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					           Endocrine disruptors

   Project 3


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   Subject : Chemistry 51
   Name : JJ
   Prof. : Dr. Paul Shin
                    Abstract
   These days, we can’t live without chemical
    synthetic substance. Many problems occur such as
    abnormalities in male reproductive organs and
    female reproductive diseases by chemical synthetic
    substance. These substances combined with
    hormone receptor (ER; estrogen receptor) then
    disrupt endocrine; that’s why we call these
    chemicals endocrine disruptors. They also
    accumulate in body long time so, it’s influence on
    descendant. However, we can reduce and prevent
    the problems. We have to find a solution.
                  Introduction

   I use a plastic container with a microwave
    frequently. I heard that it is very unhealthy acting
    because environmental hormones, endocrine
    disruptors. What is an endocrine disruptor, how it
    work and then, how can I prevent from injury by
    endocrine disruptor?
                  What is hormone?
   A hormone is a Chemical messenger that carries a signal
    from one cell to another via the blood.
    All *multicellular organisms produce hormones.
    Those released in one part of the body send signals for
    profound physiological changes in other parts of the body.


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   Multicellular organism : Organisms consisting of more than one cell.
         Function of Hormone
   Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and
    control the actions of certain cells or organs.
   Stimulation or inhibition of growth.
   Activation or inhibition of the immune system.
   Control the reproductive cycle of virtually all
    multicellular organism.
   Control sexual functions.
   Decide of sex also distinction between male and
    female of brain.
              What is
        Endocrine disruptors?
   Environmental Hormones (EDCs :
    Endocrine disrupting chemicals) are
    chemicals substance by human action of
    industry, not from organisms. It works like
    naturally produced hormones but they
    disrupt endocrine of human and other
    animals.
    The EDCs combines with hormone receptor
    of cell. They interfere with the transport of a
    hormone or its elimination from the body.
    EDCs are more affected than the other
    toxicity chemicals. They concentrate in a
    body and transferable by food chain to the
    others so, its more dangerous. - *biological
    concentration, biological magnification.


   Biological concentration, magnification : A cumulative increase in the
    concentrations of a persistent substance in successively higher levels of the food
    chain.
    Type of Endocrine disruptors
   DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) :
    one of the sources of these pollutants is
    pesticide use. Americans use some 2 billion
    pounds of pesticides each year, and some
    pesticide residues stay in the food chain for
    decades. It responsible for congenital
    malformations in wild animals, the decline
    of sperm counts in men, and breast cancer
    in women.
   Dioxins : This Chemical compounds are
    also environmental pollutants. Dioxins
    occurs when heating our food in the
    microwave using plastic containers. High
    heat and plastics releases dioxins into the
    food and ultimately into the cells of the
    body. Dioxins are carcinogens and highly
    toxic to the cells of our bodies.
   PCB (Polychlorinated biphenyl) : PCBs
    were used as coolants and fluids for
    transformers and capacitors, stabilizing
    additives in flexible PVC coatings of
    electrical wiring. Higher chlorinated PCBs
    are associated with the neurological
    damage. Common symptoms included
    dermal and ocular lesions, irregular
    menstrual cycles and a lowered immune
    responses.
   The others :
       - DES (Diethylstilbestrol) : synthetic estrogen,
    is a drug to prevent miscarriages. It was found
    to be a teratogen when given to pregnant
    women.
       - BPA (Bisphenol A) : Plastic water and baby
    bottles, food and beverage can linings and
    dental sealants ate the most commonly
    encountered uses of this chemical. This
    chemicals effects lead to health problems such
    as , in men, lowered sperm count and infertile
    sperm and produce precursors of breast cancer.
                                          DDT and
                                           Bisphenol A are
                                           combine with
                                           ER(Estrogen
                                           receptor) because
         QuickTime™ an d a                 these Endocrine
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                                           estrogen.



                                       *17B-estrodiol :
                                           estrogen.
          Damage caused by
         Endocrine disruptors.
   Wildlife
    - Masculinization of females.
    - Feminization of males.
    - intersex.
    - deformities.
    - brain and neurological problems.
    - abnormal and malformed reproductive
    organs.
   Human
    - reductions in male fertility.
        (lower sperm volume, numbers and motility)
    - Increase cancers in relation to hormone.
        (female reproductive diseases)
    - Sex ratio. (fewer women)
    - Impaired behavior/mental, immune and
       thyroid function in developing children.
    - Intersex.
    - earlier puberty.
    - abnormalities in male reproductive organs.
                Prevention act
   Buy organic food, avoid eating instant food.
   Avoid using pesticides in your home or yard, or on
    your pet
   Avoid heating food in plastic containers, or storing
    fatty foods in plastic containers or plastic wrap.
   Do not give young children soft plastic toys, since
    these leach potential endocrine disrupting
    chemicals.
   Support efforts to get strong government
    regulation of and increased research on endocrine
    disrupting chemicals.
                  Conclusions
   Endocrine disruptor is one of a problems by
    civilization. Most problems by civilization
    originated in artificial synthetic chemicals. More
    important thing is, they doesn’t come out at
    once so, it’s difficult to protect. For example,
    DES was a medicine to prevent abortion for
    pregnant woman but this medicine may made a
    deformed child. We must be careful when we
    using the synthetic chemicals.
                           Reference
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone
   http://www.bertholdtech.com/ww/en/pub/bioanalytik/applikation/imm
    uno/hormones.cfm
   http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_edpik/ls_7.htm
   http://www.albionmonitor.com/free/estrogencombo.html
   http://www.andrology.be/life98/index.php
   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=dbio.box.5198
   http://www.plasticsinfo.org/s_plasticsinfo/sec_level3_collapsed.asp?CI
    D=656&DID=2593
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polychlorinated_biphenyl
   http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/qendoc.asp
   http://ec.europa.eu/research/endocrine/background_health_en.html
   McCully, s. international journal of food science & technology, 2002.

				
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posted:6/10/2012
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