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					Personality

 PERSONALITY TRAIT =
    1.) HERITABLE (I.e., genetically influenced;
     approximately half of variation is due to
     genetic differences)
    2.) INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    3.) REASONABLY STABLE
    4.) RELATING TO A PERSON'S
     EMOTIONAL, INTERPERSONAL,
     EXPERIENTIAL, ATTITUDINAL, AND
     MOTIVATIONAL STYLES.
Personality
 1.) EACH PERSONALITY DIMENSION
  REPRESENTS VARIATION IN AN EVOLVED
  SYSTEM. EVERYONE HAS THE SYSTEM, BUT
  SOME PEOPLE ARE HIGHER ON THE
  DIMENSION THAN OTHERS;
    E. G., WE ALL HAVE THE MECHANISMS
     UNDERLYING FEAR, BUT SOME PEOPLE
     ARE MORE FEARFUL THAN OTHERS

 2.) EACH EVOLVED SYSTEM IS A
  BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION WITH A SPECIFIC
  SURVIVAL FUNCTION. E.G., FEAR
  FUNCTIONS TO AVOID DANGERS
Personality

 3.) EXTREMES TEND TO BE MALADAPTIVE
     BEING AFRAID OF DANGEROUS THINGS IS
      ADAPTIVE, BUT BEING AFRAID OF EVERYTHING
      ISN'T
Personality

 4.) PERSONALITY TRAITS OR
 SYSTEMS ARE NOT TYPES OF
 PEOPLE.
     Individuals are high or low on a given
      personality system, but it’s misleading to
      describe people as “the shy type” or the
      conscientious type as if they don’t have
      other facets to their personality.
Behavioral Approach System

 (1) BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
  VARIATION IN: SOCIAL DOMINANCE,
  ATTRACTION TO REWARD, SENSATION
  SEEKING, IMPULSIVITY, RISK-TAKING,
  ASSERTIVENESS, AGGRESSION
 EMOTIONS: POSITIVE AROUSAL,
  EXHILARATION, HAPPINESS, CONFIDENCE,
  POSITIVE SELF-REGARD, ANGER
 SURVIVAL FUNCTION: ACTIVE INTERFACE
  WITH ENVIRONMENT (Get stuff): Mates, status,
  other resources
Behavioral Approach (Go)
System
 EXTREMES MALADAPTIVE
      High extreme: Extreme on sensation seeking, impulsivity and reward
       sensitivity.
      Low extreme: Depression, lack of interest in rewards.
 PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM:
      REWARD SENSITIVITY;
      AROUSAL REGULATION;
      SENSATION SEEKING GENES
      Emotion centers of the left cortex; the left cortex has inhibitory
       connections to right cortex responsible for negative emotions (Table
       3.1)
 SEX DIFFERENCES: MALES > FEMALES
 AGE CHANGES: HIGHEST IN LATE ADOLESCENCE, YOUNG
  ADULTHOOD:
      THE "YOUNG MALE SYNDROME"
Behavioral Approach (Go)
System: “Young Male Syndrome”


                    Murder arrests by age
STOP SYSTEM (BEHAVIORAL
INHIBITION SYSTEM)

 VARIATION IN: FEAR, CAUTION, WORRY
  ABOUT THREATS TO SELF OR NOVELTY
 THERE IS VARIATION IN FEAR AND
  ANXIETY IN NOVEL (SCARY) SITUATIONS
  OR WITH UNFAMILIAR PEOPLE BEGINNING
  IN SECOND HALF OF FIRST YEAR
 KAGAN: 15% OF 2-YEAR-OLDS ARE
  BEHAVIORLY INHIBITED;
  CONSIDERABLE STABILITY OF
  BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL
  MEASURES (HIGH AND STABLE HEART
  RATE, STRESS HORMONES)
STOP SYSTEM (BEHAVIORAL
INHIBITION SYSTEM)

