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National Forests and Grasslands in Texas NATIONAL FOREST AND GRASSLANDS IN TEXAS FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN 2011 Prepared and Updated by /s/ Becky Finzer Date Reviewed by /s/ Date Page 1 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Interagency Federal fire policy requires that every area with burnable vegetation must have a Fire Management Plan (FMP). This FMP provides information concerning the fire management process for the National Forests and Grasslands in Texas and compiles guidance from existing sources such as but not limited to, the National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Land and Resource Management Plan (LMP), national policy, and national and regional directives. The potential consequences to firefighter and public safety and welfare, natural and cultural resources, and values to be protected help determine the management response wildfire. Firefighter and public safety are the first consideration and are always the priority during every response to wildland fire. The following chapters discuss broad forest and specific Fire Management Unit (FMU) characteristics and guidance. Chapter 1 introduces the area covered by the FMP, includes a map of the National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, addresses the agencies involved, and states why the forest is developing the FMP. Chapter 2 establishes the link between higher-level planning documents, legislation, and policies and the actions described in FMP. Chapter 3 articulates specific goals, objectives, standards, guidelines, and/or desired future condition(s), as established in the forest’s LMP, which apply to all the forest’s FMUs and those that are unique to the forest’s individual FMUs. Page 2 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION The National Forests and Grasslands in Texas (NFGT) developed this FMP as a decision support tool to help fire personnel and decision makers determine the management response to an unplanned ignition. FMPs do not make decisions. Instead, they provide information, organized by FMUs, which provides a finer scale summarization of information than is possible at the forest level. These descriptions bring specific detail about the identifiable areas on the ground. FMPs are not static documents. They will evolve and be revised as conditions change on the ground and as modifications are made to the unit’s FMP. The NFGT is comprised of 637,475 acres in four Forests, and 38,100 acres in two Grasslands. The National Forests are located in-the “Piney woods” of east Texas, surrounded by private timberlands owned by both small and large landowners. However, all the major corporate landowners, such as Champion International, Louisiana Pacific and Temple-Inland have sold the majority of their land holdings to investment groups. The National Forests are in the Humid Temperate Domain, Subtropical Division, Southeastern Mixed Forest province of R G Baley’s Ecoregion Classification System. The Grasslands are in the Prairie Division and Prairie Parkland Province Local, relief for both areas range from 100 to 600 ft, and 80 percent of the areas are gently sloped. Precipitation averages around 35 to 40 inches on the Grasslands, and up to 60 inches annually in the Forest areas The NFGT are intermingled with private and timber industry ownerships. Many isolated parcels of a few acres to several hundred ‘acres occur throughout all districts. Access and rights-of-way management are extremely complex. Major population centers within two hours driving time of the Forests include Houston and Beaumont, Texas and Shreveport, Louisiana. The two Grasslands are within one hour driving time of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan areas, in North Central Texas. The purpose of the NFGT Fire Management Plan (FMP) is to identify and integrate all wildland fire management and related activities with the context of the approved LMP. The FMP allows resource management direction found in the LMP to facilitate development implementation of fire management strategies. The FMP does not document fire management decisions; rather it provides the operational direction to implement the goals and objectives in the LRMP. This FMP applies to the lands administered by the NFGT. This document provides information, organized by Fire Management Unit (FMUs) which provide a finer scale summarization of information than is possible at the forest-wide level. Chapter 2. POLICY, LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING, AND PARTNERSHIPS The 1996 NFGT LRMP, which was developed through both an internal and a public involvement process, forms the basis for this FMP. This FMP is a detailed program of action to carry out fire management policies; it will help achieve resource management objectives as defined in NFGT”s LRMP. Page 3 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas The 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (updated from 1995 policy) and the Revised Land and Resource Management Plan, NFGT (1996), are the guiding policy documents for fire management on the Forest. The 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy directs Federal agencies to achieve a balance between suppression to protect life, property, and resources, and fire use to regulate fuels and maintain healthy ecosystems. The policy provides nine guiding principles that are fundamental to the success of the Federal wildland fire management program: 1. Firefighter and public safety are the first priority in every fire management activity. 2. The role of wildland fire as an essential ecological process and natural change agent will be incorporated into the planning process. 3. Fire Management Plans, programs, and activities support land and resource management plans and their implementation. 4. Sound risk management is a foundation for all fire management activities. 5. Fire management programs and activities are economically viable, based upon values to be protected, costs, and land and resource management objectives. 