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NETWORKING

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					‫ت‬               ‫آـ ة ا‬
                ‫- 1 -‬




        ‫د‬           ‫:‬   ‫آ‬

            ‫ـــ‬

                        ‫.‬   ‫.......‬



    ‫.‬


‫.‬




                            ‫.‬


                             ‫)‪( teamwork‬‬


            ‫.‬
                        - 2 -




                "                 "
       .        ( global village )
:


                          .


                              .
    .( Computer Network )




                                      .


                                          .


       .


                    .........
                    .
        - 3 -




                    .



                        .


.


                .


           .


    .




          .
                                              .
                            - 4 -




                .


                    .


.
                                        ...



                                    .


    .


            .
                        .
        .
                      - 5 -




                                                         1
                      .
                                         .
                                     :
        •                     Network Interface Card

        •                                        Network Media

        •                 Network Toplogy

                                         .
                  .
                                                             2
                                  :
•                Protocol

•                          7 - Layers

•                                 Media Access Method

•                Packets

                                         :
•                                 twisted Pair

•                          Coaxial

•                                 Fiber Optic



•   Ethernet
•   Token Ring

                 Expanding the Network       :               3
                                                      :
                                      - 6 -




          •                       Repeater
          •   Bridge
          •   Back Bone
          •   Router
          •   Gateway

                     Making Remote Connection

          •   .
          •    )                              LAN - to - LAN.(

          •                    Types of connectio.

Network interface methode to pologies    :                                        4


          •                               Ntwork interfacecard

          •                       Cabling

          •                                    Cables Access Method

                                                  Ethernet & IEEE 80203
                          •     Thick coaxial ethernet 10 base 5
                          •     Thin coaxial ehternet 10 base 2
                           •     Twisted pair ehternet 10 base -t

                                                                     Token Ring

                                                             LAN                  5
                                                      .   Physical

                                  .   Network Functions

                                                  .   NIC

                                                             .   Server

                                                 .
          •   .                                                           6
                             - 7 -




  ‫ا ـ ب ا ول‬
               :‫ت‬        ‫ا‬               ‫ة‬
                        ( 1980 )
                                     ( Micro Computer )
                                        ( Business )


                                 .
100


                                         . ( Pc )
      ( 1960    1970 )


                                         .( Main Frame )
      ....          /


                                              .
                                       ( Mini computer)


                                                    .(Main Frame)
                               (Pc)
                                           - 8 -



   .




                                              .


                                            (1980 )
                   (COMPUTER Network)


                                       .



       )                                           (ACCESS )
               (                                                    (SERVER
                   )             .                             (PROCESSING)
                                                     MAIN FROME
                                                               (PROCESSING )
distributed )                                            . ( MAIN FROME)
                                                         (procession system


                                                      (server )
           .
                       (nodes or workstation )



                                                           .
              (server )
                            - 9 -



                                                           :
                                                           1
                                                           2
                                                           3
                                    (security)             4
(logon )                                  (pc)
                                                 (server )
              ( E- mail )
                               (main frame )
           (processing power )
                ( main frame)
                                                       .



                                .
                             computer network
                                             .




.



                                                   .
                                                       .
                           - 10 -



   plotters
                                                 .........
                      .
                                    .


               minicomputer             ( pc)
                                                   mainframe


                                                       .


                                           :
                                                             1
Program and file sharing

NETWORK RESOORCE SHARING


            ( PC)
ECONOMICAL EXPANSION OF THE PC BASE



ABILITY       TO   USE       NETWORK            SOFTWERE



 ELECTRONIC MAIL

 CREATION OF WORKGROUP
                                - 11 -
      MANAGMENT                     CENTERALITED

      SECORITY

      ACCESS TO OTHER OPERATING SESTEM



      ENHANCEMENT OF CORPORATE STRUCTURE



PROGRAM AND FILE
                                              SHORING
      .
 ( FILE SERVER)


( PERSONAL DIRECTORIES )
( PUBLIC DIRECTORIES
          .                                         )


                                              ( database)
                                          .
                         ( record lock)
                     .


    network resource sharing :                              2


                                   :
Printers, plotters, storage devices and computing
         systems. (Mini computers and main frames,…..)
                                  - 12 -



                                                              3
                     Economical Exousion of the pc base
              (pc)
                                       ((Diskless
                       (file server)




                       :                                      4
                           Ability to use network soft word


( group ware )                             .




                            Electronic - mail :               5


         .



             erection of work groups :                        6


                                   .
                              - 13 -

( group name )



                              Centers lizdx :                            7


                 ( Backup )                             .
                                       .



                                                   Security :            8
        (working area )
                                       .
(Down                              ( Disk less )
(logon restriction )                           .                lood)
                                           .


                 :                                                       9
                       Access to other operating system


             macintosh    os/2 .


Enchancement of corporate :                                             10
                                                            strueture



                                   .
                 Components of a network :
                               - 14 -

(soft wore $ hard ware)
                          :                          .
                           ( server )
                  ( works stations )
         ( Network Interface card )
                  ( cabling system )
   ( shared resource & peripherals )



                                    ( server )
( Network operating system )
   .


                                        .
                                    .
                                                .
                           .
                                            .


              ( works stations )


. ( works stations )
( windows or dos or
                                macintosh or os/2)
         (Diskless workstation )


                                  ( server )
                 .
                - 15 -




           .
    network interface cart


                                                      (nic)
                           (buic-in)



                         cabling system


                             0
                                     caaxiaicable 1
                                       twistedpair 2
                                       fiber optic 3


         shered resoorcacud periphrais


                                                       1
                         prin tevs                     2
                           plo tlers                   3
                                                       4
                                                       5



                                          .
.                                             (pc )
                                        - 16 -



                                    .


                   ( Network Interface card ) :
                    .
.
( ARCNET , TOKNRING , ETHERNET
                                                                      )
 (ARCNET ETHERNET USE
( TOKN RINGUSED TWISTED PAIR COAXIAL COBL)
                                         )



    ( TOPOLOGY )
             NETWORK MEDIM :


                                                         :
                                                    COAXIAL CABLE
                                                      TWISTED PAIR
                                                        FIBER OPTIC
                            :
                                .
                                                    Transmission speed
                        .
                                                 Maximum cable length

                                                 Shielding requirements

                                                                  price
    NET WORK TOPOLOG :
            - 17 -




.
        (            3   )   :
                            - 18 -



    CAPL ACCES METHOD


         :                      .
                           CARRIER SENSING
                 (BUS - TOPOLOYY)



(                                    ( BRAED)
                                          BROOD)
             .                           .


                         ( COLLISION)
                           (CARRIER )
( CARRIER
                    SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS CSMA )
( RING                       2    TOKEN PASSING
( TOKEN )                                    TOPOLOGG )
(
                                                    TOKEN )
( TAKEN )



                                                .



(
                                          DESTINATION )
                        - 19 -

COMMUN        :   CATIONS
                                 PROTOCOLS


              .
     .




