articles that have been published elsewhere might please some site visitors, but those who are most
engaged in the topics your site covers will find recycled material less than satisfying. Unique content
means that it simply cannot be found anywhere else - on or off the Web. That's a great challenge
to rise to, but if you meet it, first-time visitors will be back for more.


Tatnall suggests rewarding repeat visitors with "frequent surfers' discounts," and perhaps with contests
and giveaways that build on clues woven into your site over a series of days or weeks.


"In the long run," he says, "You'll find that the bulk of your revenues come from repeat visitors - so invest
in your resources accordingly. For every dollar you spend on banner ads or other promotions, ask
yourself how much you are investing in the quality of what you're offering the folks who already know
where you are, and need a good reason to keep coming back."


People browse the web as much for information as they do to actually buy things. You can make your site
more useful and memorable - and more visited - by investing in strong, original, unique content.




3 Ways to Discover What Content Works for You By Russell Shaw, Contributing Author, workz.com


Your Web site is your only face to many of your customers. If you post your original content and forget
about it, they will notice. You need to keep refreshing your features to make sure your site is up-to-date in
order to keep the interest of your customers. The only way for you to know whether your site is meeting
your customers' needs and how it might need to be changed is to keep monitoring it after it is built. You
can use a number of methods to make sure your content is right for your audience: Log analysis tools for
tracking traffic patterns on your site, keyword tracking, and customer surveys can all help you make sure
that you don't waste your resources on content that no one is reading or that turns your customers away.
Traffic Pattern Analysis
Use log analysis tools, such as WebTrends Log Analyzer, to determine high and low traffic areas of your
site. If one of your sections has had a decrease in traffic or has become an exit page, you may need to
make some changes. Think about how long it has been since you last added content. Don't waste your
resources on content that no one is reading.


Keyword Analysis
Determine which of your keywords lead to the most hits on your site. This will be a good indicator of your
site's readership and will help you understand what your customers are most interested in. Don't forget to
register new keywords as you add or revise content. And, of course, if someone is conducting a Web
search and finds your site because you've included the same words they've searched for in your META
tags, you should ensure that those words describe topics that are actually on your site. If not, your site
visitor (a potential customer) may view this experience as a waste of time and not return.


Analysis of Online Surveys
Filling out online surveys is one way the reader can more fully interact with your site. This can help attract
and hold customers. Also, though, it is a great way to get free feedback from the actual viewers who use
your site. In turn this information can help your design team and your marketing team in creating a more
successful Web site.


10 Design Tips for Improving Your Web Site By Delilah Obie, Wendy Hinman, Contributing Authors
workz.com
When you design a Web site, especially an e-commerce site, you want people to visit often, for
reasonably long periods of time, and to make purchases. To do this, you must make your site easy to
use. Here are 10 tips for making your site customer-friendly:


Keep Your Pages Fast-Loading
Web users are impatient. Don't force visitors to wait through JavaScript-enabled introductions or
QuickTime movies before they can enter your site. Always provide a "Skip" or "Stop" button when using
these elements.


Avoid Dead-End Pages
Always offer your customers a way out of a page. This could mean including a link to the main page on
every page. Users are becoming increasingly accustomed to a navigation bar that links to all the sections
of a site, and company logos that act as a navigation link to the home page. You can also offer text links
on each page for going to "Top of page" or "Back."


Facilitate Scanning
Study after study shows that most people don't read on the Web. They scan content for information that is
relevant. Facilitate this process by breaking up text with headings and subheadings. Use text links that
allow readers to jump from section to section. Don't expect people to scroll to find information on your
site.
Avoid Overusing Graphics, Animation, and Multimedia
If they don't add functionality, don't use graphics, animation, movies, sounds, and so on. Only use these
features if they enhance your customers' experience. Product photos are often valuable additions to your
site, but you might want to minimize the delays they could cause in load times by using thumbnail (small)
images. You can link these thumbnail images to larger, more detailed images for customers who are
interested in having a closer look. You can even include technology that allows viewers to zoom in
on features or rotate the view of the product.


Limit the number of images on each page for faster load times. If pages or files will take some time to
download, it's best to forewarn your customers by noting the file size next to the link to them. If anything,
users have less patience for state-of-the-art technology these days as the Web becomes dominated by
new users, and the upgrade speeds for new browsers and plug-ins decline.


Don't Assume That Everyone Uses the Same Browser
Avoid designing for a certain browser or trying to force a certain look. Some Web authors make
extensive use of elaborate formatting tricks in a determined effort to coerce a client program into creating
a specific visual rendering. These pages look good when viewed with the author's browser of choice, but
look bad in most or all other browsers.
Provide a Text Option
Browser preferences allow users to turn off graphics if they choose, and those who are using older
browsers may not have the ability to view all images. So provide text links or alternative text tags in
addition to graphics, including navigational buttons or bars.


Delay Registration
There are many reasons for asking visitors to register at your Web site, but don't put your registration
form on the first page. Show your content first; demonstrate that registration has its rewards before you
ask visitors to spend their time on it.


Make Your Forms Flexible
Online forms are often necessary and useful for placing an order or setting up accounts. But try to make
your forms flexible by limiting the number of required fields. Also, make errors easy to find and correct. If
users have incorrectly entered a phone number, they shouldn't need to complete the entire form again.
Just have them correct the portion with the error, which should be highlighted to make the mistake
obvious. Include a "Help" link in case customers run into problems while filling out a form. It's just not
worthwhile to people to take time to figure out how to make something work on your site when there are 5
million other sites to visit.


Avoid "Under Construction" Signs
By definition, Web documents change over time. Either your pages are useful to people (in which case
you need not apologize for them) or they're not - in which case, you aren't ready to show them to the
world and shouldn't be making them public.


Provide a Clear Path for Customers to Make a Purchase
Display your products, descriptions, and prices prominently. If you're going to talk about a product your
company sells, explain how to order it. Many Web sites are guilty of not fully disclosing product and
pricing information or making it clear how to buy their products. Even if you are not yet prepared to
process transactions online, you can let customers know how to buy your products by including a
telephone number or retail location where they can complete a purchase, or a date when the product will
become available online.


Additional Features to Enhance Your Site, workz.com
Here's a list of features that you might want to consider when imagining your site. Some of these features
go well beyond the basics of what you'll need for your site. But you might find that some of them will be
instrumental in maximizing your Web site profits.
When evaluating any feature it's always a good idea to compare the cost to add the feature against the
possible revenue the addition of the feature might bring.


The list of potential features includes: On-site search engine
If a potential customer comes to your site for one reason and one reason only, you want that customer to
be able to find what she is looking for quickly and easily, otherwise she's probably going to surf
somewhere else. Providing your visitors with an on-site search engine is a relatively easy way to ensure
that your products, ideas, designs, and content are easy to find.


It's also possible that, if you purchased a turnkey solution, you purchased an on-site search engine, so
check with your provider to find out. Many companies offer free or low-cost search engines for your site.


Newsletters
Keeping your site's visitors up-to-date with changes in the site's content, sales and promotional items, and
related news is a great way to keep visitors coming back. One way to do this is to publish an e-mail
newsletter. Site visitors can sign up by entering their e-mail information into a form that you provide on
your site. If you choose to make this newsletter interactive, you'll need to create an opt-in e-mail forum. If
you offer news and information in your newsletters and do not allow users to post to the group, the
software and maintenance are, obviously, much simpler. In fact, in order to run a newsletter, all you need
is an e-mail client.


Community
An essential element of any Web site, community refers to the group of people who frequent your site. It
is important to cultivate this group in order to organize a community of repeat customers and develop a
sense of interdependence. There are many ways to build community. For example, you can offer chat
rooms, Web-based forums, discussion groups, and newsletters. You'll need to choose forum technology
and forum hosts to get things started. The following community building tools are easy additions to your
site, because you can often find free downloads and free service providers that will provide access to
(and host) these elements for you.


Chat Rooms
Providing your visitors with real-time communication capabilities promotes true stickiness. Visitors will
likely remain on your site longer if there is a hot discussion or an immediate exchange of ideas and
assistance. Read workz.com's Hooking Up Your Chats to learn about the three kinds of chat rooms.


Web-Based Forums
A common example of a Web-based forum is a message board. A message board is similar to a chat
room in that it allows your site users to exchange ideas and thoughts - and it keeps them at your site
while they do so. Message boards and other forums differ from chat rooms in that they are asynchronous:
Visitors do not communicate in real time and therefore need not be present at a certain time in order to
participate. Your forum's design and functionality depend upon which platform (NT or Unix) your site
uses. Read workz.com's Choose Software for Your Web-Based Forum to help you decide which program
to use.


Discussion Groups and Opt-In E-mail Forums
Opt-in e-mail forums have the advantage of being both private and convenient. Those who have asked to
be included in the thread or discussion receive the same e-mail and are able to post thoughts and ideas
by submitting an e-mail message to the group's moderator. The opt-in format allows users to take
themselves off the list and add themselves back on whenever they wish. The software that enables this
type of discussion is easy to use and widely available. Read workz.com's Choose Software for Your E-
Mail-Based Forum to help you decide what technology to use. You may want to outsource the service
entirely, in which case you will want to choose either an advertising-based provider or a provider that
charges a fee.


Affiliate Partners
You can significantly increase site revenue and traffic by starting your own associate or affiliate program.
Planning your program will involve choosing or developing your software, setting up agreements with your
associate sites, and deciding how much commission to pay. Read the workz.com article Join an Affiliate
or Associate Program to find out more.


Streaming Audio or Video
Streaming audio or video is an excellent way to distinguish your site from the millions of Web sites out
there. You'll need to be aware of your audience and of access issues before you introduce this
bandwidth-intensive feature. To do this, you'll need to understand how bandwidth, Net connections, and
modem speeds affect your visitors' experience.


Online Forms
You'll use online forms to collect information about your customers, run online surveys, create opt-in
email, and process orders.


Database Software
You'll need some database software to capture your customer and product data. If you choose a turnkey
solution provider to build your site, you may find that this is included, because many turnkey solution
providers will offer this as part of their package. If you build your site using off-the-shelf software, you'll
want to choose one that will enable dynamic access to databases.




Engage Your Customers With Online Surveys, By John Towler, Ph.D., workz.com
People enjoy taking surveys when they feel their opinions are valued, and they like learning what others
are saying about an issue. Surveys are an excellent way to get close to your customers, to offer them
something interesting, and to keep them coming back to your site.


You can use surveys to identify your customers and their preferences. For example, you may want to
survey people who have ordered from you once but have not returned, to find out why. Sometimes people
like taking surveys because it makes them feel important and that someone actually values their
opinions and wants to listen.


If you post a survey on your site and make the results available online, people will visit your site again
and again to view the results. Surveys are an excellent way to attract people to and build traffic on your
site. An added bonus is that if your survey turns up something interesting and newsworthy, the media
may become interested. This can generate some free publicity for you.
You can survey people on just about anything. You can create surveys to learn what your customers like
or don't like about your site, your services or your products. Surveys can also help you determine their
level of satisfaction and research their buying habits. You can also measure their opinions on politics,
news items, pressing community issues, and on social, economic and environmental issues.


Start by deciding what the purpose of the survey will be and why you want to do it. Be sure to take into
consideration that the survey must serve your visitors first and you second. They must feel that it is an
important use of their time. They must also feel that they will reap a particular benefit from participating,
such as making a difference in the community or in your company's direction, or winning a prize.


How To Keep Content Current By Mary Ann Chapman, Guest Expert, workz.com
Keeping a site accurate, literate and credible is the first priority of Web site maintenance.


Correct, without delay, any error found in-house or reported by visitors. Whether you correct features not
operating properly in a browser or incorrect spelling, grammar or facts, your site needs to be 100 percent
accurate. The next priority goes to keeping site content up-to-date. Visitors return for new, exciting and
entertaining content. The most popular sites, from Dilbert.com to eBay to MSNBC offer viewers
something new every day.


Update Without Delay
If you provide reports on regular events, don't make visitors wait a month - or even a week - to read them.
Prompt posting drives visitors to your site; delays drive them elsewhere. If you provide alternate versions
for access by text-based browsers or visually disabled access, update those versions simultaneously with
the main site.


Highlight the latest features on the home page and keep recent ones within a click or two for visitors who
may have missed them. If older material is still of interest, keep it to increase the site's depth of content.
Richness of content attracts and retains visitors.


Some older material might be timeless and worth a position on the site's current pages. The energy
engineering site 21Design keeps a prominent listing of newsletters going back several years because the
information contained in them is still current. Older material that isn't currently of interest should be stored
in archives.


Archive Outdated Content
If your content is predictable and structured, divide archived material into logical search topics and
provide navigation in a tree-structure directory. A site on agriculture forecasts, for example, could have
folders called archives/eastern-us, archives/middle-us, and archives/western-us. Or an organization's
meeting reports could be filed into folders named by year, with links to each section.


Unpredictable content can be retrieved more easily with a site search feature. Free site search engines
are available from many sources, including Google, FreeFind, and Atomz.com.


If a visitor returns to review information found earlier or sends a friend or an associate to the site to see it,
storing that information in a searchable archive can prevent frustration and keep the visitor coming back.
New visitors searching for older information might find the site through your archives then return for
current information on the same topic.


Frequent updating and archiving can help to make your site the Web destination of first choice for your
target audience.


Make Your Site Design Work By Jennifer LeClaire, Contributing Author, workz.com
Your Web design evolves in response to company growth and customer needs. Measure the
effectiveness of the changes you make along the way to make sure you are only making the changes that
improve sales. Even simple daily changes, such as updating content and sales promotions, can have a
big impact on the customer-friendliness of your site.


First, define a target measurement. In other words, what measurement signifies great design for your
business? Increased traffic? Increased sales? Increased repeat visitors? All three? Some general factors
to look at include changes in Web site traffic flow, the number of sales made, and customer response to
design changes.


Start Tracking
Design changes are made with a purpose in mind. For example, redesigning the order page is a change
driven by the need to match shopping patterns. In this case, the redesign should facilitate the ordering
process and decrease the likelihood customers will abandon the sale.


If the number of orders decreases or the number of questions about the ordering process increases after
you've made a change, you need to find out specifically what your customers find difficult and rectify the
problem.


Monitor site traffic. A favorite measurement tool on the Web, site traffic reports supplied by your server's
software or by your ISP can include such information as daily or hourly traffic volume, most requested
pages, or error messages. In addition, referrer logs tell you where visitors came from and what pages
they visited on your site.
Measure sales volume fluctuations. Though commonly used to measure the effectiveness of changes to
site design, it might not be the most accurate indicator of a successful design. Many factors contribute to
fluctuations in sales volume, one of which could be changes to design. Consider this when tracking the
effectiveness of a design change, but use it in conjunction with other measurements.


Conduct customer surveys. Use online or e-mail surveys to elicit customer feedback. Remember the
adage, "The customer is always right"? If you really want to know if something works in your site design,
go straight to the customers.


A change in your site should increase traffic and facilitate flow from the product information section to the
order area. Most important, sales should increase.


Compare your data to previously established baselines or to target numbers established through
comparison with similar sites.


Relate customer survey data to sales information and page traffic. If the cost of the design change was
greater than the increase in sales for a three-month period, the change was probably not worth the
investment.


Improve Initiatives
Based on the results of a cost-benefit analysis, decide whether to expand, maintain, reduce, or
temporarily suspend your site design initiatives. You might need to consider a new designer or to hire one
if you've been doing it yourself.


You don't want to fix something that's not broken, but you do want to scout other vendors and rerelease
your site with competitive features and functionality.


Monitor and Analyze Site Traffic, By Jacqueline Southey, Contributing Author, workz.com
You've built a company Web site, and it does a great job of presenting your business to everyone who
visits it. You've promoted your site wherever you could, and you've spent your marketing budget wisely.
So where do you begin to find out how your site is performing?


There are several questions you'll need to consider: How many people are visiting your site? Where are
they coming from? Where on the site are they going? Where do they spend the most time? Those are a
few questions to start with, and there are more. The good news is that, with a solid tracking system, you
can find reasonably accurate data with which to measure your site's performance.
Getting Started
Before you begin, you need to know the difference between hits and page views. Do you understand
Internet protocol addresses and the user agent string? Make sure you know what you'll be counting
before you get started.


The raw data about your site's visitors is in your server's log files. To make sense of this data, you will
need to use site-traffic analysis tools. There are various options available to you that can help you
analyze your data - from your basic hit-counter-type reports to a more comprehensive approach using off-
the-shelf software programs, outsourcing to a third party, or having your own database expert build a
custom-made solution.


Using Reports
Once you have the reporting structure in place, you'll be looking at reports that will most likely break down
into the categories below. Ideally, you will have the e-mail addresses for all your customers, and you'll be
able to develop a customer relationship based on individual demand. It is more likely, however, that your
casual browser or customer visiting your Web site will leave you only clues to follow rather than detailed
demographic information about themselves. Use your Web server statistics to pick up as many clues as
you can about your customers. These clues can provide you with information on how many visitors the
site is getting, where they are coming from, which pages they find most interesting, and which keywords
they are using to find your site.


Total stats reports: Get a good overall picture of your site's activity and performance levels and use that
information to track peak usage. Identify spikes in your traffic resulting from promotional campaigns.


Top URLs requested: Find out where your customers spend their time on your site and identify the parts
of your site that are working best and the parts that need improvement.


Referrer report: Who is sending customers your way? Use that information to drive more traffic to your
site. Search phrase report: Find out the keywords that work on search engines to drive customers to your
site, and rework your site's keywords to get higher search engine ratings.


Most common browser used: See what types and versions of browsers your visitors are using and fine-
tune your site design to match them.


Bad URL/referrer report: Links to your site that don't work make you look bad. Use this report to find and
remove the dead links that are causing error messages for your users.
User domain reports: Examine the top-level domains of your users to understand where, both in
cyberspace and worldwide, your customers are coming from. Then figure out how to get more customers
like them.


One thing to remember as you analyze your Web site statistics is to take it slow. Make changes gradually
to measure their effectiveness. Changing many things on your site at once makes it difficult to assess the
impact of each change.


Promote Your URL on All Communications, workz.com
Once you've invested time and effort to produce a great Web site for your company, be sure to let your
customers know it's there. Place your URL prominently on all your stationery, promotional materials, and
T-shirts, as well as on packaging, invoices, and receipts - in other words, wherever you would print your
company's name or telephone number.


If you have only a limited budget to promote your Web site, including the URL on all communications is
one inexpensive way to increase traffic. If your potential customers know they can find out more about
your products or services by visiting your Web site, many will do so.


If your company sends out any business letters before your letterhead has been reprinted with the Web
site URL, be sure to type the URL and the company's main e-mail address under the signature of the
sender.


There are three main areas to consider when you set out to promote your URL. Follow our checklists of
all the instances of each category, and work through the various pieces as you reprint current material or
design new advertising. If you can think of more, let us know!


Checklist for Developing Direct Marketing
Direct marketing materials, including direct mail pieces, point-of-sale packaging, and trade show displays,
should include the Web site URL and, wherever possible, an e-mail contact address. Run through this
checklist to make sure your company is making use of the marketing dollars you would have budgeted
anyway.
Direct mail letters
Direct mail envelopes
Flyers, or inclusions with other senders' direct mail
Product displays, for retail or trade
Trade show brochures
Tent cards
Postcards, or direct response cards
Entry forms, for contests or sweepstakes
Promotional items or giveaways, such as
Pens or pencils
T-shirts
Calendars
Memo pads
Magnets
Coffee mugs


Checklist for Developing Awareness Advertising
Another essential place to include your URL is on your company's awareness advertising. Wherever
you've found advertising to be effective, such as display or classified ads you purchase in trade journals
or newspapers, your URL should direct customers to your Web site.


Remember to include even less obvious awareness advertising, such as resource guides or your Yellow
Pages listing. View your site as an second layer of information connected to the ad. Your ad will catch
readers' attention; then your Web page offers a more detailed explanation of your product, and perhaps
offer the opportunity to place an order on the spot.


Print advertising, in newspapers, magazines, or trade journals, TV advertising, Radio advertising, if your
URL is short and easy to remember, Yellow pages listing or page ad, Business White pages listing or
page ad, Other directory listings, in trade journals or local resource guides, Classified advertising,
Employment advertising


Checklist for Developing Collateral
Collateral material includes all your company's literature, whether it's traditional stationery materials or
flashier four-color brochures you might send to potential customers. Be sure to include materials that
wouldn't be managed from a marketing department.
Letterhead, all sizes, Envelopes, all sizes, Boxes or other packaging, Business cards, Receipts
Invoices, Packaging inventory lists for mailing, Fax cover pages, account statements, order confirmations,
Thank you cards, Annual reports or informational brochures


Promote Your URL on All Communications, workz.com
Once you've invested time and effort to produce a great Web site for your company, be sure to let your
customers know it's there. Place your URL prominently on all your stationery, promotional materials, and
T-shirts, as well as on packaging, invoices, and receipts - in other words, wherever you would print your
company's name or telephone number. If you have only a limited budget to promote your Web site,
including the URL on all communications is one inexpensive way to increase traffic. If your potential
customers know they can find out more about your products or services by visiting your Web site, many
will do so.


If your company sends out any business letters before your letterhead has been reprinted with the Web
site URL, be sure to type the URL and the company's main e-mail address under the signature of the
sender.


There are three main areas to consider when you set out to promote your URL. Follow our checklists of
all the instances of each category, and work through the various pieces as you reprint current material or
design new advertising. If you can think of more, let us know!


Checklist for Developing Direct Marketing
Direct marketing materials, including direct mail pieces, point-of-sale packaging, and trade show displays,
should include the Web site URL and, wherever possible, an e-mail contact address. Run through this
checklist to make sure your company is making use of the marketing dollars you would have budgeted
anyway.
Direct mail letters. Direct mail envelopes; Flyers, or inclusions with other senders' direct mail; Product
displays, for retail or trade; Trade show brochures; Tent cards; Postcards, or direct response cards;
Entry forms, for contests or sweepstakes.
Promotional items or giveaways, such as: Pens or pencils, T-shirts; Calendars; Memo pads; Magnets;
Coffee mugs.


Checklist for Developing Awareness Advertising
Another essential place to include your URL is on your company's awareness advertising. Wherever
you've found advertising to be effective, such as display or classified ads you purchase in trade journals
or newspapers, your URL should direct customers to your Web site.


Remember to include even less obvious awareness advertising, such as resource guides or your Yellow
Pages listing. View your site as an second layer of information connected to the ad. Your ad will catch
readers' attention; then your Web page offers a more detailed explanation of your product, and perhaps
offer the opportunity to place an order on the spot.


Print advertising, in newspapers, magazines, or trade journals ;TV advertising; Radio advertising,
if your URL is short and easy to remember: Yellow pages listing or page ad; Business White pages listing
or page ad;
Other directory listings, in trade journals or local resource guides: Classified advertising, Employment
advertising,
Checklist for Developing Collateral
Collateral material includes all your company's literature, whether it's traditional stationery materials or
flashier four-color brochures you might send to potential customers. Be sure to include materials that
wouldn't be managed from a marketing department.
Letterhead, all sizes
Envelopes, all sizes
Boxes or other packaging
Business cards
Receipts
Invoices
Packaging inventory lists for mailing
Fax cover pages
Account statements
Order confirmations
Thank you cards
Annual reports or informational brochures




Steering Visitors in the Right Direction, By Contributing Author, Marnie Pehrson; workz.com
Once you have visitors coming to your site and you have their interest peaked, it's time to direct them to
where you want them to go. Whether you're selling information, products, services or simply generating
leads, bear in mind why people visit web sites:
News - according to the MarketFacts research firm, roughly 90% of Net users use the Web for news. A
report from Media Metrix shows that news sites are now more popular than search engines.
Research - people visit sites to look for information on products, services, etc.
Shopping - people are starting to use the Web with increasing regularity to comparison shop and are
buying more and more over the Web.
Most likely, unless you are generating all your Web revenues from advertising, you are trying to sell the
visitor something--your products or services. To draw people in, use a three-step process:


First, give them what they want--give them news, articles, or non-sales pitch information that relates to
your products or services. Second, include links to your products or services on the page(s) with the
news or articles. These can be subtle links - as simple as a ''products'' or ''services'' link in the
navigational area of the page. Or, it can be a blurb about you as the author and a link to your
products/services at the bottom of the page. Third, test, test and test again. Check your statistics
frequently when you make a change to your home page or site. Which information areas are getting
the most hits? Pay attention to the information areas people like so as to learn what they actually want.
Are the pages that contain product information getting more hits now that you've made the change? Are
more people clicking on your order form now? And, bottom line, are you making more sales or getting
more referrals from your Web site? Keep tweaking, testing, and recording the results until you find the mix
that brings the maximum number of sales per visitor. In summary, use your home page to steer people
to the content. Remember, people first ask themselves, ''What's in it for me?'' or ''Why should I click any
further?'' By bringing content (articles, news, information) to the forefront, you'll draw them further inside
your site. Then, make sure they know you're an expert on the subject and direct them as to where to go
next to purchase your products or services.


Remember that it's not how much traffic you get, it's what you do with the people once they arrive. What
you really want to know is: ''how many visitors does it take to make a sale?'' Work with your content and
try directing your traffic in different ways until you get the maximum yield per visitor.


15 Free or Low-Cost Promotion Tips, By Larry Swanson, Staff Writer, workz.com
Promoting your Web site doesn't have to be expensive. The following tips can
help you get the word out about your online business without ruining your
bank account.


Work the Big Directories
The sites that are most likely to point visitors to your site are the big directories, chief among them
Yahoo!. You maximize your chances of getting listed in these directories by creating a professional site
and then getting the attention of the editors who choose what goes into the directory.


Work the Search Engines
Search engines automatically scan the Web to identify and index sites. The best way to make sure your
site shows up on these sites is to write content and HTML code that gets the search agents' attention.
Again, there are more details in our Search Engines and Directories section.


Work the Qualified Directories
While the big directories will list any site that meets their basic qualifications, specialized directories, like
About.com, Britannica Internet Guide, and Magellan , review each site that they list. These folks make
their reputation by linking to only the best sites, so your first step in cracking these directories is to create
a great site . Then you have to get the attention of the editor, who very likely has the attitude of the
nightclub bouncer, if they will talk with you at all. Many of these editors prefer to proactively go out and
find sites that meet their needs rather than field calls from listing candidates. If you do get their attention,
be nice, but also be persistent and persuasive, and (assuming you've got what they are looking for)
eventually you might slip past their velvet ropes.


Work the Specialized Directories
If you go to Yahoo's list of specialized directories, you'll see that many industries and interest areas have
their own directories. Find directories that specialize in your industry, and work these folks the same way
you do the qualified directories.


Work the Registration Services
You can reach many of the search engines and directories mentioned above by using a registration
service. There are hundreds of these services. Among the better-known and more established are Submit
It, Register-It, and Did-It. SelfPromotion.com takes a slightly different approach, and their price is right: It's
free.


Work the Awards Sites
From Netscape's What's Cool page to your local Internet service provider's (ISP's) "Business of the Day"
page, everyone on the Web wants to share their favorite sites with the world. Getting a Cool Site of the
Day or other award can bring new traffic to your site right away, and it gives you bragging rights for years.
Working these sites is much like working the qualified directories. A good overview of these sites, and
how to win them over, can be found at VirtualPromote's site awards page.


Work a Newsletter
No matter what business you are in, you have probably developed one or more areas of expertise. An e-
mail newsletter is a terrific way to share your knowledge with your customers and prospects and to
promote your business. See our article on Developing and Delivering an E-Mail Newsletter for more
info (and check out our article on the generic benefits of content-based marketing: Build Traffic with
Compelling Content).


Work the Discussion Groups, Forums, and Chat Rooms
Another way to establish (and share) your expertise is participating in the many interactive discussions
you will find online. From Usenet news groups to discussion forums, from mailing lists to chat rooms, the
online world is buzzing with conversation. You can learn a lot just by lurking at the edges of these
conversations, but you will benefit most when you participate, so find a conversation that you can
contribute to and jump in. A number of sites can help you find conversations to join: Forum One lists
online discussion forums, Deja News indexes and archives news groups, Liszt lists thousands of mailing
lists. To find out more about live chats, check out Yahoo!'s Net Events chat page.


Plaster Your URL Everywhere
Your Web address (i.e., URL) should be as visible and as widely available as your phone number. Make
sure it is prominently displayed on your e-mail correspondence, your paper letterhead, your business
cards, your invoices, your print ads, your radio and TV ads, your Yellow Pages ad, your delivery
vans, your answering machine message and any place else of which you can think.
Work Your Signature File
Most e-mail and news-reading programs allow you to create a signature file, or ".sig file," that can be
appended to the bottom of your outgoing messages. Anyone who reads your e-mail or newsgroup
postings will see your sig file, so it offers a great opportunity to promote your business. It shouldn't be too
long (no more than four or five lines), but it should include at least your name, your e-mail address, your
Web site URL, and a pitchy catch phrase that describes your business. Esther Filderman at the
Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center has been saving signature files for years and has filled a Web page
with examples of .sig files.


Swap Links with Other Sites
Hypertext linking is what makes the Web go 'round. And links from other sites are the most common way
that people find your site (see the survey data below). You can (and should) swap links on a casual and
informal basis. Just ask anyone who seems interested (and to whom you wouldn't mind being linked) if
they would like to swap links. There is also a whole sub-industry of more formal link programs (e.g.,
affiliate programs, Web rings, etc.) which we discuss in our Low-Cost Link Programs article.


Work News Releases
Letting the media know about your business can result in tons of free publicity. The Internet News
Bureau's media relations tips page can help you get your media campaign started. Once you have
created a news release, you can issue it yourself by getting addresses from a directory such as Gebbie
Press's, or you can use a free submission service like PR Web. You will probably get better results with
for-fee services, like PR Newswire, Internet Wire, or Internet News Bureau. And, if you have really high
expectations (and/or a generous budget), you can use a premium service like URLWire.


Exchange Banner Ads
If you have already created banner ads for a paid advertising campaign, it is simple to use those ads in
free banner-exchange programs like LinkExchange.


Sponsor a Contest or Sweepstakes
Creating a contest or sweepstakes might make sense for your business. Give-away programs of any kind
are sure to attract attention. See these sites for tons of examples of online (and offline) contests and
sweepstakes: Sweepstakes Online, ContestGuide.com, and Debbie's Contest & Sweepstakes Page.


Use Specialized Promotion Services
Recommend-It.com is a service that generates traffic to your Web site by giving browsers an easy way to
pass along sites of interest to friends. We'll list other innovative services like this as we find them.
According to a recent survey, the main ways that people find new web sites are:
Other Web pages, Search engines, Directories, Magazines/newspapers, Friends, TV,
Sig files, Usenet newsgroups, Books, Think about this list as you plan your promotion campaign.




workz.com Bottom Line
Doing business online can be expensive. Hosting services, software, custom programming, content
creation, and advertising can add up in a hurry. Your marketing budget doesn't have to follow this trend.
Using our tips can bring customers to your site without breaking the bank.


How to Promote Your Site: Reciprocal Links, By Ranae Buscher, Contributing Author, workz.com
Did you know reciprocal links are one of the most effective ways to promote, your company and increase
traffic? According to webtomorrow, hyperlinks are the second most common way visitors find sites.
(Search engines are No. 1.). You can also see what SelfPromotion.com and the Reciprocal Links
Newlsetter have to say.


Reciprocal links enable complementary Web pages to direct traffic to each other by trading a link for a
link. Each business has the opportunity to advertise its site, usually for free, to a target audience.
Exchange programs exist for hyperlinks and banner ads, but reciprocal hyperlinks are by far the more
common.




What's In It for You
Reciprocal linking offers two main benefits. Search engines often factor link popularity into their
algorithms to give pages linked to other sites a higher ranking.


And reciprocal links are excellent for targeting specific audiences. Let's say you've written a book about a
particular breed of dog, the border collie. You can promote your book to its highly focused market through
links on sites focusing solely on that breed, such as online dog clubs.


Search engines don't offer this direct connection to your audience. The point of a reciprocal link
campaign is to direct targeted traffic to your site. Find sites that cater to the same audience yours does,
request links from them and track each request.


Be Realistic
Keep in mind most high-traffic sites, such as Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble.com, won't participate in
reciprocal linking. They have plenty of viewers and can't spare the time to screen potential linked sites.
Moreover, you might be accused of spamming if you send these sites e-mail, particularly unsolicited
messages requesting promotional favors.
Start by conducting an online search. If your site sells pet supplies, you can type keywords such as pets,
pet stores, cats and dogs into a search engine to get a list of potential linking partners. Yahoo! is an
excellent tool because it returns similar pages by category, which helps narrow the field immediately.


Yahoo's WebRing is a good tool for targeting a market of similar sites if you want to join a Web ring, -
another strategy for building reciprocal links.


When you've compiled a list of potential sites, start requesting link exchanges. It's likely you'll start out
quickly identifying many high-quality linking partners only to spend several days, perhaps weeks,
coordinating and negotiating deals with them.


Outside Assists
You can ease the administrative burden by finding a good software program or reciprocal link service.
Programs help you do the work more efficiently; services generally handle the work for you.


Reciprocal link software programs. LinKtoLinK, for example, is designed to simplify the process and save
time in requesting and maintaining reciprocal links. The program has e-mail templates to help you
compose requests to site owners. It allows you to automate this process by merging your request
message with partner site URLs, contact names and other pertinent data – if you have entered these in a
database.


Beware of sending the same e-mail message to multiple recipients if they're high-traffic sites. You can
find a list of other reciprocal link software programs online.


Reciprocal link services. You can outsource the whole process to companies that specialize in reciprocal
link building, such as LinkMe.com. These link services, many of which are free, tout attractive benefits,
such as link verification and customization.


Before you outsource, ask yourself two important questions.
How will you measure performance? If you conduct the campaign yourself, you can look at your server's
referrer logs, which contain data on which sites have sent you traffic, average length of time visitors
remain on your site, and so on.


You can obtain these logs from your Internet service provider (ISP). If you outsource your link campaign,
you should ask how the service will track traffic sent to your site, and if it will share those data with you.


How can you be assured the links being negotiated for you are top-quality and targeted at your audience?
Are you willing to give the third-party service full authority to negotiate links on your behalf?
If you do outsource, one good approach is to set quality control standards - such as only partnering with
sites that will agree to place your link a click or two from their home page, not several layers deep in their
site. Reserve the right of approval for any link deals.


Whether you outsource or not, the only sure way to determine if your reciprocal linking campaign is
working to your advantage is to regularly verify all reciprocal links.


Make sure the links are still there, that they work and that your partner sites are geared toward your
audience.




Take the Bull by the Horns
Finally, ask yourself: How will I measure performance? Maintain quality? Make sure inbound and
outbound links are active? Be realistic about your resources and time constraints when deciding if
automating or outsourcing all or a portion of the job is right for you. No one cares about your site
as much as you do, and no third party will be as conscientious as you or your staff when it comes to the
details.


