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					Chapter 10: Constructing Gender and Sexuality


TRUE/FALSE

   1. Even though a person’s sex and gender usually match, this is not always the case.

      ANS: T                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 252

   2. Sociological theories of gender stratification must look beyond biological sex differences.

      ANS: T                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 252

   3. Because expressive and instrumental roles are complementary the social rewards for
      fulfilling them are roughly the same.

      ANS: F                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 254

   4. Gender role socialization begins very early in life and is over by the early twenties.

      ANS: F                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 257

   5. Gender pervades most, but not all, aspects of family life.

      ANS: F                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

   6. Despite boys’ favorable treatment by teachers, girls tend to earn higher grades in elementary
      school.

      ANS: T                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

   7. Girls tend to gain prestige by taking risks and defying norms.

      ANS: F                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

   8. By the time a child reaches kindergarten they will “know” more television characters than
      real people.

      ANS: T                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 259

   9. Men out-earn women at every level of education attainment.

      ANS: T                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 262

  10. Men tend to be more concerned with keeping a conversation going than with controlling its
      direction.

      ANS: F                 PTS:    1              REF: Page 268
  11. Language can reflect social change.

       ANS: T                PTS:    1              REF: Page 268

  12. Pro-feminist men’s groups believe men will be happier if society is less sexist.

       ANS: T                PTS:    1              REF: Page 271

  13. Transsexuals are always homosexual.

       ANS: F                PTS:    1              REF: Page 273

  14. A sociological perspective on homophobia would shift the burden from gays and lesbians to
      those who react negatively to them.

       ANS: T                PTS:    1              REF: Page 275

  15. The hijras of India are recognized by their society as a third gender, neither male nor female
      but something else entirely.

       ANS: T                PTS:    1              REF: Pages 254-255

MULTIPLE CHOICE

   1. After being married for 30 years and raising children, Professor Donald McCloskey
      acknowledged that he had long felt he was really a woman. After intensive therapy,
      hormone treatments, and surgery, Donald became Deirdre. How did this affect her life?
      a. Deirdre found new professional interests, writing about women’s issues with
         economics.
      b. Deirdre experienced no significant change.
      c. Deirdre experienced significant changes in her health and well-being.
      d. Deirdre dropped out of academic life to be a housewife.
      e. Deirdre became less interested in sports.
       ANS: A                PTS:    1              REF: Page 251

   2. In addition to gender itentity being about who we are, Chapter 10 argues that gender identity
      is also about:
      a. what we do.
      b. our biology.
      c. our hormones.
      d. our sense of self.
      e. All of the above.
       ANS: A                PTS:    1              REF: Page 252

   3. How do sociologists differentiate between sex and gender?
      a. Sex is biological, gender is social.
      b. Both relate to genetics, but hormones influence gender more.
   c. Sex comes from DNA, gender comes from hormones.
   d. Sex is genetic, gender is about primary and secondary sex characteristics.
   e. Gender is biological, sex is social.
   ANS: A                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 252

4. Secondary sex characteristics include:
   a. facial hair, body hair, musculature.
   b. internal reproductive organs.
   c. genital and gonads.
   d. hormones and pituitary glands.
   e. all of the above
   ANS: E                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 253

5. How many babies out of every thousand are born intersexed?
   a. 100
   b. 17
   c. 500
   d. 1.5
   e. 0
   ANS: B                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 252

6. Why are doctors and parents so quick to seek a surgical “fix” for babies born intersexed?
   a. The baby is at serious risk for health risks later in life.
   b. The baby may die otherwise.
   c. The prospect of an ambiguously gendered person seems threatening and
      disturbing.
   d. They can always tell the sex the baby was meant to be.
   e. It would be impossible to change the baby’s sex later in life.
   ANS: C                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 252

7. The belief that the experiences of women and men differ as a result of differences in
   anatomy is called:
   a. gender theory.
   b. social lens theory.
   c. transsexuality.
   d. human sexual dimorphism.
   e. social constructionism.
   ANS: D                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 252

8. What group of people is forcing contemporary society to broaden their definitions of sex
   and gender?
   a. Social scientists.
   b. Female athletes.
   c. Feral children.
   d. Transvestites.
   e. Housewives.
     ANS: D                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 252

 9. According to Chapter 10, how should scientists approach the nature vs. nurture debate?
    a. By looking at the interaction between the two.
    b. By emphasizing the social nature of gender.
    c. By looking more closely at the biological origins of gender.
    d. By assuming that nature only matters for children’s gender socialization.
    e. By looking for evidence that nature influences grooming and body modification.
     ANS: A                 PTS:   1               REF: Pages 252-253

10. People who see gender as immutable and deriving solely from biology are called:
    a. essentialists.
    b. social constructionists.
    c. queer theorists.
    d. structural functionalists.
    e. globalists.
     ANS: A                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 253

11. The roles, traits, and behaviors that are associated with a particular gender are called:
    a. social learning.
    b. instrumental roles.
    c. a sexual continuum.
    d. feminism.
    e. gender identity.
     ANS: E                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 253

12. Some people suggest that women are better suited to be housewives because they are
    naturally more caring and emotional than men. What perspective is being expressed in this
    statement?
    a. Essentialist perspective.
    b. Constructionist perspective.
    c. Macro perspective.
    d. Interactionist perspective.
    e. Gender role socialization perspective.
     ANS: A                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 253