    THE RENGE OF NETWORK
          LOCAL AREA NETWORK           1




         WIDEQREO NETWORK              2


          .



          INTERNETWORK



     netwark operating system
                      - 20 -



                                                .
                                            .


      netwark operating system                      1


                     . (server )
                     (server )
.                        Backup



         system fault tolerance :                   2



                                      .
                               ( mirror )


                  DISK CACHING                      3




    TRANSATION TRACKING SYSTUM ( TTS ) 4
                                - 21 -

                                               Security        5


                                         :      ( server )
                       long user name
                         passward


             .


                            .
                     Resource sharing



                                                (plotter )
                 Remote access :



        softwore management tools :



.
Artificial
                                             (intelligence )
            ‫ا با‬
            - 22 -




                      :                               *




    .


                                                      *




                                     .


                          protocol           :        *


.
                                         :
              .                                  -1
        .                                        -2
              .                                  -3


                     (standerd protocol)
                                     .
                                         - 23 -



                                                      (internation standerd orgnization )
        (open system interconnection )                 (model )
                                                  .
        .                                                            (layers )


                                                                        .


                                          .


                                                                            .


                                      APLICATION
                                     PRESANTATION
                                        SESSION
                                      TRANSPORT
                                       NETWARK
                                       DATA LINK
                                       PHYSICAL


                :
                                         (TOP-LEVEL )                                       -1
                                                                                 .
                                              (MIDDEL LEVEL )                               -2
            .(PACKETS )      (PACKADE )
    .                                     (BOTTOM LEVEL )                                   -3


.
                                 (HARDWARE.SOFTWARE )
                                                         .
                             :
                                     APPLICATION LARGER:                                     •
                                         - 24 -
    )
                           .                                     (word- processing


                                                             .
                   .


                                                   presantation :                    •

                               (text - file )
.


         .


                                                  session layres :                   •

               .


                                                                       .
        (session )


                                    .


                                                  transport layres :                 •




                       .


                                          .
                                     .


                                                   netwark layers :                  •
                                            - 25 -




                                 .


                                                                         .
                                                                     .


                                                         (data link layer ) :                  •



            (packtes )                               .
        packtes


                                                           physical layers :                   •



                                                                                .
.                                               (packtes )


                                            .


                                                          .


                                  Media Access Methods :
                                                                                            




        ‫ت‬     ‫آ تا‬                    ‫ا‬        ‫ا ت دا‬                          ‫ه ا قا‬
           ‫( . ذا آ ن ه ك و‬MEDIA ACCESS METHODS )                     ‫ل وه ا‬     ‫ا‬        ‫إ‬
              ‫وا ق ا‬        ‫ا‬             ‫تا‬         ‫تو‬    ‫ا‬       (PACKETS )
‫ق‬         ‫دة‬      ‫ا ا‬            (MEDIA ACCESS )             ‫أن ل أن ه ك ا‬
      ‫تو‬       ‫ا‬    (PACKETS ) ‫ال‬                   ‫ت ث‬        ‫ة‬          .   ‫ز و ا‬
MEDIA )              ‫أن ل أن ه ك ا‬           .      ‫وا ق ا‬       ‫ا‬                ‫تا‬
         ‫ت ث‬          ‫ة‬        .    ‫ق ز و ا‬            ‫دة‬    ‫ا ا‬             (ACCESS
   ‫و ع‬       ‫عا‬         ‫ت . وإ دا‬     ‫آ تا‬        ‫ك‬    ‫ه ة‬          (           ) ‫ال‬
)               ‫ا‬         ‫أى ا‬                    ‫ ا ص‬topology          ‫و‬         ‫ا وت ا‬
                                                                 : ‫ ( وه‬media access
1- carrier sensing multiple access -csma
         ) ‫ثه ا ا‬             ‫ا ر ل.و‬        ‫أو ا‬   ‫را‬         ‫ا‬         ‫م‬         ‫ه ا‬
                                                                                    (collision
2- token passings
      ‫ب‬         ‫تا‬       ‫ا‬         ‫أن‬                                     ( token ) ‫ر‬                    ‫مآ‬
                                                              - 26 -

                                   .        ‫ا‬                                   ‫أآ‬        ‫أ‬     ‫ا‬   ‫وه‬      ‫إر‬
                                                              :    ‫تا‬     ‫ا‬    ‫م‬      csma     ‫و‬    ‫ا‬       ‫-ا‬
                                                                  (higher throghput ) ‫ب‬       ‫ن‬       ‫1- أن‬
  . collision ‫دم‬                    ‫ه ك‬             ‫آ‬   ‫آ‬               ‫ا‬          ‫تا‬    ‫د‬    ‫ن‬       ‫2- أن‬



                                                :       ‫تا‬        ‫ا‬    ‫م‬    token passing : ‫ا‬      ‫-ا‬
                                                                          reliable ‫ن أآ إ د‬     -1
    . ‫ا و‬            ‫ا‬                  ‫ا‬       ‫ا‬           (slower speed )                  ‫2- أن‬

           ‫أ‬                  ‫( ا‬access methods ) ‫ر‬                    ‫ا‬     ‫ا‬                ‫اء‬                    ‫و‬
                                                                                                      .‫ا‬
               (csma )       ‫ا و‬                             ‫اء‬                          ‫به‬          ‫1- إذا آ ن ا‬
                                                                                                    .ethernet
. ( token passing )       ‫ا‬            ‫اء‬          (reliability ) ‫ب ه‬                              ‫2- وإذا آ ن ا‬
packets :
         ‫( وه ا ا‬packets )    ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬              ‫إ‬               ‫ا‬             ‫إر ل ا‬
  )                 ‫ت إ‬      ‫ا‬     ‫ت ا‬      ‫ى ا‬           ‫م.و آ‬         ‫و آ لا‬
     ‫ر‬     ‫ل و ان ا‬      ‫ا‬  ‫ان‬     ‫ت رة‬         ‫( وه ا‬packets )       (headers , trailers
     ‫( ا‬NETWARK PERFORMANCE)              ‫( داد أداء ا‬packets ) ‫ال‬       ‫..... أ . آ زاد‬