Reciprocal links are a valuable tool for attracting traffic to your Web site. Grab the helm in building and
negotiating them to target a focused audience. Rsch: http://www.aimr.com/




HOME INSPECTIONS
Home inspections cover numerous systems within the house, but there are a handful of hot-spots that
worry buyers the most. Don't wait for inspection day to assess the condition of your home and make
necessary home repairs. Small problems can turn into big headaches more quickly than you might
imagine, requiring a chunk of cash to fix and perhaps lowering the home's market value.


Mold & Mildew
Mildew stains and odors scare buyers, especially now that toxic black mold is such a hot topic. Chances
are you won't even get an acceptable offer if mold and mildew are present. Even if the mold in your
house is the normal variety--and not stachybotrys chartarum--take care of it immediately. Kill the mold
and mildew and fix the source of the problem.


Wet Basements & Crawlspaces
Mildew odors signal that a basement is too moist. Buyers and inspectors will look closely at the walls and
floors for patches of mildew and signs of dampness.


The home inspector will use a meter to determine how much moisture is present in these spaces,
because moisture deteriorates building materials and attracts insects. Cover exposed earth in basements
and crawl spaces with plastic to help keep moisture levels down.




Leaking walls in the basement may be expensive to repair. If problems exist you can consider lowering
the price of the house upfront, with the understanding that the price reflects an existing problem, or give
the buyers an allowance to make repairs after closing. Ask your agent or real estate attorney for advice.


The Roof & Its Neighbors
Deteriorated shingles or other roof coverings are one of the first things a home buyer or home inspector
notices. If the elements underneath the shingles are moist or rotted, you can bet repairs will be requested.
Fixing small leaks immediately is a number one priority.
Clean the gutters and make sure downspouts are positioned so that water runs away from the house.
Flashing around the base of chimneys should be watertight. Mortar and bricks should be in good
condition.


Plumbing Problems
Fix leaks and clogs long before the home inspection takes place. The home inspector will check water
pressure by turning on multiple faucets and flushing toilets at the same time. Appliances such as
dishwashers and clothes washers will be tested, too. Leaks and clogs will be apparent during these
checks.


The home inspector may check the septic system. During one method dyes are flushed down a stool. The
inspector waits to see if the dye surfaces on the drainfield, indicating a drainage problem. Inadequate or
Inferior Electrical Systems


The electrical panel and circuit breaker configuration should be adequate for the needs of the house. A
125 amp electrical panel works for most homes. Individual circuits should not be overloaded.


The inspector will look for receptacles with ground fault circuit interrupters (GFI) in bathrooms and
kitchens. These receptacles have little test-reset buttons on them. The home inspector will likely make
sure the receptacles are what they appear to be, and not "dummies" that aren't truly wired to work.
A portion of the grounded receptacles (with 3-pronged plugs) will be checked too.
The home inspector will be looking for safety issues, problems that exist with the current system.


Other Systems
Heating and cooling systems will be checked. The home inspector will make sure they work and may
make statements regarding their efficiency. The inspector will take a close look at the structure and
foundation. All appliances will be checked. The inspection report may include details about smoke
detectors.


Your Bottom Line
Do everything you can to get the house in good condition before you list it, but don't be discouraged if the
inspection report contains negative statements. Home inspectors make note of everything they see.


No home is perfect. The home inspection report is not a wish-list for buyers. Read your contract carefully-
-it probably states which systems should be in good working order at closing. For instance, if the roof is
older, but doesn't leak, it is in good working order. If there's a leak, and fixing just the leak is possible, the
roof will be in good working order. Your contract may also state that you are under no obligation to make
any repairs (although the buyers can then likely withdraw from the contract).


Don't feel you must comply with unreasonable demands for repairs.
Your lender may require a pest inspection to make sure your new home is free of termites and other
wood destroying insects. If the pest report mentions damage from an active or previous infestation the
lender will ask you to hire someone to verify the structural integrity of the home. Don't confuse
either of those inspections with a true home inspection.


What Is a Home Inspection?
A home inspector evaluate the structure of the house, and gives feedback about other systems such as
the roof, plumbing, electrical system, heating and air conditioning units, insulation, doors, windows and
more.


Are Home Inspections Required?
Home inspections are an extra expense and usually optional, so do you really need one? Probably.
Money might be tight for closing but try to imagine moving in and finding out that the air conditioning unit
isn't capable of cooling the house; or that portions of the electrical system are substandard; or that the
chimney needs immediate repairs?


What if the Inspection Uncovers Problems?
Your offer to purchase should include a detailed statement regarding your rights to a home inspection.
The standard contract used by real estate agents may give you the right to back out of a contract if a
home inspection uncovers more problems than you are willing to deal with. If it does not, the wording
should be added in the form of a contingency.


Don't assume the seller will make every repair you ask for. They may refuse to make any repairs at all.
Read your contract carefully before signing it so that you understand the rights and obligations of all
parties. Agreements must be in writing and signed by the buyer and seller. Never rely on a verbal
agreement.


Still think you can do without an inspection?
A qualified inspector is in the best position to evaluate your new home. Been there, done that.
Experienced inspectors have seen hundreds or even thousands of homes and have the routine down-pat.
They know exactly what to look for. They usually know all the little quick-fix tricks, too, and will
tell you if they find cover-up attempts.


My brother can do it. Some people truly do have a friend or family member who can perform an
inspection. But even though your brother may have some building experience he may not have the
equipment or expertise required to do a thorough evaluation of the home. What if he misses a major
problem? Will it create hard feelings within the family?


I'm in love with this house. So much in love that you're ignoring problems? An inspector takes a clinical
look at the house. You'll get only the facts, and that's what you need to make decisions about going
forward with the purchase.


I don't care what the problems are, I want this house. If that's true go ahead. You're the only one who can
determine how much time, energy and money you can devote to the house. But keep in mind that an
inspection that uncovers safety issues can help you prioritize repairs.


It's a brand new home. There won't be any problems. Maybe in a perfect world. New construction isn't
always problem-free.


Most states in the US offer little or no regulations for the home inspection industry. So how do you find a
professional? Get opinions. Talk to friends who have had an inspection recently. Did their inspector do
a good job? You can ask the inspector for references, too, but keep in mind they probably won't give you
the names of unhappy clients.
If you are working with a real estate agent you trust, ask who they recommend. Agents deal with
inspections every day. They know who the good inspectors are.


The agent should give you at least three references--not steer you to one individual. Ask to see a sample
report. What systems are covered in the home inspection? Are there some services that require an extra
fee, such as a septic inspection? A septic report is required for FHA and VA financing. Doing it at the
same time as the home inspection is usually less expensive than bringing the inspector back again later.


Will you be given a detailed report with photos of problem areas? It should include a checklist showing
results for all systems evaluated. It should also include reports in paragraph form.


Ask for a time estimate. A thorough inspection can take 3-5 hours or more. Inspect the inspector. If
statements in the appraisal or pest report cause the lender to ask for a structural inspection they will
expect that inspection to be done by a licensed professional. Before you select an inspector ask what
type of licensing the lender requires should that happen. If your inspector qualifies it may save you
time and money since you won't have to hire a second person to verify structural integrity.


Where was the inspector trained? Does he or she attend continuing education classes? Does the
inspector belong to a professional organization? If so, what are the requirements for membership? Entry
should require more than just an application fee. Does the inspector carry Errors & Omissions
insurance?


This type of malpractice insurance may come in handy if the inspector overlooks a major problem.
It's best if you attend the inspection yourself. Inspectors report all defects they find, no matter how minor.
Buyers sometimes get excited about minor problems simply because they don't have an understanding of
what's really wrong. Witnessing problem areas first-hand will give you a better grasp of what is and is not
an issue.


Helping home buyers cover down payment and closing costs
Potential home buyers who can make a house payment with no difficulty sometimes can't buy a house
because they don't have the funds required for a down payment and closing costs. One solution to the
problem--use a down payment gift assistance program, sometimes called a down payment grant
program. How Down Payment Gift Assistance Programs Work


A little bit of background first. Home sellers can help buyers pay closing costs by giving a portion of their
proceeds back to the buyer at closing. The amount of seller assistance that's allowed depends on the
type of loan the buyer is getting. Sellers are not allowed to give home buyers down payment funds.
That's where gift assistance programs step in, providing a "work around" of those laws. The seller enrolls
their house in a suitable program and contributes an amount equal to the assistance their buyer will
receive at closing--plus a fee. (Most Web sites that disclosed the fee stated that it's 0.75% of the
home's sales price.)


When the transaction closes, the down payment funds are wired from the gift assistance program to the
closing agent. The seller has no part in the transfer of funds. Does HUD Approve Gift Assistance
Companies? Yes and no. Here's what HUD says about the programs:


"HUD does not approve “gift” programs administered by charitable organizations and, thus, will not offer a
formal approval of your program. Mortgage lenders are responsible for assuring that the gift to the
homebuyer from the charitable organization meets the instructions described in HUD Handbook 4155.1
REV-4, CHG-1 Paragraph 2-10(C) (e.g., no repayment implied, etc.). Those charitable organizations that
comply with existing regulations and policy guidelines are permitted to give cash gifts to eligible
homebuyers and do not need prior FHA approval to do so." So HUD does not issue formal approvals for
gift programs--it puts the burden of working with a legitimate program on the lender. The major programs
all appear to comply with HUD's requirements. Your lender can verify that the program you choose is one
that is acceptable.


FAQ About Down Payment Gift Assistance Programs Program guidelines may differ slightly, but they all
offer the same basic services.


Home buyers must qualify for a loan that allows gift funds. There are no minimum or maximum income
requirements for buyers, but there may be top limits set on the sales price of homes. Typical assistance
seems to range from 1% to 7%. Funds can be used for the down payment and for closing costs. Gift
funds can be used for new or existing homes. Unused funds must be returned to the gift program.
Assistance programs cannot be used to refinance a house or to make home improvements.


Sellers cannot use the gift as a charitable contribution, but it may be deductible as a selling expense. Talk
to a tax professional. Why Would a Seller Want to Participate: Home sellers usually price their homes to
include some negotiation space. What matters to a seller is his bottom-line--how much money he takes
away from the closing table. A buyer who has the funds to close may get a better deal on the house,
while a buyer who needs help will pay closer to (or more than) the asking price, but in return can
negotiate help from the seller.


One thing you must keep in mind is the home's appraisal value. The lender will not allow gift funds that
result in a loan that exceeds the appraised value of the home. If you're working with a real estate agent,
she can help you determine if the home is realistically priced and will appraise where it should.
Your lender can help you choose a down payment assistance program and explain how your offer to
purchase should be worded to ensure compliance with its underwriting guidelines.


Federal Resources
HUD - First-time Homeowners Assistance. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
offers many programs to assist people in buying their first home.
HUD - Senior Citizen Assistance Programs
HUD - Veterans' Resource Center (HUDVET)
Combines the services of HUD and the Veterans' Administration.
HUD - Women's Assistance Programs
HUD - Disabled Persons' Assistance Programs
HUD - Native Americans & Farm Workers Assistance Programs
HUD - Home Improvements Assistance
Whether you want to fix a faucet or add a new addition to your home, you need to know the facts and the
pitfalls of home improvements. Here are some sources that can help.
HUD - Homelessness Assistance Programs: If you are homeless, help is available! HUD, along with
many other federal agencies listed here fund programs to help the homeless.


USDA - Rural Housing Service
The Rural Housing Service provides a number of homeownership opportunities to rural Americans, as
well as programs for home renovation and repair. RHS also makes financing available to elderly,
disabled, or low-income rural residents of multi-unit housing buildings to ensure they are able to make
rent payments.
Local Resources: Call your city or county Human Services Department for help in finding affordable
housing or homelessness assistance. For help with home repairs, call the city or county Building Officer,
or speak to a Building Inspector.
Free Government Grants
Get money to start a business, pay personal debt, health, education www.unclesamgrants.com


Free Government Grants
Money for any purpose whatsoever! Business, personal, school, home. www.grantguys.com


Federal Money Retriever®
All US Government Grants. Find a grant. Send a letter. Today! fedmoney.com


Free Government Grants
Discover how to get free grant money for business or personal use www.bizmove.com
Government grants
And government auctions Also links to hidden gov't sites, www.freebiegovernmentmoney.com


Trade Show resources: http://www.tsnn.com/


Rsch more on Congress happenings: http://thomas.loc.gov/


Rsch site helps entreps: http://www.bigeye.com/finentre.htm


For paid background infor : http://www.whowhere.lycos.com/Phone




Hope VI: Ms. Gwendolyn G. Howard, MSW, Senior Resident Services Advisor
804-780-8805, Ext 6, FAX804-291-6237; 214 E. 13th St, 23224, qhoward@rrha.state.va.us
"The Revitalization 9of the Blackwell Community, Richmond Redevelopment & Housing Authority
HOPE VI: Introduction
The HOPE VI program serves as a vital role in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's
(HUD) efforts to transform Public Housing. The elements for public housing transformation that are key to
HOPE VI include:
- Changing the physical shape of public housing so that it reflects the surrounding community instead of
being seen as isolated housing.
- Developing positive incentives for resident self- sufficiency and comprehensive services that empower
residents.
- Lessening the concentration of poverty by promoting mixed-income communities.
- Creating partnerships with other agencies, local governments, non-profit organizations, and private
business to leverage support and resources.
The HOPE VI Program was developed as a result of recommendations by the National Commission on
Severely Distressed Public Housing, which was charged with proposing a National Action Plan to
eradicate severely distressed public housing.
The Commission recommended revitalization in three general areas: physical improvements,
management improvements, and social and community services to address resident needs.


HOPE VI is a comprehensive program that is revitalizing Virginia's once-prosperous, historic Blackwell
community, which lies just south of downtown Richmond.
The Richmond Redevelopment and Housing Authority (RRHA) and the City of Richmond secured a
HOPE VI grant of $26.9 million from HUD (the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) to
revitalize Richmond's Blackwell community. (HOPE VI is an acronym for Housing Opportunities for
People Everywhere.)


For the public housing residents of Blackwell, the HOPE VI Program creates opportunities for new rental
and homeownership housing and provides comprehensive self-sufficiency services (through "SSTP,"
RRHA's HOPE VI Self-Sufficiency Training Program) to improve their quality of life and support
employment objectives.


In September 2001, just one year after breaking ground for Blackwell's first new multifamily housing,
families have moved into the multifamily housing, the Townes at River South. Many of the families moving
into these attractive, privately owned and managed rental units are former residents of Blackwell public
housing.


HOPE VI: A Community Partnership: The HOPE VI revitalization plan is the result of a planning effort by
residents, community and government leaders, organizations and institutions. The HOPE VI Self-
sufficiency Training Program (SSTP) is supported by a community task force composed of residents,
service providers and businesses. These groups have been working closely to identify strengths, build
upon assets and create a vision for future development.


RRHA's partners in revitalizing Blackwell through HOPE VI include (but are not limited to):
• HUD (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)
• City of Richmond
• Richmond Public Schools
• Blackwell Tenant Council, Inc.
• Blackwell Community Civic Association Business Partners: Overnite Transportation, Philip Morris,
Community Pride Food Stores, Crestar Bank, DuPont and Capital One
• Other government agencies, community development corporations, non-profit organizations
• Blackwell's faith-based community
• RRHA HOPE VI contractors and developers
• Virginia Commonwealth University
• J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College


Homeownership through HOPE VI: HOPE VI will bring 188 new, well-constructed single-family detached
houses to Blackwell, and through RRHA's homeownership programs, low- and moderate-income families
will purchase these homes. These programs are the HOPE VI-Blackwell Lease/Purchase Program, the
HOPE VI-Blackwell Market Rate Homeownership Program and other RRHA homeownership programs
including the Urban Homesteading Program.


Although the programs differ in terms of income eligibility requirements and the financial assistance they
offer, the same types of homes are available through the programs. The 3-, 4- and 5-bedroom homes
offer modern amenities and charming details such as porches, picket fences and back yards.


• The HOPE VI-Blackwell Lease/Purchase Program enables lower-income families to become
homeowners. These families lease a house for up to one year before purchasing it. The program offers
homeownership training. RRHA works with each program participant to ensure that monthly mortgage
payments are affordable. For more information, call (804) 780-4461 or (804) 780-4293.


• The HOPE VI-Blackwell Market Rate Program is designed to help moderate-income and middle-income
families become homeowners. The program offers financial incentives, such as mortgage subsidies and
down payment assistance. The program is modeled on the Nehemiah FHA (Federal Housing Authority)
Home Buyer Program. For more information, call (804) 780-4293.


• Homeownership through other RRHA programs can be achieved through programs including the Urban
Homesteading Program. Available to low- and moderate-income families, the program allows families to
purchase homes for $1. The homesteading family agrees to rehabilitate its house and occupy the
property for at least five years. RRHA provides credit counseling and creates affordable financing
packages. For more information, call (804) 780-4731.


Blackwell Designated a Redevelopment and Conservation Area
In conjunction with HOPE VI the city of Richmond has designated Blackwell a redevelopment and
conservation area and has committed more than $16 million to assisting existing homeowners with
rehabilitation of their homes; to acquiring and demolishing dilapidated housing; and to building new
single-family houses to provide homeownership opportunities. Beyond housing, the city's $16 million has
also resulted in the construction of a new elementary school, a new community center and a refurbished
park. The city's efforts in Blackwell are part of Neighborhoods in Bloom, the city's aggressive
neighborhood redevelopment and revitalization program. Through the program, the city is focusing its
efforts on six Richmond neighborhoods, including Blackwell.




WHY YOU NEED A WEB SITE, by Robert Sullivan
EVERY small or home-based business should consider a website. There are certainly some businesses
where a website offers nothing of value but for the vast majority a website can be a very effective sales
channel and marketing tool. I've listed just a few reasons why a website can be such a powerful tool but
before you continue - and just to underscore how valuable the Internet can be - consider these statistics:


Two billion orders will be placed over the Internet this year. E-commerce revenue will be $95 billion by
the end of this year and will exceed $1 Trillion by 2002. Holiday purchases have increased from $141
million in 1995 and are expected to be $9.5 billion this year.


Low Cost
Utilizing the Internet for your business is very inexpensive. Unlimited connect accounts are generally
available for less than $20/month and include Internet access and e-mail. You can start off with just using
electronic mail (e-mail) as a way to communicate with existing customers and new ones.
E-Mail
Communicate anywhere in the world with customers and employees and pay NO long distance telephone
charges. And while you're at it, you can "attach" other documents to your e-mail. For example, you can
send an updated proposal to your representative across the country - quickly and at no cost.
Customer Support
Provide personalized support for your customers with answers to common questions; assistance on
specific products or services, provide a variety of ways in which you can be contacted. Do all this without
answering a phone or hiring additional staff.
Be Open For Business 24 hours a day
This sounds bad but in reality it's a big plus. With e-mail, people can contact you anytime it is convenient
for them. You can respond anytime that's convenient for you. Of course, we suggest "timely-response"
just as if someone called you. When you have a website, potential customers can find out about your
products and services 24 hours a day. Isn't this much better than getting a call at 5:00 AM from a
customer in a time zone that's 3 hours ahead of yours?
Global Reach
The Internet is being used on a regular basis by millions worldwide with more "connecting" every day.
Many of the new users come from countries around the world. They want to buy the "latest and greatest"
products. They have money. With the Internet they can become your customer! How much do you
think it would cost you to advertise in the Times of London, the Tokyo Daily, and Moscow Today?
Compare that to the cost of a website. The information you provide on your website is instantly available
to every one of these users
Reach customers that speak a foreign language
Why restrict your market to the "English-speaking" world? Translate your website into a number of
languages and offer a choice to users when they come to your home page to further increase your
exposure.
Money Savings
Today your long-distance phone bill can run into the hundreds of dollars. Using the e-mail to talk to your
customers, suppliers, partners, etc., can save you a large portion of this expense.
Try new ideas
Since the Internet is a "brand-new" medium, no one (including us) really knows all of the ways you can
make money from the Internet. We do know there are a whole lot of great ideas already. When you use
the Internet, you can try new ideas usually for little invested on your part. It doesn't work, OK, you
learned. Modify it your idea. Improve it. At the very least you'll know more than your competitors. Who
could imagine that authors would put their books on the Internet? Well, that's what people are trying with
the hope that customer's will like what they read enough so that they'll buy the paper version.
Update or Change your products and services easily and at low cost
If you have produced "paper" catalogs, brochures, sales collateral's, you know how difficult and expensive
it is to change them. You want to add a new item. Oh no! The phone company changed your area code.
No, no! What a pain with paper. With your Internet site, changing anything is a simple and inexpensive
process.
Specials
Say you just received a new product and you want to advertise a "special." Reaching your customers via
the phone, sending a letter, or FAX would be time-consuming and expensive. With the Internet you can
send out an e-mail to 500 of your best customers with the click of your mouse. You can put a "SPECIAL"
notice on your website advertising the new product. However, there are some "rules" to follow to ensure
the success of your website.


FIRST THE BASICS
1. Decide if you are going to develop your own website or contract with a developer. If the latter, search
the web for possible candidates. If you are doing it yourself, visit a bookstore or search the web and pick
up one of the many excellent references on Web Publishing and html. If you don't have the time, hire
someone and ensure they have the required expertise. A child can write html code. Designing an
effective website takes an expert. We can help!
2. Apply for a domain name. (You can do it yourself over the internet via the Internic,
http://www.rs.internic.net, or have your ISP do it for you. Think up three names ... it is likely you will
not get your first choice. Take your time ... this domain name becomes your identifier! We can do this for
you.
3. Carefully outline and organize the material you want to place on the web. Don't do it "on the fly."
4. Decide on the "look" of your pages. Browse the web for ideas.
5. Your website MUST provide a service as well as present your product or service that you are selling. In
our case, we provide useful small business related information (tax advice, start-up and money saving
tips, etc). We then gently steer the visitor to the books we are selling. It works!
6. Your website must be EASY to use. The design of the site must make it easy for the user to navigate
and not get lost. A confused visitor will simply leave.
7. Your website will go nowhere without a sustained marketing effort. See below for what has been
successful for us.


WEBSITE DESIGN TIPS
1. LOADING TIME. Users will not wait. You have about 10-seconds to catch and keep a visitor. Your
home page should load quickly. Ensure this by keeping graphic files small (optimize all graphics with "Gif
Wizard" at http://www.gifwizard.com), backgrounds simple and by using height and width tags with
every graphic. The height/width tags will force the text to load first giving the user something to read while
the graphics load. It is also a good idea to use ALT tags with the graphic tag so that the graphic is
identified to the user while it loads.
2. BROWSER FRIENDLINESS. There are many different browsers in use. Ensure your home page is
friendly to all of them. Do this by keeping your page simple and if you are using frames, tables, image
maps and other enhancements, ensure you have an alternate page available for browsers that cannot
display the enhancements. For example, we use frames so we provide a "non-frame" gateway for those
users with older non-frame friendly browsers.
3. ORGANIZED MESSAGE. The user should be immediately presented with a description of your site ...
what it's for and what's in it. Also, make it easy for the user to navigate your site. For example, make
certain there is always an obvious way to return to the home page from anywhere within your site.
4. META TAGS. These html tags are used to define the name and content of you site. Proper use of
META tags will ensure that some important (large) search engines can find and properly index your site.
Also ensure each web page is property "titled" within the header tags. Learn about meta statements at
http://www.metatag.webpromote.com.
5. UPDATE FREQUENTLY. Ensure that visitors will return to your site by constantly updating its content.
This cannot be stressed enough - a static site will not grow.
6. ASK FOR FEEDBACK. Make it easy for a visitor to e-mail you comments.


MARKETING IDEAS (ATTRACTING VISITORS)
We have found the following to be very effective in building and sustaining traffic to our website. I hope it
goes without saying that website sales are directly proportional to traffic!


1. Get listed with the major search engines. Don't do it yourself - it is very time consuming and there are
plenty of inexpensive ways to get it done. I like the folks at 1-step (http://www.1step.com).
2. Utilize traditional and internet-based news releases.
3. Engage in strategic mutual link development. This is quite important - 25% of our traffic comes to us via
these links! This takes time but is worth the effort.
4. Participate in newsgroups and listservs. Don't advertise - provide useful information. Let your
"signature" do the advertising. Don't become a pest.
5. Include your URL on EVERYthing: telephone answering machine, literature, business cards and
stationary, traditional adverts, etc. We had some T-shirts printed with our homepage on the front and URL
on the back – they are great conversation starters.
6. Develop a newsletter. (Preferably e-mail based) We did, and in about a year generated a mailing list of
over 5000. This brings traffic ... and sales. Got a new book? Let your list know about it - at no cost.
7. Write articles for journals and periodicals that relate to what you do. Include a byline with your URL, of
course.
8. Make sure you are using a "signature" with your e-mail and include your URL.


KEEPING VISITORS
1. Content, content, content. Your site must say something, teach something, provide valuable useful
information. This is the most important element of any successful website. Furthermore, this information
must be dynamic – kept up to date and always changing.
2. As noted earlier, website navigation is very important. It must be easy to find anything within your site
and it should not be impossible to "get lost." It is amazing how many websites ignore this important
element of website design.




http://64.4.18.250/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=64371d85a2f4619b54c2550be33b4
5eb&lat=1070994396&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fslclk%2eabout%2ecom%2f%3fzi%3d1%
2fHwS




What Are Generally Accepted Accounting Principles?
Every day, accountants make judgments about how to record business transactions. They often base
their decisions on the financial objectives of the companies for which they work. Other times they turn to
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) to steer their decisions. GAAP are not a fixed set of
rules. They are guidelines or, more precisely, a group of objectives and conventions that have evolved
over time to govern how financial statements are prepared and presented. The Financial Accounting
Standards Board, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and
Exchange Commission provide guidance about acceptable accounting practices.


Good Reasons to Use GAAP
Every business that expects anyone outside the company to look at its financial data should use GAAP.
Compliance with GAAP helps maintain creditability with creditors and stockholders because it reassures
outsiders that a company's financial reports accurately portray its financial position. Plus, anyone who
reads your financial statements — stockholders, creditors, security analysts or outside companies — will
assume that the reports comply with GAAP.


Certified public accountants routinely audit companies to determine if their financial statements are
prepared according to GAAP. These audit findings are typically included with companies' financial
statements.


Banks and finance companies often require their clients to use GAAP or have audited financial
statements. And investors who are accustomed to using financial information prepared according to
GAAP might balk if your statements don't meet their expectations.
found at www.allbusiness.com


SARBANES-OXLEY ACT enacted by the Senate and House of Reps.
Rsch: the Public Company Oversight Board established in this Act's section 101.
Look for Nonprofit Corporation Act.
Page 66 of http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/gwbush/sarbanesoxley072302.pdf
Sec 1107. RETALLIATION AGAINST INFORMANTS
(a) IN GENERAL.--Section 1513 of Title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the
following:
             "(e) Whoever knowingly, with the intent to retaliate, takes any action harmful to any person,
including interference with the lawful employment or livelihood of any person, for providing to a law
enforcement officer any truthful information relating to the commission or possible commission of
any Federal offense, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both"


DO I HAVE ANY PROTECTION AGAINST MY EMPLOYER FIRING OR OTHERWISE
DISCRIMINATING AGAINST ME FOR BLOWING THE WHISTLE UNDER THE FALSE CLAIMS
ACT? Yes. The False Claims Act contains a section which has become commonly known as the
"whistleblower protection" provision. Section 3730 (h) of the Act provides that an employee who is
discharged, demoted, suspended, threatened, harassed or in any other manner discriminated against in
the terms and conditions of employment by his or her employer because of lawful acts done by the
employee on behalf of the employee or others in furtherance of an action under the False Claims Act,
including preliminary investigation, is entitled to special protection. The protection afforded to
whistleblowers includes reinstatement with the same seniority status such employee would have had, but
for the discrimination, two times the amount of back pay, interest on the back pay, and compensation for
any special damages sustained as a result of the discrimination, including litigation costs and reasonable
attorney's fees.
It is not enough that the employee file or intend to file a Qui Tam action. The employee must show that
his/her actions are the basis for the employer's retaliatory actions.


What if it is not money that anyone want to recuperate? What aspects of actions from UI drugged
employee and overly busy Intake person who is later covered up by site supervisor? "The False Claims
Act applies to a broad range of conduct and is often used even when the federal government has not paid
any money directly to the defendants. So long as federal funds are used to pay the defendants, the
False Claims Act applies."


HOW AND WHEN CAN A PRIVATE PLAINTIFF (RELATOR) RECEIVE AN AWARD FOR BLOWING
THE WHISTLE UNDER THE FALSE CLAIMS ACT?
"First, in order to be eligible to recover money under the Act, a relator must file a qui tam lawsuit. Simply
informing the Government about the false claim is not enough."


FALSIFIED RESEARCH OR APPLICATION OF FUNDS
The recipients of a grant or program funds mis-characterize their qualifications, the basis of their research
or the quality and extent of services they provide, or divert funds to other uses i.e. in education, housing,
emergency relief, and NIH grants.


IV. WHAT TYPES OF PEOPLE FILE QUI TAM LAWSUITS?
EMPLOYEES: A current or former employee who blows the whistle on his or her employer is one of the
most common type of qui tam plaintiffs. Detecting fraud is usually very difficult without the cooperation of
a close observer of the fraudulent activity. In the case of a former employee, they were usually terminated
or quit as a result of complaining about the fraud or trying to blow the whistle internally. Typically, the
complaints fall on deaf ears.


Rsch: http://www.whistleblowerfirm.com/whistleblower_resources.html
   To answer:
What is the nature of the false claims (fraud) that you are aware of?:
When did the fraud begin?:                  Is the fraud still going on?:
Please give applicable years:
How did you find out that there was fraudulent activity taking place?:
Is your knowledge of the fraud first hand knowledge, or did you find out from someone else?:
Do you have in your possession any documents, papers, or other written proof that this fraud was taking
place?:
If so, describe: Are there other witnesses to this fraud?
If YES, would they be able to support your allegations?: Yes No
Was this a fraud committed against the Federal Government?:
Please estimate how much money was involved in the fraud?:
Were you an employee of the company committing the fraud?:
If YES, are you still an employee?: Yes No
If YES, did you tell anybody else in the company about the fraud?: Yes No
If NO, when were you last employed by the company?
Was Management aware that there was fraudulent activity taking place?: Yes              No    Not Sure
Have you reported this fraud to anyone in the Government? Explain.:
If YES, when did you report it?:
Does the media, (Television, newspapers, etc.) have any knowledge of this fraud? Explain.:
Approximately how many employees work for the company?: In how many states?:
Assuming that your allegations have merit, would you be willing to come forward and formally file a false
claims suit against this company?: Yes               No              Not at this time
Any other comments or facts you would like us to know?




Ethics & Compliance Hotline
A confidential option for reporting illegal or unethical activities that cause loss or harm to a company or its
employees, including:
Violations of Governmental Regulations, Fraud, Falsification/Destruction of Company Records,
Workplace Violence, Substance Abuse, Discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Conflicts of Interest,
Release of Proprietary Information


The Network’s Ethics & Compliance Hotline helps you comply with Federal Sentencing Guidelines, the
Sarbanes-Oxley legislation, and the New York Stock Exchange regulations by offering a risk-free way to
report violations. An anonymous hotline offers an option to people who feel uncomfortable coming
forward face to face to discuss illegal or unethical behaviors. By calling the hotline, these employees can
access a skilled Interview Specialist 24/7so that you get the information you need to investigate an
allegation. At The Network, our hotlines and help lines are powered by the award-winning Link2 system,
which performs real-time quality assurance to ensure the report you receive is as thorough and accurate
as possible. The Link2 system's case management module offers your case managers a user-friendly,
centralized control channel for documenting your follow up on ethics complaints. This convenient online
system helps you monitor and manage workflow through ad hoc reporting and advanced search
capabilities. Your case management documentation is an important aspect of compliance with
Sarbanes-Oxley and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, and The Network's system makes it easy.


Sarbanes-Oxley’s Whistleblower Requirements
Section 301: The Audit Committee must provide a mechanism for employees to remain anonymous when
reporting concerns about accounting or audit irregularities. Section 301: The Audit Committee must
provide a process for the “receipt, retention and treatment” of complaints regarding financial irregularities.
Section 404: The Annual Report must contain a statement regarding the effectiveness of internal controls.
The hotline is one of these controls. Section 806: Employees have the right to sue the company for
whistleblower retaliation. Section 1107: Managers found guilty of retaliation face penalties, including
up to 10 years in prison. Does your Hotline measure up?
Whether you are establishing an anonymous hotline for the first time, or reviewing an existing service,
proper evaluation of options can alleviate future problems. Remember, when dealing with an anonymous
caller, you only have one chance to get enough information to proceed with an investigation. They may
never call back?
Consider each of the following criteria carefully prior to making your decision:
Protects anonymous callers from reprisal (required by Sarbanes-Oxley) ?
Offers Case Management capabilities for tracking investigation (required by Sarbanes-Oxley) ?
Toll-free Access 24/7. This is critical because nearly 50% of hotline calls happen outside of business
hours?
Utilizes real-time quality control to ensure thoroughness and accuracy of reports taken from anonymous
callers ?
Asks every caller probing questions based on the type of incident being reported to ensure pertinent
information is uncovered ?
Rapid delivery of critical information, including immediate notification regarding time-sensitive issues?
Offers communications materials to educate employees about ethics and to promote the hotline?
Conducts interviews in any language your employees speak?