 EMOTIONS: FEAR, ANXIETY,
  TENSION
 SURVIVAL FUNCTION: RESPOND TO
  DANGERS
 EXTREMES MALADAPTIVE: High end:
  Phobic; Low end: fearless
 SEX DIFFERENCES: FEMALES >
  MALES
Affectional (Love/Nurturance)
System
 3.) AFFECTIONAL SYSTEM VARIATION IN:
  TENDENCIES TOWARD LOVE, WARMTH,
  ALTRUISM, SYMPATHY, COMPASSION,
  TRUST, COMPLIANCE, EMPATHY
 EMOTIONS: LOVE, SYMPATHY, EMPATHY
 SURVIVAL FUNCTION:
     FAMILY AS UNIT OF REPRODUCTION;
     PAIR BONDING;
     BRING FATHER INTO FAMILY: Paternal
      Investment
     RAISING HIGH QUALITY CHILDREN
Affectional (Love/Nurturance)
System
 EXTREMES MALADAPTIVE: Sociopathy on
  low end, dependency disorder on high end.

 PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM:
  DOPAMINERGIC REWARD SYSTEM;
  OXYTOCIN
 SEX DIFFERENCES: FEMALES > MALES;
  females more likely to have dependency
  disorder, males more likely to be sociopathic
Conscientiousness

   4.) CONSCIENTIOUSNESS SYSTEM VARIATION IN:
    DEPENDABILITY, RESPONSIBILITY, PLANFULNSS,
    THOROUGHNESS, ATTENTION TO DETAIL, DUTIFULNESS,
    ACHIEVEMENT STRIVING, DELIBERATENESS, EFFICIENT,
    LACK OF SELF-INDULGENCE, ABILITY TO DELAY
    GRATIFICATION, FOCUSED EFFORT

   Mechanism: Prefrontal inhibitory mechanisms control output of sub-
    cortical mechanisms

   EMOTIONS: GUILT, SELF-ESTEEM; HOPE FOR GOAL
    ATTAINMENT

   SURVIVAL FUNCTION: TAKING CARE OF BUSINESS; ACHIEVE
    LONG- TERM GOALS BY ENGAGING IN BEHAVIOR WHICH IS
    NOT INTRINSICALLY FUN, OR PLEASURABLE;
    FORM COHESIVE GROUPS
Conscientiousness

 EXTREMES MALADAPTIVE: High extreme:
  Obsessive/compulsive; low extreme: ADHD




 SEX DIFFERENCES: FEMALES > MALES
 AGE CHANGES: BECOMES STRONGER
  WITH AGE
            Reactivity/Emotionality
5.) REACTIVITY/EMOTIONALITY: VARIATION IN THE TENDENCY TO
    BECOME EMOTIONALLY AROUSED FOR ALL OF THE EMOTIONS.

HIGH REACTIVE CHILD: Low Threshold for Arousal



POSITIVE AFFECT

NEUTRAL AFFECT        ________________________________________________

NEGATIVE AFFECT
                      LOW           MEDIUM                    HIGH
                              LEVEL OF STIMULATION
            Reactivity/Emotionality
5.) REACTIVITY/EMOTIONALITY: VARIATION IN THE TENDENCY TO
    BECOME EMOTIONALLY AROUSED FOR ALL OF THE EMOTIONS.

LOW REACTIVE CHILD: High Threshold for Arousal



POSITIVE AFFECT

NEUTRAL AFFECT        ________________________________________________

NEGATIVE AFFECT
                      LOW           MEDIUM                    HIGH
                              LEVEL OF STIMULATION
Reactivity/Emotionality

 A.) MODALITY SPECIFICITY:
  DIFFERENT SENSORY SYSTEMS
  MAY HAVE DIFFERENT REACTIVITIES
 B.) ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN
  REACTIVITY:
  MONGOLOID < CAUCASIAN OR
  AFRICAN-AMERICAN
 C.) DEVELOPMENTAL SHIFTS:
  TERRIBLE TWO'S AND
  ADOLESCENCE
Reactivity/Emotionality
 D.) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  (E. G., PREMATURITY, PRENATAL DRUG
  EXPOSURE)
 SURVIVAL FUNCTION: MOBILIZE BEHAVIORAL
  RESOURCES
 EXTREMES MALADAPTIVE: High end: Bipolar affective
  disorder;


 SEX DIFFERENCES: FEMALES > MALES
 AGE CHANGES: CHILDREN BECOME LESS
  EMOTIONAL WITH AGE; young children “wear their
  emotions on their sleeve”; can’t inhibit expressions of
  displeasure when they are upset.
General Principles