                                                                cabling the netwark : ‫ت‬                 ‫آ تا‬
          :     ‫ا ا ا‬         ‫ا إ دا‬         ‫بأ‬       ‫ا‬      ‫عا‬            ‫تو‬      ‫ة ا‬               ‫أ اع‬
                                                               transmission speed ‫ا ر ل‬                      -1
                                                              maxmum length                 ‫ل‬              ‫2- أ‬
                                         shielding agianest interferance            ‫ا‬           ‫3- ى و‬
                                                                            :‫ت‬      ‫ث أ اع ا‬
                                           1- twisted pair
                                          2-coaxial cable
                                          3-optical fiber .
                     twisted pair :                                         :( ‫)ا و‬                   ‫ا زواج ا‬
‫ة .و ف‬           ‫ا‬              ‫و‬               ‫كا س ا و‬                ‫رة زوج ا‬                       ‫ا زواج ا‬
 ‫ك‬      ‫ا‬        ( interferance electronic ) ‫و‬             ‫ا ا ا‬             ‫نا ف‬            ‫ز وذ‬
‫ت‬    ‫ا‬        ‫ر‬       ‫مآ‬           ‫ ( و‬twisted pair )            ‫ت ن ا زواج ا‬                 ‫ا‬                 ‫ا‬
       :      ‫با‬           ‫ره ا ا‬         ‫ا‬          ‫أن‬        ( limited length for netwark ) ‫أى أ‬
   ‫جإ‬                 ‫تو‬         ‫م ا‬        ‫ت‬       ‫ة اا ع ا‬               ‫وا ت ن‬                  ‫ا‬         -1
                                                                      . ‫ا ا‬                      ‫آ و‬
            ‫ت‬       ‫آ وت ا‬                      .        ‫ت‬      ‫ه اا ع ا‬          ‫ا ت‬                        -2
      ‫ت ن أآ‬           ‫وه ا ءدى إ أن ه ا ا ع ا‬                 ‫ت‬                           ‫وا‬
                                                                                                 . ‫إ را‬
      ‫ذ‬       ‫ت.و ل‬          ‫ا‬        ‫( أى ع‬twisted pair ) ‫ت‬                ‫ر ه اا ع ا‬                       -3
coaxial cable )         ‫ة‬        ‫ى‬            (twisted pair ) ‫آ ت‬             ‫ة‬                 ‫ر‬
                                                    .‫ت‬      ‫ا‬      (interconnected )                   ‫( وذ‬
             coaxail cable                                                                : ‫رى‬           ‫ا‬      ‫ا‬
   ‫ز‬           ‫ط‬                    ‫رة‬      ‫ة وه‬     ‫ت‬            ‫تا‬         ‫م‬     ‫ت‬          ‫هاا ع ا‬
‫ت‬     ‫مه ا‬          ‫تو‬         ‫ا‬               ‫ر‬          ‫ه ك‬                    ‫ا رج‬                    ‫و ف‬
  ‫ع‬         ‫أآ‬      ‫و‬       ‫زات‬          ‫ت‬        ‫قه ا‬                      ‫ت وذ‬      ‫أو ا‬           ‫ا‬
                                                                : ‫( وه‬coaxial cable ) ‫ت‬                 ‫ه ا‬
                    1- thick
                                                        ‫ة‬     ‫تا‬       ‫مه اا ع ا‬             ‫1- و‬
                                                                                                     ‫أ‬        -2
                                                           - 27 -

                                                                                    ‫ت‬      ‫ا‬                  -3
                                  2- thin
                                                                        .‫ة‬       ‫تا‬   ‫ا‬          ‫م‬           -1
                                                                         .       ‫ا عا‬           ‫أ‬          ‫2- ا‬
                                                                                   ‫ا ت‬                       -3

                             fiber optic cable :                                           :   ‫تا فا‬                     ‫آ‬
                               ‫ا جا‬               ‫ا‬   ‫د‬    ‫أ‬      ‫رة‬           ‫إر ل ا ت ا ء . وه‬                         ‫و‬
                             ‫ا‬        ‫آ‬             ‫ل وه ا‬     ‫ا‬               ‫رإ‬     ‫ا ت ا‬       ‫ءا ى‬                    ‫ا‬
        ‫ب/ث‬                  500 ‫ب / ث إ‬        100 ‫ا‬        ‫ت‬                       ‫ت‬  ‫ه ا‬     ‫و‬     ‫ء‬
                                              .‫ا‬                ‫أ‬                 ‫م و د أى ا وآ‬     ‫أ‬                    ‫و‬


                                                                                                         :‫ت‬        ‫- أ اع ا‬
    ‫ت‬           ‫ات‬           ‫اء‬      ‫ن‬     ‫ف‬       ‫ت دا أ ى ا ت وا‬   ‫ا‬                     ‫وا‬                 ‫ا‬
            :            ‫ر‬         ‫ا‬       ‫أن‬           ‫م وه ك ة‬   ‫ف‬                ‫ا‬      ‫ا عا‬               ‫ت أن‬       ‫وآ‬
                                  1- cable access methods
                                  2- cable type
                                  3- topology
                                                                                        : ‫ته‬             ‫أ اع ا‬      ‫أ‬   ‫و‬
                                  1- ethernet
                                  2- token ring

                                  1- ethernet lan :

                         •        bus topology consistes of singel trunk of coaxial cable .
                         •        access method : carrier sense media access / collision detection ( csma
                                  / cd )
                         •        transmission rate 10 m b/s up to 100 m b/s .
    .                ‫ر‬                 ‫ ( و‬thick ,thin ) ‫ ( وه‬coaxial cable ) ‫ن‬      ‫أن ه ك‬         ‫وآ ذآ‬

                                    thin                                                thick
•       cheaper                                                •    expencive
•       maximum length 185 m                                   •    maxmum length soo m
•       used to wired from workstation to                      •    used as back bone to connect
        the next to form single lineer trunk                        multiple netwarks .
        and fitted with bnc . connector
        which plugs into t - connector


        . (fiber optics )               ‫( وآ‬twisted pair ) ‫ع‬        ‫ت‬   ‫ام آ‬       ethernet               ‫ء‬              ‫وآ‬
          2- token ring :

        •        access method : token passing is used in ring topology
        •       it can take on the appearance of star topology
        •       cables: can be twisted pair
        •       cables : can be twisted paire
        •       transmission speed : 4 m b/s to 16 m b /s
        •       total length of the entire ringe can not exceed 366 m .
                                          - 28 -




              (   EXPAND THE NETWORK)                        :
                     (LAN )
          .


      .


                      :                             (   EXPANSION OF NETWORK )

(                                                        (repeater )                       1
                          .                                                   repeater )

                                                                 ( Bridge )                2
                                                        .( LAN - TO - LAN )
                              (Bridge )                                       (rooter )    3
    (packets )

                                                             .


          (Expanding finter connecting LANs )   :

                                                ( repeater ,bridge, router abd gatway )
                                               - 29 -

                                                          ( Repeater )                      1
                                                 (Repeater)



        1                         (Repeater)                  .
                       (Repeater)          ( physical lager )



:        (Repeater)                                                      .
    (Ethernet )       ( Linear cable )

        (token ring network )

                  .   ( physical lager )                        (Repeater)

                      ( access methad )

                        .
                        .                        (Repeater)

                                  (Repeater)

                                                         .
            .                    3000           1500           (Repeater)



                                                                               ( Bridge )

            .                                                                ( Bridge )

                                                                             ( Bridge )

(

    (              ) .                                  (Server )              Network card )
                                                     - 30 -

                                                                                  ( Bridge )

           (                 ( Bridge )

                                                                                               Bridge )

                 ).                                             ( Internet working ) .

