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Endocrine disruptors Project 3 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Subject : Chemistry 51 Name : JJ Prof. : Dr. Paul Shin Abstract These days, we can’t live without chemical synthetic substance. Many problems occur such as abnormalities in male reproductive organs and female reproductive diseases by chemical synthetic substance. These substances combined with hormone receptor (ER; estrogen receptor) then disrupt endocrine; that’s why we call these chemicals endocrine disruptors. They also accumulate in body long time so, it’s influence on descendant. However, we can reduce and prevent the problems. We have to find a solution. Introduction I use a plastic container with a microwave frequently. I heard that it is very unhealthy acting because environmental hormones, endocrine disruptors. What is an endocrine disruptor, how it work and then, how can I prevent from injury by endocrine disruptor? What is hormone? A hormone is a Chemical messenger that carries a signal from one cell to another via the blood. All *multicellular organisms produce hormones. Those released in one part of the body send signals for profound physiological changes in other parts of the body. Q uic kT ime ™ a n d a T IFF (U n co mp r e ss ed ) de c om p re s so r c a re n ee d ed to s ee this p i tu re . Multicellular organism : Organisms consisting of more than one cell. Function of Hormone Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and control the actions of certain cells or organs. Stimulation or inhibition of growth. Activation or inhibition of the immune system. Control the reproductive cycle of virtually all multicellular organism. Control sexual functions. Decide of sex also distinction between male and female of brain. What is Endocrine disruptors? Environmental Hormones (EDCs : Endocrine disrupting chemicals) are chemicals substance by human action of industry, not from organisms. It works like naturally produced hormones but they disrupt endocrine of human and other animals. The EDCs combines with hormone receptor of cell. They interfere with the transport of a hormone or its elimination from the body. EDCs are more affected than the other toxicity chemicals. They concentrate in a body and transferable by food chain to the others so, its more dangerous. - *biological concentration, biological magnification. Biological concentration, magnification : A cumulative increase in the concentrations of a persistent substance in successively higher levels of the food chain. Type of Endocrine disruptors DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) : one of the sources of these pollutants is pesticide use. Americans use some 2 billion pounds of pesticides each year, and some pesticide residues stay in the food chain for decades. It responsible for congenital malformations in wild animals, the decline of sperm counts in men, and breast cancer in women. Dioxins : This Chemical compounds are also environmental pollutants. Dioxins occurs when heating our food in the microwave using plastic containers. High heat and plastics releases dioxins into the food and ultimately into the cells of the body. Dioxins are carcinogens and highly toxic to the cells of our bodies. PCB (Polychlorinated biphenyl) : PCBs were used as coolants and fluids for transformers and capacitors, stabilizing additives in flexible PVC coatings of electrical wiring. Higher chlorinated PCBs are associated with the neurological damage. Common symptoms included dermal and ocular lesions, irregular menstrual cycles and a lowered immune responses. The others : - DES (Diethylstilbestrol) : synthetic estrogen, is a drug to prevent miscarriages. It was found to be a teratogen when given to pregnant women. - BPA (Bisphenol A) : Plastic water and baby bottles, food and beverage can linings and dental sealants ate the most commonly encountered uses of this chemical. This chemicals effects lead to health problems such as , in men, lowered sperm count and infertile sperm and produce precursors of breast cancer. DDT and Bisphenol A are combine with ER(Estrogen receptor) because QuickTime™ an d a these Endocrine TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this p icture. disrupters’ chemical structure are very similar to estrogen. *17B-estrodiol : estrogen. Damage caused by Endocrine disruptors. Wildlife - Masculinization of females. - Feminization of males. - intersex. - deformities. - brain and neurological problems. - abnormal and malformed reproductive organs. Human - reductions in male fertility. (lower sperm volume, numbers and motility) - Increase cancers in relation to hormone. (female reproductive diseases) - Sex ratio. (fewer women) - Impaired behavior/mental, immune and thyroid function in developing children. - Intersex. - earlier puberty. - abnormalities in male reproductive organs. Prevention act Buy organic food, avoid eating instant food. Avoid using pesticides in your home or yard, or on your pet Avoid heating food in plastic containers, or storing fatty foods in plastic containers or plastic wrap. Do not give young children soft plastic toys, since these leach potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. Support efforts to get strong government regulation of and increased research on endocrine disrupting chemicals. Conclusions Endocrine disruptor is one of a problems by civilization. Most problems by civilization originated in artificial synthetic chemicals. More important thing is, they doesn’t come out at once so, it’s difficult to protect. For example, DES was a medicine to prevent abortion for pregnant woman but this medicine may made a deformed child. We must be careful when we using the synthetic chemicals. Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone http://www.bertholdtech.com/ww/en/pub/bioanalytik/applikation/imm uno/hormones.cfm http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_edpik/ls_7.htm http://www.albionmonitor.com/free/estrogencombo.html http://www.andrology.be/life98/index.php http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=dbio.box.5198 http://www.plasticsinfo.org/s_plasticsinfo/sec_level3_collapsed.asp?CI D=656&DID=2593 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polychlorinated_biphenyl http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/qendoc.asp http://ec.europa.eu/research/endocrine/background_health_en.html McCully, s. international journal of food science & technology, 2002.
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