6. Fire Management Plans and activities are based upon the best available science. 7. Fire Management Plans and activities incorporate public health and environmental quality considerations. 8. Federal, State, tribal, local, interagency, and international coordination and cooperation are essential. 9. Standardization of policies and procedures among federal agencies is an ongoing objective. 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (updated from 1995 policy): Safety Firefighter and public safety is the first priority. All Fire Management Plans and activities must reflect this commitment. Fire Management and Ecosystem Sustainability The full range of fire management activities will be used to help achieve ecosystem sustainability, including its interrelated ecological, economic, and social components. Response to Wildland Fire Fire, as a critical natural process, will be integrated into land and resource management plans and activities on a landscape scale, and across agency boundaries. Response to wildland fire is based on ecological, social, and legal consequences of the fire. The circumstances, under which a wildland fire occurs, and its likely consequences on firefighter and public safety and welfare, natural and cultural resources, and values to be protected, dictate the appropriate management response to the wildland fire. Use of Wildland Fire Wildland fire will be used to protect, maintain, and enhance resources and, as nearly as possible, be allowed to function in its natural ecological role. Use of fire will be based on approved Fire Management Plans and will follow specific prescriptions contained in operational plans. Page 4 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Rehabilitation and Restoration Rehabilitation and restoration efforts will be undertaken to protect and sustain ecosystems, public health, and safety, and to help communities protect infrastructure. Protection Priorities The protection of human life is the single, overriding priority. Setting priorities among protecting human communities and community infrastructure, other property and improvements, and natural and cultural resources will be based on the values to be protected, human health and safety, and the costs of protection. Once people have been committed to an incident, these human resources become the highest value to be protected. Wildland Urban Interface The operational roles of federal agencies as partners in the wildland urban interface are wildland firefighting, hazardous fuels reduction, cooperative prevention and education, and technical assistance. Structural fire suppression is the responsibility of tribal, state, or local governments. Federal agencies may assist with exterior structural protection activities under formal fire protection agreements that specify the mutual responsibilities of the partners, including funding. (Some federal agencies have full structural protection authority for their facilities on lands they administer, and may also enter into formal agreements to assist state and local governments with full structural protection.) Planning Every area with burnable vegetation must have an approved Fire Management Plan. Fire Management Plans are strategic plans that define a program to manage wildland and prescribed fires based on the area’s approved land management plan. Fire Management Plans must provide for firefighter and public safety; include fire management strategies, tactics, and alternatives; address values to be protected and public health issues; and be consistent with resource management objective, activities of the area, and environmental laws and regulations. Science Fire Management Plans and programs will be based on a foundation of sound science. Research will support ongoing efforts to increase our scientific knowledge of biological, physical, and sociological factors. Information needed to support fire management will be developed through an integrated interagency fire science program. Scientific results must be made available to managers in a timely manner and must be used in the development of land and resource management plans, Fire Management Plans, and implementation plans. Preparedness Agencies will ensure their capability to provide safe, cost-effective fire management programs in support of land and resource management plans through appropriate planning, staffing, training, equipment, and management oversight. Suppression Fires are suppressed at minimum cost, considering firefighter and public safety, benefits, and values to be protected, consistent with resource objectives. Page 5 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Prevention Agencies will work together and with their partners and other affected groups and individuals to prevent unauthorized ignition of wildland fires. Standardization Agencies will use compatible planning processes, funding mechanisms, training and qualification requirements, operational procedures, value-to-be-protected methodologies, and public education programs for all fire management activities. Interagency Cooperation and Coordination Fire management planning, preparedness, prevention, suppression, fire use, restoration and rehabilitation, monitoring, research, and education will be conducted on an interagency basis with the involvement of cooperators and partners. Communication and Education Agencies will enhance knowledge and understanding of wildland fire management policies and practices through internal and external communication and education programs. These programs will be continuously improved through the timely and effective exchange of information among all affected agencies and organizations. Agency Administrators and Employee Roles Agency administrators will ensure that their employees are trained, certified, and made available to participate in the wildland fire program locally, regionally, and nationally as the situation demands. Employees with operational, administrative, or other skills will support the wildland fire program as necessary. Agency administrators are responsible and will be held accountable for making employees available. Evaluation Agencies will develop and implement a systematic method of evaluation to determine effectiveness of projects through implementation of the 2001 Federal Fire Policy. The evaluation will assure accountability, facilitate resolution of areas of conflict, and identify resource shortages and agency priorities. 