                                                                                                (


                                                   ( Bridge )

                                                                                                        1
                                                                                                        2
                                      ( Bridge )                                 .
                                                    .
                                                                                                        3
(token ring &Ethernet )

                    ( routing )                               ( router )        ( Bridge )

     ( Network server )        ( Bridge )                          .Novell


                                                                               ( Internal bridge )

                                                                       . (External bridge )
                                                                ( Bridge )

          .                                                            (distinct network address )

         (distinct network address

                                                                                                    )

                ( server )                                                        .(I installation)
                                                   - 31 -

         (Ipx internal )                                  (server )

                                            ( Bridge )           .                      (servers )

                              ( packets )                   ( data - link lager )

    (                  ):                                              .
                     :                                          ( data - link lager )



                                                                     logic link control(llc)

                                                         Media Access Control(MAC)



                                                                                               Bridge

                                                                     Bridge




                                                                                        .(over loading )
                   1- learning adaptive
              (learning Bridge )                                                        Bridges

Bridge                 (identification )             Broad casting



                   2- Spanning tree bridges
              Bridge                                                       Bridge

                                                 Spanning tree bridges

                              .(disabling certain )                                  (cirevlar traffic )

                   3     load balance bridges
                                                     - 32 -

( Alogrithm                                                                             bridges

     ( dval link transfer packets )                       Spanning tree bridges                      )

                                .( Internet working ) .




                                                                                            Back bones   3
                                                                                     Back bones

.(internetworking)                                            (servers )

                                                 (                   ) .


                                                          :           Backbone

                   ( high speed link )                                           Back bones
                                                                   (fiberoptics or coaxial cable )

             ( Network inter face card )                                   Back bones

     (server )                           Back bones

     ( servers )                            ( short leugth cable )               Back bones




 (                 ) :


                                                                               Back bones

                                                              (Bridge )          .
                     .
                                               - 33 -

                                                                                      Back bones

                                          .   ( throughput )
              Back bone for centralized Management

    .                                                   server              Back bones

                                              server



( servers )                                       servers

(                 ) .


                                                             ( Short Backbone)

              .                                                          (servers )           1
               (servers )                                                                     2


                                                                   (servers )                 3
                  (servers )

                                         (servers )                                           4


                  Backop                                                                      5
                                                                         (servers )

                               ups                                                            6

              4- Routers

                                     .
                   .                                             ( resources )
                                                                   .
                                                     - 34 -




                                  .   (internetworking )

                                             ( rosters )

                                                                                        .
                           (                    )      .


                                       ( rosters )

B                      A,C

                ( rosters )                (WAN &LAN )                         ( routes )

                         (Network loger )

                .                                                            ( packets )

                                                                WAN                                ( rosters )

                             ( rosters )                    (REMOTE COMMUNICATION LINKS )

                               ( rosters )                  .                                        20
           Bridges                    ( rosters )                            X .25, T

                                                                                                         :
         Advanced packet filtering is required                           (packets )                              1
                                                           (internetwork )                                       2
                                                     (filter traffic )

( intelligent                .                         ( intelligent routing )                                   3
                         (router )                                                                       routing)

                     (router )             ( packets )                                      (routing )
                                                             - 35 -

                                   (router )

                                                       (router )                         .
                                                                                              (router )

(router               (specific protocol router )                      .   (multiple protocol router )

              .                                                    ( packets )                                    )

                                    ( packets )                                        (multiple protocol router )

                                                                                                           .
          (logical                                        (router )              .
                                                (routers )                                                Networs )



     (routers )                          techniques                        (router )

    (router )                                      .                              ( protocols )

                                     (data compression )

                                                                        (routers )

                                            :                      (routers )
             1.   advenced computer communecation ; santa barbara ca
             2.   cisco system ; menolo park,ca
             3.   gateway communication ; irvine , ca
             4.   retixcorp ; santa monica , ca
             5.   proteon; westborough ,ma


              GATEWAY :
    NETWARK                    .
 MAINFRAME OR              )                              .                                    IBM          LAN

                       GATEWAY                         (LAN )                            (MINI COMPUTER
                                        .
                 ( lan )
                                                - 36 -

                                                                       GATEWAY

                           ( host system )
                                :           ( gateway )
                                                                          lan - to -host        -1
                                                                          lan - to - lan        -2
                                      remote lan access service                                 -3
main   )                             ( dos or windows or        os/2 or unix     0              -4
                                                                                       (frame


                                            making remote connection       :


                                 .                                ( micro wave )
                              ( lan )
                                                         .
                                      .
                                                  .
                                                             ( pstn )                           -1
                                                             ( pdn )                            -2
                ( digital data service )                                                        -3


                                        :
           ( work station )
                                                                       ( lan )
          ( modem )
                                         - 37 -




                                :                            . ( dail up )




                                                                          .
                                    (user id , password )

                                                                 (call back )



                                                  .



                .(pc - any- ware )
               ( LAN - TO - LAN )
         LAN - TO - LAN REMOTE CONNECTIONS

            ( LAN - TO - LAN )



     (                ) .


                  .
    .
                                        TYPES OF CONNECTION

    MODEM                   .
                                         /    28,800        9600
:                                                            .
                                              - 38 -
             packet - switching                   Networks




                                                            .
                        .                                       packet
                                                                                    packet
                                 .
                                            packet
                                                                                .
         (packet - switching )
 x.25                                                  ( internetworking )
                                         . (packet - switching )
         .      /           64
                                     DDS DIRECT DIGITAL SERVEICE
               /            56
                    DDS              .                 /        64&
                                             x.25


                                                                 T 18 T3 LINKS
     (HIGH SPEED

T1                  .                                                           DIGITAL )

                                                           /              1,5
     /              45                          T3                    /             2,048
                                       - 39 -




                    ( netwark interface ) : ‫ل‬         ‫- آ وت ا‬
‫ق‬       ‫أ ا ار ا ص‬              ( netwark interface card ) ‫أ ر ع‬
‫( ا ى‬topology )        ‫ا‬      ‫أ ر‬            ‫ ( وآ‬access methods ) ‫ل‬             ‫ا‬
‫أ ة‬               ‫أن‬       ‫ت‬       ‫أ اع ا‬                 ‫.و‬            ‫ف ا‬
                                                                 :               ‫ا‬
 (industry standard architecture-ISA - (16- bit ) ) ‫م‬               ‫ا‬        ‫1- ا‬
                                  .             ‫ع ا وت ا‬                    (
 industry standard architecture - ISA- (8 - bit ) ) ‫م‬               ‫ا‬        ‫2- ا‬
                                .        ‫ع ا وت ا‬               ‫أ‬           (
MICROCHANNER ARCHTICTETURE - ) ‫م‬                                  ‫ا‬          ‫3- ا‬
                         ‫آ وت إ ل‬                 (IBM PS / 2 )         (MCA
EXTENDED INDUSTRY STANDARD ) ‫م‬                                    ‫ا‬          ‫4- ا‬
.     ‫أ‬              ‫آ وت أ ل‬                 (ARCHITECTURE - EISA
        ‫لا‬      ‫ت ا آ وت ا‬           ‫ا‬            ‫داء‬                 ‫أن‬    ‫و‬
 ISA - ) ‫م‬           (SLOTS )                    ‫ت‬                  ‫آ‬
                               . ‫ف نأ‬                   ‫ا‬   ‫ 61( داء‬BIT