Cost-effective method for uncovering potentially harmful issues
Now whistleblowing is not just encouraged, it’s mandated. There is no doubt that 2002 was an amazing
and horrifying year for the American investor. Investors learned the costly lesson that fraud perpetrated
by corporate executives is especially devastating. The year ended with Time magazine declaring the
“whistleblowers” of Enron, WorldCom, and the FBI as Persons of the year. Now reform legislation like the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the new guidelines adopted by the various stock exchanges have begun a new
era of accountability for corporate America. Sarbanes-Oxley dictates the adoption of a tool that law-
makers believe will help audit committees address these issues: employees may submit anonymous
reports about financial irregularities without fear of retaliation. Preventing and detecting fraud is not an
easy task, especially for directors, who generally only have contact with a handful of top executives. The
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, an organization that trains people on methods of preventing
and detecting fraud, lends insight to the tools that are most effective. In their 2002 Report to the Nation,
they surveyed thousands of their members and found that tips were the leading method for detecting
fraud, accounting for 46 percent of detections.
Organizations with a fraud hotline cut their losses by approximately 50 percent per scheme, presumably
because the hotline enabled them to uncover fraud much earlier than in situations where other methods
were used. While internal audits, external audits, and background checks employee newsletters to topics
addressed at company meetings. This reinforces the employee's perception that the company wants to
know about illegal and unethical activities. How is the company educating employees about the issues
addressed by Sarbanes-Oxley?
Employees need communication from the company that explains why the activities referenced in the law
should be reported: because they are threats to the long-term financial health of the company. Topics
should include insider trading, improper loans to executives, accounting irregularities, conflicts of interest,
and whistleblower retaliation.
Define terms like 'accounting irregularities" and "insider trading", which may not be clear to all
employees. Finally, emphasize that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act specifically provides for protection of people
who report these activities--employees are protected against retaliation.
Do employees know how to report illegal or unethical activities? A common failing of an ethics program is
insufficient communication to employees about their communication options. They must be periodically
reminded of open-door policies, ethics officers/ombudsmen, and anonymous hotline numbers. it is
important to give employees options for reporting concerns and to make sure they are ware of those
options.
Does the company have an anonymous hotline? An open-door policy and a suggestion box are not
enough. The financial investment in a hotline is extremely small in comparison to the potentially
disastrous results of malfeasance that continues undiscovered. Beyond the obvious financial
benefit of stopping fraud in its early stages, a hotline can give the company the opportunity to limit liability
regarding offenses such as discrimination. Finally, uncovering and dealing with issues before they are
exposed in the media can protect the company from the destruction of goodwill in the eyes of investors,
customers, and other stakeholders. Is the call always answered by a trained interviewer? There is no
substitute for human interaction when dealing with an anonymous caller, because there may never be
another op.




National Poetry Month 2001, "A Poke in the I," a collection of concrete poetry, was published. While the
phrase "concrete poetry" may not be familiar to you, you probably have seen examples. Concrete poems
can be one-word poems or poems with a number of words, but in every case, the words are arranged into
a particular shape that reflects the poem's meaning. For example, the words in Joan Bransfield Graham's
poem "Popsicle" are arranged to create a popsicle shape. Concrete poems are designed to be seen
rather than heard. They challenge and delight both the eye and mind. makes great use of white space,
populating it here and there with colorful, fabric-collage people, animals, gardens, and buildings. The fact
that the poems, which are visual artworks themselves, are mostly separated from the collages and printed
in varying typefaces on the white background, gives them the prominence they deserve. The poetry and
artwork complement one another most effectively. "A Poke in the I" is just plain fun. Good concrete
poems have the ability to tickle a child's funny bone, pique a child's interest in poetry, and engage
children in word play of their own. If you give "A Poke in the I" to a child as a gift, be sure to include a pad
and a pencil. Once children have seen concrete poetry, the urge to create their own may be irresistible.
I'd recommend this book for most eight to fourteen year olds and some younger children.




Creativity: Graphic Organizers Portal from Scholastic
Scholastic's Graphic Organizers Portal offers educators at all levels easy, ready-to-use tools that help you
and your students both organize and make sense of important information. From Venn Diagrams to
timelines to Cause-Effect patterns, you'll find a wealth of teaching tools at your fingertips. Check it out and
bookmark it. You won't regret it. Social Studies Resources Theme packs for grades 7-12. $5. Lessons,
math, sources, readings. www.socialknowledge.com


Links: Graphic Organizers. Convenient reading and math transparency notebooks (grades 2-8)
www.kidprep.com


Curriculum: Educational Materials for all subjects K through College. www.homeschoolingbooks.com


Word Search Deluxe – Free: Stylish Crossword Search game with superb game play! Free Download
www.bigfishgames.com


Part 1: Explosive Growth in the Number of Virtual High Schools
Virtual K-12 schools are expanding at a rapid rate. A recent survey of 447 high schools and 345 school
districts1 indicates that more than 50 percent of U.S. high schools are currently offering online courses or
exploring them for the future. The study revealed that more than 40-percent of all public high schools are
already using online courses or planning to start using them during this current school year. It seems that
online schools offering a full curriculum for grade school children, usually home-schoolers, are spreading
too, but at a much slower rate.


Why is the Number of Online Schools Growing So Rapidly? Studies show that educators are committed
to taking advantage of the benefits that distance learning can offer their students and that online courses
are quickly becoming an integral part of the high school experience. The key motivators for schools and
school districts to turn to online courses are:
Delivering a broader curriculum more cost effectively
Expanding college preparation/ Advanced Placement offerings
Providing equal educational access
Resolving scheduling conflicts
Reaching specialized groups of learners
Accommodating large number of students who haven't succeeded in traditional high schools.


Part 2: Who Is Behind These Online High Schools?
At least 14 states have a planned or operational state-sanctioned, state-level virtual school in place.
Some of these states include: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana,
Michigan, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia. Other types of organizations include virtual schools
operated by:
College & University-based high schools are administered by the distance-education divisions of the
universities and share the same course design process and accreditation as other university programs.
Examples: University of Nebraska Independent Virtual School and University of Missouri-Columbia High
School. Consortia. A number of national, multi-state, state-level and regional virtual school consortia have
been created. Most virtual school consortia act as brokers for external provider opportunities or share
courses among members. The best known consortia is the Massachusetts based, non-profit Concord
Virtual High School. VHS, which works with over 110 high schools that are currently offering courses, is
now operated by the nonprofit VHS Inc. Schools in the VHS cooperative contribute a "net course" and in
return receive 29 student enrollments in any of over 100 VHS courses. Examples: Colorado Online
School Consortium , and Examples: Texas Virtual School , and Christa McAuliffe Academy, Laurel
Springs School , and WISE Internet High School .
Many for-profit companies are playing an important role in the development of virtual schools. Companies
such as Apex Learning and Class.com have provided "starter" courses for many new virtual school
efforts. As a result, many virtual schools today are basically "portals" that obtain their web-based courses
from these vendors or from other virtual schools. For profit organizations may offer instructional design
and program management software, distance delivery platforms, and may operate as well as help build
virtual schools. Examples: APEX Online Learning, Class.com, a for-profit company created by the
University of Nebraska, and Archipelago Productions.


Can I take a distance learning course (High school and GED) from another country?
Yes. By using the Distance Learning Course Finder you can search from over 50,000 courses from 130
countries around the globe. Other online directories are available at this About.com distance learning site.
Because you don't need to be present at the institution or company offering the course, you can learn
from an instructor who may be half way around the world. I have selected the course I want to take. What
should I know about how the course will be run?
Rsch http://www.alliedschools.com/
Links to free classes
http://64.4.18.250/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=6361cf45e375f020c2c9085a5c974
379&lat=1068306400&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fslclk%2eabout%2ecom%2f%3fzi%3d1%
2fHIw


K-8: Alyeska Central School        Since 1939 Alyeska Central School has provided non-traditional means
for earning high school diplomas. Sponsored by the Alaska Department of Education, the school offers a
full range of elementary and secondary courses free to all Alaska residents.


California Home school Network
This independent home schooling organization serves as an advocate and offers support services to a
diverse spectrum of home schooling styles and philosophies.


Distance Learning Exchange (DLE) : This Internet directory of distance learning activities includes: Web
quests, satellite teleconferences, electronic field trips, videoconferencing courses, and e-e-mail
exchanges. Basic searches may be conducted without registering.


Distance Learning Resource Network (DLRN) : The DLRN site offers online course selection criteria,
links to online K-12 courses, and home schooling resources. Check out the “Virtual Schools”
section for a list of links to full-diploma programs, that are partially or fully delivered online.


Electronic Field Trips
Distance delivered field trips that are available from almost 95 U.S. museums are listed here. This very
rich list includes the Baseball Hall of Fame, the National Museum of Natural History, the Railroad
Museum of Pennsylvania, the Bronx and San Diego zoos and Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre. The only
drawback here is the occasional line charge to get the tours to your computer.


Home School Easy Records: Easy Records offers a full-featured program for creating home school
records and lesson plans on a personal computer.


Jefferson County Public School District offers online courses for K-12 students across the country: The
courses are Web based and integrate high levels of communications and interactions, both asynchronous
(e-mail) and real-time (chat, discussion groups, private consultations.) On the home page, click on
"Online Education."


Laurel Springs School provides home schooling curricula for the lower school, pre-Kindergarten through
grade eight, and high school through grade twelve.
Yahoo Directory Distance Education-Home Schooling: Click on site listings and link to almost 15
providers of distance delivered elementary school courses. Other provider links are available by clicking
on “Christian@.”


Searching the search engine via http://www.dogpile.com/


Here, in one place, you will find online resources for online courses, the GED and for home schoolers.
* Selecting the Best High School Distance Learning Program Here are almost fifty questions you should
be asking about the institution, transferability, teacher quality, student role, evaluation, student support
services, technological infrastructure, course quality, structure and administration.
* How To Find Quality Distance Learning High Schools Lay our your strategy and then find out where to
find accredited, reputable high school courses.


4Tests.com offers online GED practice materials including workbooks, test preparation materials along
with free online practice exams.
* Seven Things You Should Know About Virtual High Schools Over 40-percent of all public high schools
are already using online courses or are planning to start using them this year. Why is the number of
online schools growing so rapidly? Who is behind them? What courses are offered? What are the costs?
Find answers to these questions which are based on recent surveys.
* Four Ways You Can Get a High School Degree: Distance learning is just one of many ways to get a
non-traditional high school degree. Other options and online and print resources are offered.


About.com Home Schooling Site: Those of you with non-traditional high school degrees should look
under “High School Resources” for lists of home schooling (and online degree) friendly colleges.


The Babbage Net School is a virtual junior and senior high school offering interactive courses in English,
Math, Science, Social Studies, SAT, Foreign Language, Advanced Placement, Music, and Art. These
courses are taught by certified teachers from the Eastern Suffolk BOCES in Port Jefferson, New York.


The Center for Adult Learning, which is a division of the American Council on Education, is an official site
for the General Education Development testing service.


CoolSchool touts itself as an electronic alternative to K-12 education. They do not offer a diploma but
choose to complement local curriculum. Courses are fully accredited, are Oregon content standards-
based and are taught by licensed teachers. One one-half unit course for an Oregon student for one
semester is $275, $325 for out-of-state U.S. students, and $350 for foreign students.
Cyber High School (CHS) is a private online college preparatory high school. All taught by trained
teachers and are designed to operate entirely over the Internet. Regular communication, one-to-one
teacher questioning, peer discussions give the school a "personalized" feel.


Cyber High is a comprehensive, fully accredited, electronic high school. All courses are currently
accredited through the Fresno Unified School District in Fresno, California. Many courses meet the
College Prep A-G requirements for the University of California system. Cyber High students had a 42%
higher graduation rate than those who attend more conventional high school programs.


Distance Learning Exchange is an Internet directory of distance learning activities. IT provides information
about a variety of distance learning activities such as Web quests, satellite teleconferences, electronic
field trips, videoconferencing courses and e-mail exchanges.


Distance Learning Resource Network: Browse though information on distance learning geared towards
students at the K-12 level. This site, from the Distance Learning Resource Network, includes information
on how to find online courses, online high schools, and a library section.


G.E.D. Online helps adults prepare online for the High School Equivalency Diploma Test. Students take
GED practice tests that are graded online. Help is available through chat with other students and
scheduled discussions with online GED teachers.


H-Net List of Online High Schools: This is an A-Z list of online high schools in the United States.


Jefferson County Public School District, Littleton, Colorado, offers online courses for K-12 students.
Courses are Web-based, built around standards, and integrate high levels of communications and
interactions including e-mail, chat, discussion groups, private consultations, online group interactions.


Kaplan Educational Centers offers online preparation courses for the Advanced Placements tests.
Courses, which last from March 1 through May, cover five of the most commonly taken Advanced
Placement subjects: U.S. government and politics, statistics, calculus, macroeconomics, and
microeconomics. Students pay $249 per course.


MindQuest: On-line High School Education For Adults and offers the opportunity for adults to finish their
high school education on-line and on their own schedule.


Online High School Diploma Program: The hundreds of fully accredited course offerings listed here are
from the Universities of Nebraska and Oklahoma’s Independent Study High Schools.
Thirteen Ed Online: Connections to helpful links, lesson plans and information are behind the
Resources for GED preparation and Resources for Adult Literacy buttons.


University of Missouri at Columbia High School : MU High School is one of many University sponsored
virtual high schools (go to http://distancelearn.about.com/library/weekly/aa031703a.htm. The
school provides courses that complement traditional high school curricula or provide an accredited
diploma program. MU High School is accredited by the North Central Association Commission on
Accreditation and School Improvement.


Virtual High School: This is a very creative site with its campus life section, main office, student lounge,
and faculty lounge. It even has a yearbook. The relatively small course catalog may be searched eight
ways including by title, discipline and course level.


Virtual High Schools: State of the States: This downloadable list of virtual high schools, first published in
2000, describes existing and emerging virtual high schools. “Virtual school” is defined as a state approved
and/or regionally accredited school that offers courses designed for K-12 learners through distance
learning methods that include Web-based delivery.


Virtual School List of links to online high schools was compiled by Dr. Tom Clark as part of his study,
Virtual Schools - Trends and Issues. The list includes only those schools which offer courses designed for
K-12 learners and which offer at least some Internet or Web-based credit courses.


Virtual Schools – Trends and Issues
This 43-page study of virtual schools in the United States offers an overview of the different current virtual
high school models. This study is described in the article: “Seven Things You Should Know About Virtual
High Schools” available at http://distancelearn.about.com/library/weekly/aa031703a.htm .


Web66’d List of Schools with Online Courses: Twenty-eight links to five elementary, seventeen
secondary schools, one school district and five educational organizations offering online courses.


Wisconsin Virtual Schools Directory: This comprehensive list of virtual high schools was compiled by the
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Office of Academic Excellence. Has an A-Z index.


World Wide Learn: Lists accredited high school courses and high school diploma programs in Canada
and the United States.


Yahoo K-12 Directory of Home High Schools offers annotated links to virtual high schools organized
under the headings “Consortia” and “Home Schooling.”
YAHOO! Directory Distance Learning K-12
You’ll find links to seven home schooling consortia and site listings to approximately thirty more site
listings. This should keep you busy for a while. Can be accessed at
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6c6&lat=1068306951&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fslclk%2eabout%2ecom%2f%3fzi%3d1% 2fHIw
(free cls at
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6c6&lat=1068306951&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fslclk%2eabout%2ecom%2f%3fzi%3d1% 2fHIw )


glossary on online ed at Distance Education Clearinghouse
http://www.uwex.edu/disted/definition.html
"Peterson's Guide to Distance Learning Programs," 2002    http://www.petersons.com
United States distance Learning Association http://www.usdla.org/html/resources/dictionary.htm


A+Math www.aplusmath.com: was developed to help elementary and middle school kids improve their
math skills interactively. Simple and colorful graphics lead students to a “game room,” to the “Flashcard
Creator,” and to the “Worksheets” section, where kids may print worksheets to practice offline. There’s
also a homework checker that will tell you if your solutions are right or wrong.


Ask Dr. Math ®     © 1994-2003 The Math Forum is a resch & edl enterprise of Drexel University
http://mathforum.org/dr.math/           Are you in deep trouble? Did you miss your last trigonometry
class? Need help with your math homework? Go to this Swathmore College Web site Ask Dr. Math for
exam help. It has an archive and directory of mathematical Web sites, mailing lists, news groups and
teaching materials.
ESL site Copyright 2003 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota, Last updated: 08.20.2003
http://languagecenter.cla.umn.edu/index.php?page=fnf
Learn how to study & stress affecting study skills info@howtostudy.com <info@howtostudy.com>
Site for handouts: located at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/index.html
www.discoveryschool.com has WebMath by the Discovery Channel
Type in your fraction, ratio, right triangle or any one of over 40 other problems and WebMath quickly gets
you answers and tells you how the problem was solved. If life only were so easy.


top of this page has help for the dif needs of those study groups
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California Homeschool Network www.californiahomeschool.net 800-327-5339 are advocates, have cd
and legislative updates.
Distance Learning Exchange (DLE) www.state.pa.us Pennsylvania’s Distance Learning Exchange is a
free web-based service that provides a clearinghouse of distance learning and Internet project
opportunities. This Internet directory of distance learning activities includes: Web quests, satellite
teleconferences, electronic field trips, videoconferencing courses, and e-e-mail exchanges. Basic
searches may be conducted without registering.


Distance Learning Resource Network (DLRN) The DLRN site offers online course selection criteria, links
to online K-12 courses, and home schooling resources. Check out the “Virtual Schools” section for a list
of links to full-diploma programs, that are partially or fully delivered online.
About DLRN www.dlrn.org
The Distance Learning Resource Network (DLRN) is the dissemination project for the Star Schools
Program, a federally funded distance education program which offers instructional modules, enrichment
activities and courses in science, mathematics, foreign languages, workplace skills, high school
completion and adult literacy programs. Some of the services DLRN provides include:


General Information. Information about distance education, highlighting Star Schools programs,
instructional methods and strategies, and emerging technologies. An extensive website that includes
current research and news items and covers a multitude of topics from information on the Star Schools
projects to K-12 courses offered at a distance. Visitors can use our searchable database to find current
information on the courses and resources available from the Star Schools projects, or peruse our library
to find a variety of useful information on Distance Learning topics. Course Design Tools. Online tools to
assist with designing courses for web-based instruction.
800# Helpline. Response to specific requests for distance education information by telephone.
dlrn@wested.org. Response to specific requests for distance education information by e-mail. Client
requests are also answered via regular mail. Online Forums provide educator networking opportunities.
DLRN is a project of WestEd, a non-profit research, development and service agency dedicated to
improving education and other opportunities for children, youth and adults. WestEd serves as the regional
educational laboratory for Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah, with a designated national focus on
assessment.


Electronic Field Trips web site: www.capemaymac.org COST: $35 + line fees
Mid-Atlantic Center for the Arts, 1048 Washington Street, PO Box 340, Cape May, New Jersey 08204-
0340    Distance delivered field trips that are available from almost 95 U.S. museums are listed here. This
very rich list includes the Baseball Hall of Fame, the National Museum of Natural History, the Railroad
Museum of Pennsylvania, the Bronx and San Diego zoos and Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre. The only
drawback here is the occasional line charge to get the tours to your computer.
Home School Easy Records This website has moved to www.dataplus.biz/HER            If you have comments
or questions regarding HomeSchool Easy Records please, E-mail to support@dataplus.biz
Or write to Vince Dugar, DataPlus Solutions, 1067 Camp Eden Road, Golden, CO 80403
Easy Records offers a full-featured program for creating home school records and lesson plans on a
personal computer.


Jefferson County Public School District http://jeffcoweb.jeffco.k12.co.us/ offers online courses for
K-12 students across the country. The courses are Web based and integrate high levels of
communications and interactions, both asynchronous (e-mail) and real-time (chat, discussion groups,
private consultations.) On the home page, click on "Online Education."
Laurel Springs School, 302 W. Ojai Avenue (On the corner of El Paseo and Ojai Ave.) Ojai, CA 93023
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1440, Ojai, CA 93024-1440; 1-800-377-5890 or (805 )646-2473
Commonwealth of Virginia Approves Laurel Springs School. School leadership is pleased to announce
that the Commonwealth of Virginia placed Laurel Springs School on its list of approved independent
study programs on August 28, 2000. School personnel is especially pleased about our achievement as
the application process was an involved and lengthy process. To make the approved list for the
Commonwealth of Virginia is a testament to the hard work of our staff as well as the quality of our
program. e-mail to: AssociatedSchools@laurelsprings.com Laurel Springs School provides home
schooling curricula for the lower school, pre-Kindergarten through grade eight, and high school through
grade twelve. these are on
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Wavget.com Affiliate Program of share ware and other audio/visual software If you have your own web
page, you can become a Wavget.com affiliate! Basically what that means is that you can refer people to
the Wavget.com site, and if they register any programs through clickbank within 90 days you will get paid!
What are you getting out of this? 15% of the registration price! That's about $2.75 per TypeItIn or
PasteItIn, and $1.25 per Wavget, ListWiz, ICE, or Adwizard registration!


What do you have to do? First you have to sign up with ClickBank for a free merchant account. Then you
have to put a banner on your web page. Then just tell all your friends about Wavget.com and let them go
there through your banner. If they register any programs through clickbank within 90 days, you'll
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1. Sign up with ClickBank.
2. Add this html code to your web page:
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3. Tell your friends any way you can think of!
This is how ClickBank handles the affiliate referring: "Following the link will take the customer to the
seller's site. If the customer makes a purchase there in the next 90 days, the affiliate earns a commission.
If the customer makes more purchases there within the 90 days, the affiliate earns an additional
commission for each sale. If more than one affiliate referred the customer to that site during that 90 day
period, the commission is awarded to the most recent referrer."
Macros mgmt, Resellers & Affiliates, Reseller discounts
Qualified resellers receive a discount. Contact us at info@wintools.com for more information.
Link to our site: You are granted permission to link to our site. We recommend you use one of
these sample links:
Affiliate Sales: We are interested in affiliate programs. Contact us at info@wintools.com to
discuss terms and conditions. FAQs        Built in scripting editor creates commands in plain English. No
coding needed. Dozens of Wizards to step you through common macro creations. Hundreds of
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Mouse Keys, Mouse Clicks, Popup Menus, Floating Menus, Timed Schedules or Waits, Command
Line, File Association.


Design macros to play back in all programs or specific applications or specific windows.
Advanced capture capabilities to record your keystroke and mouse movements for later playback.
Password protection options to keep your macro data private.
For more information, download the Macro Express Features sheet (570 KB Adobe PDF).
We appreciate your comments and suggestions. Use our online form to Request a new Feature.
About Us
Founded in 1990, Kaysville, Utah based Insight Software Solutions is dedicated to developing high
quality, user friendly software products for Microsoft Windows based operating systems. Over the years
we have garnered numerous awards for our software from Windows Magazine and its on-line successor
winmag.com, Ziff-Davis, the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation and others. As a result, we now
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In addition to our own products, we publish in the U.S. and Canada the software developed by Oakley
Data Services located in the United Kingdom. Oakley Data Services produces a number of popular
software utilities and business applications for the Microsoft Windows platform. Mail:
Insight Software Solutions, Inc.,   P.O. Box 106,   Kaysville, UT 84037-0106,     (801) 927-5009 (8:30 AM
- 5:00 PM Mountain Time, Monday-Friday) Fax:        (801) 927-5011 (24 hours a day) info@wintools.com




Elderhostel and Fathom
What is Fathom? Fathom is a consortium of the world's leading universities, museums and libraries. The
Fathom consortium includes: Columbia University * The London School of Economics and Political
Science * Cambridge University Press * The British Library * The New York Public Library * The
university of Chicago * University of Michigan * American Film Institute * RAND * Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution * The Natural History Museum * Victoria and Albert Museum * Science
Museum


Fathom brings together free content in the form of lectures, interviews, articles and exhibits authored by
experts at these leading institutions. In addition, online courses and seminars representing the best in
online education from these institutions and others are available through Fathom. Fathom carefully
screens the online courses it makes available to ensure that it brings you only the best in online learning.


Fathom's standards for academic and editorial integrity are ensured by an Academic Council. The Council
is chaired by the Provost of Columbia University and includes leading representatives from the Fathom
consortium, who represent a range of disciplines and responsibilities within academic and intellectual
communities. The Fathom site can be accessed at www.fathom.com.


What is the Student Learning Center?
The Student Learning Center was created by Elderhostel and Fathom to bring online educational content
from Fathom directly to users of the Elderhostel site and participants in Elderhostel programs.
email Elderhostel at Fathom@elderhostel.org




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ServiceMagic Affiliate Program and receive $5 for every home improvement service request and $15 for
every real estate service request that you refer to: www.serviceMagic.com provides consumers with a
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help. Remember to check back often for new creative. Place links in highly visible areas on pages that
get the most traffic such as the homepage. Don't forget to include text links in addition to banners.




Economics        Q: Why does money have value?
A: Money doesn't have any inherent value. It is simply pieces of paper or numbers in a ledger. A car has
value because it can help you get where you need to go. Water has a value because it has a use; if you
don’t drink enough of it you will die. Unless you enjoy looking at pictures of deceased national heroes,
money has no more use than any other piece of paper.
It didn't always work this way. In the past money was in the form of coins, generally composed of precious
metals such as gold and silver. The value of the coins was roughly based on the value of the metals they
contained, because you could always melt the coins down and use the metal for other purposes. Until a
few decades ago paper money in different countries was based on the gold standard or silver standard or
some combination of the two. This meant that you could take some paper money to the government, who
would exchange it for some gold or some silver based on an exchange rate set by the government. The
gold standard lasted until 1971 when President Nixon announced that the United States would no longer
exchange dollars for gold. This ended the Bretton Woods system, which will be the focus of a future
article. Now the United States is on a system of fiat money, which is not tied to any other commodity. So
these pieces of paper in your pocket are nothing but pieces of paper.


The Value of Money
So why does a five-dollar bill have value and some other pieces of paper do not? It’s simple: Money is a
good with a limited supply and there is a demand for it because people want it. The reason I want money
is because I know other people want money, so I can use my money to others to get goods and services
from them in return. They can then use that money to purchase goods and services that they want.
Goods and services are what ultimately matter in the economy, and money is a way that allows people to
give up goods and services which are less desirable to them, and get ones that are more so. People sell
their labor (work) to acquire money now to purchase goods and services in the future. If I believe that
money will have a value in the future, I will work towards acquiring some.
Our system of money operates on a mutual set of beliefs; so long as enough of us believe in the future
value of money the system will work. What could cause us to lose that belief? It is unlikely that money will
be replaced in the near future, because the inefficiencies of a dual coincidence of wants system are well
known. If one currency is to be replaced by another, there will be a period in which you can switch your
old currency for new currency. This is what happened in Europe when countries switched over to the
Euro. So our currencies are not going to disappear.


The Curse of Inflation
Then why else might we think that our money might not be of value to others in the future? Well, what if
we believed our money wouldn’t be nearly as valuable in the future as it is today? This inflation of the
currency causes people to want to get rid of their money as quickly as possible. Inflation is an increase in
the price of a basket of goods and services that is representative of the economy as a whole. Inflation,
and the rational way citizens react to it, causes great misery for an economy. People will not sign into
profitable deals which involve future payments because they’ll be unsure what the value of money will be
when they get paid. Business activity sharply declines because of this. Inflation causes all sorts of other
inefficiencies, from the café changing its prices every few minutes, to the homemaker taking a
wheelbarrow full of money to the bakery in order to buy a loaf of bread. The belief in money and
the steady value of the currency are not innocuous things. If citizens lose faith in the money supply and
believe that money will be worth less in the future economic activity can grind to a halt. Money is
essentially a good, so as such is ruled by the axioms of supply and demand. The value of any good is
determined by its supply and demand and the supply and demand for other goods in the economy. A
price for any good is the amount of money it takes to get that good. Inflation occurs when the price of
goods increases; in other words when money becomes less valuable relative to those other goods. This
can occur when:


The supply of money goes up. The supply of other goods goes down. Demand for money goes down.
Demand for other goods goes up.
The key cause of inflation is increases in the supply of money. Inflation can occur for other reasons. If a
natural disaster destroyed stores but left banks intact, we’d expect to see an immediate rise in prices, as
goods are now scarce relative to money. These kinds of situations are rare. For the most part inflation is
caused when the money supply rises faster than the supply of other goods and services.


So to answer your question, money has value because people believe that they will be able to exchange
their money for goods and services in the future. This belief will persist so long as people do not fear
future inflation. To avoid inflation, the government must ensure that the money supply does not
increase too quickly. Federal Reserve open market operations analysis. The Fed Feed
www.Capitalstool.com
Definition of The Double Coincidence of Wants: The phrase double coincidence of wants was used in
Jevons (1893). "[T]he first difficulty in barter is to find two persons whose disposable possessions
mutually suit each other's wants. There may be many people wanting, and many possessing those things
wanted; but to allow of an act of barter there must be a double coincidence, which will rarely happen."
That is, paraphrasing Ostroy and Starr, 1990, p 26, the double coincidence is the situation where the
supplier of good A wants good B and the supplier of good B wants good A.


The point is that the institution of money gives us a more flexible approach to trade than barter, which has
the double coincidence of wants problem. Also known as dual coincidence of wants. (Econterms)
Definition of The Bretton Woods System: The Bretton Woods system was a international monetary
framework of fixed exchange rates after World War II. Drawn up by the U.S. and Britain in 1944. Keynes
was one of the architects. The Bretton Woods system ended on August 15, 1971, when President
Richard Nixon ended trading of gold at the fixed price of $35/ounce. At that point for the first time in
history, formal links between the major world currencies and real commodities were severed. Definition of
Fiat Money: Fiat money is money that is intrinsically useless; is used only as a medium of exchange.
I can't seem to understand one thing. What is the 'demand for money'? Does that change? The other
three elements all make perfect sense to me but 'demand for money' is confusing me to no end. Thanks.
[A:] In those articles, we discussed that inflation was caused by a combination of four factors. Those
factors are:


The supply of money goes up. The supply of goods goes down. Demand for money goes down.
Demand for goods goes up.
You would think that the demand for money would be infinite. Who doesn't want more money? The key
thing to remember is that wealth is not money. The collective demand for wealth is infinite as there is
never enough to satisfy everyone’s desires. Money, as illustrated in "How much is the per capita
money supply in the U.S.?" is a narrowly defined term which includes things like paper currency, travelers
checks, and savings accounts. It doesn't include things like stocks and bonds, or forms of wealth like
homes, paintings, and cars. Since money is only one of many forms of wealth, it has
plenty of substitutes. The interaction between money and its substitutes explain why the demand for
money changes. We'll look at a few factors which can cause the demand for money to change.
For a more formal treatment of theories of the demand for money see Paul Turner's Notes on "The
Demand For Money".


1. Interest Rates
Two of the more important stores of wealth are bonds and money. These two items are substitutes, as
money is used to purchase bonds and bonds are redeemed for money. The two differ in a few key ways.
Money generally pays very little interest (and in the case of paper currency, none at all) but it can be used
to purchase goods and services. Bonds do pay interest, but cannot be used to make purchases, as the
bonds must first be converted into money. If bonds paid the same interest rate as money, nobody would
purchase bonds as they are less convenient than money. Since bonds pay interest, people will use some
of their money to purchase bonds. The higher the interest rate, the more attractive bonds become. So a
rise in the interest rate causes the demand for bonds to rise and the demand for money to fall since
money is being exchanged for bonds. So a fall in interest rates cause the demand for money to rise.
What is the Demand For Money?
2. Consumer Spending
This is directly related to the fourth factor, "Demand for goods goes up". During periods of higher
consumer spending, such as the month before Christmas, people often cash in other forms of wealth like
stocks and bonds, and exchange them for money. They want money in order to purchase goods and
services, like Christmas presents. So if the demand for consumer spending increases, so will the
demand for money.
3. Precautionary Motives
If people think that they will suddenly need to buy things in the immediate future (say it's 1999 and they're
worried about Y2K), they will sell bonds and stocks and hold onto money, so the demand for money will
go up. If people think that there will be an opportunity to purchase an asset in the immediate future at a
very low cost, they will also prefer to hold money.
4. Transaction Costs for Stocks and Bonds
If it becomes difficult or expensive to quickly buy and sell stocks and bonds, they will be less desirable.
People will want to hold more of their wealth in the form of money, so the demand for money will rise.
5. Change in the General Level of Prices
If we have inflation, goods become more expensive, so the demand for money rises. Interestingly
enough, the level of money holdings tends to rise at the same rate as prices. So while the nominal
demand for money rises, the real demand stays precisely the same. (To learn the difference between
nominal demand and real demand, see "What's the Difference Between Nominal and Real?")
6. International Factors
Usually when we discuss the demand for money, we're implicitly talking about the demand for a
particularly nation's money. Since Canadian money is a substitute for American money, international
factors will influence the demand for money. From "A Beginner's Guide to Exchange Rates and the
Foreign Exchange Market" we saw that the following factors can cause the demand for a currency to rise:
An increase in the demand of that country's goods abroad.
An increase in the demand for domestic investment by foreigners.
The belief that the value of the currency will rise in the future.
A central banking wanting to increase its holdings of that currency.


To understand these factors in detail, see "Canadian-to-American Exchange Rate Case Study" and "The
Canadian Exchange Rate"
Demand for Money Wrap Up: The demand for money is not at all constant. There are quite a few factors
which influence the demand for money. Factors Which Increase the Demand for Money:
A reduction in the interest rate.
A rise in the demand for consumer spending.
A rise in uncertainty about the future and future opportunities.
A rise in transaction costs to buy and sell stocks and bonds.
A rise in inflation causes a rise in the nominal money demand but real money demand stays constant.
A rise in the demand for a country's goods abroad.
A rise in the demand for domestic investment by foreigners.
A rise in the belief of the future value of the currency.
A rise in the demand for a currency by central banks (both domestic and foreign).
If you'd like to ask a question about the demand for money, inflation, the money supply or any other topic
or comment on this story, please use the feedback form.


The Link Between The Business Cycle and Inflation
[Q:]When there is an economic expansion, demand seems to outpace supply, particularly for goods and
services that take time and major capital to increase supply. As a result, prices generally rise (or there is
at least price pressure) and particularly for goods and services that cannot rapidly meet the increased
demand such as housing in urban centers (relatively fixed supply), advanced education (takes time to
expand/build new schools), but not cars because automotive plants can gear up pretty quickly. First, do
you agree with this and if not, how do you see it?


Second, when there is an economic contraction, supply initially outpaces demand.
However prices for most goods and services don't go down, and neither do wages.
[Q:] My main question is why don't prices go down for goods and services? I expect for wages, it's just
stickiness from the corporate/human culture...people don't like to give pay cuts... managers tend to lay off
before they give pay cuts (though I've seen exceptions). Why don't prices go down for most goods and
services? [A:] Your analysis is spot on. Now on to your question: In my article titled Why Does Money
Have Value we saw that changes in the level of prices (inflation) was due to a combination of the
following four factors: The supply of money goes up. The supply of goods goes down. Demand for
money goes down. Demand for goods goes up.
In a boom, we would expect that the demand for goods to rise faster than the supply. All else being equal,
we would expect factor 4 to outweigh factor 2 and the level of prices to rise. Since deflation is the
opposite of inflation, deflation is due to a combination of the following four factors:
The supply of money goes down. The supply of goods goes up.
Demand for money goes up. Demand for goods goes down.
We would expect the demand for goods to decline faster than the supply, so factor 4 should outweigh
factor 2, so all else being equal we should expect the level of prices to fall. From my article titled A
Beginner's Guide to Economic Indicators we saw that measures of inflation such as the Implicit Price
Deflator for GDP are pro-cyclical coincident economics indicators, so the inflation rate is high during
booms and low during recessions. The information above shows that the inflation rate should be higher in
booms than in busts, but why is the inflation rate still positive in recessions?