1.) ALL PERSONALITY TRAITS ARE
  HERITABLE (Heritability = 0.50)
2.) ACTIVE AND EVOCATIVE G→E
  EFFECTS; ACTIVE G→E EFFECTS
  IMPLY SELF-REGULATION;
     EVEN EMOTIONALITY (REACTIVITY)
      HAS SELF-REGULATORY EFFECTS
3.) EXTREMES TEND TO BE
  MALADAPTIVE
General Principles

 4.) PERSONALITY TRAITS OR SYSTEMS
  ARE NOT TYPES OF PEOPLE. INDIVIDUALS
  ARE HIGH OR LOW ON A GIVEN
  PERSONALITY SYSTEM.
 5.) DIFFERENT SITUATIONS BRING OUT
  DIFFERENT PERSONALITY SYSTEMS:
  CONTEXTUAL TRIGGERS
     GO: PARTY
     STOP: DARK ALLEY
     CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: FINALS
     AFFECTIONAL SYSTEM: FAMILY LIFE
General Principles

REACTIVITY/EMOTIONALITY: not triggered by a
  particular context.
  It is a general behavioral energizer.
  Go    Stop   Conscientiousness     Love




           Reactivity/Emotionality
General Principles

 6. There may be conflicts between
  personality systems in particular
  situations.
     E.g., deciding to go to a party (GO) or
      study for finals (Conscientiousness).
     Paradigm: Approach/Withdrawal conflict
  THE HERMAN'S HEAD THEORY OF
  PERSONALITY: CONFLICT AMONG THE
  INDEPENDENT PERSONALITY SYSTEMS

1. Mutual Inhibitory Connections between
   Approach Systems (Go) and
   Withdrawal Systems (Stop)
2. Conscientiousness involves inhibitory
   connections to Approach (Go) system
   and Affectional (Nurturance/Love)
   System.
    THE HERMAN'S HEAD THEORY OF
    PERSONALITY: CONFLICT AMONG THE
    INDEPENDENT PERSONALITY SYSTEMS

G           S         A           C
                 Balanced


G           S            A         C
     Prone to conflicts between G and C

G           S          A          C
One system dominant: A Fearful Person
Levels of an Evolutionary
Perspective on Personality

 I. Personality Systems as Universal
  Psychological Mechanisms:
     A. Personality Systems as Universal
      Design Features of Humans Homologous
      with Similarly-Functioning Systems in
      Other Vertebrates
     B. System X Context Interactions:
      Contexts trigger systems
     C. System X System Interactions: Mutual
      inhibitory connections between systems
Levels of an Evolutionary
Perspective on Personality

 I. Personality Systems as Universal
  Psychological Mechanisms:
     D. System X Context X Trait Interactions: The
      outcome of System x System interactions influenced
      by individual differences: A person with a strong Go
      system will be biased on the side of approach in
      conflicts between Go and Stop Systems
     E. System-Specific Environmental Influences During
      Development: Environments during development that
      influence the Stop system have no effect on the
      Affectional system.
Levels of an Evolutionary
Perspective on Personality

 II. Approaches to Group Differences in
  Universal Mechanisms Based on
  Evolutionary Theory
     A. The Evolutionary Theory of Gender
      Differences in Personality
     B. Evolutionary Approaches to Age
      Differences in Personality Systems
     C. Evolution and Birth Order Differences in
      Personality
     D. Life History Theory and Personality
Levels of an Evolutionary
Perspective on Personality

 III. Evolutionary Perspectives on
  Individual Differences
     A. Individual Differences within the Normal
      Range seen as Variation in Viable
      Strategies
     B. Individual Differences at the Extreme
      Ends of the Normal Range as Maladaptive
      (phobias) or High-Risk Strategies (High
      Sensation Seeking)
Levels of an Evolutionary
Perspective on Personality

 III. Evolutionary Perspectives on Individual
  Differences
      C. Social Evaluation: Individual Differences in
       Others' Personalities as a Resource Environment:
         We evaluate others’ personalities depending on
          our interests.
      D. Self-Evaluation and Self-Presentation of
       Personality Traits as Mechanisms for Maximizing
       One's Resource Value in the Social Environment:
         Putting your best foot forward, as on a first date or
          job interview.
      Attachment vs. Nurturance/Love/Warmth:
      Part 1: Nurturance/Love/Warmth