2.1. National and Regional Fire Management Policy Forest Service policy and direction that are relevant to this plan include: National Fire Plan (2001) Forest Service Manual 5100 Forest Service Handbook 5109 Aerial Application of Fire Retardant, Decision Notice 2008 USDI Fish and Wildlife Services (FWS) Technical/Agency Second Revised Recovery Plan for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker, January 27, 2003. 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program and Review (January 2001) Page 6 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Wilderness Fire Management Manual 2300, specifically FSM 2324 and is as follows: 2324.2 - Management of Fire Interagency Standards for Fire and Aviation Operations(2010) Guidance for Implantation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (February 13, 2009). Gruidance states that "Wildland fire is a general term describing any non-structure fire that occurs in the wildland. Wildland fires are categorized into two distinct types: a. Wildfires – Unplanned ignitions or prescribed fires that are declared wildfires b. Prescribed Fires - Planned ignitions." The Guidance further states that "A wildland fire may be concurrently managed for one or more objectives and objectives can change as the fire spreads across the landscape. Objectives are affected by changes in fuels, weather, topography; varying social understanding and tolerance; and involvement of other governmental jurisdictions having different missions and objectives" and that "Management response to a wildfire on Federal land is based on objectives established in the applicable Land/ Resource Plan ... Initial action on human- caused wildfire will be to suppress the fire at the lowest cost with the fewest negative consequences with respect to firefighter and public safety." 2.2. National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Land and Resource Management Plan Forest Service Policy and direction that are relevant to this plan include: National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Land and Resource Management Plan, 1996 Amendment #7 to the 1996 Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (April, 2006) Amendment #10 to the 1996 Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (September, 2010) The FEIS and ROD for Vegetation Management in the Coastal Plains/Piedmont (February 27, 1989) The FEIS and ROD for the Suppression of the Southern Pine Beetle (April 6, 1987) 2.3. Partnership Cooperative Wildland Fire Management and Stafford Act Response Agreement with the Texas Forest Service. Page 7 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Chapter 3. FIRE MANAGEMENT UNIT DESCRIPTIONS The primary purpose of developing FMUs in fire management planning is to assist in organizing information in complex landscapes. FMUs divide the landscape into smaller geographic areas to show each districts safety considerations, physical, biological, social characteristics and to frame associated planning guidance based on these characteristics. The following information, including the summaries of fuels conditions, weather and burning patterns, and other conditions in specific FMUs, helps determine the management response to an unplanned ignition and provides a quick reference to the strategic goals in the forest’s LMP. When making a decision for Planned or Unplanned fire proper procedures from the Forest Land Management Plan will need to be followed for all Management Areas. 3.1. Fire Management Considerations Applicable to All Forest Fire Management Units The Fire Management Plan establishes specific geographic areas as Fire Management Units (FMUs). Each FMU establishes prescriptive criterion and other guidance, which provide area specific direction for managers to implement the objectives of the LMP and other activity-level plans. There are six FMUs. See Table 1. FMU. Table 1. FMU FMU FMU Name Description/Location 1 Lyndon B. Johnson and Caddo Unit boundaries are the same as the Lyndon B. Grasslands Johnson and Caddo National Grasslands 2 Angelina Unit boundaries are the same as the Angelina National Forest 3 Davy Crockett Unit boundaries are the same as the Davy Crockett National Forest 4 Sam Houston Unit boundaries are the same as the Sam Houston National Forest 5 Sabine Unit boundaries are the same as the Sabine National Forest 3.1.1. Land and Resource Management Plan Guidance Forest wide desired conditions, goals and objectives related to fire management activities as described in the Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMP) for the NFGT. For a comprehensive listing of management activities for all resources, please see the appropriate section of the Land and Resource Management Plan (LRMP). Strategic Goals: The NFGT has established five strategic goals which will guide the Forest Supervisor and District Rangers during the implementation of this Plan These goals are as follows Page 8 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Biological Environment-Sustain the biologically diverse ecosystems that provide the many natural resources both living and non-living, that occurs on these NFGT lands in north and east Texas, Social-Provide social and cultural benefits for the American public and the many Forest and Grassland users from a recreational, environmental, and aesthetic perspective, Economic-Continue economic benefits that contribute to the support of communities within the planning area, Production-Through sound Ecosystem Management practices, maintain the continual flow and the long-term productivity and sustainability of renewable natural resources without long-term detriment to other resource values, and Physical Environment-Implement practices that ensure clean air, soil