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					                                                   Key Stage 3 Drama – Unit of Work
TITLE: Artaud
TERM:         Summer                                                           YEAR GROUP: 8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:                                                           RESOURCES:
To explore basic Artaudian concepts.
To introduce the idea that theatre can be non-naturalistic                     Artaud PowerPoint presentation.
To focus upon Surrealism as one form of non-naturalistic theatre:              Emotion cards.
     •    To learn the basic meaning and concept of non-naturalism.            Picture of ‘The Scream’.
     •    To learn to use the body non-naturalistically, exploring             Short easy script for 2-4 people.
          animates, inanimates, mood and elements.                             A selection of nursery rhymes.
     •    To introduce ‘physicalising’ objects.                                Beauty and the Beast video.
     •    To explore audience/actor relationships.                             Artaudian/surrealism video.
     •    To introduce the use of soundscape and other experimental
          uses of sound in physical theatre.
     •    To learn to interpret stimulus material in a grotesque light.
ACTIVITIES:(Tick Assessment Objective: Responding, Developing, Presenting, Evaluating)                                             C        P       A      ICT
*To warm up; play physical theatre based warm up games: developing non-naturalistic use of body.
Introducing practitioners:
     •    Show PowerPoint presentation. Discuss the meaning of the word practitioner, what their original thoughts on
          Artaud are.
     •    Show a surrealist video, discuss: what is naturalistic theatre, what is non-naturalism?
Introducing physical theatre:
     •    Explore physical theatre, using bodies to create inanimate objects and then bring them to life                            *       *
     •    Create room of furniture, G&T turn movement grotesque – forest or innocent to                                             *       *
     •    Individually, then in pairs have students experiment showing emotion using whole body, A sculpts B. Change the
          lighting states whilst performing and evaluate what effect this had on the audience.                                      *       *       *       *
     •    Ext: Create a Still Image based on The Scream, try and add slow motion.                                                   *       *       *
The 4th Wall:
     •    Discuss what the 4th wall is: the imaginary wall between audience and actors in proscenium arch theatres.
          Brainstorm how this could be broken.
     •    Play ‘cat and mouse,’ then get students to stay in their positions with the cat and mouse being actors. How does
          this feel?
     •    Create a scene based on being stalked, audience to sit on blocks/chairs which can be walked around.
                                                                                                                                    *       *
     •    Using story of Goldilocks and the 3 bears, create a short piece where students interact directly with the                 *       *       *
          audience.
     •    Devise a scene where one character is split into 4 emotions, each of which has to physically involve an audience          *       *       *
          member in their actions.
Experimenting with sound:
     •    Create a sound scape to represent a given title.                                                                          *
     •    Turn the sound scape into a performance piece, thinking about how to break the 4th wall.                                  *       *       *
Turning innocent material grotesque:
     •    Discuss what grotesque means.
     •    Choose a nursery rhyme and experiment with how it can be turned grotesque – language or movement                          *
     •    Create a still image to show the moment of climax, G&T create a simple mime per character to bring the image              *       *       *
          to life.
Interpreting Stimulus material:
     •    Show students a clip from Beauty and the Beast, discuss how the stimulus could be made grotesque.                         *       *       *       *
     •    Create a sound collage to create atmosphere, create a room full of furniture, create movement, finally add a
          nursery rhyme.



Assessment
The students will develop a piece of non-naturalistic Artaudian drama to incorporate the skills they have learnt during this module. The devised work will be
based on a scene where inanimate objects in a house come to life in a grotesque and sinister way. Students should create sound effects themselves and
should included lighting.
These will be marked according to KS3 levels.
Students must provide a written evaluation of the work of another group. They will focus on A) Which elements of non-naturalism were used, B) Were they
used successfully, C) How could the work be improved.