               Dimensions of Parenting
      Permissive       high      Authoritative

                                   Control

Low                                               High

                   Warmth


      Neglectful                  Authoritarian
      Uninvolved
                            low
       Authoritative Parenting
AUTHORITATIVE PARENT              CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR

Firm enforcement of rules         Energetic, friendly
Confronts disobedience            Good peer relations
Shows pleasure at child’s         Accepts adult values
   constructive behavior
Considers child’s wishes and
   opinions
Warm, involved, responsive        Achievement-oriented
Expects mature, age-appropriate
   behavior
Family activities
Educational standards
         Authoritarian Parenting

Authoritarian Parent         Child’s Behavior
Rules rigidly enforced       Fearful Apprehensive
Confronts Disobedience       Shy
Shows Anger                  Aggression
Views child as evil
Harsh, punitive discipline   Passively hostile,
                                    guileful
No family activities         Does not accept
                                    parental values
No educational demands
            Permissive Parenting
Permissive Parent           Child’s Behavior
Rules not enforced          Non-compliant
Yields to child coercion    Low in self-reliance
                            Low in achievement striving
Inconsistent discipline     Lack of self-control
Few demands for mature,     Aggressive, impulsive
   independent behavior
Moderate warmth
Hides annoyance             Domineering
   child’s behavior         Does not accept adult values
Glorifies free expression
          Neglectful Parenting
Neglectful Parent                 Child’s Behavior
Minimize costs of parenting       Rejects adult values
Uninvolved with children          Peer group orientation
Focus on own needs
Fails to monitor children’s
   delinquent activities,
   impulsivity, or school
   performance                    Aggression
Psychopathology                   Alienated from family
   (e.g., depression, drug use)   Poor school achievement
                                  Parents dislike friends
                                  Drug and alcohol use, precocious
                                          sexual activity
WARMTH AS A MOTIVATOR

"PART OF THE CHALLENGE IS TO TEACH CHILDREN
  THE RULES. PART IS TO HELP THEM GAIN
  GRATIFICATION [=intrinsic motivation] BY OBEYING
  THE RULES"

WARMTH AS A MOTIVATOR: INTRINSIC (WARMTH)
  VERSUS EXTRINSIC (PUNISHMENT) MOTIVATION
  IN PARENTING
HOW WARMTH MOTIVATES:
• WARM PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP IS MUTUALLY
  REWARDING
• CHILD IN WARM PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP
  THEREFORE VALUES RELATIONSHIP AND BEHAVES
  IN A MANNER WHICH PARENT APPROVES.
• CHILD THUS ACCEPTS ADULT VALUES, IS
  COMPLIANT,
  CHILD VALUES PARENTAL APPROVAL.
WARMTH AS A MOTIVATOR

WARMTH AS A MOTIVATOR: INTRINSIC VERSUS
 EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN PARENTING
 AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING: PARENT HAS STANDARDS,
  CHILD HAS INTERNAL MOTIVATION TO CONFORM TO THE
  STANDARDS
 INDULGENT/PERMISSIVE PARENTING: PARENT FAILS TO
  SET STANDARDS;
  CHILDREN MORE DRAWN TO THE PEER WORLD
 AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS HAVE STANDARDS, BUT
  MOTIVATION IS EXTERNAL
 NEGLECTFUL/INDIFFERENT PARENTS: NO STANDARDS, NO
  MOTIVATION; STRONG PULL TO PEER WORLD
WARMTH AS A REWARD
SYSTEM
The brain has several reward centers that make
  various behavior pleasurable. For example
  there are reward systems for food, drugs
  (cocaine, heroin), sex. The result is that these
  behavior are pleasurable and people are
  therefore motivated to engage in them.