The answer is that all else is not equal. The money supply is constantly expanding, so the economy has a
consistent inflationary pressure given by factor 1. The Federal Reserve has a table listing the M1, M2,
and M3 money supply. (To learn about these definitions, see How much is the per capita money supply in
the U.S.?). From Recession? Depression? we saw that during the worst recession America has
experienced since World War II, from November 1973 to March 1975, real GDP fell by 4.9 percent. This
would have caused deflation, except that the money supply rose rapidly during this period, with the
seasonally adjusted M2 rising 16.5% and the seasonally adjusted M3 rising 24.4%. Data from
Economagic shows that the Consumer Price Index rose 14.68% during this severe recession. A
recessionary period with a high inflation rate is known as stagflation, a concept made famous by Milton
Friedman. While inflation rates are generally lower during recessions, we can still experience high levels
of inflation through the growth of the money supply.


So the key point here is that while the inflation rate rises during a boom and falls during a recession, it
generally does not go below zero due to a consistently increasing money supply.


Research the gold standard and Money Supply at the world's largest online library: www.questia.com


What are Economic Indicators?
Q: I'm constantly hearing about economic indicators in the news, but I'm never sure what they're talking
about. What are economic indicators and why are they important?
A: An economic indicator is simply any economic statistic, such as the unemployment rate, GDP, or the
inflation rate, which indicate how well the economy is doing and how well the economy is going to do in
the future. As shown in the article "How Markets Use Information To Set Prices" investors use all the
information at their disposal to make decisions. If a set of economic indicators suggest that the economy
is going to do better or worse in the future than they had previously expected, they may decide to
change their investing strategy.


To understand economic indicators, we must understand the ways in which economic indicators differ.
There are three major attributes each economic indicator has:
Relation to the Business Cycle / Economy
Economic Indicators can have one of three different relationships to the economy:


Procyclic: A procyclic (or procyclical) economic indicator is one that moves in the same direction as the
economy. So if the economy is doing well, this number is usually increasing, whereas if we're in a
recession this indicator is decreasing. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an example of a procyclic
economic indicator.


Countercyclic: A countercyclic (or countercyclical) economic indicator is one that moves in the opposite
direction as the economy. The unemployment rate gets larger as the economy gets worse so it is a
countercyclic economic indicator.


Acyclic: An acyclic economic indicator is one that has no relation to the health of the economy and is
generally of little use. The number of home runs the Montreal Expos hit in a year generally has no
relationship to the health of the economy, so we could say it is an acyclic economic indicator.


Frequency of the Data
In most countries GDP figures are released quarterly (every three months) while the unemployment rate
is released monthly. Some economic indicators, such as the Dow Jones Index, are available immediately
and change every minute.
Timing
Economic Indicators can be leading, lagging, or coincident which indicates the timing of their changes
relative to how the economy as a whole changes.
Leading
Leading economic indicators are indicators which change before the economy changes. Stock market
returns are a leading indicator, as the stock market usually begins to decline before the economy declines
and they improve before the economy begins to pull out of a recession. Leading economic indicators are
the most important type for investors as they help predict what the economy will be like in the future.
Lagged:
A lagged economic indicator is one that does not change direction until a few quarters after the economy
does. The unemployment rate is a lagged economic indicator as unemployment tends to increase for 2 or
3 quarters after the economy starts to improve.
Coincident
A coincident economic indicator is one that simply moves at the same time the economy does. The Gross
Domestic Product is a coincident indicator.
Many different groups collect and publish economic indicators, but the most important American collection
of economic indicators is published by The United States Congress. Their Economic Indicators are
published monthly and are available for download in PDF and TEXT formats. The indicators fall into
seven broad categories:
Total Output, Income, and Spending
Employment, Unemployment, and Wages
Production and Business Activity
Prices
Money, Credit, and Security Markets
Federal Finance
International Statistics
Each of the statistics in these categories helps create a picture of the performance of the economy and
how the economy is likely to do in the future.
Total Output, Income, and Spending
These tend to be the most broad measures of economic performance and include such statistics as:
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [quarterly]
Real GDP [quarterly]
Implicit Price Deflator for GDP [quarterly]
Business Output [quarterly]
National Income [quarterly]
Consumption Expenditure [quarterly]
Corporate Profits[quarterly]
Real Gross Private Domestic Investment[quarterly]
The Gross Domestic Product is used to measure economic activity and thus is both procyclical and a
coincident economic indicator. The Implicit Price Deflator is a measure of inflation. Inflation is procyclical
as it tends to rise during booms and falls during periods of economic weakness. Measures of inflation are
also coincident indicators. Consumption and consumer spending are also procyclical and coincident.


Employment, Unemployment, and Wages
These statistics cover how strong the labor market is and they include the following:
The Unemployment Rate [monthly]
Level of Civilian Employment[monthly]
Average Weekly Hours, Hourly Earnings, and Weekly Earnings[monthly]
Labor Productivity [quarterly]
The unemployment rate is a lagged, countercyclical statistic. The level of civilian employment measures
how many people are working so it is procyclic. Unlike the unemployment rate it is a coincident economic
indicator.
Production and Business Activity
These statistics cover how much businesses are producing and the level of new construction in the
economy:
Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization [monthly]
New Construction [monthly]
New Private Housing and Vacancy Rates [monthly]
Business Sales and Inventories [monthly]
Manufacturers' Shipments, Inventories, and Orders [monthly]
Changes in business inventories is an important leading economic indicator as they indicate changes in
consumer demand. New construction including new home construction is another procyclical leading
indicator which is watched closely by investors. A slowdown in the housing market during a boom often
indicates that a recession is coming, whereas a rise in the new housing market during a recession usually
means that there are better times ahead. This document is sponsored by the U.S. House of
Representatives and the United States Senate on the United States Government Printing Office web
site. Questions or comments regarding this service? Contact wwwadmin@gpo.gov




Renting and Rent to Own
"...folks rent vehicles for only a short period because it is needed... and only because it is needed. But
what about other rentals? Is renting a good idea or a bad one?"
Most of us at one time or another have rented a car. Perhaps we were out of town or perhaps our car was
being repaired. Or perhaps we at least know someone who has rented a car. The point is, folks rent
vehicles for only a short period because it is needed... and only because it is needed. But what about
other rentals such as auto leasing, real estate with option to buy, furniture and Rent-T-Own?


Vehicle Leasing
Here are some facts about vehicle leasing. You do not own the vehicle. You get to use it but must return it
at the end of the lease unless you choose to buy it. Up-front costs may include the first month's payment,
a refundable security deposit, a capitalized cost reduction (like a down payment), taxes, registration and
other fees, and other charges.


Monthly lease payments are usually lower than monthly loan payments because you are paying only for
the vehicle's depreciation during the lease term, plus rent charges (like interest), taxes, and fees. You are
responsible for any early termination charges if you end the lease early. You may return the vehicle at
lease end paying any end-of-lease costs in the contract.


Most leases limit the number of miles you may drive (often 12,000-15,000 per year). You can negotiate a
higher mileage limit and pay a higher monthly payment. You will likely have to pay charges for exceeding
those limits if you return the vehicle. Most leases limit wear to the vehicle during the lease term. You will
likely have to pay extra charges for exceeding those limits if you return the vehicle. At the end of the lease
(typically 2-4 years), you may have a new payment either to finance the purchase of the existing vehicle
or to lease another vehicle.


So is it wiser to buy or lease? You must determine your needs. How long do you intend to keep the car? If
you want a new car every few years, leasing may be wiser. Do you have money for a monthly payment? If
not, leasing may be a solution. Is this for business purpose and to what extent? Leasing may be an easier
item for business tax deduction. If you drive exceptional distances, on the other hand, perhaps leasing is
not the wisest. If you want ownership or a trade-in, again leasing may not be for you. Determine your
own needs and decide.


Real Estate Rental (with Option)
If a family wants to buy but does not have the credit or finances to purchase a home, renting with an
option to buy may be the solution. According to Rent With Option (see link below):


A seller can agree to rent property to a tenant, allowing the tenant to rent and live in the residence while
guaranteeing the tenant the right to buy the rental property at agreed upon terms during an agreed upon
time period. However, the tenant is never obligated to purchase. The owner, on the other hand, cannot
sell the property before the agreement's expiration date. When the lease is signed, both parties also
agree on a purchase price for the home. The seller cannot change this figure any time during the lease's
term. This option also allows a neighborhood to be thoroughly checked as well as the house itself without
any commitment to purchase. It also allows a home to be set at a fixed price as the selling price is usually
established at the beginning of the contract. Also the purchaser has additional time to develop purchasing
resources without losing a home of choice.
Furniture Rental
There are occasions when furniture rental can be useful. If you are on a limited budget and need furniture
all together instead of one piece at a time, rental may be a solution. All of your furniture is available at
once, and not slowly trickling in when purchased. Furniture leasing or renting should cost a small fraction
of the money required to buy in the short run. However, wise furniture buying in the long term usually
produces the wisest investment. In essence, you are only required to pay for the use of the furniture for a
short period of time versus acquiring ownership through payments. As a general rule, anyone who needs
a roomful of furniture for a period of time less than two years may be much better off in leasing/renting
than buying. On the other hand, if the furniture will be needed longer that two years, buying is most often
the best choice.


Rent-To-Own
The State Interest Research Group (PIRG) which is a state and national group that speaks for the public
interest against special interest groups and is otherwise a consumer advocate, wrote an article called
Don't Rent-To-Own. In it they said that nationally, "RTO stores charge an average effective APR of
100 percent, although APRs are not disclosed."


RTO stores charge fees equaling from 16% to 275% for televisions and refrigerators. PIRG also learned
48 percent (or 59 stores) of the RTO stores surveyed charged "effective APRs of over 100 percent on one
or more items -- that is, five times prevailing credit card rates (20 percent). Purchasing items via rent-to-
own at RTO stores costs 2-5 times as much as purchasing the same items at department and discount
stores. "


Although the industry claims it prominently provides all the disclosures consumers need, the survey found
that 37% of items had no clear marking "used" or "new" on the label, and that 50% of labels disclosed the
total cost to own in smaller print than the weekly cost. "Cash prices" at RTO stores for outright purchase
are in most cases significantly above generous alternative prices for the merchandise, if purchased at
department stores. Prices for used goods in want ads were even lower.


The bottom line is, if you need it for more than a month save your money and buy it.


-------------------
Motivation : Want to start with a great definition of success and its concept? Following that definition,
you will be offered specific steps to modify your current habits. And if that isn't enough, you will be given
two keys to add rocket power to your habit changing efforts. Finally, you will find some outstanding
support links of a motivation character to assist your habit changing process. Each section is offered on a
separate page so that you can concentrate on only one concept at a time.
But for starters, try this definition out:
SUCCESS is a progressive realization of worthwhile personal goals. This definition says some rather
spectacular things. For example, it says that success is a journey and not a destination. It also says that
goals must be worthwhile and personal. They cannot be someone else's goals like those of your boss,
parents, or even your spouse. They must be yours and they must be of value to you.


Close scrutiny of this definition also leads to the conclusion that success is a developing attitude of
achieving goals. But what is an attitude? An attitude is the way we think or feel about a subject which then
causes us to act in a certain way about it. Therefore, we act and react in relation to our thought patterns
which we have developed about the subject.


So an attitude is caused when we think about something the same way over and over until it becomes
automatic. The resulting actions in response to the thought also become automatic. Change the habit of
thought and you change the attitude. Change the attitude and you change the resulting action. But how
do you change the attitude, habit of thought and resulting action? That's where goal setting comes into
play. Here are the greatest 5 steps I have ever seen geared towards changing habits.


Step 1: Write down specifically what you are trying to do and by when. There is something magical about
putting a date on it. The subconscious cannot act on some nebulous "someday" anymore than it can work
on an unrealistic objective it knows it can't achieve. Therefore, it must have a concrete time frame, it must
be written down, and it must be specific and realistic. For example, wanting "more money " is not the
same as "10% increase over last year by October first."


By the way, don't be shy about committing to a date. It isn't written in granite. Your goal, especially in the
beginning, may not be realistic and the date may have to be adjusted. But you may not know that until
after you start. By dating, your subconscious can also determine the amount of energy required.


Step 2: What are the obstacles? This is the only negative aspect of the whole process. List everything
that is stopping you. What are your inadequacies? What do you need to get there that you don't already
have? What is it that's blocking you? Why aren't you already there?
Step 3: WRITE a plan to overcome EACH obstacle. List your action steps 1...
2... 3... etc. for each obstacle from above. Be as specific as possible. What will it take to get you past the
obstacle that is blocking you from what you want?
NOTE: Skipping or skimming past these last two steps will destroy the process.
Step 4: List the benefits to you. There is no such thing as something for nothing. You must replace a
thought process and resulting action with a new thought process which will produce a desired result.
There must be a benefit derived of sufficient value and meaning to you alone to be worth the effort
necessary to do this and to overcome the resistance to change.
There is a truth about human nature that we often do not like to face up to. Because something is
meaningful to our spouse, child, boss, or anyone else regardless of their importance, it is normally
insufficient to move us to action. It must, in fact, be important within the self. When this importance
is discovered or developed, change occurs and it can be dramatic!


Step 5: Is it worth it? This question must be answered very carefully and honestly. If the answer is yes, do
it and DO IT NOW! However, if the answer is no, if the benefit derived cannot muster the desire to
overcome the obstacle, you have three choices:


Change the goal thereby reducing the obstacle; and/or increase the benefit to make it more meaningful.
Drop the entire issue and get on with your life without feeling guilty. The amount of time we waste feeling
guilty is a tragedy of human existence. Get on with your life with other goals and don't look back.
Additionally, if you stumble or fall off your goal, that's okay. Remember: Success is on ongoing journey...
not a destination. The only time you fail is when you quit or never get up after falling down.
AFFIRMATION & VISUALIZATION - 1000% rocket power.
Two keys to rocket-powering your efforts are the principles of Affirmations and Visualization. Nothing can
propel your efforts as much as these two concepts and nothing can more guarantee the outcome of your
efforts than Affirmations and Visualization.


AFFIRMATIONS are positive statements of fact as you intend them to be. Because affirmations are
"statements of fact", affirmations must be written in the present tense... the subconscious can only
operate in the present, never the future. Affirmations must be repeated over and over until they are
internalized and become fact. WRITE affirmations down! POST affirmations everywhere... and READ
YOUR AFFIRMATIONS OFTEN!
For example:
"I am debt free".
"I operate on a cash only basis."
"If I can't afford to pay for it in cash, I can't afford it."
[Note - The last statement above borders on a negative statement. Be very cautious before using
negative reinforcement.]
If you doubt the power of this process, ask yourself how many times you have successfully employed
negative affirmations. When was the last time you heard or maybe even said, "this will never work". Then
when it didn't work, you heard or said "See, I told you." The point had become fact. Hate and prejudice
are great examples of negative affirmation.
Why are elephants tied with a light weight chain which they could easily break? Its simple. As a baby,
they had a very heavy chain on their foot from which they could not break loose. As they grew older, they
did not forget. What were we taught as children with repeated exposure? What do we teach our
children?
A barracuda in a water tank was separated from minnows by clear plastic. The barracuda initially kept
crashing into the clear plastic. Scientists learned, however, that after repeated failures the clear plastic
could be removed and the barracuda kept swimming in its own area. It had limitations implanted to the
point of ignoring its basic nature. What limits do we put on ourselves or allow others to do for us?


How many times do you have to repeat an affirmation? Whatever it takes to get the job done. If it takes 10
billion times, what difference does it make if it's important. And if it is not important enough, why are you
considering it? [See step 5 of goal setting on the Previous Page--- Is it worth it?] AFFIRMATION &
VISUALIZATION - 1000% rocket power. Two keys to rocket-powering your efforts are the principles of
Affirmations and Visualization. Nothing can propel your efforts as much as these two concepts and
nothing can more guarantee the outcome of your efforts than Affirmations and Visualization.


VISUALIZATION is seeing the object of your desire with your mind's eye. But visualizations is more than
that if you want it to be. The more detailed and focused your visualization, the faster the transformation
will occur. What color is it? How does it feel to the touch or within yourself when you are in possession.
Can you smell it, can you taste it, can you hear it? Proper visualization involves as many senses as
possible... do it with fervor. Imagine every detail and possibility. The more the detail, the greater the
focus, the more fervent you are, the more often you apply visualization... these will determine how fast it
will occur.


There is a second benefit to visualization. By detailed visualization you can often foresee a flaw to be
corrected or a way to plan for a short coming that you may well have never seen until it was too late. This
simple benefit can pay perhaps the biggest dividend of all. By combining the fastest debt-elimination
formula (See Rapid Debt Reduction below) and armed with the success motivation you just completed,
you now have an unbeatable team. The only missing link is your commitment to implement. Act on it!


Additional Resources
It's time to return to a "debt buster" mentality and I strongly encourage you to visit past articles...
especially those listed under More From Your Guide. If you need specific fiscal counseling, I recommend
Financial Consultation which offers articles and links to the best debt-counseling information on the net. I
also suggest Budgeting for a number of great articles and external I-net links concerning budgeting. Be
sure to see the article Debt Reduction. It is an article I wrote with my suggested 3 steps to debt reduction.
Additionally, if your goal is complete debt elimination in the shortest possible time, be sure to see the
series Rapid Debt Reduction.


Last but far from least, the following are outstanding resources to help you strengthen your self
improvements efforts:
Motivation - My own subject page which includes more articles I have written in the area of motivation and
positive thinking.
Words of Wisdom - Family Debt Arbitration and Counseling Services, Inc. offers a segment dedicated to
providing words of wisdom related to debt and financial management.
Carpe Diem - Inspirational quotes to help you seize the day! Great splash page. Well designed.
Victory's Newsletter 1 - An uplifting and motivational newsletter by Victory Crayne. If this doesn't lift you, I
don't know what will. Victory's Newsletter 2 - A continuation of Newsletter 1. Includes: Why we lose
motivation, What a background you have!, Switch classes, and more.
Remember Your ABCs - To Achieve your dreams, remember your ABCs by Wanda Carter. Twenty-six
great thoughts.


Food Purchased at Markets:
You can save hundreds of dollars a year by shopping at the lower-priced food stores. Convenience stores
often charge the highest prices. You will spend less on food if you shop with a list and never shop when
your hungry. Shopping when it is slower not only saves time, but means less time standing near
"compulsive purchase" merchandise near the checkout. You can save hundreds of dollars a year by
comparing price-per-ounce or other unit prices on shelf labels. Stock up on those items with low per-unit
costs.
Preparing meals rather than pre-packaged meals can save hundreds of dollars per month. If you don't
have time to prepare during the week why not prepare on days off (make it a FAMILY project) and make
multiple meals. Put portions in a plastic bag and freeze it. Instant dinner--- but pre-prepared to save.
Clip coupons and organize them by food group or in an expandable check file. DO NOT BUY simply
because you have a coupon. Best new deal is that a lot of stores (Safeway locally) have come up with a
coupon card. You get automatic coupon price w/o clipping.
You are missing a good deal if you do not frequent "Day Old Bread" stores.
You'll save 33-50%. I rarely pay more than $3-4 for a full bag of bread.
Check for Food Co-Ops in your area. Sometimes joining is only a matter of volunteering for a couple
hours per week; yet you can save up to 30% sometimes over conventional stores.
Knowledge of grocery store merchandising can help offset being "snared". Milk is usually at the back to
get you to walk by all the other aisles first. Profitable items are usually at eye level. The bakery is usually
at the front to entice you with a fresh baked smell. Compulsive items (candy, gum, tabloids, TV Guide,
etc) are at the checkout.
Always check your receipt before you leave the store. Honest errors occur---people can input with the
wrong or non-sale price to the computerized scanners and cashiers can also make mistakes.
Plan ahead and get everything you need. Try not to shop more than once a week. The more you go, the
greater the temptation to pick up something you don't need. It also wastes time and gas.
Shop by unit prices and have a calculator.
"Loss leaders" are exceptionally low priced items which the retailer will lose money on to lure you in.
However, if other items you need cost more, it is not a good deal. You may prefer one store for its meats
and another for its produce. That's ok as long as you're not spending the whole day driving all over the
city just to get the best prices. Stock up on items that will keep and that you can use if you can get a bulk
discount. Store brands or generic items are always cheaper. You can usually save by buying uncut (un-
skinned) meats. Recognize the price difference between bone and no-bone cuts. Unless the difference is
significant, no-bone is usually the far better buy. Reduce spoilage by planning your grocery-store stop for
last. When you reach home put foods away quickly. Frozen and refrigerated foods should be handled
first. Call the Toll Free Directory (1-800-555-1212) and get the numbers of the companies that make your
favorite products. Call and ask to be put on their mailing lists. You can get lots of coupons and free
samples.


Healthy Savings:
Eat organic foods when possible. Your best bet is your own garden. Shipped fruits and vegetables
usually cost more and usually have chemical preservatives. Buying lean cuts is better for you and saves
waste. Read the labels of all processed foods. All ingredients are listed in order of quantity. (Cookie fat
content--- rub it on a napkin. If it leaves a grease spot, it probably has at least 50% fat. Save leftovers but
do not store unused food in its opened can. Use reusable storage containers. More nutrients are retained
if you keep your vegetables whole or cut as little as possible when cooking. Try not to overcook.


Budgets and Motivation... What You Should Know
Budgeting is the first and most important step to developing any level of finance. It is like a battery or
starter switch. But constant motivation is also needed to keep your program going just as fuel is needed
in an engine. Related Resources: • Credit Workshop • How To Helper • Free Money Ideas • Rapid
Debt Reduction • Frugal Living      • Financial Planning
If you ever wanted to get ahead financially; if you ever thought you wanted to get out from under a sea of
debt; if you ever wondered where the money went; you need a budget! But how do you develop a good
budget and how do you stick with it. This is what you need to know.


Developing a Workable Budget
Review your last 12 months of check registers. If you find cash withdrawals, you must record all cash
transactions for the next 30 days. It is imperative that you know where ALL money goes. Insure you can
account for each of the last 12 months of deposits written in your register. If not, find out what they are.
You must know all incoming monies. Beginning at the top in the left hand column of at least a 4 column
note pad, write all income source labels down the column-- i.e. INCOME: Wages, Bonuses, Other, Total
Income, etc. Below this enter the obligations found in the check registers such as: Mortgage/Rent, Food,
Insurance, Utilities, Phone, etc. Don't forget periodic expenses such as: Home or Auto Repair, Other
Transportations, Entertainment, Gifts/Donations, Healthcare, Property or Other Taxes.
Leave a couple spaces labeled "Miscellaneous" and "Total Expense". Find the payments in the check
registers for each expense. Enter the amount on your budget pad column 2. For irregular amounts take a
three or more month total and divide by the total months. For annual or semi-annual expenses divide by
12 or 6 to get a monthly amount. At the top of your budget pad, label the other two columns... "Actual
Expense" and "Difference". At the end of each month, enter the actual total for each expense. Determine
the difference between budget column and actual column. If there is a difference either adjust the budget
or determine a way to reduce this item.


Motivation To Stay On A Budget
Step 1: Write down specifically what you are trying to do and by when. It must have a concrete time
frame, it must be written down, and it must be specific and realistic. For example wanting "more money "
is not the same as "10% increase over last year by October first."
Step 2: What are the obstacles? What are your inadequacies? What do you need to get there that you
don't already have? What is it that's blocking you? Why aren't you already there?
Step 3: WRITE a plan to overcome EACH obstacle. List your action steps 1...2... 3... etc. for each
obstacle from above. Be as specific as possible. What will it take to get you past the obstacle that is
blocking you from what you want?
Step 4: List the benefits to you. There is no such thing as something for nothing. You must replace a
thought process and resulting action with a new thought process which will produce a desired result.
There must be a benefit derived of sufficient value and meaning to you alone to be worth the effort
necessary to do this and to overcome the resistance to change.
Step 5: Is it worth it? This question must be answered very carefully and honestly. If the answer is yes, do
it and DO IT NOW! However, if the answer is no, if the benefit derived cannot muster the desire to
overcome the obstacle, you have three choices:


Change the goal thereby reducing the obstacle; and/or increase the benefit to make it more meaningful.
Drop the entire issue and get on with your life without feeling guilty. Bonus Step: If you really want to stay
motivated you will have to reinforce your efforts through affirmations or self talk. In a few places around
the house, place a simple statement of what your are trying to do and repeat the statement as often as
possible. The more often you do it the faster the process.
Psychology of Spending
If you have ever pondered, "How could I have spent so much...." this articles is for you. I'm going to show
you one of the basics of selling so that maybe if you see it coming, you can be prepared. Please,
understand. I believe sales to be an honorable profession. But it can also be manipulative, misleading,
and deceitful not only in the hands of slick sales folks but advertisers, promoters, politicians, or any
professional seeking something that they want and you have.
As a rule, You spend money when someone "sells" you something directly or indirectly, right? (Everyone
please nod up and down.) Okay, no surprises so far. But did you know that basic sales training includes
the understanding that selling is nothing more than an emotional transference from the salesperson to the
consumer like getting you to say yes by nodding your head up and down?


For example, the ancient sales adage, "Sell the sizzle, not the steak" speaks volumes. Good sellers
know that most purchases are based upon emotion, not logic. Therefore, well trained sales people will tell
you features but sell you benefits which are the emotional hooks they have uncovered. They will "feed"
your emotional needs once known or they will assume generic needs if not known.


The question "how will you be using these speakers, Mr. Customer?" satisfies the logical suitability issue.
But it also tells the salesman what is important to you. Let's say one feature of a particular set of speakers
includes tweeters, midrange, and woofer. But what sells the speaker is the sound it reproduces, "Listen to
the magnificence you can now reproduce in your very own home, Mr. customer. Will that be cash or
charge?"


All marketing, imaging, packaging, displaying, selling, advertising, and everything else to get the
consumer to buy, is based upon evoking emotion and uses the same principle in various forms but which
all follow the same format A-I-D-A:
A- Attention.....Get their attention;
I-Interest.....Develop interest;
D-Desire.....Create desire;
A-Action....Get the customer to take an action.
Q. What is located at grocery checkout stands? A. Candy, pulp magazine, impulse items.
Q. Where are milk, eggs, and staples?       A. In the back so you have to go down aisles and see all the
things you had forgotten the last time you were there.
Q. Why does Radio Shack put their thousands of small parts toward the back?
A. So that you must view their phones, stereos, computers, CB's, etc. on your way to the small parts.
Q. Why are departmental bakeries, deli, fast foods, etc. near the front
doors?         A. So that the sites and smells can entice the passer-by.
Q. Why does a good salesperson hand you or let you "try" the item?
A. Because ownership of the item is being psychologically transferred to your emotional level. Your
"buying" it before any money or contract is exchanged... emotionally. If you think you haven't got a
chance, your on the right track. Take a look and be aware of how the cards are stacked against you.


Consumer Buying Habits Study - This group knows all about you. They have market research statistics
from 16,000 interviews in 458 Stores. What Makes Your Prospect Drool? - Here's a gem. As self stated,
"How to discover the prospect's 'Hot Buttons'"... Sell the Sizzle!!!
Why an ATM? - Fisco Bay says, "it is estimated that 50% of cash withdrawn from ATMs is spent at the
establishment in which the ATM is".


USA Data.com - These and other groups offer thousands of consumer behavior demo graphics and
lifestyle patterns to show sellers and marketers what makes the consumer buy.


Last but far from least is Journal Of Consumer Psychology - "devoted to advancing consumer psychology
as a dynamic discipline by disseminating knowledge generated and contributed by scholars from a variety
of backgrounds, substantive fields, and methodological orientations. Professionals in advertising,
marketing, and public relations; researchers in social psychology and related disciplines."


But there are a couple ideas that might help.
Spending Personality Assessment maintains that all spending mistakes fall into one of seven
subconscious patterns costing you hundreds or even thousands of dollars every year. Answer the
questions, add your scores, and you'll find a detailed explanation of your subconscious spending
personality and specific advice on how to overcome it.


Take a look at the Twelve Most Persuasive Words. See if they don't evoke emotion and then keep an eye
out for them. Controlling Impulse Buying is from Consumer Credit Counseling. It offers great tips to beat
impulse buying. IT’S TIME TO GET MOVING            If you want your product to get attention, you need an
advantage. Motion Displays increase product sales, get better placement in-store and are preferred
overall by retailers. It’s the simple, cost-effective way to deliver results. But most of all, motion takes an
ordinary display and makes it worth watching.
INCREASE SALES
POP displays perform a vital role in forming purchase decisions.* While standard static displays can
increase sales by an average of 56%, motion displays increase sales by an average of 107%. Motion can
virtually double the effectiveness of your POP program!
PREFERRED BY RETAILERS
The goal of any store manager is to increase sales. They know the value that motion brings to a display—
and to their bottom line. In a three-year marketing survey, 65% of all store managers wanted advertisers
to provide motion displays.
BETTER IN-STORE PLACEMENT
Results speak for themselves. Retailers favor displays that deliver sales; so, displays that increase the
bottom line are given key placement. 88% of all motion displays get placed in prime locations.
EASY AND COST-EFFECTIVE
Hankscraft/AJS makes it easy to bring your display to life, with prototyping free of charge. Simply give us
a call and explain your needs. We’ll pull our team together and provide you with some interesting ways to
add motion, lights or sound to your design. It’s that simple—at least we make it look that way.
*In the 1995-1996 POPAI Market Size and Structure study, 74% of all purchase decisions in mass
merchandisers were made in-store. www.hankscraftadj.com
HANKSCRAFT MOTORS, INC., 300 WENGEL DR, REEDSBURG WI 53959, 608.524.4341
Copyright 1996 Scott Peck Marketing and Sales Consulting
What Makes your Prospect Drool?
How to Discover the Prospect's 'Hot Buttons'
One of our goals in selling is to find what really interests the prospect. What really makes her/him drool?
When we find this out, we have direction for our sales conversations. These are not merely interests,
these are the areas of passion or even obsession. Make the prospects interests your interests. Many call
these 'hot buttons'. So, what do you do or how do you find your prospect's 'hot buttons'? Here are some
ideas to locate your prospect's passions. Make them drool.
1. Be focused in your listening. - Listen, Listen, Listen
2. What is the prospect proud of? Look for it.
3. Find out what your prospect's goals are.
4. Ask about the company or personal mission statement.
5. What kind of honors or awards have been given to the prospect.
6. Find out about the prospect's family or heritage.
7. Pay attention to what the prospect repeats. What keeps on coming up.
8. Listen for the emotions. Identify the emotions and what they are attached to.
9. Ask about what the prospect likes to do most.
10. Listen to hear the prospect's vision.
11. Learn to read between the lines. Some 'hot buttons' are hidden, but there are signals.
12. What are they responding to?
13. Find out the priorities of the prospect. Ask what the priorities are.
14. Is there something that the prospect is alluding to?
15. Guess at the 'hot button's based on your other customers and past experiences.
16. Learn about the company's past achievements and accomplishments.
17. What does the prospect do for fun. What does she/he do in their spare time.
18. If you were the prospect, what would be your 'hot buttons'.
19. Is the prospect dropping any hints?
20. What 'hot buttons' are product specific to the prospect's industry.
21. Find out what the prospect does after work.


When you find out what makes the prospect tick, you now have even more power and confidence. The
passions and interests of the prospect are the road signs to map out the directions of the sales
conversation. Push the right buttons. For advice and help with your sales career, email me at
scotpeck@dallas.net www.dallas.net
Why Are So Many Businesses Installing ATMs?
It is estimated that 50% of cash withdrawn from ATMs is spent at the establishment in which the ATM is
located. ATMs have been proven to increase impulse spending. An ATM on the premises eliminates bad
cheque losses and reduces the amount paid on credit card processing fees. An ATM is an added profit
center, generating additional revenues with each transaction. An ATM keeps a steady stream of
customers and revenue flowing in. USA Data.com - These and other groups offer thousands of consumer
behavior demo graphics and lifestyle patterns to show sellers and marketers what makes the consumer
buy.      Permission to Reprint requests should be addressed to:
Permissions Department, The University of Chicago Press, 1427 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637
Fax: (773) 702-9756 Copying beyond Fair Use: The code on the first page of an article in this journal
indicates the copyright owner's consent that copies of the article may be made beyond those permitted by
Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law provided that copies are made only for personal or
internal use, or for the personal or internal use of specific clients, and provided that the copier pay the
stated per-copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA
01923.


To request permission for other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising
or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale, kindly write or fax your request
to the Permissions Department at the address given above. Due to the number of requests received, we
are unable to respond to inquiries submitted by email or phone. Nearly all inquiries are responded to
within 7 days. For articles in the public domain, permission to reprint should be obtained from the
author.             www.journals.uchicago.edu
"devoted to advancing consumer psychology as a dynamic discipline by disseminating knowledge
generated and contributed by scholars from a variety of backgrounds, substantive fields, and
methodological orientations. Professionals in advertising, marketing, and public relations; researchers
in social psychology and related disciplines."


Spending Personality Assessment maintains that all spending mistakes fall into one of seven
subconscious patterns costing you hundreds or even thousands of dollars every year. Answer the
questions, add your scores, and you'll find a detailed explanation of your subconscious spending
personality and specific advice on how to overcome it.. Spending Personality Assessment © 1995
Shorter versions of the spending personalities and test are available for media use. Call 916-631-7395
and give us your deadline and fax number.


Incredible as it may seem at first, all spending mistakes fall into one of only seven subconscious patterns.
These subconscious 'spending personalities' could be costing you hundreds or even thousands of dollars
every year. Many people have a dominant spending personality - one that stands out over the other six.
To find out your spending personality, answer the questions below, add your scores, and then click on the
appropriate range. You'll find a detailed explanation of your subconscious spending personality and
specific advice on how to overcome it! Some people have more than one spending personality. If that's
you, your highest score indicates your dominant spending personality. --


Fanatical Shopping: Do you shop for weeks for the best price? 0 = Never1 = Seldom5 =
Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Would others consider the effort you spend shopping for bargains excessive?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you ever neglect quality or buy items that don't meet your needs to save money?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Fanatical Shopping tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Impulsive Buying
Do you tend to make unplanned, impulsive purchases?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you have little willpower when considering an impulsive purchase?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you buy items you don't really need because they are "on sale"?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Impulsive Buying tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Passive Buying
Do you dislike shopping or procrastinate before making needed purchases?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Are you talked into buying items by persuasive salespeople?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you blame the product or salesperson when a purchase is unsatisfactory?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you rarely ask questions or feel insecure when talking to salespeople?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Passive Buying tendencies.
0-4 points, 5-20 points, 21-80 points


Avoidance Shopping
Do you use shopping as an escape from the pressures of life?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you ever spend money to get back at your spouse or significant other?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Does buying certain items make you feel superior?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you ever buy gifts out of guilt or because you have difficulty showing affection?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Avoidance Shopping tendencies.
0-4 points, 5-20 points, 21-80 points


Esteem Buying
Do you prefer to buy in prestigious stores?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you avoid discount chains, like WalMart Or K-Mart?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you buy items because others have them?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Does impressing others affect your buying decisions?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Esteem Buying tendencies.
0-4 points, 5-20 points, 21-80 points


Overdone Buying
Do you have a collection, hobby, or activity that others might consider excessive?
0 = Never0 = Seldom0= Sometimes0=Often0=Quite Often
[If your answer is never or seldom, you're not an Overdone Buyer. Click on 0-3 points below for an
explanation of Overdone Buying or skip down to the next spending personality.]
If so, would others consider your spending on it to be excessive?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Is the collection, hobby, or activity potentially harmful to your health or finances?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Does this collection, hobby or activity cause family conflicts?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores for questions 2-4, click the appropriate range to see Overdone Buying tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Hot Potato Buying
Do you worry for weeks over significant purchases or investments?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
After putting off a significant purchase or investment for weeks, do you tend to make sudden decisions to
"get it over with?" 0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
When faced with a complex financial decision with many variables, do you tend to get overwhelmed and
make quick choices rather than think through all the variables?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Hot Potato Buying tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Copyright 1995, 1996, 1997 Grady Cash All right reserved. For information on how you can utilize this
information in research, education, or counseling, contact Grady Cash at cash@ns.net.
www.healthy.net, Spending Personality Assessment, © 1995 Grady Cash. All right reserved.