                                                  :ISA BUS
‫أول‬    ( INDUSTRY STANDARD ARCHITECTURE -ISA BUS )
 ‫آ‬           ‫ة وا أ‬     ‫ا‬    ‫أ ةا ا‬          ‫ا أ‬         ‫ا‬
ISA BUS ) ‫وه ا‬       ‫ا ه ا‬           ‫ أ ج ا ا ا‬IBM
MICRO PROCESSOR )              ‫ا‬    ‫مأ ةا ا ا‬            (
           )            ‫ا‬     ‫أ ة ا ا‬         ‫680308( و‬
   ‫ةا‬     ‫ا‬           ‫ام ه ا‬     ‫أ‬    ‫( و‬PROCESSOR 80486
MICRO


                                    . (SERVER ) ‫آ دم‬

                                                :‫ت‬       ‫ا‬      ‫و‬       ‫ا‬       ‫أ‬
        NETWARK INTERFACE METHODS                      AND TOPOLOGIES
                                         - 40 -




                         . (       MODULAR & ADAPTABLE             )
        .
                                                          (ADAPTAPION )
                                                           .
    )                                                   (TOPOLOGY )
                                                    (ETHERNET    & TOKEN RING

            :       (METHOD ACCESS NETWORK )
(BUS TOPOLOGY WITH CSMA / CD )                                   ( ETHERNET ) -1


                 ( THIN OR THICK COAXIAL AND TWISTER PAIR )
        &            )                                     (   TOKEN RING      ) -2
TOKEN       )                                                          (
UNSHIELD TWISTED PAIR UTP OR                )                              (RING
.                                                                  (SHIELDED
            (COAXIAL     COPPER CABLE               )
                  (FIBER OPTIC )                               (TWISTED PAIR )
                                                                . (BACK BONE )


                                                :
-NETWARK CONECTION OVER VIEW
NETWARK INTERFACE              )
                               . ( CABLES )                                 (CABLE
                ( ACCESS METHOD & TOPOLOGY )
                                               - 41 -

            .
        .
                                                  (     NIC       )
                (DIFFERENT     INTERRUPT LINE            )
ACCESS TO             )                                       (MICRO PROCESSOR )
                                                                                         . (THE BUS
                . ( ISA - BUS    )              (11 INTERRUPT                   ) 11 INTERRUPT )

    MICRO         )                                           (   ISA BUS            )
                                                        ( ISA - BUS )                (PROCESSOR
    )                     ( MICRO PROCESSOR 386 )                                          .
                   ( ISA - BUS )            ( 16 - 33 MHz )                               (ISA - BUS
                                                                                 ( 8 MHz )
                                        .                (THROUGHPUT )


                                                                                          :EISA BUS
                                                                  (EISA )
                                                                                ( ISA )
                                                 .
( SEPRATE I/O & PROCESSOR BUS )                                                ( EISA )


                          ( EISA )          ( HIGH SPEED DISK I /O )                           (EISA )
                            (PINS )                                   (32- BIT BUS )
)                  (EISA )           (ISA )                                                . (ISA )
.                                      (MOTHER       BOARD             )                       (SLOT
                                                         (   SLOT          )
                                                                               ( ISA )
8       )                  ( EISA )                                                 ( EISA )
                                        - 42 -

(8 MHz )                (ISA )                                             (MHz
                                                              (EISA )             .
                                                                    . ( SERVER )




                                                                :
TASKS OF NETWORK INTERFACE CARD



           .                                     ( SESSION )


    .                                       ( MEDIA ACCESS ROLES )


        LARGE BUFFER OR FASTER              )
                                :                                   (PROCESSORS
                                                         (   HANDSHAKING       ) -1
.
COMMUNICATION )

     .PACKETS               .                                  (PARAMETERS
)              (   TIME- OUT PARAMETERS              )
)                       .                                            (BUFFER
                                                              (HANDSHAKING


                                                                      .
                                    .
                            (PARALLEL - TO- SERIAL CONVERSION ) -2
                                                             ( CONVERSIONS )
                                           - 43 -

      (SERIAL    CONVERSION                        PARALLEL - TO -             )
                               (   PARALLEL            )
      .                                                          (SERIAL )
                 (DATA     COMPERSSION             )                               -3
                                                                   .
                                   .                       (DECOMPERESSION)
                                                                                   -4


    TEMPORARILY HOLDING                    )
          (   BUFFER   )                                      (INFORMATION
                                       .
                           .                   ( BULIT IN BUFFER )
                                                                                   -5
                                               (CPU )
( BUFFER )                                                   .


                                                                           :
•   SHARED MEMORY



                                               (SHARED MEMORY )                         •

(BUFFER)
                                                                                    .
                                               .
                                                                       .

•    DMA METHOD
                           ( DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS )
                                       ( BUFFER )
                                         - 44 -



        CPU                                                         .
                         ( MEMORY ACCESS )



                                                         BUS MASTRING               3
               (DAM )                                BUS MASTRING

   (                       (DAM )                                 .
       ( BUS                 (CPU )                         INTERRUT )

  (MCA OR                                                   MESTRING )

                           (CPU &CARD )                           EISA )

  . % 70         % 20                     (BUS MASTRING )                      .
                             NETWORK INTERFACE CARD DRIVERS :




   )                                    ( DRIVER )
                                                               (DRIVER
                                   .
                               :         DRIVER

                             CARD CONFIGRATION                            -1
                            CABLE ACCESS METHOD                           -2
                        COMNUNICATION FACTURES                            -3
                                    )       ‫ت‬     ‫نه ك‬       ‫تا‬                         ‫و‬
                               (EXCHANGE IPX
INTERNETWORK PACKET


                                                                      .

         ‫ف‬       ‫ا‬        ‫ا‬
                          ‫ان و‬ ‫آ رت أ ل‬                       ‫نه ك‬                 ‫أن‬
GOLABAL ADDRESSING :

             .            ‫آ‬    ‫ا ى‬
                            ‫ا رت‬      ‫ا‬                       ‫ان‬
    TOKEN RING & ETHERNET ) ‫ان ص‬
. ‫آ د و ان ص رت‬         ‫ا‬   ‫ل‬    ‫آ وت ا‬                             ‫( . و‬CARD
                                                                   IEEE


 ‫ ( ص‬DIAGNOSTIC )            ‫ل‬                                    ‫و ان ا رت‬
                                                                    . ‫آ رت‬
                                                      - 45 -



           ‫ت وه‬         ‫ا‬          ‫ع‬     ‫ر‬        ‫أ‬        ‫ر‬         ‫ا‬              ‫اء ا‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                                       topology :

                            :    ‫(ا‬                    ) ‫أ اع‬        ‫أ‬      ‫( . و‬topology )
     1- linear bus .
     2- star .
     3- ring .

   physical )     ‫ ( و‬logical ring           )‫ن‬          ‫أن‬         ( token ring ) ‫ن‬               ‫و‬
     4- combihantion of these .