  Warmth/love also depends on its own reward
  centers that make close, intimate relationships
  pleasurable. People high on the personality
  system of warmth/love are therefore motivated
  to seek out and maintain close relationships.
Warmth as a Reward System




 Low motivation   High motivation
Warmth as a Reward System




 Warm parenting results in making the child more sensitive
   to the reward value of positive social interaction:
       Moves child to the right on the curve.
       Lack of warm parenting may more child to the left.
       This is a system-specific environmental influence.
 Analogy with effects of experience on nerve cells?
       Stimulation results in elaboration of neural networks
       Lack of stimulation results in atrophy
EVOLUTION OF THE NUCLEAR FAMILY



 EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS IN PARENTING:
      1.) PRIMITIVE MAMMALIAN PATTERN: LOW
       INVESTMENT:
          MANY YOUNG
          LARGE LITTERS
          SHORT LIFESPAN
          SMALL BRAINS COMPARED TO BODY SIZE,
          SHORT PERIOD OF DEPENDENCE ON PARENTS
          MALES NOT INVOLVED IN PARENTING:
           MOTHER AND OFFSPRING IS FAMILY UNIT
EVOLUTION OF THE NUCLEAR FAMILY



 EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS IN PARENTING
 2.) HUMANS: HIGH INVESTMENT:
         FEW YOUNG,
         LONG LIFESPAN
         LARGE BRAINS
         LONG PERIOD OF DEPENDENCE ON PARENTS
         HIGH LEVEL OF PLASTICITY AND LEARNING
          ABILITY
         NEEDED TO DO WELL IN COMPETITIVE OR HARSH
          ENVIRONMENTS
         MALE INVOLVEMENT IN PARENTING

 WARMTH IS PARTLY A MECHANISM FOR FACILITATING
  MALE INVOLVEMENT (ALSO FACILITATES
  MOTHERING/NURTURANCE).
         DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT
         REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES

  LOW INVESTMENT                  HIGH INVESTMENT

  A. FAMILY CONTEXT
 MARITAL DISCORD                 SPOUSAL HARMONY
  SINGLE PARENTING                PATERNAL COMMITMENT
  NEGLECTFUL PARENTING
  SIBLING REARING

  B. CHILDREARING IN INFANCY/EARLY CHILDHOOD
 HARSH, REJECTING                 WARM, RESPONSIVE
  INSENSITIVE                      STIMULATING
  UNSTIMULATING
  NO PARENT-CHILD PLAY             PARENT-CHILD PLAY
         DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT
         REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES
LOW INVESTMENT                   HIGH INVESTMENT

C. PSYCHOLOGICAL/BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT
 INSECURE ATTACHMENT            SECURE ATTACHMENT
   MISTRUSTFUL INTERNAL
   WORKING MODEL                 RECIPROCALLY REWARDING
   OPPORTUNISTIC                 INTERPERSONAL STYLE
   INTERPERSONAL STYLE

D. SOMATIC DEVELOPMENT
 EARLY                          LATER
   MATURATION/PUBERTY            MATURATION/PUBERTY

E. REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGY
 EARLIER SEXUAL ACTIVITY LATER SEXUAL ACTIVITY
   UNSTABLE PAIR BONDS STABLE PAIR BONDS
   LOW INVESTMENT                        HIGH INVESTMENT
   PARENTING                             PARENTING
Attachment vs. Nurturance/Love/Warmth:
Part 2: Attachment

 DETERMINING ATTACHMENT
 STATUS:
     1. STRANGE SITUATION TEST (See
      Table 6.9, p. 150)
     2. REUNION EPISODES ARE
      PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT for scoring
Attachment vs. Nurturance/Love/Warmth:
Part 1: Attachment

 DETERMINING ATTACHMENT
 STATUS:
     3. CATEGORIES OF ATTACHMENT:
       A.   INSECURE AVOIDANT (A BABIES):
            OFTEN DO NOT CRY MUCH AT
             SEPARATION;
            DO NOT SEEK PROXIMITY AND ACTIVELY
             AVOID THE MOTHER AT REUNION;
            DO NOT RESIST CONTACT IF MOTHER
             INITIATES IT;
            DO NOT CRY MUCH AT REUNION
Attachment vs. Nurturance/Love/Warmth:
Part 1: Attachment

 DETERMINING ATTACHMENT
 STATUS:
     3. CATEGORIES OF ATTACHMENT:
       B.   SECURE ATTACHMENT (B BABIES):
            ACTIVELY SEEK PROXIMITY AND
             CONTACT AT REUNION;
            OFTEN DISTRESSED DURING
             SEPARATION, BUT CALM DOWN QUICKLY
             AT REUNION
Attachment vs. Nurturance/Love/Warmth:
Part 1: Attachment