Differentiated Outcomes
All must: Understand the term Practitioner. Recognise some of the characteristics of naturalism. Identify naturalistic drama. Recognise some of the
characteristics of Artaudian theatre. Understand and use the basic elements of physical theatre. Improvise a short scene breaking the 4th wall. Engage in
experimenting with non-naturalistic sound. Apply some techniques learnt in a basic way to the development of a short scene. Attempt to use lights to create
atmosphere. Write a basic evaluation, showing some understanding of the use of non-naturalism.
Some will: Deconstruct and recognise the characteristics of naturalism. Recognise and apply the deconstructed characteristics of non-naturalism.
Understand and use the term practitioner and know some of Artauds life and work. Understand and experiment with the elements of physical theatre. Be
able to break the 4th wall in a variety of ways, with some understanding as to why this technique may be used. Be able to create affective sounds to
accompany action and understand how this assists the action. Identify and deconstruct the main techniques used by Artaud. Experiment with those
techniques in the development of a short non-naturalistic scene. Will consider the use of lights and use them in a way that is generally effective. Evaluate
drama in some detail, with a little insight, considering the impact of all elements used.
A few may: Analyse naturalistic drama, deconstructing its characteristics and offering this analysis to the group. Recognise and experiment with the
elements of non-naturalism. Understand and use the term practitioner in the correct manner during class discussions, being able to critically comment on
information about Artauds life and work. Experiment creatively and imaginatively with the elements physical theatre, competently exploring the use of
emotion in inanimate objects. Be able to competently break the 4th wall in a variety of ways, understanding precisely why this technique is used. Effectively
create a variety of sound effects, which work cohesively with the other elements in their piece, adding sufficiently to the overall effect. Apply a wide variety
of techniques learnt in an effective and imaginative way. Evaluate drama in great detail, explaining clearly and explicitly the use of each non-naturalistic
technique employed.
Applemore College Key Stage Three Drama
Year 8
Artaud – Summer Term
14 lessons

   Lesson 1&2 Introduction to Artaud – non-naturalistic movement
   Aim:       To introduce students to Artaud and non-naturalistic drama

   Objectives: By the end of this lesson:
               *You will have learnt who Artaud is and what style of theatre he produced.
               *Understood the difference between naturalism and non-naturalism.
               *Bringing inanimate objects to life.

   Resources: Module booklets, Artaud PowerPoint presentation

             Starter:
   Starter activity 1 – Targets
   Starter activity 2 – Artaud worksheet answers -
      1) When was Artaud born and when did he die? Born 1896 Marseille in France, died
           1948.
      2) What was unusual about his death? He died on the end of his bed with one shoe on
           and one shoe off.
      3) Where did Artaud travel during 1936 and 1937? Mexico, Brussels and Ireland
      4) What are the two opinions about Artaud’s state of mind? 1 – he was mad, 2 – he
           wasn’t mad, it was that society couldn’t accept his views.
      5) What genre was Artaud influenced by? Surrealism
      6) What type of theatre was Artaud influenced by? Balinese Theatre
      7) What affect did Artaud want his theatre to have on an audience? He wanted to awe
           and terrify his audience to such an extent they lost control of their reason
      8) How did Artaud create a sense of terror on stage? Use storms of whirling lights,
           dissonant sounds and unusual speech
      9) Where do the audience sit when using ‘theatre in the round’? The audience sit in a
           circle around the stage.
      10) What is Artaud’s most famous play? Le Cenci
      11) What is the title of Artaud’s most famous writing? The Theatre and It’s Double
      12) Do you think Artaud was mad or not? There is no correct answer – it’s the student’s
           opinion.

   Warm up lesson 1: Walk/jump/stop:
   Students walk about the room, if you say walk, they walk, if you say stop they stop, if you
   say jump they jump.
   Change words: walk=jump, jump=stop, stop=walk
   Change words to sounds: clap, stamp and whistle. Creates an abstract notion as students
   are doing actions, which are opposed to the instructions, prepares them for abstract
   practical work.

   Warm up lesson 2: Pruey:
   Players shut their eyes, the teacher chooses one student by tapping them on the shoulder.
   They open their eyes and do not move. The other students walk around the room with their
   eyes shut, if they meet someone they say Pruey, if the other person responds, they carry on
   looking. If the person does not respond, they open their eyes as they have found Pruey.
   Students must stay in contact with Pruey in the original way they joined them, they should
   not move or talk! You end up making an abstract shaped Pruey with one person trying to
   find the shape!

             Main lesson:
   Introduce new scheme of work: exploring one practitioners’ work and theories. Discuss what
   practitioner (someone who practices or has practiced in the world of drama) means and
   introduce Artaud.

   Show PowerPoint
Artaud:
Practitioner who was fed up with normal theatre
He believed in surrealist/dream theatre
Thought theatre had great powers and could heal people
Believed that theatre had to challenge audiences, confront them
He crossed all known barriers
Believed that to confront audiences, he had to make theatre the terrified people and
disturbed them so much they had to create new truths
He did this by making innocent subjects grotesque
He was in and out of mental asylums all his life!
Explore the concept of non-naturalism:
Discuss what non-naturalism means (making theatre which is different from normal life)
Look at using the body non-naturalistically:

Creating inanimate objects:
       Quick mimes: Students get into groups of 6/7 they have to make a variety of shapes
       using their bodies.
               Clock
              Washing machine
              Table
              Elephant
              Window
               Garden

Can you bring inanimate objects to life?