                                                                      .(star
           ‫لا‬             ‫( آ‬row )                 ‫دة‬       ‫تا‬          ‫إذا آ‬
                                                   .      ‫( ن‬liner bus ) ‫ن‬
   :           ‫ح‬       ‫تا‬     ‫ ( وا‬network topology )‫أ اع‬     ‫ول‬           ‫و‬

       NETWORK TOPOLOGY                                            MAXIMUM SEGMENT DISTANCE
    THIK ETHERNET (10 BASE 5)                                             500 METERS
     THIN ETHERNET (10 BAS 2 )                                            185 METERS
TWISTED PAIR ETHERNET ( 10 BASE T)                                        100 METERS
      FIBER OPTIC ETHERNET                                                    2 KM
    TWISTED PAIR TOKEN RING                                               100 METERS
          COAXIAL STAR                                                    609 METERS
           COAXIAL BUS                                                    305 METERS
        TWISTED PAIR STAR                                                 122 METERS
         TWISTED PAIR BUS                                                 122 METERS


                                                                               :‫ت‬       ‫ا‬
     ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬                          ‫ت‬      ‫ا‬     ‫م‬         ‫ا ى ف‬             ‫أ ر عا‬
                                                                           CABLING


     ‫و‬ ‫أ‬               ‫ا‬            ‫تآ ة‬              .      ‫داء ا‬     ‫وا ء ة‬         ‫ا‬
  ‫ت‬  ‫ا‬                    ‫ ( و‬coaxial coble or twisted pair )              ‫ا‬    ‫ا اع‬
    ‫عا‬              ‫أ ر‬        ‫تو ه ا‬               ‫أ اع ا‬        ‫ة‬            ‫نا‬
                                                  .      ‫ا آ ة‬                   ‫ف‬
                                                                            ‫ا‬    ‫1- ا‬
                                             .                   ‫تا ز‬            ‫2- ا‬
                                 . ‫ا ا‬          shielding ‫ت‬         ‫ا‬         ‫3- أ ب‬
                                  .      ‫آ‬       ‫تا‬             ‫ت‬       ‫ا‬      ‫4- ى‬
           ‫ا‬       ‫ و‬interface               ‫و‬        ‫ ( و‬coaxial copper cable )
               ‫أ‬      ‫او ا‬                                   ( fiber optic ) ‫. وآ‬
  .‫ا‬                 ‫أ أر‬            ‫آ‬                ( twisted pair )           ‫.أ‬
   )‫ت‬                        ‫لو‬            ‫ا ت‬           ‫ و ل‬interface                    ‫و‬
                               .‫ت‬       ‫أ اع ا‬         ‫آ ة‬             ‫( . وه ك‬ethernet

                                                               :         ‫ ( آ‬coaxial cable )
( outsid interface )      ‫ر‬          ‫ى ا ت‬                       ‫أن‬       -1
                                      - 46 -


  ‫ت ا اد وأى‬           ‫ة ر . ا ت‬         ‫أى‬                      ‫أن‬       -2
                                      .‫ى‬    ‫و‬                    ‫تأ‬
                           ( grounding ) ‫ا ر‬                      ‫آ‬       -3
                    .‫ى‬  ‫أى‬        ‫أن‬      ‫ت ر‬                             -4

                                         ‫ ( آ‬fiber optic )
                                                 :
             ‫ت‬  ‫ا‬        ( back bone ) ‫ت‬        ‫ة‬     ‫م‬                   -1
               ‫ا ت‬          -‫تأ ل‬               -     ‫أ‬                   -2
           .       ‫ءدى إ‬         ‫ت ر و‬            ‫أ ع‬                     -3

                                      :   ‫ ( آ‬twisted pair )
                                      .  ‫ا‬          ‫1- أ ا اع‬
                   ‫ت‬    ‫ة اا ع ا‬                ‫ا‬      ‫ن‬        -2
                          .     100 ‫ود ا‬            ‫ى‬         ‫3- أ‬
                     ( interface ) ‫ى ا ت ر‬                      -4
 ‫دا‬    ‫د‬               ‫( وذ‬back bone ) ‫ت‬      (coaxial cable ) ‫م‬

       ‫ا‬      ‫دا‬    ‫تا‬                     ‫تا‬           ( twisted pair ) ‫م‬   ‫-و‬
                     .‫ت‬          ‫أ اع ا‬          ‫ر‬     ‫ول‬            ‫ا ا ة.و‬
                    twisted pair                  coaxial         fiber optic
    cost                   low                   moderate            high
bandwisdth             moderate                    high           extra high
  length               loos of feet             loos of feet        miles
 interface                same                      low              none
reliability               high                     high           extra high
                            - 47 -




                                                               .
                                                           .
                 .
            :
                                               .                   1
                                                                   2
                                                                   3
                                               SERVERS             4
                                           LAN HARDWARE 5
                                                   PER IPHERALS - 6


                                           .
           .                    ( SITE )
     PHYSICAL SITE        :
1- WHATE IS THE MAX. DISTANCE BETWEEN WORKSTATION ?
2- CAN YOU USE EXISTING CABLE ?
             1st- NO REQUIRMENT
            2nd- TELEPHONE WIRE (TWISTED PAIR )
            3rd- 3270 CABLE ( RG-62 )
            4th- OTHER ( SPECIFY )
3- WHATIS THE WORKSTATION DISTRIBUTION?
             1st- CLUSTERED
             2nd- DISTRBUTED .
4- WHAT TYPES OF WORKSTATION WILL BE USED ?
    FUNCTION :
              1- HOW MANY WORKSTATION ?
              2- HOW MANY HOURS WILL EACH WORKSTATION BE IN
                 USE?
              3- LIST EACH WORKSTATION APPLICATION
                    ( WORD PROCESSING ,DATA ENTRY , .......)
                                                      ‫- 84 -‬
      ‫: ‪PREFORMANCE‬‬
               ‫? ‪1- WHAT IS THE DESIRED RESPONCE TIME‬‬
               ‫? ‪2- WHICH IS THE PRIMARY CONSIDERATION‬‬
                       ‫. ‪1st- COST‬‬
                       ‫. ‪2nd- PREFORMANCE‬‬
        ‫.‬