 DETERMINING ATTACHMENT STATUS:
    3. CATEGORIES OF ATTACHMENT:
    C. INSECURE AMBIVALENT (C BABIES)
           VERY UPSET AND DISTRESSED DURING
            SEPARATION;
           ACTIVELY SEEK PROXIMITY AND CONTACT AT
            REUNION;
           RESIST CONTACT AT REUNION, OFTEN
            SHOWING ANGER;
           CONTINUE CRYING AT REUNION;
           THEY DO NOT CALM DOWN EASILY AT
            REUNION
ATTACHMENT THEORY

 1.) LEARNING THEORY:
 a.) OLD VIEW: LOVE AS GENERALIZED
  CONDITIONED RESPONSE;
     MOTHER SATISFIES BASIC DRIVES FOR
      FOOD, ETC.,
     BABY THEREFORE DEVELOPS POSITIVE
      ATTITUDES LOVE (ALSO FREUDIAN);
     ETHOLOGICAL CRITIQUE: HARLOW'S MONKEY
      STUDY
ATTACHMENT THEORY

 1.) LEARNING THEORY:
    b.) MORE RECENTLY: MOTHERS AND BABIES
      AS MUTUALLY REINFORCING, INCLUDING
      PLEASURE OF SOCIAL INTERACTION

     ETHOLOGICAL CRITIQUE:
        1.) THE THEORY IS INCOMPLETE BECAUSE IT
         DOESN'T EXPLAIN WHY SOCIAL
         INTERACTIONS ARE SO PLEASURABLE
         IN THE FIRST PLACE
        2.) THEORY CAN'T EXPLAIN ATTACHMENT IN
         ABUSED INFANTS
ATTACHMENT THEORY

 2.) COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS:
     a.) ATTACHMENT AS INVOLVING COGNITIVE
      MODEL (SCHEMA) OF "MOMMY & ME";
      IF SEPARATED, BABY BECOMES FEARFUL
      AND DISTRESSED BECAUSE OF
      DISCREPANCY WITH SCHEMA OF 'MOMMY &
      ME'
     b.) ATTACHMENT INVOLVES INTERNAL
      WORKING MODEL OF MOTHER'S TYPICAL
      BEHAVIOR; the IWM is a cognitive model of
      relationships based on relationship with mother as
      a prototype
ATTACHMENT THEORY

 2.) COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS:
     CRITIQUE: CAN'T ACCOUNT FOR THE
      AFFECTIVE INTENSITY OF ATTACHMENT
      PHENOMENA
        WHY NOT DEVELOP SUCH
         SCHEMAS ABOUT BOOKS OR TOYS?
        WHY SHOULD VIOLATING A SCHEMA OF
         "MOMMY AND ME" WHEN MOM LEAVES
         RESULT IN SUCH INTENSE DYSPHORIA, BUT
         VIOLATION OF OTHER SCHEMAS IS NO BIG
         DEAL?
ETHOLOGICAL THEORY OF
ATTACHMENT: JOHN BOWLBY