Shorter versions of the spending personalities and test are available for media use. Call 916-631-7395
and give us your deadline and fax number. Incredible as it may seem at first, all spending mistakes fall
into one of only seven subconscious patterns. These subconscious 'spending personalities' could be
costing you hundreds or even thousands of dollars every year. Many people have a dominant spending
personality - one that stands out over the other six. To find out your spending personality, answer
the questions below, add your scores, and then click on the appropriate range. You'll find a detailed
explanation of your subconscious spending personality and specific advice on how to overcome it! Some
people have more than one spending personality. If that's you, your highest score indicates your
dominant spending personality.


Fanatical Shopping
Do you shop for weeks for the best price?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Would others consider the effort you spend shopping for bargains excessive?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you ever neglect quality or buy items that don't meet your needs to save money?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Fanatical Shopping tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Impulsive Buying
Do you tend to make unplanned, impulsive purchases?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you have little willpower when considering an impulsive purchase?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you buy items you don't really need because they are "on sale"?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Impulsive Buying tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Passive Buying
Do you dislike shopping or procrastinate before making needed purchases?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Are you talked into buying items by persuasive salespeople?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you blame the product or salesperson when a purchase is unsatisfactory?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you rarely ask questions or feel insecure when talking to salespeople?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Passive Buying tendencies.
0-4 points, 5-20 points, 21-80 points


Avoidance Shopping
Do you use shopping as an escape from the pressures of life?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you ever spend money to get back at your spouse or significant other?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Does buying certain items make you feel superior?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you ever buy gifts out of guilt or because you have difficulty showing affection?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Avoidance Shopping tendencies.
0-4 points, 5-20 points, 21-80 points


Esteem Buying
Do you prefer to buy in prestigious stores?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you avoid discount chains, like WalMart Or K-Mart?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Do you buy items because others have them?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Does impressing others affect your buying decisions?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Esteem Buying tendencies.
0-4 points, 5-20 points, 21-80 points


Overdone Buying
Do you have a collection, hobby, or activity that others might consider excessive?
0 = Never0 = Seldom0= Sometimes0=Often0=Quite Often
[If your answer is never or seldom, you're not an Overdone Buyer. Click on 0-3 points below for an
explanation of Overdone Buying or skip down to the next spending personality.]
If so, would others consider your spending on it to be excessive?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Is the collection, hobby, or activity potentially harmful to your health or finances?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Does this collection, hobby or activity cause family conflicts?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores for questions 2-4. Then, click the appropriate range to see if you have Overdone Buying
tendencies.      0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points


Hot Potato Buying
Do you worry for weeks over significant purchases or investments?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
After putting off a significant purchase or investment for weeks, do you tend to make sudden decisions to
"get it over with?"   0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
When faced with a complex financial decision with many variables, do you tend to get overwhelmed and
make quick choices rather than think through all the variables?
0 = Never1 = Seldom5 = Sometimes10=Often20=Quite Often
Add your scores. Click the appropriate range to see if you have Hot Potato Buying tendencies.
0-3 points, 5-15 points, 20-60 points
Copyright 1995, 1996, 1997 Grady Cash All right reserved. For information on how you can utilize this
information in research, education, or counseling, contact Grady Cash at cash@ns.net.


POEM ON MONEY & OVERALL HEALTH
Mind, Body, Money: How Money Affects Body, Mind and Spirit


 Mind, Body, Spirit, and Personal Finance
 The Quest for Enough
Money and Emotional Health
 Money and Physical Health
Money and Spiritual Growth
 Money, Family and Relationships
Money and attitudes towards money affect every life dimension. Think of your life as a wheel with six
spokes or radians. Each of those spokes represents a major life dimension: physical, emotional,
intellectual, vocational, social/family, and spiritual.


You cannot achieve true health and happiness if your life is unbalanced, regardless of how much money
you accumulate.


When a wheel gets out of balance it, wobbles. It causes a bumpy ride. When the wheel of life gets out of
balance, our lives get bumpy! To balance the wheel requires a conscious effort. If too much or too little
emphasis is placed in one dimension to the detriment of other dimensions, one's life can become
unbalanced. You cannot achieve true health and happiness if your life is unbalanced, regardless of how
much money you accumulate. A severely unbalanced life wheel can affect health, relationships, and can
even be life-threatening. Here are some examples of excessive focus on money in one life dimension can
adversely affect other dimensions.
1. Young man focuses on social dimension (spending money), ignoring career and health.
2. Businessman focuses on career dimension (accumulating money), ignoring family and health.
3. Woman spends to impress others (emotional), ignoring intellectual growth.


Even a brand new wheel is a little out of balance. To balance a tire, small lead weights are attached to the
wheel until it spins perfectly. (If you look on the inner side of your car's wheels where the tire meets the
rim, you'll see these small weights.)


Money itself is not one of these wellness dimensions. Money is a resource, like that balance weight on
the wheel. You add it where necessary or remove it where necessary to maintain a healthy balance in life.
Too much money in one life dimension can be just as damaging to your overall well-being as a lack of $$.


Sometimes, life can get out of balance before we know it. Most people have the tires on their car
balanced periodically. Isn't balancing your life more important? The Hollywood crowd use therapists for
this, often because excesses in one life dimension have gotten their wheel of life way out of balance!
Fortunately, you don't need expensive therapists to balance the role of money in your life. You can learn
how in the Money and Goals section in HealthyCash.
In 1991, I asked Donald Tubesing, a recognized leader in stress management workshops and fellow
contributor at HealthWorld Online, for his thoughts on a philosophy linking money and health. Donald
offhandedly remarked, "Decisions about money follow decisions about life." What a great premise!
Excitedly, I began to develop my early philosophies around this statement, but the excitement evaporated
when I tested the premise and discovered that it wasn't always true. I saw some people spending money
in a seemingly random and haphazard way. I even saw people spending money in ways that conflicted
with what they professed to be their decisions about life. Donald's premise, while not completely
accurate, was so close it forged the pathway to my eventual discovery of a single, universal philosophy
about money and life. It is ...


Decisions about money should follow one's deeply felt values, goals, and purpose in life. In my opinion,
this is a universal truth, because if you replace money in that statement with career, or family, it is still
true. The problem is that most people don't spend their money (and their time and energy) in harmony
with their true values and goals.


Swept along by societal and peer pressures, many people spend their money on every new whim that
comes along. Sometimes, the societal and peer pressures are so great that some people lose sight of
their most important goals. It's no wonder that these people will never reach their financial dreams! They
are wasting their money, instead of using it to achieve their goals.


If you lose sight of your truly important goals, much of your time, energy and money will be wasted on
trivial pursuits. As a result, you'll never have enough money!


To overcome these tendencies, you must learn how to define 'enough.' e-nough (i nuf') adjective
sufficient resources to achieve your truly important goals in life Isn't that a great definition! Surely, if we
had sufficient resources to achieve our most important goals in life, wouldn't that by definition be
"enough?"


Once you learn your true goals, you can conquer the constant pressures to buy things you do not need
and can't afford. You'll have a tremendous advantage over the average person, once you know the
answer to "What is enough?" Once you know what is enough, you don't necessarily have to make more
money to reach your goals. Instead, you can focus on making enough ... less! Learn the art of making
enough ... less! That is, you can concentrate on how to achieve your goals (i.e., "enough") with less
money! Would you like to learn how to do this? If so, great! First, let's learn why people don't spend in
harmony with life goals. Visit Why Most People Will Never Have Enough.


That is, we learn how to reach the goals and values that are truly important to us while expending less
energy and money! If this is so important.. if this really is a universal truth, why aren't more people
spending in harmony with their goals, values, and purpose? I have discovered that most people DO NOT
HAVE CLEARLY FOCUSED LIFE GOALS. Millions of these people may think they have goals. In reality,
they subconsciously accept what society and peers tell them should be their goals. They have never
stopped in their hectic day-to-day lives long enough to determine if these are really their true goals and
values. Spend at least ten hours in the past year reading, worrying, or complaining about health care
reform.
Life goal: A quest or objective that is a driving force in your life. Listed their goals for 15 years, 2 years,
and 6 months into the future. Once they made their list, attendees circled the number one most important
goal in their lives. Have you spent at least 10 hours working towards this goal, the most important goal in
your life? How much time have you spent on your most important goal in life in the past year? Twenty
hours? Ten hours? One hour? Ten Minutes? Do you even know what your most important goal in life is?
If you can't respond by quickly identifying your most important goal in life, YOU ARE WASTING MORE
THAN TIME, ENERGY AND MONEY, YOU ARE WASTING YOUR LIFE! You will NOT find true, lasting
happiness. You will not find fulfillment, because you don't really know what you want!
Conquering Advertising and Societal Pressures          © 1996 by Grady Cash, M.Ed., CFP


How can you regain control of your life and your spending? How can you make sure that you are
spending for your goals, not someone else's goals for you?
1. Recognize effects on others.
2. Look for underlying advertising messages and its flaws.
3. Decide what you really want
4. Make conscious spending decisions
5. Be a little eccentric!
The first step to deprogram these advertising messages is to notice their effects on others. Once you
become aware of how advertising (or peer pressure) subconsciously affects others, it is easier to
recognize similar patterns in your spending.


The second step is to consciously look for the underlying message in media advertisements. Then, look
for its flaws. Will drinking a certain beer really make you popular? Will a perfume really make you sexier?
Will you really be successful if you drive a certain make of car? Of course not! These are just a few
examples of the flawed messages in advertising. Conquer advertising pressure by becoming aware of its
flawed messages.


The next step is to decide what you really want. What are your values? Your true needs? What is very
important to you? To your family? Once you clarify these goals, don't let peer pressure coerce.


Next, make conscious spending decisions based on what you really want, not what others expect of you.
Your friends probably won't understand. They want you to spend the same way they spend because that
validates their spending! When you make decisions based on your goals, they subconsciously feel
threatened. As a result, they want you to change.


The final step to overcoming advertising hype and peer pressure is to be a little eccentric. Your friends
will think you're eccentric anyway, so why not take pride in your eccentricity! Make it a source of your own
uniqueness. Years later, when those same friends are complaining about college costs, you can say, "Oh,
we saved for that. It's not a problem for us!"
Your Key to Financial Well-Being         © 1996 by Grady Cash, M.Ed., CFP




In The Ten Tenets of Wellness, a great article available in HealthWorld Online's Wellness Center, Michael
Arloski, Ph.D., pinpoints this most important key person. He writes:
We are primarily responsible for our health. There are the risk factors of genetics, toxic environments and
the like, but our emotional and lifestyle choices determine our health and well-being more than anything
else. As much as we'd like to cling to blame and cop-outs, we do have to be honest with ourselves. The
flip side is the empowerment this realization gives us. Studies confirm Michael's premise that attitude and
lifestyle choices are the greatest single factors in our health.


But can we apply those same premises to our personal finances? I've adapted Michael's comments to
money instead of health. We are primarily responsible for our finances. While there are risks like inflation,
unemployment, and investment unknowns, our emotional and lifestyle choices determine our health and
well-being more than anything else. While we may never be rich, we have greater control over issues that
appear to be financial than most people would imagine. As much as we'd like to cling to blame and cop-
outs, we have to be honest with ourselves. When we accept this responsibility, we can work to improve
those aspects of our lives that really matter. Learning how to administer control over the financial aspects
of our lives in not a widely-known skill, yet you'll learn how at the HealthyCash web site! Return to the
previous page for more topics. Money- A Historical Perspective © 1996 by Grady Cash, M.Ed., CFP


When money and goals are mentioned in the same sentence, most people think first of financial planning
goals like saving enough for a home down payment, their children's college education, or retirement, but
the relationship between money and goals goes much deeper. Your true goals are the foundation of your
life. You pursue them no matter what. Once you learn how to consciously weigh current purchases
versus long term goals, you'll have a much greater chance of reaching your goals!


Give Your Inner Child an Allowance! all of these are links at
http://64.4.18.250/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=f8a1b2e6c04808b01eab8e22e45f4
50e&lat=1068318481&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fslclk%2eabout%2ecom%2f%3fzi%3d1% 2fHJA


GOALS
Setting goals is absolutely essential to your well-being. Sure, you might stumble onto well-being without
goals, but in so doing, you might waste a tremendous amount of money and energy. They best way to
reach well-being is to purposely set healthy goals to so. What's the best way to do it?
Here's the exercise I teach in my workshops that is far superior (in my opinion!) to other goal setting
exercises. This exercise can be so moving, some people cry when they complete it. Having experienced
its benefits firsthand and watched the faces of hundreds of participants in my workshops, I urge you to
complete this goal setting exercise. It can change your life. I've made this exercise interactive so you can
actually do the exercise online in less than ten minutes. Ten minutes isn't that long, especially if it
provides you with a real focus and purpose of your life!


Obviously, you'll want to keep a copy of your goals. In the future, HealthWorld plans to make this an
interactive form that will automatically capture your goals as you type on this page and then email your
responses back to you. Meanwhile, your best approach is to print out this page and use it to list your
goals.
FIFTEEN YEAR GOALS
First, add 15 years to your age. Now, visualize yourself at that age. Make a list everything you want to
have accomplished by then. This might be long or a short list. It doesn't matter, as long as it lists
everything of importance to you. Give yourself a few minutes to do this. Hint: Many people only set career
and financial goals, but financial goals actually exist to support goals in other life dimensions. Be sure to
consider goals in all important dimensions of life. It's not necessary to have an equal number of goals in
each life dimension. It is very important not to neglect any of the following important aspects of your life!
Consider Setting Goals in These Important Life Dimensions
Health
Family
Emotional
Intellectual
Spiritual*
Career
*Spirituality is more than religion. It you don't understand this life dimension, welcome to the club! Millions
of people confuse religion with spirituality. Religion is only one aspect of spirituality. If you're confused,
read the Money and Spirituality section before completing this exercise.
TWO YEAR GOALS
Next, add two years to your current age. List everything you want to have accomplished by then. Again,
length is not important. (Hint: This list will contain some new goals, but it can also include interim steps
towards your 15 year goals.)
SIX MONTH GOALS
Finally, assume you know that you will be struck by lightning in six months. Bam! You're dead! What will
you do in the remaining six months of your life? What do you want to accomplish in your remaining time
on earth? Were your six month goals significantly different? Asking yourself the "6 months to live"
question forces you to consider the loose ends in your life, as well as emotional, spiritual, and relationship
goals you may have previously overlooked.
Identify Your Top Goals
Review your entire list of 15 year, 2 year, and 6 month goals. Go back and enter an asterisk (*) by your
three most important goals. In the section below, list what SPECIFIC actions you will take IN THE NEXT
THREE DAYS to pursue those goals. Be honest. List only those actions you are willing to do, but then
make a firm commitment to actually do it!
Congratulations!
Studies show that only three percent of the entire population actually writes down their goals. Studies also
show that with written goals, you are also three times more likely to achieve your goals! Wow! You tripled
your chances of successfully reaching your truly important goals in life in only ten minutes. What! You
say you didn't spend anytime on your goal? "Too busy," you think to yourself? Sad. You had a real
chance to change your life ...consider this quote.
"I'm not happy where I am. If only I had planned better, if only I had set goals, my situation today would be
so much better”                  http://www.healthy.net/index.asp




How Did We Do It?         Diversified Publicity
The key to a successful media campaign is something I call Diversified Publicity. That is, generating
exposure in as many different media outlets in as many different ways to optimize the chances of publicity
for the product or business. Here's how we dealt a winning hand to the New Deal Playing Card Company:
Media Notification
We knew the client had a great product, but consumers simply didn't know about it yet. This isn't
advertising, this is "media notification" of an interesting new product that their readers and viewers would
be interested in. We let the media be our bullhorn to educate consumers about New Deal. We researched
and contacted media outlets whose profiles matched New Deal's product line and submitted effective
feature pitches to appropriate editors, reporters and producers. But that was just the beginning.


The key to generating the most media interest and placements is meticulous media interaction over an
extended period of time: weekly/monthly follow-ups; prompt fulfillment of media requests (interviews,
photos, samples); ongoing editorial calendar research and pitches, etc.. This is where many publicity
campaigns fall short. Many business owners have the misconception that they can simply write a single
release, submit it to a media release distribution service and the media interest will pour in. The majority
of the media interest comes several weeks or sometimes months into the campaign, after the media has
had a chance to see your pitch a few times and determine how/when they are going to lend it coverage.
Just like when playing cards, sometimes you have to deal them several times before you win a hand --
but that winning hand can be very beneficial to you.
Relative Releases
This is an aspect where business owners often fail to take full advantage of the media market. We
interviewed all of the principals involved in the New Deal Playing Card Company and came up with
information like hometowns, cities where they may have lived or been employed in the past, towns where
they attended college, etc.. We then hit the media in those markets with what I call "relative releases" - a
pitch alerting them that someone with a connection to their market (native/former resident/alumnus) is
involved in an interesting, newsworthy venture - i.e. "Former Waukesha Resident Launches Innovative
Playing Card Company." Local media are typically very receptive to features that have a local connection.
Those local features many times get picked up by news syndicates that may make the story go
nationwide. It's a creative and effective way to turn a local story into a national one and generate
extensive media exposure for your product or business.
Parallel-Media Targeting
One of the biggest mistakes with most publicity campaigns is improperly determining the media market.
For New Deal Playing Cards we covered our bets by cross-referencing the entire North American media
market to determine potential media targets for them. That is to say, in addition to obvious media targets
like Children's Editors or Feature Producers, we made many creative pitches to gain interest from several
other contacts at magazines, newspapers & broadcast media nationwide. For instance, in the New Deal
campaign we made three different pitches over the course of the nine-month campaign. We targeted
media outlets whose editorial profiles focused on:
Games, Hobbies, Toys, Children, Family
Feature, Lifestyle, Elderly, Physically Challenged
Business, Entrepreneurial, Consumer Interest
By hitting these parallel media with our pitch, we were able to saturate the entire media market with
newsworthy pitches and generate placements in multiple media outlets, from senior citizen magazines to
kids shows to business news features. The key is to tailor the media pitch to the respective media market.
A consumer product pitch to family magazines has a much different editorial slant and focus than an
entrepreneurial feature pitch to business reporters at newspapers & TV shows.


Much like a game of cards, the success of your publicity campaign comes down how you take advantage
of the cards you are dealt. The player who can create a winning hand will be the one who ends up with
the most money in the end. And isn't that the deal you want for you and your company. In advertising,
you can use a lot of over the edge techniques. But PR requires a little more restraint.
Think of advertising as your brother. He's a party animal and everyone thinks he's cool.
On the other hand, you're more refined. You don't stay out late and hardly ever deviate from the norm.
Part of the problem is that advertisements can pretty much say what they want. The company is paying
for the ad space.
As a PR professional, your job is to get free publicity. You're responsible for getting the company's name
out there with no hype, just news. The challenge is clear but once you take the field, you're ready to
tackle an exciting career in PR. And you won't be bored either.
You'll be writing press releases, organizing news conferences and producing company newsletters. You'll
even be a liaison between the media and your company.


PR doesn't stop there. There's a whole list of functions you'll be taking on, such as: public speaking, being
interviewed on radio/TV, attending conferences, exhibitions and trade shows, arranging press launches,
organizing opening days or visits to the plant and premises, coordinating studio and location photography
and acting as the client's spokesperson. As you can see, you have to be a jack-of-all trades. So make
sure you are suited for PR. You need to be a sponge. Make the most of your time and on-the-job
training. Listen, observe and learn everything you can.
Be a grasshopper. You'll be handling several different projects at once so you have to be multi-task
oriented. You have to give each project 100 percent of your attention without neglecting the other
projects.
Show your colors. Be a chameleon. You better like people. You'll be dealing with them a lot. And you
have to adapt to any situation and be open-minded at all times.
Learn how to dance. No, not literally. You must have energy and stamina. There will be many nights
you're rundown and burning the midnight oil but you'll still have to keep that smile on your face.
Long live the king! You're the court jester. Nobody's calling you a fool, but you'll be the one generating
ideas so be prepared to advise the king.
You don't need all of these traits but a little bit of each will be helpful. Once you organize your first press
conference or speak to a TV reporter about your new product, you'll know you made the right decision
when you entered PR.


Small operators bypass food distribution system to stay ‘ahead of the curve’ By Mike Hegedus CNBC
SAN RAFAEL, Calif., Nov. 4 — There are over 3,500 of them certified in the United States. And they
have served to help save the small farm and blighted areas of the inner cities at the same time. With large
corporate farms dominating the food landscape and chains of distribution, smaller farms were getting
frozen out of the market — until a recent explosion in direct to customer marketing. It’s what farmers used
to do; and now, all things old are new again.
OF THE MORE THAN 3,500 certified farmers markets in the United States, some 400 are in California
alone — and over 1 million people shop at them each week on the West Coast alone.
    The small markets have become an economic force that is felt by more than just farmers. “There are
a lot of markets that are in the downtown areas, that are in business districts, and we know that for every
dollar spent in a farmer’s market, three dollars are spent in nearby businesses,” said Gail Hayden, a
former Agriculture Department official who is now the executive director of the Marin County Farmer’s
Market Association in California.
    Hayden has seen explosive growth in the number of farmers markets, particularly in the last five
years. Once considered a trend, shopping at these markets has become a way of life for consumers.
    “They want it direct from the farmer,” said Hayden. “They want to know who grew what they’re eating
— the crispness, the freshness. They like tree-ripened, vine-ripened — the sugar, the flavor.”
    Farmers have also watched their points of distribution increase. And for small operators like David
Little, who has a stand at the Marin County market at the county Civic Center here in San Rafael, it’s the
difference between being a farmer — and not being one.
    “Before you’re in the market, you’re not a farmer,” said Little. “And when you’re in the market, you get
in the market, you are a farmer, it’s that big a deal.”
    And direct distribution can also help smooth the cycle of bumper crops and lean years.
    “This kind of direct market weathers economic ups and downs a lot more than commodity
agriculture,” said Andrew Brait, another California farmer who sells direct.
    “It’s immediate cash flow for one; they’re not dependent on an invoice 90 days later,” said Hayden.
“They can adjust their product mix because they’re getting immediate feedback from their customers on
what they like and what they don’t like. They can offer their very best and build clientele.”
    “When you’re harvesting and selling, harvesting and selling, you have to pay the bills,” said Little.
“And this is just a great way to do it because this is instant cash.”
    “Our crops are sold on the fresh market and follow trends of consumer demand more than anything,”
said Brait. “And as people are hungry no matter what the economic times are, we try to stay ahead of the
curve.”
    They’re staying ahead of the curve, one bite at a time.
    The last time there was a poll, over 20,000 farmers reported selling their produce at farmers markets
around the country, with nearly 85 percent of those markets being self-sustaining.


Eating Habits By Jon Bonné           MSNBC
Aug. 26 — With their busy schedules, is the American family through with eating at home? Not at all,
according to a review of trends in Food Technology magazine. We’re still buying food to eat together, it
says, so long as we don’t have to take the time to cook it from scratch.
    MORE PAPER PLATES and plastic sandwich bags at home are signs of the easy-to-serve, easy-to-
clean trend, according to the article, prepared by Sloan Trends & Solutions and released last week by the
Institute of Food Technologists as a compendium of food trend data over the past year.
    As such it serves as a useful overview of broad trends in American tastes.
    And we’re still, it would seem, largely preparing meals at home and enjoying basics: meat, soups,
pasta and hamburgers, for example. What seems to be different is the way we’re buying and cooking
them.
    “You want to make my life easier, don’t make me clean the pot,” says Harry Balzer, vice president of
NPD Group’s food consulting division, which documented the growth in easy-to-clean items.
    That at-home desire for ease, says Christine Bruhn, director of the Center for Consumer Research at
the University of California, Davis, may be the compromise between dining out and laboring in the
kitchen: “People are purchasing more frozen foods, for example, and more of the lightly processed
foods so that they can have the odors and the environment of their home ...but they don’t have to put as
much time into the preparation.”


SNACK ATTACK
    After a dismal year, restaurants have been seeing a rebound, according to NPD, with folks edging off
some of the stay-at-home trend. Americans remain big on chain restaurants, with the fastest growth
coming outside of burgers and fries. But success in the “fast casual” market — places like Panera Bread
and Wendy’s-owned Baja Fresh, which offer more robust options than fast food but aren’t as full-service
as an Applebee’s or Outback Steakhouse — may be small compared to fast-food staples, which remain
the most popular items. New fast-food offerings like salads barely make a blip. “You know where the
future is,” Balzer says. “The future’s in some new burger.”
    Of course, carry-out orders made up a third of restaurant traffic, according to NPD. At the same time,
only a fraction of main dishes eaten at home were made from scratch.
    That may in part be explained by a blurring line between meals and snacks. The convenience of
ready-made items has boomed, with three-quarters of consumers keen on what food marketers call
ready-to-eat and heat-and-eat items, according to Information Resources, Inc. Frozen, ready-to-cook
meals for entire families are gaining traction. And while two-thirds of Americans still say they eat three
square meals a day, a quarter are down to two-a-day, and 10 percent are what IRI calls “grazers,”
hopping from snack to snack.
   Yet even those who are set on three meals find themselves snacking, and the growing snack industry
has offered items like dairy drinks and nutrition bars as an alternate for meals. “To a large degree,” noted
IRI’s Kim Feil earlier this year, “snacks and meals have become interchangeable.”


OTHER TRENDS
    The piece, titled “What, When, and Where Americans Eat: 2003,” also noted:
One-item meals — sandwiches, or all those slightly curious meal pockets — are booming. “As the pace
of life has accelerated,” the article notes, “a new generation of portable products — including snack bars,
yogurt in a tube, and grab-and-go soups — has kept pace.” IRI, which tracks supermarket sales data,
notes that while traditional snacks, such as a bag of pretzels, are showing moderate growth, consumers
are really hot for traditional items made easy — like oatmeal in a cup. And we’re willing to pay two or
three times the price for convenience.
Meat and poultry haven’t lost favor with Americans. But we seem to be looking for new ways to buy and
prepare it. Fresh items, such as beef or chicken, are often partially prepared before they’re put on the
shelf — with skin or bones removed. Spices and sauces are now frequently being bundled together with
the food. “A consumer picks up just one package, instead of three or four packages, and makes a meal,”
said Bruhn. At the same time, meat snacks — such as bite-sized deli meats and pre-packaged lunch
items — are making big inroads. Ditto pre-cooked meatballs. To keep Americans interested in calcium-
rich foods, dairy producers are finding new ways to get milk and cheese into U.S. homes. Flavored milk is
beginning to catch on, especially in single-serve packages. And cheese, which has shown nearly a 300
percent increase in consumption since the 1950s, according to the USDA, is continuing to grow. That
includes both pre-prepared items like grated and sliced cheeses, as well as new interest in premium and
organic cheeses.


SODA AND SPICE
U.S. consumers offered some heartening news on healthy eating, though most of that came in a focus
on controlling fat intake. Healthy snacks made inroads, according to IRI. Yet consumption of fats and oils
continues to rise. And despite some specific changes (a big drop in french-fry consumption, for example),
Balzer remains skeptical. “Every food manufacturer in this country has provided Americans with the
means to eat healthy,” he says, “but they have never provided them with the will.”
Carbonated beverage sales were a bit, um, flat — but bottled water continues to shine. We’re still
drinking more soda (54.2 gallons per person in 2002) but if soda makers don’t fizz up their sales, the
piece notes, “bottled water is projected to become the most-consumed beverage by the end of the next
decade.”
Heeding nutritional warnings, Americans were getting better at seeking out fruits and vegetables in their
diets, with 71 percent saying they tried to include more of them. The ready-to-eat trend is especially
visible here, with foods like bagged salad and fresh-cut carrots leading the way. But fresh-cut fruit is now
getting in the game, too, including packaged combos that include fruit with cheese or crackers.
American palates are getting more diverse. In part, that reflects a rapidly diversifying population, with
ethnic groups showing big gains. But as new immigrants settle in, their tastes also get shared with their
neighbors.
    We’ve heard about salsa trumping ketchup, but ethnic food selections overall are becoming an
important part of shopping lists, especially for young shoppers. “You have people with their own culture of
food and history coming in and wanting to repeat their dishes,” said Bruhn, “and then you have people
tasting those products and liking them.”
    Italian foods remain a longtime favorite, and Mexican holds its status as a favorite. Asian foods are
now showing big gains, too, especially in take-out restaurant chains. Mediterranean foods are also, as the
article puts it, “moving mainstream.” Bruhn, meantime, forecasts big potential for new tropical fruits as
new irradiation methods make it easier to import exotic varieties. Country-of-origin labeling (COOL) was
mandated as part of the farm bill passed by Congress in 2002. By 2004, all beef — along with lamb, pork,
fish and some produce — sold in the United States must be labeled with its country of origin, quite literally
a “Made in the U.S.A” imprimatur.
    Whether that matters to consumers is less clear. A study earlier this year of consumers’ interest in
COOL showed that most shoppers in Denver and Chicago would pay a slight premium for COOL beef —
as much as 24 percent more for hamburger. But among 17 attributes a beef consumer might seek out,
geographic origin fell somewhere in the middle, well below items like freshness and food safety
assurances. That wasn’t to say consumers didn’t pay attention to the quality of their beef, but they were
more likely to associate it with specific brands which they relied on for quality assurance rather than an
official grade or label. As such, the days of generic beef in blank styrofoam and shrink wrap may be
getting short.
    “What this comes down to is that origin is not going to matter nearly as much as brand,” says Wendy
Umberger, a livestock marketing researcher at Colorado State University who conducted the study. “I
think we’ll see the meat counter continue to change substantially in the next five years, and see the
introduction of lots of new brands.”


BRANDED
    Actually, many supermarkets already brand their beef with premium labels. But looking forward, the
best analogy might be to the poultry industry, which has largely consolidated its sales under just a few
brands, such as Tyson Foods and Perdue Farms.
    Thus beef, which historically was sold as a commodity — a more or less uniform product with little
differentiation — is starting to be differentiated. That shift, Umberger says, hinges on consumer
perceptions of safety and quality that surround established brands. That may manifest itself in nationwide
brands, like Certified Angus Beef (a creation of the American Angus Association), or in supermarket
packaging that attaches a respected name to an otherwise generic product. Supermarket retailer Kroger,
for example, offered its Colorado stores a Cattleman’s Collection brand, created by a small group of
ranchers and packagers who handle the entire production process.
    When beef is branded as such, consumers can leave the responsibility for quality, safety and the
entire production process with a single company. And many within the beef industry believe that sort of
private-sector quality mandate is beginning to take precedence over consumers’ interest in USDA quality
labels — especially because the average consumer is unlikely to hold forth on the difference between,
say, USDA Select beef and USDA Prime. (The USDA system favors the marbled fat within beef, one
reason lean beef producers often don’t include it in packaging.)


Label Names
"Normal" beef: What you would typically find in the supermarket or at the local drive-thru. Most U.S. cattle
are fed grain or corn, and produced for higher fat content. There are no specific restrictions on the use of
either genetically-enhanced feed or antibiotics to treat the cattle. Organic beef: Refers to the quality of
the feed given to the cattle, which must be produced from organic sources. Does not specify the type of
feed. Hormones and antibiotics are prohibited. Cattle must be slaughtered at an organic facility. Of all
labels, this is the only one with a national set of standards. Natural beef: By USDA labeling standards,
must not contain any artificial ingredients. Does not address use of natural hormones or drugs. In the
industry, tends to refer to pasture-raised beef that has received minimal medication. Feed may not
necessarily be organic. Grass-fed beef: Cattle are given grass or silage to eat, not grain or corn.
Does not specify the preparation of the grass or the use of drugs or hormones. Does not specify the
feeding method, so some grass-fed beef are raised in pens. Free-range beef: Cattle are allowed to
forage for food, usually over open grasslands. Different from “pasture-finished” cattle, which generally
begin in pens and often eat grain before being transferred to the open range. Lean beef: Refers to the fat
content, not the grazing method. Focus is on a lower fat beef, with less marbling of fat in the meat.
Usually does not apply USDA grades, which promote a higher fat content. Cattle are usually grass fed,
but no single standard exists.
Prime: Has a high degree of marbling, which allows it to be cooked with minimal preparation. Usually
marketed as the top quality of beef. Sample fat content: 23.3g per 100g.
Choice: High quality, though with less marbling. Also cooks easily, but some cuts may require more
preparation. Sample fat content: 20.6g per 100g.
Select: Less marbling than the others means this is the leanest cut of beef. Still tender, but may require
more preparation because of the lower fat content. Sample fat content: 17.4g per 100g.
USDA also has Standard and Commercial grades, which are often sold un-graded as generic whole
meat. USDA also grades beef on yield – how much edible meat is on a carcass.
Determining grade: The USDA beef grades seen in supermarkets actually refer to the amount of fat in the
product, though the USDA describes it as a description of “tenderness, juiciness, and flavor.” “Marbled”
fat refers to the level of fat distributed throughout the “lean,” or edible meat portion of the beef.
Free-range beef: Cattle are allowed to forage for food, usually over open grasslands. Different from
“pasture-finished” cattle, which generally begin in pens and often eat grain before being transferred to the
open range.
Lean beef: Refers to the fat content, not the grazing method. Focus is on a lower fat beef, with less
marbling of fat in the meat. Usually does not apply USDA grades, which promote a higher fat content.
Cattle are usually grass fed, but no single standard exists.
Prime: Has a high degree of marbling, which allows it to be cooked with minimal preparation. Usually
marketed as the top quality of beef. Sample fat content: 23.3g per 100g.
Choice: High quality, though with less marbling. Also cooks easily, but some cuts may require more
preparation. Sample fat content: 20.6g per 100g.
Select: Less marbling than the others means this is the leanest cut of beef.
Still tender, but may require more preparation because of the lower fat content. Sample fat content: 17.4g
per 100g. USDA also has Standard and Commercial grades, which are often sold un-graded as generic
whole meat. USDA also grades beef on yield – how much edible meat is on a carcass.
Determining grade: The USDA beef grades seen in supermarkets actually refer to the amount of fat in the
product, though the USDA describes it as a description of “tenderness, juiciness, and flavor.” “Marbled”
fat refers to the level of fat distributed throughout the “lean,” or edible meat portion of the beef.
Free-range beef: Cattle are allowed to forage for food, usually over open grasslands. Different from
“pasture-finished” cattle, which generally begin in pens and often eat grain before being transferred to the
open range.
Lean beef: Refers to the fat content, not the grazing method. Focus is on a lower fat beef, with less
marbling of fat in the meat. Usually does not apply USDA grades, which promote a higher fat content.
Cattle are usually grass fed, but no single standard exists.
Prime: Has a high degree of marbling, which allows it to be cooked with minimal preparation. Usually
marketed as the top quality of beef. Sample fat content: 23.3g per 100g.
Choice: High quality, though with less marbling. Also cooks easily, but some cuts may require more
preparation. Sample fat content: 20.6g per 100g.
Select: Less marbling than the others means this is the leanest cut of beef.
Still tender, but may require more preparation because of the lower fat
content. Sample fat content: 17.4g per 100g.
"Others" USDA also has Standard and Commercial grades, which are often sold un-graded as generic
whole meat. USDA also grades beef on yield – how much edible meat is on a carcass.