                                                                             ‫‪PHYSICAL SITE‬‬               ‫:‬
                   ‫) ‪ ( TOPOLOGY‬ا‬                 ‫و‬     ‫عآ ا‬                                          ‫ا‬         ‫ا‬
                                                   ‫:‬        ‫أ‬         ‫ت‬        ‫ر أن آ ع ا‬             ‫ا‬           ‫ا‬
              ‫. ‪1- TWISTED PAIR SUPPORTS SHORT DISTANCE‬‬
              ‫. ‪2- COAXIAL SUPPORT LONG DISTANCE‬‬
              ‫. ‪3- FIBER OPTIC SUPPORT EXTREMELY LONG DISTANCE‬‬
       ‫)‬        ‫) ‪ (COAXIAL ) FIBER ( EL‬أ‬                      ‫أ‬        ‫د عا‬           ‫ا ت‬                    ‫وأ‬
                                                                                          ‫‪ (TWISTED‬أ .‬
  ‫.‬       ‫دة دا ا‬        ‫تا‬        ‫ا‬          ‫م‬                   ‫ت‬                ‫ة‬       ‫ا ا‬                  ‫و‬
‫ت‬                 ‫ا‬      ‫و ى ر‬                            ‫أن‬         ‫ت‬        ‫ام ه ا‬        ‫إ ذ ار‬              ‫و‬
            ‫ا‬           ‫) ‪ (VOICE‬و ذ‬                  ‫ة‬                         ‫ت ) ‪( VOICE‬‬
  ‫ا د‬         ‫ا‬                ‫أ ةا‬                      ‫ه اا‬         ‫ت‬                   ‫ا تو‬           ‫ع أو‬
   ‫ت‬                         ‫ط‬       ‫ه ا‬            ‫ة وأ‬         ‫ا‬               ‫م حا‬         ‫إ وه ا ءدى إ‬
                                                  ‫ذ .‬              ‫ب / ث أو أآ‬         ‫إ 1‬               ‫وا‬
        ‫ا ح دا ا‬          ‫ام ا‬     ‫أن ه ك وى إ‬                                ‫را ص‬          ‫إ ا‬          ‫و إذا‬
                                                       ‫.‬       ‫ا‬             ‫ة وا ى ءدى إ‬            ‫اء آ‬
          ‫ت . أذا أ ر و آ‬             ‫أداء ا‬    ‫ا‬         ‫آ‬                   ‫أ را‬          ‫أن ل أن‬             ‫و‬
             ‫01-51‬              ‫ا ات‬                     ‫ار أداء ا‬         ‫ءدى إ إ‬               ‫نه اا‬
           ‫آ‬        ‫إ ءا‬          ‫آ ة ا‬                       ‫و آ‬          ‫ا‬         ‫.و ن‬         ‫أو‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                                             ‫.‬         ‫ا‬          ‫ا‬
     ‫اؤ و آ . ذا‬             ‫أن‬        ‫ا ى‬      ‫آ ا‬                       ‫وآ إ ر ) ‪ ( TOPOLOGY‬ا‬
 ‫ه‬            ‫) ‪ ( CLUSTERED‬ن ) ‪ ( BUS TOPOLOGY‬ه ا‬                                              ‫تا‬           ‫ز‬
                                                                                                          ‫.‬       ‫ا‬
                                 ‫.‬       ‫ه ا‬             ‫أن ) ‪ ( STAR - WIREDRING‬ه ا‬                            ‫و‬
      ‫أن‬          ‫ة‬   ‫ا‬                ‫ا‬                 ‫أن ) ‪ ( STAR- WIRED RING‬ه ا‬                            ‫و‬
     ‫ام )‬                 ‫ة و ر ه ا دوار‬                     ‫آ دور‬          ‫) ‪( STAR TOPOLOGY‬‬
                                           ‫) ‪. (FIBER OPTIC‬‬                     ‫‪(HIGH SPEED CABBLE‬‬

                                              ‫: ‪NET WARK FUNCTION‬‬              ‫ا‬        ‫و‬
 ‫آت‬    ‫ا‬      ‫م‬     ‫نا ضا‬             ‫.و‬   ‫و داء ا‬     ‫ا‬    ‫وه و‬                     ‫ه ك‬
                                                                                                                      ‫ ‬




      ‫تا‬          ‫ز دة د‬                 ‫و‬   ‫ب‬     ‫ءدوا ا‬     ‫ت‬    ‫8‬    ‫ى‬          ‫ا ص‬
                   ‫ن‬     ‫ر.و‬            ‫أ ها ا‬           ‫ام‬      ‫ا‬    ‫ف‬    ‫ذا ف ث ه‬
                                                    ‫ا.‬                        ‫و ى‬        ‫ا‬
‫د ى ت‬               ‫ا‬   ‫هم‬              ‫تا‬         ‫ف‬        ‫ا‬  ‫تا‬    ‫ا ص د‬        ‫وآ ا‬
                                                                      ‫.‬   ‫ا‬        ‫ا‬     ‫ا‬




                                                ‫: ‪EVALUATING OF NIC‬‬                              ‫آ وت ا‬
                                                 ‫.‬  ‫أداء ا‬       ‫دة ا‬                              ‫تا‬        ‫آ ا‬
                                                                                                                      ‫ ‬
      ‫ا‬        ‫و‬                          ‫ةو‬                  ‫أن‬   (NIC )                     ‫ن آ وت ا‬          ‫و‬
                                                     - 49 -

                                       :   ‫و‬    ‫د أداء آ رت ا‬  ‫وت وه ا‬    ‫ة‬                                 ‫. وه ك‬
                                1-     BIT RAT
                                2-     ACCESS METHOD
                                3-     ON BOARD PROCESSOR
                                4-     NIC - TO HOST TRANSFER

       ‫ا‬        ‫تا‬       ‫ا‬        .       ‫ا‬        ‫ا ت‬                    ‫ف‬                      ( BIT RATE )
100 ‫ام‬        ‫إ‬            ‫ب/ث.و‬              100 ‫ب / ث إ‬               10             ‫ت‬          ‫أن‬         ‫ق‬
   ‫ث أن أ‬         ‫.و‬       ‫أداء ا‬              ‫ى‬          ‫ا ت و نه ك ا‬                        ‫% اا لا ص‬
      ‫ت‬          ‫نه ك‬                ‫ب/ثو‬              10                     ‫تا‬                 ‫آ‬         ‫آ وت ا‬
10                         ‫و‬         ‫أداء ا‬             ‫ب / ث وه ا‬         10        ‫أ‬             ‫ى آ وت‬
        .         ‫ت‬                      ( BIT RATE ) ‫أ ر‬                   ‫ن‬           ‫.و‬       ‫ب/ثآ ه‬
 LOW ) ‫( و وأ ر‬                              ‫) اه‬        ‫ت‬                     ( HIGH BIT RATE ) ‫أن أ ر‬
              ‫تا‬        ‫أ ا‬             ( LOW THROUGHPUT ) ‫ت أ‬                                      (BIT RATE
THROUGHPUT ) ‫ا ت‬                            ‫ل ا ت أى أن‬                   % 80         ‫م‬      ‫ب/ث‬        1
      ‫ب/ث ن ل‬                       10 ( BIT RATE ) ‫أ ر‬                       ‫ب / ث . وآ‬         8, ‫إ‬            (
          .       ‫ب/ثا‬           4 ‫إ‬             ‫ا‬         ‫إ 04 % أى‬                (HTROUGHPUT ) ‫ا ت‬
‫ا رت‬               ‫با‬        ‫ ( وه ا‬ACCESS METHOD ) ‫ه‬                              ‫أ ر آ وت ا‬            ‫ا‬        ‫ا‬
  )         ‫ت‬                     ‫ ( ن أآ آ ءة‬TOKEN PASSING )                              . ‫ر ل وأ ل ا ت‬
            .                ‫و‬                                ‫ ( وه ا ا‬CSMA / CD ) (HIGH TRAFFIC
        ‫ا‬           ‫أ‬             ‫آ رت ا‬                                   ( ON BOARD PROCESSOR )
    )              ‫و‬           ‫ت‬                                ( ON BOARD PROCESSOR                      )       ‫ا‬
                .        ‫ا‬      ‫ز دة‬                (                            )       ‫م‬     ‫( ا‬FIRMWARE
 WIDTH OF CURRENT ) ‫ه‬                                      ‫أه‬        ‫و‬      ‫داء آ رت ا‬         ‫ا ا ا ى‬            ‫ا‬
‫ل‬                     8                     16 ‫ن‬           ‫61-8 . و‬           ‫( وه دة‬TRANSFER BUSES
                                 : ‫ا رت‬            ‫ا ت‬           ‫م‬      ‫3 ق‬          ‫و‬       ‫ا رت‬      ‫ا ت‬
 1- SHARED MEMORY IS FASTEST
 2- DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS DMA IS SLOWEST .