       Individually: make a chair.
               Is it a new chair; rigid and shiny, or is it an old leather chair, falling to bits, soft
               and floppy.
               Can you give your chair a noise?
               What is your chair feeling? Is it neglected?
               What would your chair say if it could talk?

G&T extension:
             Can you say this sentiment, but without words?
             What is this chair turned into a psychopathic chair? Move on the spot like
             this, then your chair discovers it can walk!

Low:
Create a room full of furniture, each has a character, let them talk to each other. May be the
toothbrush is jealous of the hairbrush etc.
What do they feel about their owner? What do they say/act when their owner walks in the
room? Maybe the TV does not work, the sofa is really uncomfortable etc.

G&T:
Discuss what grotesque means.

Discuss the idea of making objects grotesque, so as to disturb the audience, create an
unreal atmosphere:
       Create a forest using your bodies as trees, experiment with how you can make this
       grotesque.

       Think of an innocent toy, a clown or teddy, how could you make these characters
       sinister?

Making non-naturalistic movement:
Recreate the story of Hansel and Gretel, you must make all the objects using physical
theatre and they must have emotions. How could you make each of the characters move?
Like puppets, robots? How could this make them grotesque?
Applemore College Key Stage Three Drama
Year 8
Artaud – Summer Term
14 lessons

   Lesson 3&4 Physical Theatre
   Aim:       To introduce students to physical theatre – especially how emotions can be shown non-
              naturalistically through the body.

   Objectives: By the end of this lesson:
               *You create explored how to show emotion non-naturalistically and physically.
               *Made emotions grotesque
               *Created a piece based upon the Scream.

   Resources: Module booklets, emotions cards

            Starter:
   Starter activity 3 – Artaud Worksheet
   Starter activity 4 – The Scream

   Warm up: Levels of tension.
   Walk in neutral, as I say a number you must move in that level of tension.
   1 – cool, 10 – bomb in the room.

   Warm up2: Emotion stuck in the mud.
   Students play stuck in the mud, they have to be touched on the arm to be free. Students
   must freeze showing the given emotion through the whole of the face/body. Use: Happy,
   sad, angry, confused, scared, nervous.


           Main lesson:
   Re-cap areas of physical theatre previously explored:
         Creating inanimate objects
         Turning innocent objects grotesque
         Altering movement styles

   Today we are going to be looking at how you can physicalise emotions.

   Emotional response game:
         The group sits in a circle.
         Each person is given a card with an emotion on it; they must not show it to anyone.
         They must go around the room showing their emotion and try to find the rest of their
         group (4 happy, 4 sad etc).
   (Low ability: in groups of 4/5 they create a still image to show their given emotion)

   Discuss how you could show emotion physically and non-naturalistically?
          Put more emphasis on body posture
          Exaggerate all of the facial expressions and body movements.

   Have students walk around the room in neutral.
   When an emotion is said, they take it on naturalistically, then as teacher counts 1-10 they
   have to exaggerate this emotion in both their faces and bodies.

   G&T
   Discuss if you could use the same treatment for traits instead of actual feelings, what if you
   needed to represent power? Or shyness?

          Have students walk around the classroom, how can they show these traits
          physically, can they exaggerate them? Can they make them as non-naturalistic as
          possible?

   Low level:
G&T
In groups, take an emotion and make it as grotesque as possible.
        Happy
        Angry
        Sad
        Power
        Fear
        Shy
Give students encouragement to use levels and to make each image as grotesquely non-
naturalistic as possible.

Choose two or three of the groups, other students leave the room, turn on the studio lights,
dimly with red and green gels, get students to walk around the sculptures in silence. Discuss
how this made them feel, did it create a good atmosphere?

Low level:

Ext:
Look at the picture of ‘The Scream’, what do they think is happening in the picture, what do
they think Artaud would think is happening?

       Create a Still Image, could add slow motion movement, merge 2 or 3 images
       together to show what is happening in this picture, try and draw on it’s grotesque,
       scary elements and create a sinister set of characters or physicalised emotions.
Applemore College Key Stage Three Drama
Year 8
Artaud – Summer Term
14 lessons