-------------


Socially Responsible Investing
Tim Smith, president of the Social Investment Forum, said the corporate scandals of the past two years
appear to have heightened interest in socially responsible mutual funds. Last year, he said, socially
responsible mutual funds saw net inflows of $1.5 billion, while U.S. diversified equity funds posted
outflows of nearly $10.5 billion.
     “Our instinct is that many investors thought the socially responsible funds were going the extra mile
on basic corporate governance issues,” he said. “We’re very confident interest will continue to grow in this
area.”
     The widening investigation into improper trading at mutual funds also could prompt some investors to
take a fresh look at social investing because of the perception that socially responsible funds “walk their
talk,” Smith said. But he cautioned investors against making any assumptions.
     “My feeling is that every concerned investor should be asking every mutual fund they are
participating in ... to explain what their policies are to make sure these scandals are not occurring in their
house,” he said in an interview.
    Reggie Stanley, senior vice president of Calvert Group, which follows social criteria in managing its $9
billion in assets, said the latest report shows that socially responsible investors tend to be loyal, long-term
investors, who are “in it for the long haul.”
     “What we’re seeing it that the social investor is a committed investor,” he said. “They are staying loyal
to their funds at a time when the overall investor is not.”
     Proponents of these funds say there is no real conflict between performance and socially responsible
investing. Morningstar, an independent research agency, gives more than 40 percent of socially
responsible funds its highest rating of 4 or 5 stars, compared with 32.5 percent for the overall universes of
mutual funds.
     “Social investing holds its own,” said Alisa Gravitz, vice president of the Social Investment Forum.
“We go toe to toe in both bull and bear markets.”
     Socially responsible investing began to gain critical mass in the 1980s, when the divestiture
movement by shareholder groups helped pressure South Africa to end its system of racial apartheid. The
movement gained a huge boost in 1998, when a Labor Department letter made clear that socially
screened funds could be included in qualified retirement plans. The ruling coincided with a growing
movement among public retirement funds to avoid tobacco company stocks. Over the past six years
assets in socially screened accounts have grown from $433 billion to nearly $2 trillion.
     By far the securities most commonly avoided by socially oriented portfolios are those issued by
companies in the tobacco or alcoholic beverage industries. Other commonly used screens involve
company labor relations, the environment, gambling and weapons manufacturing or defense contracting.
     Some social investors also actively seek out companies that demonstrate outstanding performance in
such non-financial areas as labor relations or environmental practices.
     Of the 200 mutual funds that screen for social criteria, the biggest is American Funds Washington
Mutual Investors Fund, with $47 billion in assets as of the end of last year. The fund “may not invest in
companies that derive their primary revenues from alcohol or tobacco,” according to the prospectus.


----------


Channel 7 TV Shopper
Allan Matthews' TV Shopper makes it possible for small businesses to receive up to a half hour of TV
exposure for informing the viewing public about the business's products and services at an affordable
cost. Allan Matthews, a veteran of radio and TV broadcasting, finds the deals, finds the most unique
products, finds the bargains and makes these known to the viewer through his unique eclectic style
tailored to each client, product or service.


Scuba Tech Inc. Video Productions is the TV production facility used by MediaMan Productions, Ltd. to
bring TV Shopper into these area businesses as field TV productions. With this style the show can bring
you, the viewer, into intimate contact with these businesses for a real show and tell treat unlike any 30
second commercial or quickie studio interview or even those highly scripted staged infomercials. With
Allan, you never know what surprise just waits as he introduces some of the community's most
fascinating American Business Heroes™ of The TV Shopper.


Each month, Allan will present a series of on location shows of such businesses as an ostrich and Emu
ranch, wholesale outlets, computer stores, divorce-bankruptcy and workers compensation attorneys,
plastic surgeons, auto dealerships, and auto repair technicians, mortgage brokers, restaurant tours,
dance- fitness-and martial arts centers, tool rental facilities, home improvement contractors and specialty
suppliers and furniture stores, and the list just keeps on expanding each month. Each show is in a
rotation with others in a given market and are repeated for several weeks or as long as our American
Business Heroes™ desire to be on the air with us. Allan Matthews' TV Shopper is one of the most
economical ways for small businesses to gain tremendous community exposure for its products and
services.


If you would like to contact us about the show, or to have Allan contact you about being on the show or
becoming a business sponsor, send us an E-mail dlandis@scubatech.com


http://www.mytvshopper.com/
Hey, business type, interested in a free TV infomercial or website? Call us now at 1• 800•720•1928, or
email us at info@mytvshopper.com and we'll tell you how to apply for a free infomercial or website.
We know why most advertising doesn't work, and we can help you optimize your marketing
effectiveness. We do it all, creative, copy, TV and Radio commercials, infomercials, min-infomercials,
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Shopper. Video by the minute is network quality video production at rock bottom prices, because in your
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Talking Websites
Warner Brothers did it with the Jazz Singer back in 1927. For the first time movies talked and everything
changed. Welcome to “Web Talkies”, we are the revolution In web site design and effectiveness. Ask
yourself, aren’t most web sites boring? Pages of silent text, they all look the same but a "Web Talkie" from
Mediaman adds some snap, a little life, instead of wandering around your site, you can direct them.
Isn't this web site the proof, isn’t a talking web site cooler and easier to follow, of coarse it is. Your web
site is more fun and more compelling to surf. They will come more often, stay longer and may actually,
buy something! What a concept. Mediaman can design, build and maintain your web site and incorporate
the voice and attitude that will make you stand out from that silent majority. Remember silent movies used
to be good enough, but not once we heard Jolson sing. Call Mediaman now, about making your web site
a “Talkie”. 1• 800•720•1928. How would you like your own half hour TV show for $200 to $400 a week?
Don't laugh; the TVShopper is a half hour show, starring you and your business. The TVShopper has
been on the air for six years in five eastern markets from New York to Florida, two million households.
Our show TV Shopper by Mediaman works, we call it the FLEER effect. F, L, E, E, R stands for
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Radio Databases         http://www.tvradioworld.com/default.asp
www.fcc.gov
www.RadioStation.com
www.radio-locator.com
www.radioauthority.org.uk
www.aba.gov.au
http://www.tvradioworld.com/region2/nzl/nzlrdloc.asp


Auto Accident
Although auto accidents are more prevalent in the winter months, what you need to do after an accident
never changes. Obviously it is hard to think clearly after an accident so it is important to know before you
get into an accident what to do first and what questions may need answered. This checklist will help you
know what to do after an auto accident. It is best to review it now and then print it out and keep a copy
with you in your car.
Determine the Extent of Damage or Injuries
Try to stay calm. Panic can make others panic and the situation worse. There needs to be a calm person
to determine the extent of damage and to determine if there are any injuries that need immediate medical
attention.
File an Accident Report with the Police
Even in a minor accident it is important to make sure there is a legal accident report. Do not leave the
scene until the police file a full report.
Discuss the Accident Only with the Police
With everyone all shook up it can be hard not to talk about what just happened, but that can also lead to
you not thinking clearly and accurately about what happened. It is important to limit your discussion of the
accident and not to admit any fault or liability. You should talk about the accident with the police and your
insurance agent only.


Get the Facts
This is the part most people know to do, but often forget to after the accident for one reason or another. It
is important to get names, address, and phone numbers of everyone involved in the accident. A
description of the car and license plate number can also be helpful, but make sure you also get
their insurance company and the vehicle identification number of their car. Don't just think the license
plate number will do because most insurance companies only record the type of car and the vehicle
identification number, not the license plate number.
Call you Insurance Agent
Call your agent or insurance company's 800# immediately, even at the scene with the police if possible.
Sometimes the police officer can give your insurance company more accurate information rather than
information you may not be recording properly because of your being upset by the accident. This
can save you a lot of time later waiting for your claim to be processed.


This checklist will help you know what to do after an auto accident. It is best to review it now and then
print it out and keep a copy with you in your car.
Determine the Extent of Damage or Injuries
Try to stay calm. Panic can make others panic and the situation worse. There needs to be a calm person
to determine the extent of damage and to determine if there are any injuries that need immediate medical
attention.
File an Accident Report with the Police
Even in a minor accident it is important to make sure there is a legal accident report. Do not leave the
scene until the police file a full report.
Discuss the Accident Only with the Police
With everyone all shook up it can be hard not to talk about what just happened, but that can also lead to
you not thinking clearly and accurately about what happened. It is important to limit your discussion of the
accident and not to admit any fault or liability. You should talk about the accident with the police and your
insurance agent only.
Get the Facts
This is the part most people know to do, but often forget to after the accident for one reason or another. It
is important to get names, address, and phone numbers of everyone involved in the accident. A
description of the car and license plate number can also be helpful, but make sure you also get their
insurance company and the vehicle identification number of their car. Don't just think the license plate
number will do because most insurance companies only record the type of car and the vehicle
identification number, not the license plate number.
Call you Insurance Agent
Call your agent or insurance company's 800# immediately, even at the scene with the police if possible.
Sometimes the police officer can give your insurance company more accurate information rather than
information you may not be recording properly because of your being upset by the accident. This
can save you a lot of time later waiting for your claim to be processed. The area's local newspapers
should also be checked for the possibility that they may have published a synopsis of the weather on the
day of the accident. Upon clipping out such an item a notation should be made indicating the name of the
newspaper, plus the date and page, etc.


  Review these article's closely because a photograph may be available via those newspaper articles. If
that's so, go to the newspaper office (or make a telephone call to it) and order an 8x10 glossy print of the
photo from the article's reporter or photographer. It's even possible you may discover that a newspaper or
television photographer has a photograph that had been taken but wasn't used in the article - - one which
is available for a nominal charge.


  There are two other "by-products" for which photographs can additionally be useful to you in your claims
settlement undertaking. One by-product is the possibility that, upon closely studying the photo, you may
discover a witness. Or, as another by-product, you might be able to pick out from the photos the
registration numbers of other vehicles in the impact area but weren't involved in the accident. From such
a piece of information you can get the police or the motor vehicle department to provide you with the
names and addresses of the parties to whom the registration number belongs and that could present you
with the possibility of locating a critical witness to your case.


  OBTAINING THE POLICE REPORT - IF ANY: It's always a good idea to call the police when there's an
accident. It's to your advantage to do so and to have a police report on file. In most states the police are
required, by law, to be promptly notified whenever an accident occurs, especially when there's an injury or
the damages to one of the vehicles exceeds some fixed amount, say $250.00 or $300.00.
  About a week or so after the police execute the report it will usually be available to the public at the
police department. You should secure a copy of the report by requesting one for a nominal charge. If the
accident occurs on a state highway, you apply for the report from the state Highway Patrol's office. If the
accident occurred anywhere else, you should apply for the report from the city, county, or sheriffs police
department that investigated the accident.


  Upon obtaining a copy of the report scan it for a witness the police may have included. It's possible you
could discover from the report that the police have taken some useful photographs. They'll usually be
more than willing to sell you reprints.


  You may discover - - especially in severe accidents involving, say for example, drunkenness - - that
there's in existence some special reports and/or highly detailed diagrams on the accident. You can inquire
with the investigating officers who prepared the report (their names are listed on the bottom of the
reports) as to whether there was any professional photographers they may have seen or observed at the
scene, thereby providing you with yet another source for potentially helpful photographs or witnesses.


In Canada, minimum vehicle insurance is mandatory in all provinces, specifically for Public Liability (PLI),
sometimes called third party liability insurance.


This insurance covers you if you cause damages to property or persons and the minimum coverage is
$200,000. This will cover you for most minor damages to other vehicles, but if you seriously injure a
person, and the courts award a large settlement, you are personally liable for the award over and above
the coverage amount. Many insurance agents will recommend a minimum $2million in PLI coverage, as
the cost per year is minimal.


Motorists visiting Canada from the United States can be assured of coverage via their existing car
insurance policies, if their company has agreed with Canadian authorities to provide such coverage. No
amendment to your insurance coverage is necessary.


Before leaving home, you should obtain a yellow Non-Resident Inter-Province Motor Vehicle Liability
Insurance Card from your insurance company. This card indicates that your insurance company has
agreed to provide coverage of not less than the minimum legal requirement in any jurisdiction in Canada
in which you travel. Keep the card in your vehicle as proof of your insurance if requested by a police
officer.
Personal Vehicles
Beyond the mandatory insurance coverage, all you need to carry is the registration to show that the car is
in your name. This also applies to vehicles with temporary or interim plates. If you are driving another
person ’s vehicle you need a letter from the owner giving you permission to cross the international border
with their car.
Rentals
Renting a car in Canada is not a problem as places like airports have outlets for the major companies
such a as Avis, Hertz, Budget and National. If you are renting a vehicle from the USA and driving in to
Canada, it is imperative that the rental company know that the vehicle is leaving the country so they can
ensure that sufficient insurance coverage is in place.
Trailers
Many people haul trailers of one kind or another across the border, mostly for camping purposes. The
trailer also has to have sufficient insurance to travel across the international border. As with all vehicles
crossing the border, trailers are subject to inspection at the border in both directions.


Driving in Canada
North American car owner have a love for the independence of the open road. Be forewarned, in Alberta,
British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan, such devices are illegal, and can be
confiscated by the police if they see them in your vehicle. Drive safe, keep to the speed limit and all those
who want to save a little gas, raise your right foot.


Most people are aware that DWI is illegal, but DWT? Driving While Talking (on a cell phone) was made
an offence under the Motor Vehicle Act of Newfoundland in 2003. If you are driving in Newfoundland by
yourself, turn off the cell phone while the car is moving, or you could face a hefty fine.


If you don't drive 24/7, this plan will work for you. Do you drive twelve thousand miles or less in a year?
You could be saving money by joining a (or creating your own) car share program.


You don't have to be the sole owner of a vehicle just to drive to work or the grocery store, or even take a
weekend trip. Renting or sharing transportation when you need it, instead of buying a vehicle that spends
most of it's time parked, makes good money sense.


Think about the vehicle that's parked in your garage or driveway or parking bay right now. What good is it
doing anyone at the moment? When will you need it next? Wouldn't it be cool to have someone pay you
for all the times you don't need it? Or how about paying for it only when you're actually driving it? That's
basically what car sharing is.


Someone has or buys a car, takes out insurance to cover multiple drivers, writes out a plan of
maintenance, and an agreement with several others that includes who buys gas and when, how the
vehicle is to be treated, and a flexible schedule of who uses it when. Those people then pay that
'someone' a fee of a few hundred dollars to cover insurance and other costs, then they pay mileage
(anywhere from ten to thirty cents a mile) and/or an hourly rate (one to three dollars an hour).


The result: You pay for transportation only when you need it. Think of it. No more forgotten insurance
bills that are due now. No more parking tickets. No more 'where's the credit card; we need new tires'.
People who've tried it are claiming anywhere from seventy to two hundred dollars total costs per
month. Most car payments are more than that, and that doesn't even touch most of the cost of owning a
vehicle - regular maintenance, repairs, insurance and taxes.


It could be the perfect solution for stay at home parents, who only need a vehicle once or twice during the
week, and what about those who work at home, or live near work; and those who only drive to public
transportation terminals?


Of course there are trade-offs. No longer would you be able to jump up at midnight and drive to the local
store for ice cream. No more coming home two or three hours late, and you'd have to let go of that pride
of ownership.


Car sharing is not for everyone, but if you take a long, hard look at the real benefits, you might just decide
it's for you.


Car Sharing
Portland Program Can Work in Florida
It may begin in Florida as a niche market for university students or seniors, but if you drive less than
10,000 miles a year, car sharing can cut your transportation costs. Posted 12 August 1998


Cindy Pollock Shea, Contributing Editor
If you dread the thought of having to purchase a new car and you groan every time your car insurance bill
comes due, you might be a candidate for car sharing. Practiced in Germany, Switzerland, and the
Netherlands, car sharing provides group members access to a car whenever they need it--at a nominal
fee. Maintenance, insurance, and registration fees become a burden of the past. In Portland, Oregon, a
recently launched car sharing organization charges members just $1.50 an hour to "rent" a car and 40
cents per mile driven. For those who drive less than 10,000 miles a year, car sharing is less expensive
than owning your own vehicle. Of course, cities with extensive public transportation and bicycle networks
make it easier to get by without a car. In Florida, most cities are hard to navigate without four wheels. But
for urban dwellers, the elderly, students who live close to campus, and families who only occasionally use
their second or third vehicle, car sharing may make sense. In Portland, the CarShare vehicles are parked
in leased locations in close-in Northeast and Southeast neighborhoods. There are at least 10 members
assigned to each automobile. When you want to use the car, you call ahead to find out if it’s available. If
so, you walk or bike the three to five blocks to the vehicle and use your access key to drive away.
Gasoline is covered in the rental fee, but if the tank drops below one-quarter, you are expected to fill it up.
Under the current system, you send your receipt to the company in a reimbursement envelope provided
in the glove compartment. As the organization grows, it plans to stock the glove compartment with a
company gas card. After your trip, you park the car where you found it, lock it up, and walk away.
A $25 application fee covers a search of your driving record and credit history. A $500 refundable deposit
covers your maximum liability in the event of vehicle damage. While the fleet is composed primarily of
new or late model Chrysler Neon compact cars, a pick-up truck is also available, and a minivan will be
added as the company grows. Although a mileage discount is available for longer trips, average trips to
date are 2-3 hours and about 18 miles. Total cost $10-12. And if you just need to run out to a nearby
store to purchase a bulky item, there is no minimum fee beyond the $1.50 per hour. If your community is
ready to take the plunge into car sharing, please let us know. We’d love to hear how the system could
work in Florida. Take a look at Portland's really informative Web site and the review of the Walkable
Communities Web site: CarSharing           http://www.carsharing-pdx.com/index.html
Walkable Communities Web Site Review
What’s the hottest new form of transportation? Walking. At least that’s what you’ll think when you check
out Dan Burden’s new Web site. Burden, the Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator at the Florida
Department of Transportation from 1980 to 1996 now runs Walkable Communities, a small non-profit in
High Springs, Florida. But High Springs is the last place you’ ll find him. Burden’s calendar is chock full of
travel and speaking engagements from Seattle to Key West.


With a caseload of slides and twenty-five years of experience, Burden helps communities become more
bike and pedestrian friendly. During his years at DOT, Florida installed over 400 miles of local trails and
1,600 miles of bike lanes and paved shoulders. Although Florida is still the most dangerous state in the
country for bikers and pedestrians, a new mindset appears to be taking hold. Traffic engineers are finally
starting to realize that shade-free sidewalks only a curb away from busy streets will not be used. Burden
has a long history as a bicycle advocate. In 1972-73, he was the leader and chief photographer for a
National Geographic sponsored bike tour from Alaska to Argentina. When he returned, he spearheaded
the effort to establish the 4,200 mile TransAmerica Bicycle Trail from Reedsport, Oregon to Williamsburg,
Virginia. Burden founded the Bicycle Federation of America and through the United Nations has assisted
China, one of the most bicycle-reliant countries in the world, to provide safer bike networks. More
recently, he has helped to plan for an auto-free Grand Canyon National Park. You’ll find out which
communities have seen the light, when you check Burden ’s calendar. And if you want to book him as a
speaker, you better call soon.


Alternatively, you can do your own presentations using the videos, slide sets, and photo CDs now
available from Walkable Communities.       Cindy Shea, Contributing Editor
Here are 9 things you can do right now to save BIG on car insurance. You may not realize it, but the
insurance rates you pay for your car can vary dramatically depending on the insurance company, agent
or broker you choose, the auto coverage you request and the kind of car you drive. Thanks to some
public information from our friends at Pueblo, other public domain sites, as well as my own articles, here
are a number of things you can do right now to lower your car insurance costs. COMPARISON SHOP.
Rates for the same car insurance can vary by hundreds of dollars, so it pays to shop around. Ask your
friends, check the yellow pages or call your state insurance department (there is a state by state web
access link in the above right box under Related Resources). You can also check consumer guides,
insurance agents or companies. This will give you an idea of price ranges and tell you which insurance
companies or agents have the lowest prices. But don't shop price alone. The insurer you select should
offer both fair prices and excellent service. Quality personal service may cost a bit more, but provides
added conveniences, so talk to a number of insurers to get a feeling for the quality of their service. Ask
them what they would do to lower your costs. Check the financial ratings of the companies too. Then,
when you've narrowed the field to three insurers, get price quotes.
2. ASK FOR HIGHER DEDUCTIBLES. Car insurance deductibles represent the amount of money you
pay before you make a claim. By requesting higher deductibles on collision and comprehensive (fire and
theft) coverage, you can lower your costs substantially. For example, increasing your deductible from
$200 to $500 could reduce your collision cost by 15% to 30%.
3. DROP COLLISION AND/OR COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE'S ON OLDER CARS. It may not be
cost-effective to have collision or comprehensive auto coverage's on cars worth less than $1000 because
any claim you make would not substantially exceed annual cost and deductible amounts. Auto dealers
and banks can tell you the worth of cars.
4. ELIMINATE DUPLICATE MEDICAL COVERAGE'S. If you have adequate health insurance, you may
be paying for duplicate medical coverage in your auto policy. In some states, eliminating this coverage
could lower your personal injury protection (PIP) cost by up to 40%.
5. BUY A "LOW PROFILE" CAR. Before you buy a new or used car, check into insurance costs. Cars
that are expensive to repair, or that are favorite targets for thieves, have much higher insurance costs.
Write to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 1005 North Glebe Road, Arlington, VA 22201 and ask
for the Highway Loss Data Chart.
6. CONSIDER AREA INSURANCE COST IF YOU ARE MAKING A MOVE. Costs tend to be lowest in
rural communities and highest in center cities where there is more traffic congestion.
7. TAKE ADVANTAGE Of LOW MILEAGE DISCOUNTS. Some companies offer discounts to motorists
who drive fewer than a predetermined number of miles a year.
8. FIND OUT ABOUT AUTOMATIC SEAT BELT OR AIR BAG DISCOUNTS. You may be able to take
advantage of discounts on some coverage's if you have automatic seat belts and/or air bags.
9. INQUIRE ABOUT OTHER DISCOUNTS. Some insurers offer discounts for more than one car, no
accidents in three years, drivers over 50 years of age, driver training courses, anti-theft devices, anti-lock
brakes and good grades for students.
SPECIAL NOTE: For more information and tips on auto insurance and all other types of insurance, call
the National Insurance Consumer Helpline (NICH) at 1-800-942-4242


Why does my insur cost more than agent quoted?
Answer: This is called a misquote. Determining your premium depends on many factors, including where
you live, the kind of car your drive, how much you drive, how much coverage you want, your driving
record, and your age.


If an error is made in reporting any of these facts, your rates won't be quoted correctly. Misquotes can
also happen if your agent makes a mistake in applying the company's rating system. Auto insurance
misquotes can happen when your application information differs from your actual driving record.


Companies ask states' motor-vehicle divisions to verify the records of drivers they insure. If you told your
insurance agent you have a perfect driving record, and you don't, your insurance company will charge
higher premiums than your agent quotes.


To avoid misquotes, provide accurate information about your driving record and any other facts affecting
the cost of insurance, such as the make of your car or how far you commute to work. Verify all information
before signing the application.
If avail: get glossary at http://personalinsure.about.com/library/glossary/blglossary.htm




Frozen Water Pipes
What you need to know to thaw frozen water pipes and to protect water pipes from freezing. When the
temperature drops below freezing, and especially when it stays there for several days, the water may
freeze in some of the pipes that supply your house. This is more likely to happen if the water pipes run
through an unheated basement or crawl space, or inside an exterior wall. It can also happen
unexpectedly after other improvements, particularly after insulation has been installed under the lowest
heated floor. Whatever the cause of the frozen water pipes, you need to get the water moving again. In
the process, you also need to prevent or minimize other damage such as damaged pipes, flooding and
fire.
Diagnosis and Preparation
First you'll need to find the pipe that's the problem by finding the non-working faucet(s). Let's say the
problem is in the hot water pipe between the kitchen and the first floor bathroom -- both the hot and cold
water flow freely at the kitchen sink but, in the bathroom, only the cold water is working at the lavatory,
although the toilet still refills. Find the pipe that brings hot water to the bathroom from the kitchen -- it's the
one that doesn't go on to the toilet. Before you start, turn the water on at every faucet -- sink, lavatory
and tub -- in the house. This will do two things -- it will help you isolate the area where the blockage exists
and it will provide expansion room for the steam you may create inside a pipe. Once you've isolated the
problem, you can close any faucets that aren't related to the problem area, but be sure to leave the ones
on both ends of the blockage open. Then turn the water off where it enters the house. This reduces the
risk of a flood if a pipe has already burst and the water in it is being held back from the opening by the
ice.
Tools Needed
There are two tools commonly used to thaw pipes. One is a propane torch with a fan tip, and the other is
a heat gun. If you don't happen to have either of these on hand when you discover the problem on a
Sunday morning, you can use a third tool: a pistol-grip hair dryer. The heat gun or hair dryer is
preferable to the propane torch because either is less likely to start a fire or damage the pipe than the
torch is. If you have plastic pipes, only the heat gun or hair dryer is at all safe to use.
Bundle up if you're going under the house and take your chosen tool to the place where you've identified
the problem. You may also need to take a light source so you can see better and an extension cord for
the light and for the heat gun or hair dryer.
If your water pipes are made of copper and have sweated -- soldered -- joints, you will also need a pan of
water and several good thick rags.
What you need to know to thaw frozen water pipes and to protect water pipes from freezing.
You've found the pipe that needs attention, and you've assembled your tools.
Now it's time to thaw the pipe.
Inspect the pipe carefully, with your hands as well as your eyes. If you find a split in it, stop and repair the
pipe. If not, we can proceed.
If the pipe is an interior pipe made of soldered copper:
Get two rags soaking wet and drape one over the pipe just in front of the first soldered joint in each
direction. Turn on the heat gun or hair dryer, or light the torch, and apply heat to the pipe between the two
rags. Remember to move the heating tool steadily back and forth along the length of the pipe - don't hold
it still or you could damage the pipe by expanding or weakening it at that point.
If the pipe is an interior pipe made of plastic:
Turn on the hair dryer or heat gun and apply heat to the pipe. Remember to move the heating tool
steadily back and forth along the length of the pipe -- don't hold it still or you could damage the pipe by
expanding or weakening it at that point.
After you have heated the interior pipe for a reasonable amount of time -- three to five minutes should be
plenty -- you should turn the water supply to the house back on. If someone else can do this while you
keep an eye on the pipe, that would be helpful. If the hot water flows again in the bathroom, great. Turn it
off there and look at the pipe again. If the pipe doesn't appear to leak, you have probably fixed the
problem.
If the frozen pipe is in an exterior wall
Exterior pipes usually just come up the three feet or so needed to supply the sink or lavatory located on
that wall. To thaw the pipe, simply leave the non-working faucet open, open the sink cabinet or vanity
underneath, take out the stuff you keep stored there and set a small space heater in. Face the heater
toward the wall, making sure it is at least a foot or so away from the wall, turn the space heater on and
wait. Once the water flows again, take the heater out, turn the faucet off and check the wall and the
space below the sink or lavatory - in the basement or crawl space, not just in the cabinet - for any sign of
a leak. If your pipes are currently in an exterior wall or in an unheated basement or crawl space, they are
likely to freeze again. Here are some solutions to preventing frozen water pipes in those and other
situations:


Pipes in an exterior wall
To prevent pipes from freezing in an exterior wall, the best solution is to re-route them inside the heated
space. Turn the water to those lines off. Below the floor, cut the pipes at the point at which adding an
elbow will start a vertical run in line with the faucet above. Disconnect the existing supply lines from the
faucet and demo them out. It they won't turn out of the wall, cut them off flush with the wall. Patch the wall
to keep the cold air inside it. Drill through the cabinet base, if present, and the floor. Install new pipe,
shut-off valves and supply lines.
Pipes in an unheated basement or crawl space
To prevent pipes from freezing in an unheated basement or crawl space, there are several tricks you can
use. If the pipes run through the joisting, relocating existing floor insulation to hang below the pipes or
installing new insulation below them should be sufficient. Another possibility is to put pipe insulation
around each of your pipes, making sure to cover all elbows, tees, valve bodies and other fittings with the
special pieces made for them.
Other solutions
If neither of these first two suggestions seems workable, you will probably need to install heat tape along
your pipes. Measure the pipe(s) you need to protect. That measurement, plus the coldest temperature
you need to guard against will determine the length of the heat tape you need. At the supply house, seek
advice on the determining the length. Heat tape may be simply stretched along the pipe and attached with
tape or similar means, such as cable ties, if the lowest expected temperature underneath your house is
not all that cold. To guard against colder temperatures, the tape can be spiraled around the pipe. The
tighter the spiral, the more heat the tape will apply to each foot of pipe. Keep the plug end of the tape
toward your power source, and try to group the plugs together if you are installing more than one. Make
sure the thermostat(s) which are part of the tape remain in the open. Secure the tape and cover it if that is
permitted in the instructions which come with it.
glossary http://homerepair.about.com/cs/basics/a/glix_glossary.htm


what this is: www.scubatech.com/jtvs.htm
The TV Shopper network airs NY to FL
Call Center, 500 #, e-mail reservation system, venue w/1-pg profile, feature monthly photo. commty
awareness event on thr site, demonstrated at tabling and event promotion whe/or not own promoter
event; slogan, jingle, translation,


X-tra: spain/central/so. American mail orders, merchandizing: t=shirts, promotional/seasonal, logos, signs
and banners, on-line evaluation/comments from merchants customers, production of commercials and
cd's and cassettes.




Computer virus
Now, you wouldn't think that a virus would be something that a Web developer would be particularly
worried about - other than protecting oneself. But the reality is that the virus writers are getting smarter.
The SirCam virus actually searches cached Web pages for email addresses. And since it has a mail
server inside of it, it just uses those email addresses just like the most annoying email spammers. Only
what it's sending is a virus, and not just an annoying ad.
But what can you do?
Add "anti-spam" messages to your email address: These are messages that a person would be able to
strip out, but a spambot or virus wouldn't recognize.
Take your email address off of your Web pages. Instead, use a feedback form where the email address
is embedded in the CGI, not the HTML. The CGI will not be cached, and so you'll still get the comments,
but hopefully fewer viruses and spam.
Convert your email address to an image: Images are not cached in a way that spammer programs and
viruses can grab the email address. Just make sure that your alt text doesn't include your email address.


Use JavaScript to build your mailto field
Using a JavaScript "document.write" with variables that have split up your email address can build a
mailto link that spambots can't read.
Anti-spam messages are probably the easiest way to help prevent spam and viruses from being spread.
Simply add words that a person would recognize should be removed to your email address in the mailto
field: For example: html*DELETETHISPART*.guide@about.com


The drawback to this method is that people don't often pay attention to email addresses when they are
clicking on a mailto link. And, chances are, if they get a bounce back message, they won't notice why,
they'll just delete the mail. I can speak from personal experience. I often write to one of my friends and
forget to remove the _DELETE_ME_ from his email address.
Remove the Address: Removing your email address completely is probably the most effective method.
You simply create a Web form, and use a CGI to send the mail. There are lots of form to email CGIs
available on my Free CGIs Subject page. Remember, you need to find one that stores the email address
in the CGI. itself. If it's in the HTML, a spambot or virus can get the email address.


One drawback to forms is that people don't like to use them. They feel more impersonal and so many
customers who might otherwise have told you about that broken link will think twice before filling out a
form.
Convert Address to Images
If you're good with graphics, you can do this yourself. But if you're not, the Email Guide has a review of a
product that will do it for you.
MailMask for Windows
A free Windows tool to convert your email address on Web sites to an image to hide it from spammers.
The drawback to writing your email as an image is that you can't use it in a mailto tag. Also, your
customers have to write the email address themselves, and that will cause typographical errors.


JavaScript
Using JavaScript to build your email address is a very effective way to hide your email address from
spambots and viruses, but allow your customers the convenience of a mailto link. The About Email Guide
also has a link to a tool that will build the JavaScript for you, so you don't have to.


Anti-Spam Script Maker
A free Windows tool to convert your email addresses to something spammers won't recognize.


The main drawback to using JavaScript is that some people surf with JavaScript turned off for security
reasons. For these people, the mailto link will not work at all.