productivity, and water quality, which are key to the sustainability Objectives Biological Environment: b. Protect and improve habitat for threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant and animal species Develop habitat for threatened, endangered, or sensitive species not provided on privately owned forests and grasslands, while providing populations of other species that occur within Forest and Grassland successional stages c. Manage wilderness to preserve the character of its living and nonliving components, while allowing natural processes to develop d. Implement appropriate silvicultural practices based on site specific inventory data that promotes the diversity of the landscape e. Maintain, improve, or restore unique ecosystems using ECS information and restoration of ecological processes emphasizing the fire dependent longleaf and shortleaf pine ecosystems g. Manage fire-dependent ecosystems and communities through a prescribe burning program, providing resource protection and ecological management needs Economic Objectives: g. Provide cost-effective fire protection for public lands and prevent loss of human life. h. Improve Forest and Grassland resource production through a prescribed burning program. Physical Environment Objectives: d. Implement procedures and precautions that promote air quality consistent with Federal and State laws. Page 9 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Forest Wide Standards and Guidelines Air Quality FW-001 Management activities will maintain air quality that meets applicable Federal and State Standards and Regulations FW-002 Management activities will maintain air quality in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined non-attainment areas in conformity with the State Implementation Plan. Conformity determinations will be made and documented as required by the State Implementation Plan and regulations. FW-004 Apply applicable Forest Service or State Smoke Management Guidelines during prescribed burns. Biological Diversity FW-021 Evaluate older forest stands scheduled for entry and management that demonstrate old-growth characteristics during sit e-specific environmental analysis. Older Forest stands (100 years old or older) may be identified during site-specific analysis as providing opportunities for accomplishing Forest-wade old growth objectives. After evaluation, stands so designated will then be managed to enhance that older forest character. In stands where old-growth character are present and the stand contributes to an identified need for old growth, the priority action for that stand should facilitate maintaining or improving that older forest condition unless emergency or other circumstances dictate other management strategies and desired conditions. FW-023 Maintain or re-establish ground cover, and repair areas of bare soil using appropriate native and desirable non-native plant species. Endangered, Threatened Species or Communities FW-025 Inventory, identify, protect, and manage habitat for proposed endangered, threatened, sensitive species, and exemplary plant communities. Chemicals FW-031-7 Areas are not prescribed burned for at least 30 days after herbicide treatment (VM-59) Fire Prescribed Fire Page 10 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas FW-061 Utilize prescribed fire as a tool to manage fire-dependent communities and ecosystems, timber production, fuel reduction, forage, range and wildlife habitat improvement in combination with other treatments. a. Prescribed burning is conducted in a manner that is in compliance with air quality standards. b. Prescribed fire frequency and timing will be based on management area direction as guided by Ecological Classification System. FW-062 To minimize erosion on firelines, develop water bars as specified in forest-wide soil and water standards and seed bare earth Cool season annual grasses such as rye will be sown on freshly disturbed soil for cover crops to protect firelines constructed for winter burns FW-063 For vegetation management actions using fire as a tool, the following standards from the Record of Decision of the Coastal Plain-Piedmont Vegetation Management FEIS will be followed. FW-063-1 Site-specific planning for all prescribed burns is done by trained resource specialists and approved by the appropriate Forest Service line officer prior to project implementation. This planning includes description of treatment area, burn objectives, weather factors, and fuel moisture conditions, and resource coordination requirements. Coordination requirements include provisions for public and worker safety, burn day notification of appropriate agencies and persons, smoke management to comply with air quality regulations and protect visibility in Class I areas, protection of sensitive features, as well as fireline placement, specific firing patterns, ignition methods, and mop-up and patrol procedures. A post-burn evaluation compares treatment results with plan objectives. (VM-27) FW-063-2 Prescribed fires in loblolly and shortleaf even-aged pine stands are generally not done until pines are about 10 to 15 feet tall (or 3 to 4 inches in diameter) at ground level. In longleaf pine stands, burns can be used prior to height growth for brownspot disease control when root collars of grass stage seedlings are at least 03 to 05 inch in diameter. After height growth begins, burns can be used once seedlings are 3 to 5 feet tall. (VM-28) Prescribed fire may be used according to approved burning plans for control of brownspot, pre-commercial thinning and other actions appropriate to achieve the desired future condition. FW-063-3 Slash burns are done so they do not consume all litter and duff and alter structure and color of mineral soil on more than 20 percent of the area. Steps taken to limit soil heating include use of backing fires on steep slopes, scattering slash piles, and burning heavy fuel pockets separately (VM-29) Page 11 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas FW -063-4 On severely eroded forest soils, any area with an average litter-duff depth