 A HYBRID THEORY:
     (1) BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
     (2) LEARNING
     (3) COGNITIVE SCHEMES
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 1.) ATTACHMENT AS AN ADAPTATION
     ADAPTATION = A BEHAVIOR OR
      MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURE DESIGNED BY
      NATURAL SELECTION IN ORDER TO PERFORM A
      PARTICULAR FUNCTION
          FUNCTION OF ATTACHMENT IS TO PROVIDE
           PROTECTION FOR HELPLESS INFANTS.
          ATTACHMENT IS AN ADAPTATION DESIGNED
           BY NATURAL SELECTION TO KEEP THE BABY
           CLOSE TO THE MOTHER AS A SOURCE OF
           PROTECTION; IT IS A PROXIMITY
           MAINTAINING SYSTEM
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 2.) ETHOLOGICAL IDEA OF 'NATURAL CLUE'
  = AN INNATE CONNECTION BETWEEN A
  STIMULUS AND AN AFFECTIVE
  (EVALUATIVE) RESPONSE
     STIMULUS           AFFECTIVE,
      EVALUATIVE RESPONSE
     S      R+     (CONTACT COMFORT,
      AFFECTIONATE TOUCHING, MUTUAL GAZING
      AND SMILING) SWEET TASTES
     S      R --   (MOTHER ABSENT; STRANGER
      PRESENT; BITTER TASTES)
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 Natural Clues:
     THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE
      STIMULUS AND THE AFFECTIVE
      RESPONSE IS INNATE, UNLEARNED;
     Bottom line: BABIES COME INTO THE
      WORLD WITH LIKES AND DISLIKES
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 3.) MOTHER AND BABY ARE BIOLOGICALLY
 PROGRAMMED FOR SOCIAL INTERACTION
     a.) BABIES' BEHAVIORS FOR MAINTAINING
      CONTACT: CRYING, LOCOMOTION, "MOLDING
      TO MOTHER'S BODY";
     b.) FOR FACILITATING INTERACTION:
      APPEARANCE OF BABY, SMILING,
      VOCALIZING, MAKING EYE CONTACT
 SOCIAL INTERACTION IS INNATELY
 PLEASURABLE FOR MOTHER AND BABY
 (INVOLVES NATURAL CLUES)
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning

 1.) MOTHER AS SECURE BASE FOR
  EXPLORATION:
  THE SET POINT: Changes with Development and with
    the Situation
                        B

                        M
 MOTHER WITHIN SET POINT: BABY EXPLORES


                         B
            M
 MOTHER EXCEEDS SET POINT: ATTACHMENT
  BEHAVIORS TRIGGERED, EXPLORATION CEASES
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning

 DISCRETE SYSTEMS IDEA:
 ATTACHMENT SYSTEM INTERACTS WITH
  THE EXPLORATION SYSTEM, THE PLAY
  SYSTEM, AND OTHER SYSTEMS.
     IF SAFE, THEN PLAY, EXPLORE
     IF STRANGER IS PRESENT, THEN
      STOP PLAY, LOOK FOR MOTHER
     IF HUNGRY, STOP PLAY AND
      EXPLORATION, SEEK FOOD
DISCRETE SYSTEMS IDEA:
Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology: Many Different
Mechanisms, Each Designed to Solve a
Specific Problem
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning
 2.) INTERNAL WORKING MODEL
 (IWM) OF MOTHER = A MODEL
 (SCHEMA) OF WHAT MOTHER IS LIKE
     a.) BUILT UP FROM EXPERIENCE
      (LEARNING)
     b.) EMPHASIS ON SENSITIVITY AND
      RESPONSIVITY
     c.) RESULTS IN A MODEL OF FUTURE
      RELATIONSHIPS;
     RESISTANT TO CHANGE
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning
 IWM FOR A (AVOIDANT) CHILD: PEOPLE
  ARE NOT AVAILABLE WHEN I NEED HELP
 IWM FOR B (SECURE) CHILD: PEOPLE WILL
  BE SENSITIVE AND RESPONSIVE
  WHEN I NEED HELP
 IWM FOR C (AMBIVALENT, RESISTANT)
  CHILD: PEOPLE ARE UNRELIABLE WHEN I
  NEED HELP;
     SOMETIMES THEY ARE RESPONSIVE,
      SOMETIMES NOT.
EVOLUTIONARILY
EXPECTED ENVIRONMENT
 CHILD IS BORN WITH “EXPECTATIONS” ABOUT THE
  ENVIRONMENT.
      Expectations can be physical (oxygen, food) or
       psychological (adequate mother)
      IF EXPECTATIONS MET, THEN THE CHILD IS HAPPY,
       DEVELOPMENT IS NORMAL
      IF EXPECTATIONS ARE NOT MET, THEN THE CHILD
       IS UNHAPPY, DEVELOPMENT IS PATHOLOGICAL

 THE BIOLOGY OF ATTACHMENT IS UNIVERSAL
  (NORMATIVE) (SPECIES-TYPICAL), BUT ATTACHMENT
  STATUS IS THE RESULT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
  VARIATION (IDIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT)
ENVIRONMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY
ADAPTEDNESS