One Final Note
If you don't yet have anti-virus software, I strongly recommend you get one. There are lots of tools to
choose from. I use Norton Antivirus. And if you do have anti-virus software, update your virus definitions
often. This will both protect your computer and your data, as well as keep you from annoying your friends
with the SirCam, Magistr, and other worms that mail themselves to everyone in your mailbox (including
me <grin>). Use CGI to add personalization and other dynamic effects like counters, guest books, forms,
and other services.
Free Access Counters
Count the number of hits to your Web page. Links from your About Guide to HTML.
Free Forums
Forums & bulletin boards add interactivity & community to your Web site. Links from your HTML Guide.
Free Guestbooks: Use these free scripts to allow your readers the chance to comment on your
Web site. Links compiled by your About Guide to HTML.
File Upload: A simple Unix based Perl script to upload files to the Web server.
How to Add a Voting Booth: This simple voting booth allows you to add surveys to your Web site.
Online Banner Creator: Lots of options to create an interesting banner ad for your site.
Personal Postcards: Add a postcard service to your site.
Response-o-Matic is an easy to use CGI form remailer. Simply fill out this template and you'll be given the
HTML for a remailer.
Starbase 28: A free banner creation service. These banners are created by a person, and he only
creates 3 per week, so ask early.
SurveySays: Using SSI calls, this script shows results immediately after voting, with graphical and
percentage results.
Virtual Greeting Cards: Send a postcard from your site, and avoid the security headaches of other
postcard CGIs.
Web Host Providers: Specialist Web Hosting Providers without the headaches: idealhosting.co.uk
Premier Web Hosting: Host Multiple Domains - ASP, Miva, E-Commerce, MYSQL, FrontPage
jumpline.com
Offshore Web Development: Web Design, E-commerce & Software Development Services from India
www.netsolutionsindia.com
AllWebCo Design Templates: Complete websites with Flash Basic HTML Designs, Multiple Pages
http://allwebco-templates.com


all above at
http://64.4.18.250/cgi-bin/linkrd?_lang=EN&lah=b28ec6130098496b0ab8b26dcb8c7
547&lat=1070937445&hm___action=http%3a%2f%2fslclk%2eabout%2ecom%2f%3fzi%3d1% 2fHvW




Place to post any of our meetings: AND to have e-mail contact with those presentors.
http://www.radicalendar.org/info.php


Public Access background:
http://www.communitymediacenter.net/Preserve_Access/Preserving_Access.htm


Richmond Indep Media Center: The Richmond IMC meets at the Queer Paradise, 319 N. Adams, just off
of Broad Street in Jackson Ward. We meet every Monday at 7pm.
Anyone interested in participating in, or learning more about the IMC is encouraged to attend. We're a
friendly bunch, and we'd be happy to answer any questions you might have about our work. Meetings
usually consist of a discussion of recent events of interest, potential workshops or benefits to sponsor,
reports on progress from working groups, and discussion of strategies for the future. Most importantly,
however, the content of our meetings is dictated by the participation and interest of its members. If you
want to add your voice, please attend!




Richmond 400 yrs Celebration: SAVE OUR HISTORY®: LIVE FROM JAMESTOWN&trade;
OCTOBER 23, 2001 1:00 to 2:00PM (ET) From Patricia I. Wright Assistant Superintendent for
Instruction, COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
P.O. BOX 2120, RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 23218-2120
The History Channel has joined with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Virginia Cable and
Telecommunications Association (VCTA) in a national educational event entitled Save Our History®: Live
From Jamestown&trade;. Created for fourth graders, and linked to the Virginia Standards of Learning,
Live from Jamestown will introduce school children to the excitement of archaeology and the history of
the early settlement of Virginia. The event will take place from 1 to 2 p.m. on October 23, 2001, at
Jamestown National Historical Park. It is a precursor to the commemoration of the 400th anniversary of
Jamestown in 2007.


The History Channel is producing an original short film that highlights the history and the archaeological
discoveries at Jamestown. The production will include interviews with the First Lady of Virginia Roxane
Gilmore and Shirley Little Dove Custalow McGowan, daughter of Chief Custalow of the Mattaponi tribe.


The short film will be Web cast at 1 p.m. on www.historychannel.com at the time of the event on October
23. A live panel discussion for school children, also Web cast, will follow. It will be filmed in front of a
small, live audience, and transmitted via the Web -- to Virginia, the United States, and internationally as
well. The panelists will include Mrs. Gilmore, archaeologists Bly Straube and Bill Kelso, historian Nancy
Egloff, and National Park Service ranger Curt Gaull, and will be moderated by Dr. Libby O’Connell, The
History Channel’s Historian-in-Residence. Students will submit questions to the panelists by e-mail. To
ensure that fourth grade students in Virginia can participate, please have students email their questions to
savehistory@aetn.com. Virginia students should e-mail their questions immediately and not wait until
October 23.
The History Channel is donating a VHS copy of the film and a teacher’s guide to every public elementary
school in Virginia. In addition, cable companies in Virginia have provided high-speed cable modem
access to hundreds of schools in the state. These schools are encouraged to participate via their
advanced on-line capabilities. For those schools without this access, the panel discussion may be viewed
via local cable television.
Many groups are working with The History Channel on this exciting initiative. Along with the office of the
First Lady of Virginia, the Virginia Department of Education, and the Virginia Tourism Corporation,
historical organizations such as the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquity, the Jamestown-
Yorktown Foundation, and the National Park Service are helping to create an educational event that
students throughout Virginia and across the nation will enjoy. The VCTA has the enthusiastic support of
their member companies, including AT&T, Comcast, Cox, Adelphia, and Charter that have a long-term
commitment to the schools in their communities. The high-speed connections provided by these cable
companies make this event possible.


Because the event will be Web cast live during school hours, fourth graders from all over the country are
encouraged to participate on-line. Up to 200 e-mailed questions that are not answered during the event
will be answered by volunteer experts at savehistory@aetn.com.


SAVE OUR HISTORY: LIVE FROM JAMESTOWN&trade; is part of The History Channel’ s EMMY
award-winning Save Our History campaign, a national initiative dedicated to historic preservation and
history education.




Resch: http://www.managementconcepts.com/management/lmcp.asp


www.scientific-evidence.com ;lawyers call upon expert witness


www.electratraining.com was a day trading schl


www.katie&friends.com


ADHD www.schwablearning.org


www.vannessplastic.com products for pets


http://www.homedynamix.com/faqs.html sml rugs w/themes to wholesalers only.


Municipal bonds ("yield-burning")
In the municipal bond market, some investment banking firms engage in fraudulent schemes known as
"yield-burning," where they charge excessive prices for U.S. Treasury securities sold to municipalities in
connection with certain types of tax-exempt bond refinancings.
These refinancing transactions -- known as "advance refundings"—permit municipalities to refinance their
debt at lower interest rates when interest rates decline, and therefore lower their borrowing costs.


Yield-burning occurs when a securities dealer purposely overcharges municipalities for Treasury
securities needed for the refinancing. The excessive prices artificially reduce the overall yield on those
securities. This practice is illegal because, by law, investments purchased with the proceeds of tax-
exempt advance refunding bonds may not have higher aggregate yields than the yield earned on the tax-
exempt bonds. Any excess yield must be paid to the U.S. Treasury. Reducing yield by overcharging is not
a legitimate method of complying with the yield limitations.


In the first settlement of a False Claims Act case of this kind, CoreStates Financial Corp. paid $3.4 million
to the federal government to settle a qui tam case that said its brokerage arm for municipal bonds had
engaged in yield-burning.




Local community service event
Kids Day America will be sponsored locally by Dr.. Robert Berube of YES Chiropractic at 9020
Quioccasin Road. It is a day set aside by chiropractic offices worldwide to stress the importance of
Health, Safety and Environmental Awareness. Special child ID cards will be donated to every which who
attends and the Henrico County Police will be on hand for free fingerprinting of all children. Dr. Berube
will provide free spinal exams and scoliosis screenings. To learn more, 377-3005. Saturday, October 11,
2003 from 12 noon until 3pm Kids Day America is trademark with slogan: Dedicated to Children's Health,
Safety and Environmental Awareness


Universal Intelligence
Because chiropractic is a deductive science, it begins with a major premise upon which all other
conclusions are based. That primary assumption is that a Universal Intelligence is in all matter and
continually gives to it all its properties and actions, thus maintaining it in existence. This premise was not
adopted as a matter of blind faith or religious fervor. It is a conclusion based on observation of physical
evidence. Look around you. Does it seem logical to think that everything in the universe is the result of
mere random selection or "luck"? To think that the universe is devoid of intelligent organization is like
thinking that the Great Pyramids of Giza were the result of an accidental rock slide. Could any random
action have created the Pyramids? The Empire State Building? The Great Wall of China?


Just as it takes human intelligence to create and maintain the architectural wonders, it took intelligence to
create the natural "wonders" which surround us. Of course, human intelligence could not be responsible
for the complex order of the universe – it hasn't yet even begun to understand a tiny part of it!
Since it was not human intelligence, it had to be something greater than that. That "something" is what we
call Universal Intelligence. We don't know what it is, where it came from, what its intent is, or even if there
is an intent involved. We know only that it must exist – or nothing else would!


Is this Universal Intelligence God? No one knows. There is no way to "prove" the existence of God, or
describe God's characteristics. There is no way to "prove" the existence of Universal Intelligence, or to
describe its characteristics. How, then can anyone say if they mean the same thing? There are some
people who believe that God is the source of that Universal Intelligence. Others can accept the concept of
a Universal Intelligence without even believing in a God. Either way, we know, through observation
and deductive reasoning, that such an intelligence must exist in order to prevent all matter from decaying
into chaos.


During the Age of Technology – in which the scientific method reigned supreme – such notions were often
criticized for being "unscientific." What the critics really meant was that the premise couldn't be proven,
and wasn't arrived at through inductive reasoning. Of course, neither was the notion that "All Men Are
Created Equal," or that there were space-going vacuum cleaners called black holes (a theory, by the way,
also scoffed at when first announced). Yet, the first axiom doesn't require proof, and the second one was
valid even before proof was found. The same applies with the premise of Universal Intelligence; it is a
"truth" so basic that it transcends science and can be arrived at only through deductive logic.


Today, as science expands in the "new physics" and quantum mechanics, a broader view is being
accepted. New ideas are cultivated, and deductive reasoning is being recognized as a valid form of logic.
The realization that there must exist a Universal Intelligence is being taken for granted at last.


Chiropractors smile at the notion that "science" is only now "discovering" that idea. After all, their entire
profession is built around that simple, yet profound truth. Doctors of chiropractic understand that there is
order and intelligence to the whole universe. By deductive reasoning, they also know that this order and
intelligence applies to every part of the universe, including the human body.


That conclusion leads directly to another one of the principle premises of chiropractic philosophy: A living
thing has an inborn intelligence within its body, called Innate Intelligence. No word in chiropractic
philosophy is as filled with meaning as the word "Innate," for it refers to the only element that sets living
beings apart from nonliving things, and is the reason that chiropractic exists.


Innate Intelligence - Your Inborn Wisdom
Inorganic matter, like rocks and minerals don’t exhibit a ‘life force’ and therefore need no internal
protection. They are acted upon by universal forces and are destroyed or broken down through wear and
tear. Organic matter, like living plants and animals, on the other hand, do exhibit a ‘life force’. Upon
creation they immediately need an internal intelligence to adapt it to the destructive forces of Universal
Intelligence. This, chiropractors call Innate Intelligence.


Simply put, innate intelligence is the intelligence that you are born with. Think about it... when you were
born, you already knew how to do a whole host of things. A newborn can already regulate its own blood
pressure and blood sugar, it can breathe on its own, digest its mothers milk (not to mention, draw all the
good nutrients out of it, build healthy tissue with these nutrients, and excrete the waste products). Doesn't
this at least spark some enthusiasm for the way we are created?!


Your body is designed to be maintained in health without any input from the outside other than good
nutrition, water and oxygen. Every cell, tissue and organ of our body is animated by Innate Intelligence
and this expresses 100% all of the time as long as there is no interference. Your brain is a dynamic
storehouse of information and instruction for governing the way your body works. These principles
determine the what, when and how of your physiology. It is constantly changing to take into account
internal and external environmental factors.


Your Nervous System, which consists of your brain, spinal cord and all the spinal nerves that branch off
of it, is the controlling system of your body. It is the system through which this built-in intelligence is
expressed. When something in the body is not functioning as intended by its designer, the body exhibits
symptoms relative to the problem. Conventional medicine often takes a "symptomatic" approach and
prescribes a pill or drug to alleviate the symptoms. Sometimes this well intentioned but ignorant approach
causes unintended side affects that may be worse than the original problem. Drugs, Pills and Herbs can
only speed up or slow down various functions / processes of the body. The body is what does the actual
healing, not the drugs. By taking these chemicals, you must believe that you, or at least the person
giving you the drugs, know better than your body's Innate Intelligence what is needed for health. What if
that is not true?


Mother Nature directs the growth and development of that first cell of life into a perfect human being. This
innate intelligence brings the body to full development, and then does it's best to keep it alive and healthy.
Innate intelligence will do it's best to keep the body alive regardless of cost.


What does it mean if you have a fever? Is some foreign organism causing the heat? Actually your own
body has run your temperature up to help fight an infection since viruses don't do well at high
temperatures.


Chiropractors respect Innate Intelligence. They know that inside of you is perfect expression of force
wanting to do what it does best – express life.
Innate needs no help, just no interference. Your chiropractor will do what ever is in his/her ability to
ensure that you get to experience your birthright – your connection to the power that made and maintains
you - Innate Intelligence.
Request for free nl is thru e-mail mssg box


_____________


AIDS / HIV
http://www.worldaidsday.org/ Calendar for Dec. 1st This site is written in British English, and is a
UK org. Has How to Organize event which is not tech but flattering. Nothing translated but speak about
NAT in UK Five people worldwide die of AIDS every minute of every day. HIV has hit every corner of the
globe, infecting more than 42 million men, women and children, 5 million of them last year alone.
             Started in 1988, World AIDS day is not just about raising money but also about raising
awareness, education, and fighting prejudice. World AIDS Day is important in reminding people that HIV
has not gone away, and that there are many things still to be done.


------------------


Resch hosp support groups Johnston-Willis Hosp auditorium 804-794-7476
Celiac (wheat or gluten intolerance) Support Group – one mo’ly, Speakers, food samples.
Meditation, Discourse, video Night, to feature each activity


------------------------


Animal Friendly License Plates
The Cat Fanciers' Association supports the use of low-cost neuter/spay programs and recognizes the
need to fund these programs in innovative ways. Several states now offer vanity automobile license
plates as a source of money to increase awareness of neutering or spaying cats and dogs as well as
to provide a pool of funds for low-cost or free neutering programs. CFA considers state vanity license
plate proposals beneficial as long as there are proper safeguards in place to insure the funds are used for
their designated purpose. Generally these funds should be maintained in a separate account, and
administered as specific, targeted grants to both private and public organizations that are helping to keep
the surplus animal population in check. In addition to encouraging pet owners to have their pets neutered
these funds can also help support Trap-Neuter-Return projects for feral and un-owned cats.


States with "Animal Friendly" License Plate Programs: CONNECTICUT: Animal Population Control
License Plates - "a portion of the proceeds from the sale of each plate helps to provide Vaccination /
sterilization benefits for any Connecticut resident who adopts a pet from a municipal pound through the
Department of Agriculture, Animal Population Control Program."


DELAWARE: Animal Welfare License Plates - "Funds from the sale of this plate are provided to
organizations or veterinary clinics that provide low-cost dog and cat spaying and neutering and to non-
profit organizations that provide shelter to unwanted stray dogs and cats."
GEORGIA: Animal Friend - Supports "Dog and Cat Reproduction Sterilization" ILLINOIS: Pet Friendly -
"$25 to Pet Overpopulation Control Fund." The money in the fund will be granted to nonprofit spay and
neuter clinics for the humane sterilization of dogs and cats in Illinois.
MARYLAND: Contact your nearest Humane Society to get an application to purchase your pet friendly
plates. $25.00 of each purchase is donated to the organization from which the plate is purchased.
NEW JERSEY: Animal Friendly Special Interest License Plates - "Monies generated from these special
plate sales will help fund the animal population control program run by the Department of Health. The
program provides low cost spaying and neutering for thousands of pets and encourages the adoption of
thousands more each year in New Jersey."
NEW YORK: Love Your Pet - "$20 of annual fee supports Animal Population Control Fund."
NORTH CAROLINA: Animal Lovers - "$10.00 to DHHS to promote spaying & neutering of dogs & cats"
TENNESSEE: Animal Friendly - "$10.50 of the $25.00 additional fee is allocated to the Humane Society
to provide additional funding for the spaying and neutering of dogs and cats."
TEXAS: Animal Friendly - "The department shall deposit $20 of each fee collected to the credit of the
animal friendly account established by Section 828.014, Health and Safety Code."
UTAH: No More Homeless Pets - " To generate funds to be used for the benefit of programs to alleviate
the number of homeless pets in Utah."
VIRGINIA: Animal Friendly - " As a revenue sharing plate $ 15.00 of the $25.00 fee is transferred to
LOCALITY IN WHICH THE VEHICLE IS REGISTERED after sale of the first 1000 plates."


States with "Animal Friendly" License Plate Programs under Consideration or Implementation Pending:


ALABAMA: - An organization can apply for a specific plate, but the state requires a yearly commitment of
a minimum of 1,000 plates before they can be available. The number of commitments fell far short of the
goal. A group would have to reapply for the "Animal Friendly" plate for the availability to be reconsidered.
ARIZONA:- has a program that allows the development and sale of specific organization license plates.
FLORIDA: Florida State Representative Nan Rich has volunteered to sponsor a spay/neuter license plate
bill. Requirements are raising $89,000 for the cost, the completed e-mail survey and the successful
passage of legislative change in the 2004 legislative session. Emails(minimum 15,000) are needed to
support this program! Email to contact@floridaplateforpaws.com. see www.floridaplateforpaws.com
KANSAS: Bill number H.B. 2963, to create an animal friendly license plate to support spay/neuter
programs, died in committee (5/31/02).
KENTUCKY: - S.B. 7 was signed into law by the Governor on 3/15/02, to create spay/neuter lic. plate.
MASSACHUSETTS: - Passed H. 5028, which " provides for the issuance of a number of distinctive
license plates, including one to fund the creation of animal control programs. To make the license plates
available, the Humane Coalition must put up a $100,000 bond and submit 1,500 requests for the $40
plates. If 3,000 plates are not purchased within two years, the bond is forfeited. Otherwise the bond will
be returned, minus any losses incurred by the program. "
MISSISSIPPI: - Passed legislation creating an "I Care for Animals" license tag program.
MISSOURI: - SB960 created an "I'm Pet Friendly" license plate which will provide funds to pay for
spay/neuter procedures throughout the state. Effective date August 28, 2002.
NEVADA: - Appreciation of Animals - The Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles will be issuing a license
plate design for the Appreciation of Animals. These plates should be available in the first quarter of 2003.
The bill number for this plate is SB54. The fee for this plate is $61, ($36 for the license plate fee and $25
to be paid to each county for vehicles registered in that county and designated for their adoption/ spay/
neuter programs). Renewal fee:$30, ($10 license plate renewal; $20 supports specified counties).
SO CAROLINA: - H. 4530signed into law by Gov., 5/20/02; creates "No More Homeless Pets" lic. plates
funds nonprofits offering spay/neuter svcs. http://www.cfainc.org/articles/license-plates.html


using their website logo: http://www.cfainc.org/exhibitors/logo.html CFA Logo Usage –
Guidelines: The CFA Logo Committee was formed to help protect CFA from liability when the CFA logo
is used. The following are guidelines for the use of the logo:
The Cat Fanciers' Association (CFA) logo is a registered trademark, the exclusive property of CFA, and
may only be used for official CFA business by the CFA Central Office, members of the board of directors,
members clubs and committees or affiliate associations as authorized by the CFA Board of Directors, and
in accordance with the CFA Constitution.
CFA official business is defined as activities appropriate and necessary for the operation and promotion
of CFA, as defined by the constitution, bylaws and show rules.
Any use of the logo for any other purpose, to include commercial purposes, other than those previously
specified, is prohibited unless written permission is obtained prior to use from the CFA Board of Directors.
Such unauthorized use will subject the user, whether an individual, social organization or business, to
CFA disciplinary action and all profits from such use shall be transferred to CFA.
The CFA logo may be used by CFA clubs for the club stationary and show fliers. A club may be
authorized to use this logo for pins and promotional items used in conjunction with their show or a CFA
Annual Meeting; however, a license agreement must be signed by the vendor supplying these items and
approved by CFA prior to manufacturing any item. In most cases outlined above, there will be no charge
to the club or vendor.
The use of the CFA logo for commercial purposes such as jewelry, T-shirts or other wearing apparel must
be pre-approved by CFA and a license agreement must be signed and approved prior to production of
any item displaying the CFA logo. There is a one hundred dollar ($100.00) fee for like items payable
to CFA. For a copy of a license agreement, please send your name and address to cfa@cfainc.org
Logo buttons are available to be used as links to the CFA web site.
International showsthat Shared Endeavors can showcase within.
CFA Logo Link Buttons
We have developed a series of buttons and banners that can be downloaded and placed on any web site
as a link back to the CFA site at http://www.cfainc.org. Please feel free to download and use any of
the following buttons.
Logo Parameters
Buttons and banners must be used as provided - no changes may be made to text or colors.
Buttons and banners may not be resized.
Buttons and banners should link to http://www.cfainc.org
Please add BORDER="0" to your HTML code for the image file you use.
If you choose to use the Approved Cattery or Cattery of Excellence banner your cattery status MUST be
current in the CFA Cattery Inspection Program in order to display the button on your web site.
If you choose to use the Breed Council Member banner your Breed Council membership MUST be
current. Please note: Download and placement of the CFA logo image file on your web site constitutes
an automatic acceptance and agreement in principle to the following:


If I choose to use the trademark of The Cat Fanciers' Association, Inc. (CFA) in connection with an
Internet web page, I acknowledge that CFA has not, and does not endorse any product or service that I
provide, not any opinion that I hold, not statement(s) that I may express, and I agree fully to indemnify
and defend CFA, and its officers, directors, and agents from and against all claims, demands, causes or
action or proceedings of any nature whatsoever, in whatever forum or venue any such matters may be
brought, judicial or otherwise, arising or allegedly arising in any way out from my products, services,
opinions or statements, or out of my use of said trademark. I agree further that my obligation to defend,
includes, without limitation, paying for all expenses associated with any such defense, including attorneys'
fees and costs, and extends to such expenses incurred prior to the commencement of formal proceedings
in an attempt to avoid such formal proceedings. If I fail adequately to provide any such defense, CFA,
may, at its option do so for me, and I agree promptly to reimburse CFA for expenses so incurred.
----------------
http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027.html
Table A.: the 20 Largest Cities: 1990 (must exhibit in these cities from)
City                 Largest Population   Land Area          Density
Rank                 ( in thousands )     (sq. miles)   (avg pop.psq.m)
1 New York, NY                  3,485         309              23,700
2 Los Angeles, CA               2,784         469               7,400
3 Chicago, IL                   1,631         227              12,300
4 Houston, TX                   1,586         540               3,000
5 Philadelphia, PA             1,111       135             11,700
6 San Diego, CA                1,028       324              3,400
7 Detroit, MI                  1,007       139              7,400
8 Dallas, TX                    983        342              2,900
9 Phoenix, AZ                   936        420              2,300
10 San Antonio, TX             7,323       333              2,800
11 San Jose, CA               782          171              4,600
12 Baltimore, MD              736          81               9,100
13 Indianapolis, IN           731          362              2,000
14 San Francisco, CA          724          47               15,500
15 Jacksonville, FL           635          759              800
16 Columbus, OH               633          191              3,300
17 Milwaukee, WI              628          96               6,500
18 Memphis, TN                610          256              2,400
19 Washington, DC             607          61               9,900
20 Boston, MA                 574          48               11,900


Table B. Population of the 20 Largest Cities and Urbanized Areas: 1990
Name City             Urbanized Area    Rank Population
                                        (thousands)
New York, NY          1                 7,323
Los Angeles, CA       2        3,485
Chicago, IL           3        2,784
Houston, TX           4        2,784
Philadelphia, PA      5        1,586
San Diego, CA         6       1,586
Detroit, MI           7        1,028
Dallas, TX            8        1,007
Phoenix, AZ           9        983
San Antonio, TX       10       936
San Jose, CA          11       782
Baltimore, MD         12       736
Indianapolis, IN      13       731
San Francisco, CA 14           724
Jacksonville, FL      15       635
Columbus, OH          16       633
Milwaukee, WI         17       628
Memphis, TN           18       610
Washington, DC      19        607
Boston, MA          21        574
Seattle, WA         20        516
St. Louis, MO       34        397
Atlanta, GA         36        394
Pittsburgh, PA      40        370
Minneapolis, MN     42        368
Miami, FL           46        359
Tampa, FL           55        280
REFERENCES          Anderson, Margo J. 1988. The American Census: a Social History. New Haven,
CT: Yale University Press.


Dahmann, Donald C. 1992. "Accounting for the Geography of Population: 200 Years of Census Bureau
Practice with Macro-Scale Sub-National Regions." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Association of American Geographers, San Diego, CA, 18-22 April 1992.


Dubester, Henry J. 1950. Catalog of United States Census Publications: 1790-1945. Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office. (Reprinted in U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1974.)


Fay, Robert E. et al. 1988. "The Coverage of Population in the 1980 Census." Bureau of the Census,
Evaluation and Research Reports, PHC80-E4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Forstall, Richard L. 1996. Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790 to 1990. Bureau
of the Census. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


McKenzie, R. D. 1933. The Metropolitan Community. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. (Reissued in 1967.
New York, NY: Russell and Russell.)


Robinson, J. Gregory et al. 1993. "Estimation of Population Coverage in the 1990 United States Census
Based on Demographic Analysis," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 88, No. 423
(September 1993), pp. 1061-1079.


Truesdell, Leon E. 1949. "The Development of the Urban-Rural Classification in the United States: 1874
to 1949." Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 1. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.


U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1974. Catalog of Publications: 1790-1972. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
-----. 1984. Bureau of the Census Catalog: 1984. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


-----. 1994. Census Catalog and Guide: 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Walker, Francis A., compiler. 1874. Statistical Atlas of the United States. New York, NY: Julius Bien.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division                Author: Campbell Gibson




THESE ARE INDISPENSIBLE TERMS ALL NON-PROFITS SHOULD KNOW
GLOSSARY OF BASIC GEOGRAPHIC AND RELATED TERMS - CENSUS 2000
This glossary is intended to be used in conjunction with "Questions About Changes to Census Geography
for Census 2000." More detail is available at the Geographic Terms and Concepts Web page.


Alaska Native Regional Corporation (ANRC) - A corporate entity established to conduct both business
and nonprofit affairs of Alaska Natives, pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972
(Public Law 92-203, as amended). Twelve ANRCs are legally bounded geographic entities that cover
Alaska, except for the Annette Islands Reserve (an American Indian reservation). A thirteenth ANRC
represents Alaska Natives who do not live in Alaska and do not identify with any of the 12 corporations;
the U.S. Census Bureau does not present data for this ANRC.


Alaska Native village (ANV) - A local governmental unit in Alaska that constitutes an association, band,
clan, community, group, tribe, or village, recognized pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
of 1972 (Public Law 92-203, as amended). ANVs do not have clearly defined boundaries that are easily
locatable, and they often include many square miles of land used by Alaska Natives for hunting and
fishing, so the U.S. Census Bureau works with officials of the Alaska Native villages and Alaska Native
Regional Corporations to delineate Alaska Native village statistical areas for data presentation purposes.


Alaska Native village statistical area (ANVSA) - A statistical entity that represents the settled portion of an
Alaska Native village for data presentation purposes.


American Indian off-reservation trust land - The United States holds title for specific area in trust for the
benefit of an American Indian tribe (tribal trust land) or for an individual American Indian (individual trust
land). Although trust land may be located on or off a reservation, the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes and
tabulates data only for off-reservation trust land. Census data always associate off-reservation trust land
with a specific federally recognized reservation and/or tribal government.


American Indian reservation - A federal American Indian reservation is an area that has been set aside by
the United States for the use of one or more federally recognized American Indian tribes. Together with
off-reservation trust land, a reservation covers territory over which one or more tribes have primary
governmental authority. The boundary of a federal reservation is defined by tribal treaty, agreement,
executive or secretarial order, federal statute, or judicial determination. A state American Indian
reservation is an area that a state government has allocated to a tribe recognized by that state, but not by
the federal government. American Indian reservations are known as colonies, communities, Indian
communities, Indian villages, pueblos, rancherias, ranches, reservations, reserves, and villages. See
American Indian off-reservation trust land, American Indian tribal subdivision, American Indian trust land,
joint use area.


American Indian tribal subdivision - A legal subdivision of a federally recognized American Indian
reservation, off-reservation trust land, or Oklahoma tribal statistical area. These entities are internal units
of self-government or administration that serve social, cultural, and/or economic purposes for American
Indians living on a reservation, off-reservation trust land, or Oklahoma tribal statistical area. Tribal
subdivisions are known as areas, chapters, communities, districts, and segments. The U.S. Census
Bureau previously provided unpublished data for these entities for the 1980 census, which referred to
them as American Indian subreservation areas.


American Indian trust land - An area for which the United States holds title in trust for the benefit of an
American Indian tribe (tribal trust land) or for an individual American Indian (individual trust land). Trust
land may be located on or off a reservation; however, the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes & tabulates
data only for off-reservation trust land.


barrio, barrio-pueblo - The U.S. Census Bureau recognizes barrios and barrios-pueblo as the primary
legal divisions of municipios. These entities are similar to the minor civil divisions (MCDs) used for
reporting decennial census data in 28 states of the United States. Subbarrios in 23 municipios
are the primary legal subdivisions of the barrios-pueblo and some barrios. The Census Bureau presents
the same types of Census 2000 data for these "sub-MCDs" as it does for the barrios and barrios-pueblo.
Each barrio, barrio-pueblo, and subbarrio is assigned a five-digit Federal Information Processing
Standards (FIPS) code in alphabetical order within Puerto Rico.          See subbarrio.


block - See census block.
block boundary - The features that delimit a census block. The features may be visible (a street, road,
stream, shoreline, power line, etc.) or invisible (a county line, city limit, property line, imaginary extension
of a street or road, etc.). Generally, the boundary of a census block must include at least one addressable
feature; that is, a street or road. For data tabulation, the boundary of every legal and statistical entity
recognized in the U.S. Census Bureau’s standard data tabulations is a block boundary.


block group (BG) - A statistical subdivision of a census tract (or, prior to Census 2000, a block numbering
area). A BG consists of all tabulation blocks whose numbers begin with the same digit in a census tract.
For example, for Census 2000, BG 3 within a census tract includes all blocks numbered from 3000 to
3999. (A few BGs consist of a single block.) BGs generally contain between 300 and 3,000 people, with
an optimum size of 1,500 people. The BG is the lowest-level geographic entity for which the U.S. Census
Bureau tabulates sample data from a decennial census. See tribal block group.


block number - A number assigned to each census block.


For collecting information for Census 2000, each census block was identified uniquely within a county (or
statistically equivalent entity) by a 4- or 5-digit number, which could be followed by an alphabetic suffix.
All the collection blocks within a county used the same number of digits.


For tabulating data for Census 2000, each census block is identified uniquely within a census tract by a 4-
digit number. A 1990 census block number had three digits, and might include an alphabetic suffix.


block numbering area (BNA) - Prior to Census 2000, a statistical subdivision of a county or statistically
equivalent entity, delineated by a state government agency or a U.S. Census Bureau regional census
center for the purpose of grouping and numbering census blocks in counties that did not have census
tracts. BNAs were discontinued for Census 2000; they were replaced by census tracts in every county
and statistically equivalent entity.


borough - A legally established geographic entity in Alaska, which the Census Bureau treats as
statistically equivalent to a county in other states; a minor civil division in each of the five counties that
comprise New York city; a type of incorporated place in Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.


census area - A statistical entity that serves as the equivalent of a county in Alaska. Census areas are
delineated cooperatively by the state of Alaska and the U.S. Census Bureau for the purpose of presenting
census data for the portion of Alaska not within an organized borough, city and borough, or municipality.
census block - A geographic area bounded by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared
by the U.S. Census Bureau. A block is the smallest geographic entity for which the Census Bureau
tabulates decennial census data. See block boundary, block number.


Census Bureau map - Any map, in electronic or paper form, produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. Such
a map usually displays the boundaries and names and/or codes of the geographic entities that the
Census Bureau uses to take a census or survey, or for which the Census Bureau tabulates data, and may
include both visible and invisible features, feature names, and other information appropriate to the
purpose for which the map was prepared. Some Census Bureau maps display statistical data in various
thematic forms. Every Census Bureau map displays a credit note showing that it was produced by the
U.S. Census Bureau.


census county division (CCD) - A statistical subdivision of a county, established and delineated
cooperatively by the U.S. Census Bureau and state, local, and tribal officials for data presentation
purposes. CCDs have been established in 21 states that do not have minor civil divisions suitable for data
presentation; that is, minor civil divisions have not been legally established, do not have governmental or
administrative purposes, have boundaries that are ambiguous or change frequently, and/or generally
are not well known to the public.


census designated place (CDP) - A geographic entity that serves as the statistical counterpart of an
incorporated place for the purpose of presenting census data for an area with a concentration of
population, housing, and commercial structures that is identifiable by name, but is not within an
incorporated place. CDPs usually are delineated cooperatively with state, Puerto Rico, Island Area, local,
and tribal officials based on U.S. Census Bureau guidelines. For Census 2000, for the first time, CDPs did
not need to meet a minimum population threshold to qualify for the tabulation of census data. See place.