   Lesson 5&6 The 4th Wall
   Aim:        To introduce students to the fact that stage forms other than proscenium arch can be used
               and to the concept of the 4th wall.
   Objectives: By the end of this lesson:
               *You will have begun to explore how you can experiment with staging forms.
               *You will have learnt how to break the 4th wall and why.
   Resources: Module booklets
           Starter:
   Starter 5 – Reinforcing the differences between naturalistic and non-naturalistic theatre.
                                                                                     th
            Naturalism statements: A slice of life, This theatre never breaks the 4 wall, Theatre that
            seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, Theatre that tries to create a perfect illusion,
            making you think you are watching real life, Theatre that tries in detail to describe life as it
            actually is.
            Non-naturalistic statements: Can include abstract character such as death or conscience
                                                         th
            characters, This theatre often breaks the 4 wall and gets the audience involved, Often highly
            symbolic in nature and can have supernatural treatment, This theatre does not have to have
            a story line; its focus can be upon atmosphere and emotion.
                                       th
   Starter 6 – Stage shapes and the 4 wall

                                     Proscenium Arch           Traverse stage




                                     Thrust stage              Theatre in the round




   Warm up: Alley cats:


   2 students are chosen, 1 is the cat, the other the mouse
   The remaining students stand in rows of equal numbers
   The players from corridors by lifting their arms up
   At a signal from the teacher the players turn to their right causing the corridors to move
   The cat has to try and catch the mouse, is they succeed the roles reverse.

   Warm up2: Fruit Bowl:
   Students all sit in a circle on a chair. Label them apple, orange, pear or banana. One student puts
   their chair away and stands in the centre, they shout the name of a fruit. Students named that fruit
   have to change chairs and the person in the middle has to try and sit down. If they shout fruit bowl, all
   students have to find a new chair.
             Main lesson:
   Recap areas explored so far:
   Creating inanimate objects
   Turning innocent objects grotesque
   Altering movement styles
   Physicalising emotions
   Creating grotesque characters.

   Explain today we will be looking at how Artaud used and varied the relationship between his actors
   and audience.
G&T
                                                                                                 th
Once the warm up has finished, get students to sit where they are and discuss the notion of the 4
wall. Explain that this does not have to be the only way plays are staged.

Ask students to create a quick scene where 1 person is being followed by another and is trying not to
be seen.

Get students into a normal audience line and ask 1 group to perform. Discuss: Did the students feel
involved, were they scared, what did they feel?

Ask students to return to their cat/mouse positions: What would happen if the students were sitting in
this audience position and the actors walked around them?

        Students stay sat in their current positions, choose 2 volunteers to act out their play
        The audience don’t put their hands up, but do stand

How does this audience seating plan make them feel? Isolated? More scared? Does it make a
difference if the audience are sat or stood? How easy is it for the actors using this type of staging?
Low:
Ask students to get 3 or 4 chairs/blocks. They then create a piece of theatre where one person is
following/stalking the other; they are trying to murder them. The chairs and blocks can be used to
hide behind.

Perform: some as pros arch, some where audience are sat around/on the chairs.

Ask them to think carefully about where the audience is sat.

G&T
Create a piece of drama based upon Goldilocks and the 3 bears, the audience/actor relationship must
be altered. Think about:

How do you interact with them?
Do you walk around them, in between them, are they part of your set?

Could you actually physically involve the audience?
Try sitting in with the audience and acting, talking from within the audience?
Could you use a member of the audience as another person, talking directly to one person.
Hug an audience member
Use them as a prop or piece of scenery?
Applemore College Key Stage Three Drama
Year 8
Artaud – Summer Term
14 lessons

   Lesson 7&8 Experimenting with sound
   Aim:       To understand that sound and lighting can be used to create specific atmospheres in the
              audience.

   Objectives: By the end of this lesson:
               *You will have experimented with sounds to create specific atmospheres.
               *You will have worked with the audience, experimenting with how you can break the 4th
               wall to enhance atmosphere.

   Resources: Module booklets

            Starter:
   Starter Activity 7 – Put students immediately into groups of 6 and do the register visually as
   they complete the brainstorms.

   Warm up 1: Chase the chair
   All students get a chair and spread evenly around the room. One student leaves their chair
   and heads to the opposite side of the room. The object of the game is that they have to try
   and sit down in an empty chair, whilst others try and prevent them from sitting down. The
   person begins by walking and gradually get quicker.

   Warm up 2: Conductor:
   Group stand in a circle. One person is chosen to be the conductor. The whole group starts
   to hum any note of their choice. If the conductor raises their arm then they get louder if they
   lower their arms they get quieter. Use the same technique but with pitch.

   Warm up 3: Down, down, baby:
   Teach them the song one line at a time. Try varying pitch and dynamics.


             Main lesson:
   Explain that Artaud felt that human language restricted acting, as you couldn’t explore basic instincts
   and deep emotion with words. In his theatre he experimented with ritual sounds (chanting) and basic
   instinctual sounds (screaming).