                                                                EVALUATING SERVER : ‫ا دم‬
 3- I/O PORT IS BETWEEN THEM .


                                         ( SERVER )                ‫و‬         ‫أن‬               ‫أ ةا‬
                                                                                                                           




 ‫ ( وه ك‬NETWORK SERVER )                              ‫و‬                                 ‫أ ةا‬               ‫أ‬     ‫و‬
                                                              :     ‫( و‬NET WORK SERVER )                       ‫ا‬
                              1- PROCESSOR
                              2- CLOCK CYCLE SPEED
                              3- WAIT STATES ( PREFARED ZERO WAIT STATE )
                              4- EXPANSION BUS
                              5- MEMORY (MAX)
                              6- BUS WIDTH ( 16- BIT WIDE BUS TWICE 8-BIT WIDE
                                  BUS )

                       ‫تو‬          ‫ا‬             ‫ا‬              ‫أه‬   ‫ت‬   ‫ا‬                              ‫أ‬
                   :          ‫ما‬                                  ‫تا‬   ‫ا‬                          ‫أ‬
                                                                                                                           




1-   SUPPORT FOR STANARDS ( E.G. TCP/IP )
2-   COST
3-   PREFORMANCE
4-   SECURITY

                                                                                 :           ‫تا‬             ‫إدارة ا‬
5-   FUNCTIONALITY
                          LAN MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                       
‫و د إدارة‬             ‫.‬     ‫ض‬                ‫لا‬         ‫وا‬
                                                        ‫آ‬                ‫وآ ة ا‬     ‫ا‬        ‫ت ا‬    ‫ة‬        ‫ا‬
                                                       ‫- 05 -‬

   ‫ل وآ‬        ‫ا‬      ‫و ا‬         ‫ا‬      ‫ل‬       ‫ا‬     ‫نو‬                   ‫آ‬   ‫و‬      ‫تو و‬         ‫ا‬
                                                   ‫و‬     ‫ا‬                 ‫م‬      ‫آ‬    ‫و‬         ‫وأ‬           ‫ا‬
                                               ‫.‬     ‫ا‬                    ‫ةو‬    ‫و‬     ‫د إدارة‬    ‫إ‬         ‫آ ها‬

                                   ‫: ‪NETWORK SUPERVISOR‬‬                                       ‫ا‬          ‫أ ر‬
‫ورى ا أن‬        ‫.‬     ‫ا‬                                      ‫ه‬       ‫ا‬                       ‫ات ا‬        ‫أه ا‬
                                                                                                                      ‫ ‬




    ‫ا‬        ‫دة‬   ‫آ أن ا ت ا‬        ‫أداء وآ‬         ‫و دى‬                    ‫ا‬           ‫آ أن و‬             ‫ا‬
                        ‫ا‬    ‫ا ا وا ت‬            ‫تآ ة‬             ‫أ‬       ‫.و‬          ‫ا‬       ‫ا أو‬
             ‫و‬      ‫ى‬        ‫ا آ ة‬                  ‫ف د‬              ‫ا‬          ‫و ه ا‬              ‫ا‬       ‫أ ر‬
 ‫) ‪HOST - TO TERMINAL / SYSTEM‬‬                    ‫أ‬        ‫آ ا‬            ‫ت‬        ‫أن م ا‬              ‫تو‬         ‫ا‬
‫و م‬         ‫ا‬             ‫ف‬     ‫ا ا ا‬                 ‫و م ا رد‬                 ‫تا‬          ‫ر ا‬                 ‫(و‬
  ‫.‬               ‫ا‬         ‫ر‬     ‫و ه ا ء‬                             ‫و ر ا‬               ‫ا رد آ ا‬                ‫أ‬
                                              ‫وه :‬             ‫ا‬                  ‫تإ‬        ‫دارة ا‬               ‫و‬
‫ة‬     ‫ت‬            ‫وآ إ‬        ‫ا‬   ‫د‬                             ‫) ‪ ( ADMINISTRATOR‬ه‬                             ‫و‬
                                                                              ‫.‬          ‫ا‬              ‫أ‬        ‫و‬
       ‫أآ . وه ا ا‬             ‫و‬     ‫و‬      ‫أ‬          ‫ا‬       ‫) ‪ (SUPPER VISOR‬ءدى‬                            ‫أ و‬
                                     ‫.‬         ‫آ‬          ‫ة دا‬    ‫تا‬        ‫ا‬         ‫دإ‬               ‫ا دارة‬
                  ‫: ‪MAPPING OUT THE NETWORK‬‬                                                                     ‫ر‬
                                                     ‫:‬              ‫آ و‬                               ‫ر‬
                                                                                                                          ‫ ‬




                                                                              ‫ا‬             ‫تا‬           ‫1- د‬
                                                                                                   ‫آ‬       ‫2- و‬
                                                                   ‫تا‬           ‫أو ا ان ا ص‬                  ‫3- ا‬
                                                                                     ‫دة آ‬           ‫4- ا ن ا‬
                                                                        ‫ن‬             ‫ا‬         ‫5- د ت ا‬
                                                                      ‫ا‬     ‫6- ن و ان ‪SERVER‬‬
                                                                                ‫ا‬               ‫تا‬           ‫7- ا‬
                                                        ‫) ‪ ( TOPOLOGY‬ا ص‬                                       ‫8-‬
                                               ‫) ‪(SERVER‬‬                 ‫دة‬        ‫ا‬          ‫9- د و ات ا‬
                                                         ‫ا .‬         ‫وآ إ‬                ‫ات ا‬                 ‫01-‬
                                                  ‫ــــــــــــــــــــ‬
                                                      ‫ــــــــــــ‬
                                                         ‫ــــــ‬
                                                            ‫ـ‬

                          ‫.‬
                                      ‫.‬
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