Note: A CDP in Puerto Rico is called a comunidad or zona urbana.


census division - A grouping of states and the District of Columbia, established by the U.S. Census
Bureau for the presentation of census data.
The nine divisions represent areas that were relatively homogeneous when they were established in
1910. The divisions are subdivisions of the four census regions.


census geography - A collective term referring to the geographic entities used by the U.S. Census Bureau
in its data collection and tabulation operations, including their relationships to one another. See
geographic hierarchy, tabulation geography.


census map - See Census Bureau map.
census region - A grouping of states and the District of Columbia, established by the U.S. Census Bureau
for the presentation of census data. The four regions represent areas that were relatively homogeneous
when they were established in 1910 & revised in 1950. Each region is divided into 2 or3 census divisions.


census subarea - A statistical subdivision of a borough, census area, or other entity that is the statistical
equivalent of a county in Alaska. A census subarea is similar to a census county division in other states.
Census subareas are delineated cooperatively by the state of Alaska and the U.S. Census Bureau.


census tract - A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county or statistically equivalent
entity, delineated for data presentation purposes by a local group of census data users or the geographic
staff of a regional census center in accordance with U.S. Census Bureau guidelines. Designed to be
relatively homogeneous units with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living
conditions at the time they are established, census tracts generally contain between 1,000 and 8,000
people, with an optimum size of 4,000 people. Census tract boundaries are delineated with the intention
of being stable over many decades, so they generally follow relatively permanent visible features.
However, they may follow governmental unit boundaries and other invisible features in some instances;
the boundary of a state or county (or statistically equivalent entity) is always a census tract boundary.
When data are provided for American Indian entities, the boundary of a federally recognized American
Indian reservation and off-reservation trust land is always the boundary of a tribal census tract. See block
numbering area, tribal census tract.


census tract number - A 4-digit number, which may be followed by a 2-digit decimal suffix, used to identify
a census tract uniquely within a county or statistically equivalent entity. For Census 2000, census tract
numbers range from 0001 to 9999, with 9400 to 9499 reserved for census tracts related to federally
recognized American Indian reservations and off-reservation trust land - primarily reservations and trust
land that cross county lines. Leading zeros and a suffix of ".00" usually do not appear on maps prepared
by the U.S. Census Bureau, and are not commonly used when referring to a particular census tract. The
number "0000" in computer-readable files identifies a census tract delineated to provide complete
coverage of water
area in territorial seas and the Great Lakes.


central city - In a metropolitan area, the largest place and, in some areas, one or more additional places
that meet official standards. A few primary metropolitan statistical areas do not have a central city.


central place - In an urbanized area or urban cluster, the largest incorporated place, or census designated
place in some cases, and one or more additional places that meet specific criteria. For an urbanized area
or urban cluster that does not contain an incorporated or census designated place, there is no central
place (the title of the urbanized area or urban cluster uses the name of a minor civil division, or a local
place name recognized by the Board on Geographic Names and recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey,
but the name does not represent a central place).


city - A type of incorporated place in all states and the District of Columbia. In agreement with the state of
Hawaii, the U.S. Census Bureau does not recognize the city of Honolulu for presentation of census data.
In Virginia, all cities are not part of any county, and so the Census Bureau treats them as equivalent to a
county for data presentation purposes, as well as treating them as places; there also is one such
independent city in each of three states: Maryland, Missouri, and Nevada. In 23 states and the District of
Columbia, some or all cities are not part of any minor civil division, in which case the Census Bureau
treats them as county subdivisions as well as places for data presentation purposes.


city and borough - A legally established geographic entity in Alaska, which the U.S. Census Bureau treats
as the statistical equivalent of a county in other states; also, a type of incorporated place in Alaska. This
designation is new for Census 2000.


code - See geographic code.


collection block - The smallest area that the U.S. Census Bureau used to collect information for the
decennial census. A collection block may be split by the boundary of any legal or statistical entity later
recognized by the Census Bureau for census data presentation. Thus, if a collection block is split by one
or more legal and/or statistical boundaries, each portion will be a separate tabulation block; if a collection
block is not split, the same area may be a tabulation block. See block #, census block & tabulation block.


comunidad - A census designated place in Puerto Rico that is not related to a municipio's seat of
government. See census designated place, zona urbana.


congressional district (CD) - One of the 435 areas from which people are elected to the U.S. House of
Representatives. The CDs for which Census 2000 first provides data are those for the 106th Congress.


consolidated city - The U.S. Census Bureau refers to a governmental unit for which the functions of an
incorporated place and its county or minor civil division have merged as a consolidated government. If
one or more other incorporated places continue to function as separate governmental units even
though they are part of a consolidated government, the Census Bureau refers to the primary incorporated
place as a consolidated city.
consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) - A geographic entity designated by the federal Office
of Management and Budget (OMB) for use by federal statistical agencies. An area becomes a
consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) if it qualifies as a metropolitan area (MA), has a
census population of 1,000,000 or more, has component parts that qualify as primary metropolitan
statistical areas (PMSAs) based on official standards, and local opinion favors the designation. CMSAs
consist of whole counties except in New England, where they consist of county subdivisions (primarily
cities and towns). See central city, metropolitan area, metropolitan statistical area, New England County
Metropolitan Area, primary metropolitan statistical area, statistical entity.


county - The primary legal division of every state except Alaska and Louisiana. A number of geographic
entities are not legally designated as a county, but are recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau as
equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes. These include the boroughs, city and
boroughs, municipality, and census areas in Alaska; parishes in Louisiana; and cities that are
independent of any county in Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia. They also include the municipios
in Puerto Rico, districts and islands in American Samoa, municipalities in the Northern Mariana Islands,
and islands in the Virgin Islands of the United States. Because they contain no primary legal divisions, the
Census Bureau treats the District of Columbia and Guam each as equivalent to a county (as well as
equivalent to a state) for data presentation purposes. In American Samoa, a county is a minor civil
division.


county subdivision - The primary legal or statistical division of a county or statistically equivalent entity.
See census county division, census subarea, minor civil division, unorganized territory.


division (census geographic) - See census division.                     extended city - See extended place.


extended place - A place that contains both urban and rural territory; i.e., an incorporated place or census
designated place that is partially within and partially outside of an urbanized area or urban cluster. The
term is first used for Census 2000. Previously referred to as an extended city, which applied only to
incorporated places, subject to very specific criteria.


geographic code - A code, consisting of one or more alphanumeric or special-text characters, used to
identify a geographic entity. Every geographic entity recognized by the Census Bureau is assigned one or
more geographic codes. Also referred to as a geocode.


geographic entity - A spatial unit of any type, legal or statistical, such as the United States, a state,
county, county subdivision, place, census tract, block group, or census block. See census geography,
legal entity, statistical entity.
geographic hierarchy - A geographic presentation that shows the geographic entities in a
superior/subordinate structure. In this system of relationships among geographic entities, each entity
(except the smallest one) is subdivided into lower-order units that in turn may be subdivided further. For
example, states are subdivided into counties, which are subdivided into both county subdivisions and
census tracts. The Census Bureau uses three sets of hierarchies: one is based on states and counties;
another on American Indian area, Alaska Native areas, and Hawaiian home lands; and a third on
metropolitan or urban areas. See census geography, tabulation geography.


governmental unit (GU) - A geographic entity established by legal action for the purpose of implementing
specified general- or special-purpose governmental functions. Most GUs have legally established
boundaries and names, and have officials (usually elected) who have the power to carry out legally
prescribed functions, provide services for the residents of the GU, and raise revenues. Some GUs do not
have officials or do not implement the powers that the law entitles them to; the U.S. Census Bureau refers
to these entities as inactive governmental units.


Hawaiian home land (HHL) - An area held in trust for the benefit of native Hawaiians by the state of
Hawaii, pursuant to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920, as amended. Hawaiian home lands
are a new type of geographic entity for Census 2000.


incorporated place - A type of governmental unit, incorporated under state law as a city, town (except in
New England, New York, and Wisconsin), borough (except in Alaska and New York), or village, generally
to provide a wide array of specific governmental services for a concentration of people within legally
prescribed boundaries. New for Census 2000 are "city and borough" and "municipality," which serve as
both place- and county-level entities in Alaska. A few incorporated places do not have a legal description.
See consolidated city, governmental unit, independent city, independent place, place.


independent city - An incorporated place that is independent of - i.e., not part of - any county. All
incorporated places classified as cities in Virginia are independent cities, as are Baltimore, MD; St. Louis,
MO; and Carson City, NV. The U.S. Census Bureau treats an independent city as equivalent to a county
and, where appropriate, as a county subdivision and as an incorporated place for data presentation
purposes.


independent place - In a state in which the Census Bureau recognizes minor civil divisions (MCDs), an
incorporated place that is not legally part of any MCD. The Census Bureau treats an independent place
as equivalent to a county subdivision and as an incorporated place for data presentation purposes.
Independent places exist in 23 states and the District of Columbia.


Indian reservation - See American Indian reservation.
Island Areas - For Census 2000, several legal entities under the jurisdiction of the United States:
American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of
the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau treats these entities as equivalent to states for data
presentation purposes. The term also includes several small islands in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific
Ocean; the Census Bureau provides only population counts for these "U.S. Minor Outlying Islands,"
based on records obtained from the government agency that administers each island (most are
unpopulated). Formerly referred to as the Outlying Areas.


joint use area - Territory that is administered, claimed, and/or used by two or more American Indian tribes.
It may consist of an overlap of territory of adjoining American Indian reservations or Oklahoma tribal
statistical areas, or off-reservation trust land for one tribe that is located within the reservation of another
tribe. Such territory was referred to as joint area for the 1990 census.


legal entity - A geographic entity whose origin, boundary, name, and description result from charters,
laws, treaties, or other administrative or governmental action, including the United States; the 50 states,
the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas; counties and statistically equivalent legal
entities; minor civil divisions; incorporated places, including consolidated cities; American Indian
reservations, off-reservation trust land, and tribal subdivisions; Alaska Native Regional Corporations;
Hawaiian home lands; congressional districts; state legislative districts; most voting districts; and school
districts. Some legal entities, such as Hawaiian home lands, congressional districts, and voting districts,
have no governmental officials or powers, but serve only as nonfunctioning administrative entities. The
legal entities and their boundaries that the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes for Census 2000 are those
that existed on January 1, 2000. See governmental unit, statistical entity.


metropolitan area (MA) - A core areas with a large population nucleus, together with adjacent
communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. (Some MAs are
defined around two or more nuclei.) MAs are designated by the federal Office of Management and Budget
(OMB) in terms of one or more counties or, in New England, county subdivisions (primarily cities and
towns). The OMB defines and designates metropolitan areas based on a set of official standards that are
published in the Federal Register. "Metropolitan area" is a collective term established by the OMB in 1990
to refer to metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs),
primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs), and New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs).


Note: In 2003, a new set of standards will go into effect, creating several new types of statistical entities
and renaming others, and discontinuing the term "metropolitan area."
metropolitan statistical area (MSA) - A geographic entity designated by the federal Office of Management
and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies. A metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a metropolitan
area (MA) that is not closely associated with another MA. An MSA consists of one or more counties,
except in New England, where MSAs are defined in terms of county subdivisions (primarily cities and
towns). See central city, consolidated metropolitan statistical area, metropolitan area, New England
County Metropolitan Area, primary metropolitan statistical area, statistical entity.


minor civil division (MCD) - A type of governmental unit that is the primary governmental or administrative
division of a county or statistically equivalent entity in many states and statistically equivalent entities.
MCDs are identified by a variety of terms, such as township, town (in eight states), or district. The U.S.
Census Bureau recognizes MCDs in 28 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Island
Areas. In 20 states and American Samoa, all or many MCDs are active general-purpose governmental
units. Many MCDs are not general-purpose governmental units, and therefore do not have elected
officials to carry out legal functions; instead, they serve as nonfunctioning administrative entities. See
county subdivision, governmental unit, independent place, legal entity.


municipality - A legally established entity in Alaska and the Northern Mariana Islands. The U.S. Census
Bureau treats this entity as the
statistical equivalent of a county, and the Census Bureau also treats the municipality (Anchorage) in
Alaska as an incorporated place. This designation in Alaska is new for Census 2000.


municipio - A governmental unit that is the primary legal division of Puerto Rico. The U.S. Census Bureau
treats a municipio as equivalent to a county in the United States for data presentation purposes.


New England County Metropolitan Area (NECMA) - A county-based area designated by the federal Office
of Management and Budget to provide an alternative to the county subdivision-based metropolitan
statistical areas and consolidated metropolitan statistical areas in New England. See central
city, metropolitan area, statistical entity.


off-reservation trust land - See American Indian off-reservation trust land.


Oklahoma tribal statistical area (OTSA) - A statistical entity identified and delineated by the U.S. Census
Bureau in consultation with federally recognized American Indian tribes in Oklahoma that once had a
reservation in that state. An OTSA encompasses an area that conforms to a tribe’s reservation that was
dissolved preceding the establishment of Oklahoma as a state in 1907. For some OTSAs, neighboring
tribes agreed to modify the boundary for data presentation purposes. Referred to as a tribal jurisdiction
statistical area (TJSA) for the 1990 census and by a single all-encompassing entity called the "Historic
Areas of Oklahoma (excluding urbanized areas)" for the 1980 census.
Outlying Areas - See Island Areas.


parish - A governmental unit that is the primary legal subdivision of Louisiana. The U.S. Census Bureau
treats a parish as equivalent to a county in other states for data presentation purposes.


place - A concentration of population either legally bounded as an incorporated place, or delineated for
statistical purposes as a census designated place (in Puerto Rico, a comunidad or zona urbana). See
census designated place, consolidated city, incorporated place, independent city, independent place.


primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA) - A geographic entity designated by the federal Office of
Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies. If an area that qualifies as a metropolitan
area (MA) has a census population of one million or more, two or more primary metropolitan statistical
areas (PMSAs) may be defined within it if they meet official standards and local opinion favors the
designation. When PMSAs are established within an MA, that MA is designated a consolidated
metropolitan statistical area (CMSA). See central city, consolidated metropolitan statistical area,
metropolitan area, statistical entity.


pseudo-voting district (pseudo-VTD) - An area for which the U.S. Census Bureau reports voting district
(VTD) data, even though the boundary of the actual voting district was adjusted by the reviewing officials,
for purposes of data presentation, so that it no longer matches the legally established boundary. See
voting district.


public use microdata area (PUMA) - A geographic entity for which the U.S. Census Bureau provides
specially selected extracts of raw information from a small sample of long-form census records that are
screened to protect confidentiality of census records. The extract files are referred to as public use
microdata samples (PUMS). Public use microdata areas (PUMAs), which must have a minimum census
population of 100,000 and cannot cross a state line, receive a 5-percent sample of the long-form records;
these records are presented in state files. These PUMAs are aggregated into super-PUMAs, which must
have a minimum census population of 400,000 and receive a 1-percent sample in a national file. The
Census Bureau provided a 10-percent sample file each for Guam and the Virgin Islands of the United
States. Data users can use these files to create their own statistical tabulations and data summaries.


region (census geographic) - See census region.


rural - All territory, population, and housing units located outside of urbanized areas and urban clusters.
school district - A geographic entity within which state, county, or local officials or the U.S. Department of
Defense provides public educational services for an area’s residents. The U.S. Census Bureau provides
data for three types of school districts: elementary, secondary, and unified.


state - A primary governmental division of the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau treats the District
of Columbia as the equivalent of a state for data presentation purposes. It also treats a number of entities
that are not legal divisions of the United States as the equivalent of states for data presentation purposes:
Puerto Rico and the Island Areas.


state designated American Indian statistical area (SDAISA) - A statistical entity delineated for an
American Indian tribe that does not have a land base (reservation) and is recognized as a tribe by a state
government, but not the federal government. State designated American Indian statistical areas
(SDAISAs) are identified and delineated for the U.S. Census Bureau by a state liaison identified by the
governor’s office. A SDAISA generally encompasses a compact and contiguous area that contains a
concentration of people who identify with a state recognized American Indian tribe and in which there is
structured or organized tribal activity. A SDAISA may not be located in more than one state unless the
tribe is recognized by both states, and it may not include area within an American Indian reservation,
off-reservation trust land, Oklahoma tribal statistical area, tribal designated statistical area, or Alaska
Native village statistical area. SDAISAs were included with tribal designated statistical areas for the
1990 census; this designation is new for Census 2000.


state legislative district (SLD) - The area represented by a member of the upper or lower chamber of a
state legislature (or, for Nebraska, the unicameral legislature).


statistical entity - A geographic entity that is specially defined and delineated so that the U.S. Census
Bureau may tabulate data for it. Statistical entities include census areas (in Alaska), census county
divisions, census subareas (in Alaska), unorganized territories, census designated places, Oklahoma
tribal statistical areas, tribal designated statistical areas, state designated American Indian statistical
areas, Alaska Native village statistical areas, metropolitan areas, urban areas, census tracts, block
groups, and census blocks. Designation as a statistical entity neither conveys nor confers legal
ownership, entitlement, or jurisdictional authority. See legal entity.


subbarrio - A legal subdivision of a barrio or barrio-pueblo (minor civil division) in 23 municipios in Puerto
Rico. (There is no geographic entity in the United States equivalent to a subbarrio.) Census 2000
provides the same types of data for subbarrios as it does for barrios and barrios-pueblo. Each subbarrio
is assigned a five-digit Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code in alphabetical order within
Puerto Rico. See barrio, barrio-pueblo; sub-MCD.
sub-MCD - A legal subdivision of a minor civil division (MCD). For Census 2000, only Puerto Rico has
sub-MCDs (subbarrios).


super-PUMA - See public use microdata area.


tabulation block - The smallest area for which the U.S. Census Bureau provides decennial census data. A
tabulation block cannot be split by the boundary of any legal or statistical entity recognized by the Census
Bureau for census data presentation. See block number, census block.


tabulation geography - The geographic entities for which the U.S. Census Bureau tabulates and presents
data. See geographic entity, geographic hierarchy.


tract - See census tract.


traffic analysis zone (TAZ) - A statistical entity delineated by state and/or local transportation officials for
tabulating traffic-related data - especially journey-to-work and place-of-work statistics - from a decennial
census. A TAZ usually consists of one or more census blocks, block groups, or census tracts.


tribal block group - A block group within a tribal census tract. Where a census tract numbered in the 9400
series crosses a county line, a tribal block group may be located on both sides of that boundary. See
block group, tribal census tract.


tribal census tract - A census tract within a federally recognized American Indian reservation and/or off-
reservation trust land. Some of these census tracts are numbered in the 9400 series, primarily if they
cross a county line. See census tract, tribal block group.


tribal designated statistical area (TDSA) - A statistical entity delineated for the U.S. Census Bureau by a
federally recognized American Indian tribe that does not have a land base (a federally recognized
reservation or off-reservation trust land). A TDSA generally encompasses a compact and
contiguous area that contains a concentration of people who identify with a federally recognized American
Indian tribe and in which there is structured or organized tribal activity. A TDSA may not include area
within an American Indian reservation, off-reservation trust land, Oklahoma tribal statistical area, state
designated American Indian statistical area, or Alaska Native village statistical area. For the 1990 census,
it could not cross a state line, but it may do so for Census 2000. For the 1990 census, TDSAs included
state-recognized tribes without a land base; these are now called state designated American Indian
statistical areas.


tribal jurisdiction statistical area (TJSA) - See Oklahoma tribal statistical area.
tribal subdivision - See American Indian tribal subdivision.


trust land - See American Indian trust land.


United States - The 50 states and the District of Columbia.


unorganized territory (UT) - In a state in which the U.S. Census Bureau provides data for minor civil
divisions (MCDs), the portion of a county that is not included in a legally established MCD or in an
incorporated place that is independent of an MCD. For data presentation purposes, the Census
Bureau recognizes such area as one or more separate county subdivisions, each designated as an
unorganized territory. For Census 2000, ten states contain one or more UTs.


urban - All territory, population, and housing units located within urbanized areas and urban clusters. See
rural, urban area.


urban area - A generic term that refers to both urbanized areas and urban clusters. This terminology is
new for Census 2000.


urban cluster (UC) - A densely settled area that has a census population of 2,500 to 49,999. A UC
generally consists of a geographic core of block groups or blocks that have a population density of at
least 1,000 people per square mile, and adjacent block groups and blocks with at least 500 people
per square mile. A UC consists of all or part of one or more incorporated places and/or census
designated places; such a place(s) together with adjacent territory; or territory outside of any place. See
central place, extended place, urban, urbanized area.


Note: Any urban area delineated in Guam is classified as an urban cluster regardless of its population
size.


urban growth area (UGA) - In Oregon, an "urban growth boundary" is delineated around each
incorporated place or a group of incorporated places by state and local officials, and subsequently
confirmed in state law, to control urban development. The U.S. Census Bureau refers to the resulting
geographic entities as "urban growth areas" (UGAs). UGAs are new for Census 2000. ("Urban growth
boundary" is a legal term; "urban growth area" is a census term.)


urbanized area (UA) - A densely settled area that has a census population of at least 50,000. A UA
generally consists of a geographic core of block groups or blocks that have a population density of at
least 1,000 people per square mile, and adjacent block groups and blocks with at least 500 people
per square mile. A UA consists of all or part of one or more incorporated places and/or census designated
places, and may include additional territory outside of any place. See central place, extended place,
urban, urban cluster.


voting district (VTD) - The generic name for a geographic entity - such as an election district, precinct, or
ward - established by state, local, and tribal governments for the purpose of conducting elections. Some
reviewing officials adjusted the boundaries of the voting districts (VTDs) they submitted to conform to
census block boundaries for data presentation purposes, and therefore a VTD for which Census 2000
provides data might not exactly represent the legal entity; the U.S. Census Bureau refers to such VTDs
as pseudo-voting districts (pseudo-VTDs). Such VTDs, as well as any territory for which state officials did
not specify a status, are identified by a "P" in the VTD indicator field of the PL data file.


ZIP Code area - The addresses served by a 5-digit ZIP Code - established by the U.S. Postal Service to
expedite the delivery of mail. Most ZIP Codes do not have specific boundaries, and their implied
boundaries do not necessarily follow clearly identifiable visible or invisible map features; also, the carrier
routes for one ZIP Code may intertwine with those of one or more other ZIP Codes, and therefore this
area is more conceptual than geographic. See ZIP Code tabulation area.


ZIP Code tabulation area (ZCTAa) - A statistical entity developed by the U.S. Census Bureau to
approximate the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service 5-digit or 3-digit ZIP Codes in the United States
and Puerto Rico. A ZCTA is an aggregation of census blocks that have the same predominant ZIP Code
associated with the mailing addresses in the Census Bureau’s Master Address File. Thus, the Postal
Service's delivery areas have been adjusted to encompass whole census blocks so that the Census
Bureau can tabulate census data for the ZCTAs. For areas larger than 25 square miles for which
the Census Bureau's Master Address File contained no addresses with ZIP Codes, the Census Bureau
used the first 3 digits of the ZIP Code(s) that serve the area or nearby areas. For the dress rehearsal
data, there are two blank spaces after such 3-digit codes; for Census 2000, there is a suffix of "XX." A
water feature that could not logically be assigned to a specific ZCTA is assigned a 3-digit code followed
by "HH" to indicate that the water feature could not be assigned meaningfully to any adjacent land ZCTA.
ZCTAs do not include all ZIP Codes used for mail delivery. The Census Bureau first created ZCTAs for
the Census 2000 dress rehearsal census. See ZIP Code area. a Note that "ZCTA" is a trademark of the
U.S. Census Bureau, and "ZIP Code" is a registered trademark of the U.S. Postal Service.


zona urbana - In Puerto Rico, a census designated place consisting of the municipio seat of government
and the adjacent built-up area. A zona urbana cannot extend across its municipio's boundary.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Created: September 20, 2001, Last Revised: Wednesday, 20-Nov-2002
14:32:13 EST, SITE http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/glossary.html#glossary
-----------------------
RESCH THIS SITE THOROUGHLY (GLOSSARY OF TERMS IE ADVISORY COMMITTEE)
http://www.census.gov/main/www/subjects.html
---------------
RSCH http://www.uschamber.com/default ALSO http://www.2chambers.com/
------------------
CONVENTION SERVICES FROM
http://www.richmondva.org/HTML/Meeting_Planner/Working_RMCVB.lasso
------------------------
http://www.2chambers.com/Default.htm FOR EACH STATE Whether traveling or relocating, the
best source for local community information is the U.S. state and local chambers of commerce and the
United States local and state convention and visitor bureaus. The National Chamber of Commerce and
Convention and Visitor Bureau Directory brings all of those U.S. local and state chambers of commerce
and United States local and state convention, visitor and tourist bureaus to one website. Local and State
Chambers of Commerce will provide you with their town's relocation information, real estate information
lodging information, business information, visitor information, local demographics and community
information. The United States local and state Visitor Centers provide visitors, vacationers and
business travelers with tourist information, including state and local attractions and recreation
information, state and local motel and lodging information, group travel and individual travel information,
state and local dining and nightlife information, and of course U.S. State and local amusements visitor
sites and tourist attractions.
----------------------
ONE NATIONAL SITE FOR MTG PLANNERS http://www.meetingsource.com/
----------------
The National Press Club is a private association of members of the journalism and public relations
community. It is not affiliated in any way with any government agency. The NPC does not advocate or
participate in any political activity or interest; it does not direct, influence or censor any speakers at NPC-
sponsored functions or at the functions at NPC facilities hosted by other parties. The statements made at
events held at the National Press Club are the sole responsibility of the speaker and do not necessarily
represent the opinion of the National Press Club, its employees or other members of the Club.
National Press Club 529 14th St. NW, 13th Floor - Washington, DC 20045 http://npc.press.org/
--------------
MTG PLNG SOFTWARE:
http://www.netsimplicity.com/mrm/default.asp?OVRAW=MEETING%20PLANNING&OVKEY=
meeting%20planning&OVMTC=standard GO TO MINIMAL .COM
THESE SVC ARE NEEDED (TB ADDED CUSTOM NEEDS) access to 592 airlines, 11,000 hotels and
21 automobile rental companies Instant confirmation of air, hotel and automobile requests, The lowest
available airfares, Daily airline price decrease review of all ticketed fares, Electronic ticketing, Maintain
traveler profiles, Computerized itinerary with confirmation numbers for hotels and automobiles,
International travel services, Corporate hotel and car rental rates, Passport and visa assistance, 24-hour
emergency service, Group package tours, Cruises, Tours, Leisure vacation packages, Individual personal
travel.                 Meeting planning services that make the most successful events.
When you’re setting up a meeting or workshop, you already have your hands full, what with organizing
your speakers, seminars subjects and rounding up attendees. That’s when you’ll really appreciate the
meeting planning services offered by Travel Concierge.


We’ve been organizing seminars, workshops, meetings - even conventions! - for more than a decade,
which means we know how to deal most effectively with:
Location preferences
Meeting space availability
Meeting room dimensions
Meeting room attributes
Audiovisual needs
Budgeted expenses
Lodging
Catering
Setup requirements
Theme meeting/parties
Arranged group activities
Securing guest speakers
We Specialize In... Special Events, Theme Party, Social Function, Lodging Accommodations*, Vacation
Planning, Meeting and/or Function Location**, Group Travel Group Conferences, Business Meeting,
Incentive Trips, Guest Speakers, Entertainment, Conventions, Seminars,
* research complimentary                    ** research complimentary with overnight accommodations


 THESE MTG PLNR FOR PLANERS HAVE AFFIL PROG
http://www.fepinc.com/affiliate.html SEEMS FOR CORP
-------------
THIS SITE IS MORE FOR SOCIAL EVENTS BUT IS VERY THOROUGH SO RESCH MORE
http://weddingplanning.com/
------------
WORLD CLOCK AND TIME ZONE                       http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/
SPICING UP YOUR CO MEETG TIPS
http://www.humanresources.about.com/cs/meetingmanagement/ht/meetings.htm
IS FOR SOFTWARE AND MULTIPLE VENUE       http://www.eventpro-planner.com/
WEBBASED RESERVATIONS                                      http://www.rezgateway.com/
http://www.mtonline.com/             FLOOR PLANS, MEETING ROOM SIZES IN SELECT FACILIES
AND CONVENTION CENTERS.


AREAS OF PURPOSE FOR MEETINGS
  Association/Corporate Meetings
  Board/Executive Meetings
  Conference Promotions/Logistics
  Destination Management
  Golf Events
  International Meetings
  Medical Meetings
  Sales/Incentive Meetings
  Special/Unique Events
  Tradeshow/Exposition Management


Logistics of Meeting Planning: Function space assignment and appropriate room setup
Audiovisual needs
Phone lines
Office equipment
Theme parties
Security arrangements
Signage ordering and placement
Floorplan design
Guest amenities
Floral arrangements
Entertainment
Photographers
Translators
Registration personnel
Audio taping
Food and Beverage - Meeting Planning
Quantity - Conferon has developed formulas over the years to assist in determining what is the correct
quantity of food and beverage to order for each of your events. This applies to coffee breaks, continental
breakfasts and receptions.
Quality - Conferon's meeting planners are trained to select menus that fit each group's needs while at the
same time providing variety and taste.
Budget - We can keep your food and beverage budget under control through:
careful pre-ordering based on Conferon's formulas negotiating accurate guarantees on-site monitoring
and inventorying practices
Suppliers: We can assist with so many of your supplier needs:


Locate and research suppliers
Prepare RFPs
Review proposals
Negotiate
Create comparison grid of various proposals
Make recommendations based on research
Assist in contract review
Manage pre-planning and on-site service
Review final bill
Monitoring Expenses


Your meeting planning expenses will be controlled though:
the initial negotiation of a facility contract
supplier negotiations
calculated food and beverage ordering
carefully monitored food and beverage guarantees
bill review
managing attrition fees
"Writing this letter is, inevitably, a difficult task, as the amount of admiration we have for our key account
planners, Jeff Sacks and Courtney Unterreiner, is immeasurable. Always professional, genuine, skilled,
responsible, flexible and creative, we couldn’t ask for a better union. This year was an especially
challenging show, as we were faced with potential disaster in the form of monsoon rains. Jeff and
Courtney kept us calm and thus able to focus on dealing with the situation. As we’ve mentioned
previously, they have both become a vital part to every aspect of our planning process. We consider them
to be an invaluable part of our team…"


- Sheldon Metz, Director of Conventions & Meetings, National Nutritional Foods Association
Conferon's Agenda
Over the years while working on hundreds of conventions, we have developed a format for specifications
that many hotels and convention centers prefer. These specifications are organized into a standard
format that we refer to as a meeting Agenda. Every detail for your meeting is contained within this
document and it is updated as the meeting planning process progresses.


"Lise Fitzpatrick does everything right, and takes the pain out of meeting planning. She is sensitive to the
needs of this group, and is always out front with new ideas, and the way to create them...In this day of the
increased need to delight the customer, you folks are giving yourselves a competitive advantage by
having people like Lise Fitzpatrick on your staff."                 - Thomas R. Tucker, Coordinator - EWLC




Post Convention Reports
Memory fades - usually as soon as your convention is over. This is why it's essential to record what was
successful and what can be improved about your meeting.


One of the most important benefits of our Post Convention Report is that it illustrates the value of your
meeting. With the current sellers' market, it is imperative that the value of every meeting be documented.
When presented with concrete evidence of your meeting's total worth, a hotel can make a more educated
decision on whether or not to book your meeting, when to book it, at what room rates, and what
concessions are appropriate. Knowledge is power. By knowing how much was spent on the various
aspects of your meeting, we have more negotiating leverage in the future.


Our Post Convention Reports include:
total guest room pick up and pattern, along with revenues generated total food and beverage dollars
spent by your group and its affiliates, including hospitalities other income for a city or facility (suppliers
such as audiovisual, floral, decorations, electrical, etc.) In addition to documenting the value of your
meeting, the Post Convention Report also includes a basic meeting overview, along with suggestions and
recommendations for both the pre-planning and on-site stages of future meetings.


EXPOSITION: http://www.meetings.com/PlanningServices/coco.asp


http://www.cvent.com/corporate/product/why_cvent.shtm?referrer=overture


You want to keep people focused and motivated during a meeting. Well these programs are sure to add
some zest. Keep people alert, break the ice or just enhance your meetings with these award-winning
programs.            http://www.enterprisemedia.com/meeting.html


VENUES http://uniquevenues.com/                          Unique Venues helps you find business meeting
facilities, conference centers, colleges, universities, movie theatres, entertainment venues, collegiate
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you're interested in unique business meeting facilities and conference centers, Unique Venues is for you!
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Our vast database of meeting facilities make business meetings and conference planning more fun,
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business meeting facilities and conference centers for successful events.


RETURN TO NO 45 OF MSN SEARCH CALLED "MEETING PLANNING"



http://www.yeschiropractic.com/


GRIST MAG’S APRIL FOOL’S JOKE:
Yum! Brands, Inc. -- the Fortune 500 company that operates KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and several
other restaurant chains worldwide -- has turned over a new environmental leaf. In a statement released
yesterday, CEO David Novak said, "We take our slogan -- 'alone we're delicious, together we're Yum!' --
seriously. All earth's creatures are in this together. Our executives, employees, and shareholders believe
that we have a responsibility to care for our planet." The company promised a range of eco-friendly
changes to be phased in over the next five years: All restaurant chains will use exclusively organic meat,
include post-consumer recycled content in their packaging, and provide public-transportation subsidies to
employees. The move came as a surprise to industry analysts and competitors in the fast-food business.
James Cantalupo, CEO of McDonald's Corp., said, "Frankly, I think it's unwise. We're here to feed
customers, not change the world."

straight to the source: The Wall Street Journal, Brian Thomas Littrell, 01 Apr 2004
<http://www.gristmagazine.com/cgi-bin/forward.pl?forward_id=2249>




…………………………………………: Tomorrow I will leave you a small box of paperwork, because I am not
safe where I am: MM, LLC.’s Robert Clarke is putting pressure on my fellow resident, Wayne E. Miller to
get me out so that I can not get in touch with people like you as Clarke has told so many lies that they
can’t get their story straight any more. In the meantime, Coates, MMLLC’s registered agent only tells
Clarke that he’s received a message from me but has never contacted me. This pressures Clarke who in
turn pressures Millier (a very close friend of his) who tries to intimidate me and bully me into not either
seek my unpaid wages and not to disclose what has been going on with MMLLC.

I do not send this material to you with the hopes that I be paid my wages. Let us be clear that I write to
you so you know what know and then you will see to it—at your responsibility—to see what you can do.
I will be in touch via e-mail but can’t help you any further if you do not get in touch with me.

I have not received any e-mail from you and in my 3 visits to you, I have never met you or spoken
directly to you, as I am told you are busy, not there, or on the phone. However, I already risk a lot
holding on to the paperwork set I have and went to a lot of expense to make you copies, so I hope that
you go through each paper and ask me questions when you contact me.

The reason I stopped working for MMLLC was that since I was hired to build up the company but could
not get any straight answers from Robert M. Clarke, who says he represents Coates, I suspected that I
was getting deeper into activities I could not make legal sense of. At one time, I had been the secretary
to the Controller, so I had a job-experience point of view. At the beginning I thought MMLLC was just
badly neglected and that’s why nothing made sense. But as I asked Clarke, the only person I could ask,
why this is being done, he soon ran out of patience with me and would try to divert me with other tasks,
rather than permitting me time to get documents well accounted for via his reasons for the activity—
obviously not for the judgment nor was I willing to just be instructed to ‘just file it’.

I understand you are female, so Ms. Morris, please beware that these persons mentioned are well
connected. Robert M. Clarke confessed to me that MMLLC is indeed his company being shown to the
government, as are his car, house, credit cards as belonging to another person. And having already
gone thru his experience with the IRS, Clarke and his friends have taken extraordinary measures, such
as coordinating their story and wiretapping their own phones. When I have asked any of the persons
mentioned, they ask me questions instead and then, when speaking to another, I find that the message
has been disseminated. This is why they have stopped answering questions: it have become too
boggled down to keep all their contingent stories to be cohesive, intelligent, reasonable, and business-
like. Instead, after I call any of these persons mentioned, it comes back to me that I am unstable, a “B--
--“, or just plain old, ‘crazy’ (Clarke’s favorite).

But, there are enough persons, I included, who are not impressed with their games; whom you can count
on. Tomorrow you will have names and addresses and you can see for yourself. Some, however, are
very scared, as if we had joined a cult that we can never leave. One of those persons is Wayne Miller.
He sent me an e-mail today which told me to leave my room by this weekend or else I will be the cause
of his becoming homeless as well as me.

Let me clarify that this computer belongs to Wayne