of less than ½ inch is not burned. (VM-30) FW-063-5 Where needed to prevent erosion, water diversions are installed on firelines during their construction, and the firelines are re-vegetated promptly after the burn. (VM-32) FW-063-6 Firelines which expose mineral soil are not located in filter strips along lakes, perennial or intermittent springs and streams, wetlands, or water-source seeps, unless tying into lakes, streams or wetlands as firebreaks at designated points with minimal soil disturbance. Low intensity fires with less than 2-foot flame lengths may be allowed to back into the strip along water bodies, as long as they do not kill trees and shrubs that shade the stream. The strip’s width in feet is at least 30 plus 15 times the percent slope. (VM-33) FW-063-7 When wetlands need to be protected from fire, firelines are plowed around them only when the water table is so low that the prescribed fire might otherwise damage wetland vegetation or organic matter. Previous firelines are reused as much as possible. (VM-34) FW-063-8 If a fireline is required next to a wetland, it is not plowed in the transition zone between upland and wetland vegetation except to tie into a natural firebreak. (VM-35) FW-063-9 The best available technology to control smoke emissions is used, including accelerated mop-up, rapid ignition techniques, and burning when moisture conditions limit total smoke production. Burning is not done during stagnant weather nor when predictions indicate that smoke drift into highways, airports, populated areas, or other sensitive areas may be hazardous (VM-37) FW-063-10 Oak, oak-gum-cypress, and oak-pine stands and inclusions are protected by excluding fire or by using low-intensity backing fires (VM-38) FW-063-11 Generally, understory burns are not scheduled during nesting season to avoid disrupting reproductive activities. Forest managers may, however, use burns to meet specific objectives, such as protecting threatened and endangered species (e g, red-cockaded woodpecker), reestablishing natural ecosystems, controlling brownspot disease and promoting longleaf height growth, and site preparation. Burns are planned and executed to avoid damage to habitat of any threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species (such as destruction of bald eagle nest trees). (VM-39) FW-063-12 Burns are planned to achieve their most desirable distribution for wildlife habitat and to try to break up large, continuous fuel types. When consistent with burning Page 12 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas objectives, burns are done to create a mosaic pattern of fuel types that complements fuel treatment and wildlife objectives. (VM-40) FW-063-13 Critical values of the Keetch-Byram Drought Code are developed for all major vegetation- soil- landform types on which prescribed fires are conducted. Burning is allowed only on days when the Drought Code is less than this critical value. (VM-41) FW-063-14 Prescribed fires are conducted under the direct supervision of a burning boss with fire behavior expertise consistent with the project's complexity. All workers must meet health, age, physical and training requirements in FSM 5140, and use protective clothing and equipment. (VM-42) Fire Suppression FW-064 Provide a level of protection from wildfire that results in the least total combined cost of presuppression, suppression, and net value change (most efficient level) except where management direction requires a more intense level of protection FW-065 Implement the most efficient level (M.E.L.) fire program budget identified by The Level I1 Fire Management Analysis and as determined through the annual fire management action plan FW-066 Use an appropriate suppression response which minimizes the combined cost of suppression action and resource damage. The suppression response may be confinement, containment, or control. FW-067 The suppression response is control where life, public safety or private property is threatened. Integrated Pest Management FW-077 For SPB control, the following standards and guidelines from the Record of Decision of the Southern Pine Beetle FEIS apply. 3. When pile and burn is used to control SPB, the work will comply with the Forest Service Manual directions on air quality management for prescribed fire (Chapters 2120, Air Resource Management, 5140, Prescribed Fire, and 5150, Fuel Management). All Federal and State air pollution laws must be followed. (SPB-5) 4. Weather conditions will be closely monitored before prescribed burning activities occur to ensure that atmospheric conditions allow for quick smoke dispersal to maintain air quality Air quality values for Class I wildernesses and national forest lands will be protected by conducting prescribed burning under a smoke management plan. (SPB-6) Page 13 of 14 National Forests and Grasslands in Texas Silvicultural Practices FW-204-6 Safety equipment for Forest Service workers (such as hard hats, eye and ear protection, chaps, and fire retardant clothes) is worn as determined by a Job Hazard Analysis specified in the Health and Safety Code Handbook. (FSH 6709 11) This analysis estimates risks to specific body parts and prescribes needed protection. (VM-13) FW-204-23 Forest Service equipment operators must demonstrate proficiency with the equipment and be licensed to operate it. A helper must direct the operator where safety is compromised by terrain or limited sight distance. (VM-53) FW-204-24 Chain saw operators must be periodically certified and demonstrate proficiency with chain saws. (VM-85) Soil and Water FW-212 Do not operate equipment if damage occurs during wet ground conditions. Operation of equipment should generally be stopped when 30 percent of the traffic area has ruts that are 6 inches or deeper. Exception for pond construction, soil erosion and rehabilitation, facility maintenance and construction or fire suppression activities may apply. 3.1.2. Physical Characteristics that Apply to All Fire Management Units See Individual FMU Guidance Page 14 of 14
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