   The first technique that can be used to create an atmosphere in a piece is soundscaping:
   Get students into groups of 6.

           Give them an area title:
                   Woods at night
                   Dead children’s Schoolyard
                   Windy day on the moors
                   Haunted Monastery
                   Black death
                   Locked in the attic

   They have to brainstorm what sounds might be heard in their given location. Get students to practice
   as a group each sound on the list. Each student must pick one sound and then with eyes closed as a
   group each individual makes their sound.

   Perform some.

   Discuss: do the sounds seam realistic? How do they make you feel? Can this technique be used to
   create atmosphere?
                                              th
   Ask students to think about breaking the 4 wall, where do the audience sit? Have some lying
   facedown, some sat spread around the room, others facing the walls.

   Think about touching, moving the audience, cold metal on audiences face etc. Can you scare your
   audiences?
Applemore College Key Stage Three Drama
Year 8
Artaud – Summer Term
14 lessons

   Lesson 9&10 Making the innocent grotesque
   Aim:       To understand how stimulus material can be interpreted in a grotesque manner.

   Objectives: By the end of this lesson:
               You will have learnt how to turn innocent material grotesque.
               Created a scene based upon a nursery rhyme

   Resources: Module booklets

            Starter:
   Starter Activity 8 – Completed later in the lesson. Do the register during this activity.

   Warm up: Hand circle.
   Students kneel in a circle with their hands on the floor in front of them. They pass a beat
   around the circle using their hands. If someone does a double clap, the beat passes back
   the other way.
   Ext: students put their hand between the two hands of the person next to them so all the
   hands are mixed up.
   Warm up 2: Look up, Look down
   Students stand in a circle with their heads towards the floor. When the leader says look up,
   all students have to look up and make eye contact with another person in the circle. If they
   make eye contact, they are dead and have to sit down! The leader then says look down and
   the process is repeated. The last person left standing is the winner!


            Main lesson:
   Discuss what grotesque means (distorted, hideous, unnatural and abnormal) and explore how Artaud
   took innocent stimulus material and turned it sinister. He liked taking objects we associate to be
   innocent – i.e. baby’s toys etc and make them grotesque.

   Starter activity in booklets:
   Students get into groups of 4, each group is given a copy of a nursery rhyme, they have to
   read it aloud and then brainstorm ideas on how to turn it grotesque. Jack and Jill could be
   attempted murder!! They can change the words of the nursery rhyme.

   i.e. Poor little girl, poor little girl, see how she runs, she how she runs, we all run after the
   little girl and cut off her legs with a carving knife, have you ever seen such a thing in your life
   as the poor legless girl

   Create a Still Image showing the climax point of the nursery rhyme, experiment with body
   posture trying to make to scene as weird and sinister as possible. (Could be
   mannequins/puppets)

   G&T do a simple mime to illustrate what they are doing in the rhyme. Then compact this into
   4 staccato movements. Try and link the movements together, to make a sequence.
   Experiment with the 4th wall and staging.

   Perform and discuss
Applemore College Key Stage Three Drama
Year 8
Artaud – Summer Term
14 lessons

   Lesson 11 – 14
   Aim:        To consolidate students learning through creating a final performance
   Objectives: By the end of this lesson:
               You will have developed an assessment piece using all the techniques you have learnt
               over the past term.

   Resources: Module booklets, Beauty and the Beast video
            Starter:
   Warm up: Traffic lights:
   Students find a space in the room. The teacher calls out one of the following colours and the
   students have to follow the related instructions:
   Green – Walk/run around the space
   Amber – Stand on one leg/hop
   Red – Lie on the ground/stop


             Main lesson:
   Introduce the final piece:
   Students are to create a short piece based on inanimate objects in a house coming to life.

   Show students video clip from Beauty and the Beast – ask how the characters could be turned
   grotesque axe murdering furniture – lures people in and kills them!

   Step 1:
                                                                                               th
   Create a sound collage to open the piece, think about creating atmosphere and breaking the 4 wall.

   Step 2:
   Students create a room full of furniture – it is going to come to life in a grotesque fashion. Get them to
   think about how they show what their furniture is thinking – add lines, words.

   Step 3:
   Create movement where a person wakes up and is killed by the furniture! Can the person make their
   movements non-naturalistic – mannequin?

   Step 4:
   Include a nursery rhyme which has been turned grotesque – poor little girl, poor little girl, see how she
   runs, she how she runs, we all run after the little girl and cut off her legs with a carving knife, have you
   ever seen such a thing in your life as the poor legless girl (to the tune of 3 blind mice)

				
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