 THE ENVIRONMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY
 ADAPTEDNESS (EEA) IS THE
 ENVIRONMENT THAT HUMANS EVOLVED IN
 AND WHICH PRESENTED THE
 PROBLEMS SOLVED BY OUR
 ADAPTATIONS.
     Example: THE HUMAN EEA INCLUDED
      ENVIRONMENTS WITH PREDATORS AND
      OTHER DANGERS TO INFANTS.
     ATTACHMENT EVOLVED IN ORDER TO DEAL
      WITH THESE PROBLEMS.
     IT SOLVED THE PROBLEM BY MAKING THE
      BABY WANT TO STAY CLOSE TO MOM.
SENSITIVE PERIODS FOR ATTACHMENT


 ISOLATION STUDIES WITH RHESUS
  MACAQUES: ISOLATION FOR THE FIRST
  SIX MONTHS OF LIFE RESULTS IN
  "SUICIDALLY" AGGRESSIVE ANIMALS.
  FEMALES WHO ARE ISOLATED BECOME
  ABUSIVE MOTHERS
 SPECIES DIFFERENCES: CRAB-EATING
  MACAQUES AND WOLVES SHOW MINIMAL
  DYSFUNCTION AS A RESULT OF
  ISOLATION.
SENSITIVE PERIODS FOR ATTACHMENT

 THE TIZARD ORPHANAGE STUDY:
     AVERAGE 1 DIFFERENT CAREGIVER per MONTH
      AFTER ADOPTION AT AGES 2-4), OBSERVED AT
      AGE 8:
          1.) MORE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS—DISOBEDIENCE,
           LYING, REJECTED BY OTHER CHILDREN;
          2.) "AFFECTIONLESS PSYCHOPATHY"—
           SUPERFICIAL OVERFRIENDLINESS TOWARD
           ADULTS
 MONOTROPY VERSUS MULTIPLE ATTACHMENTS
  THE IDEA OF AN ATTACHMENT HIERARCHY
     INDEPENDENCE OF ATTACHMENT STATUS WITH
      MOTHERS AND FATHERS
ISSUES IN ATTACHMENT
RESEARCH

 1.) ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CAREGIVER
  CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTACHMENT STATUS:
  SENSITIVE, RESPONSIVE, AFFECTIONATE
  CAREGIVING
      ASSOCIATED WITH SECURE ATTACHMENT;
       CHILD ABUSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INSECURE
       ATTACHMENT
 2.) STABILITY:
  DEPENDS ON SITUATION:
      a.) LESS IF THERE IS STRESS OR OTHER SOURCES OF
       CHANGE
      b.) INSTABILITY CAN RESULT IN 'RENEGOTIATION'
       OF ATTACHMENT
       STATUS
ISSUES IN ATTACHMENT
RESEARCH

 3.) PREDICTIVE VALIDITY:

      a.) PRESCHOOL: SOCIAL COMPETENCE, POSITIVE
       AFFECT,
       COMPLIANCE; "EGO RESILIENT" = ADAPTABLE
       AND
       FLEXIBLE IN CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES

      b.) LATER CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE:
       CLOSER FRIENDSHIPS

      c.) AVOIDANT INFANTS MORE LIKELY TO BE
       AGGRESSIVE
TEMPERAMENT AND
ATTACHMENT

 a.) KAGAN: BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION
  SYSTEM EXPLAINS
  VARIATION IN ATTACHMENT
  CLASSIFICATION
 b.) OTHER SYSTEMS?
  SOCIABILITY/POSITIVE
  EMOTIONALITY,
  REACTIVITY
               Comparing warmth and
               attachment
                        WARMTH                     Security of ATTACHMENT
1. Assessment           Observation, Questionnaire   Strange Situation

2. Emotions             Love, Sympathy, Empathy        Felt Security or Anxiety
3. Function             Pair-bonding, Nurturance,      Protection
                        Investment in Children        Proximity Maintenance
4. Mechanism            Physiological reward system   IWM (Cognitive)
5. Environmental        Parental warmth                Sensitivity &
    influences                                              Responsiveness
6. Heritable            Yes                           No (Temperament may
                                                            influence)
7. Five Factor Model    Yes, Factor II                No
8. Sex Differences      Yes (females > males)         No
9. Distribution Among   Pair-bonding rare             Very common
    Primates

				
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