13. Most sociologists see gender as a social construction, and acknowledge the possibility that
    male-female categories are not the only way of classifying individuals. This perspective is
    called:
    a. constructionist perspective.
    b. essentialist perspective.
    c. macro perspective.
    d. interactionist perspective.
    e. gender role socialization perspective.
     ANS: A                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 253
14. How is patriarchy defined?
    a. Female domination.
    b. A system where there are only two complementary roles.
    c. Male domination.
    d. A system of gender role socialization.
    e. The fear of being in close quarters with homosexuals.
     ANS: C                PTS:   1              REF: Page 253

15. The Vanatinai, a small group in New Guinea, grant women equal access to positions of
    prestige, power, and control over the means of production. What kind of society is this?
    a. Patriarchal.
    b. Matriarchal politically, but not economically.
    c. An essentialist society.
    d. More pro-feminine than most.
    e. Matriarchal.
     ANS: D                PTS:   1              REF: Page 253

16. What do functionalists generally believe to be true about gender?
    a. Some social roles are better suited to one gender than the other.
    b. There are at least three complementary roles.
    c. Men maintain control of the most valuable roles.
    d. The current system of gender stratification is based on conflict.
    e. Gender is constructed and maintained through everyday actions.
     ANS: A                PTS:   1              REF: Pages 254-255

17. What two roles did structuralist Talcott Parsons identify within the family?
    a. Conflict and conciliatory roles.
    b. Instrumental and expressive roles.
    c. Interactionist and non-interactionist roles.
    d. Masculine and feminine roles.
    e. Men’s rights and pro-feminist roles.
     ANS: B                PTS:   1              REF: Page 255

18. According to Talcott Parsons and other functionalists which role are women better suited
    for:
    a. the feminist role.
    b. the patriarchal role.
    c. the expressive role.
    d. the instrumental role.
    e. the mainstream role.
     ANS: C                PTS:   1              REF: Page 255

19. The family member who is task-driven, a bread winner, and an authority figure is taking the
    _____ role.
    a. expressive
    b. patriarchal
    c. constructionist
    d. instrumental
    e. essentialist
    ANS: D                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 255

20. According to conflict theory, why are women’s contributions to family life devalued?
    a. The resources provided by men are ultimately more valuable.
    b. Juvenile delinquency and crime decline when both parents work.
    c. When no one plays the expressive role, family life remains the same.
    d. Women are entering the workforce in greater numbers.
    e. As a result of men’s attempt to maintain their dominant status.
    ANS: E                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 256

21. According to Friedrich Engels, how do capitalists benefit from a patriarchal system?
    a. Women serve as a cheap source of emergency labor.
    b. Men work harder.
    c. Women do the work of reproducing the labor force.
    d. It forces women to enter the workforce.
    e. Both A and C.
    ANS: C                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 256

22. Sociologists who examine the ways gender is constructed and maintained in our everyday
    lives tend to come from which school of social theory?
    a. Essentialism.
    b. Symbolic interactionism.
    c. Structural functionalism.
    d. Conflict theory.
    e. Feminism.
    ANS: B                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 256

23. How did “Agnes,” a person born with male genitalia and raised as a boy before undergoing
    sex reassignment treatment, manage to pass as female while in public?
    a. She carefully mimicked her roommate’s style of dress.
    b. She learned to show deference to her male boss.
    c. She listened to her boyfriend and his family members talk about their expectations
        for her.
    d. She avoided wearing skirts or going to the beach.
    e. All of the above.
    ANS: E                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 257

24. Which of the following is not one of the four major agents of socialization?
    a. Peers.
    b. Schools.
    c. The family.
    d. The mall.
    e. The media.
    ANS: D                PTS:    1              REF: Page 257

25. When does gender role socialization begin?
    a. Upon birth.
    b. Around the age of two.
    c. Around puberty.
    d. When children begin attending school.
    e. Before birth.
    ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 257

26. The process of learning behavior and meanings through social interaction is called:
    a. social learning.
    b. the rules of beauty.
    c. sexual orientation.
    d. media consumption.
    e. essentialist gender identity.
    ANS: A                PTS:    1              REF: Page 257

27. At what age do babies become aware of their own gender?
    a. At birth.
    b. By the age of two.
    c. When they begin attending school.
    d. Six weeks at the latest.
    e. When they start walking.
    ANS: B                PTS:    1              REF: Pages 257-258

28. At what point in a child’s school career do gender norms become firmly established?
    a. By first grade.
    b. By their sophomore year of high school.
    c. By fifth grade.
    d. Almost as soon as they enter school.
    e. Before the end of high school.
    ANS: C                PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

29. From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what is the most important way schools
    socialize children into their gender identities?
    a. The interactions between teachers and parents.
    b. Through conflict theory.
    c. By exposing children to mass media.
    d. By punishing children for minor violations of gender norms on the playground.
    e. The interactions between teachers and students.
    ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

30. How do teachers treat boys and girls differently?
    a. Boys are more likely to be called on in class.
    b. Boys are more likely to be punished for misbehaving.
     c. Boys receive more attention.
     d. Boys are given more praise for the intellectual quality of their work.
     e. All of the above.
     ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

31. Why don’t girls, who tend to get better grades than boys, translate that advantage into
    material success after school is over?
    a. They tend to flaunt authority.
    b. They are typically credited for hard work rather than intellectual ability.
    c. They are more likely to misbehave.
    d. They are poorly socialized.
    e. All of the above.
     ANS: B                PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

32. How do schools socialize children into gender roles?
    a. Textbooks often contain sexist language.
    b. Women are rarely treated as appropriate objects of study.
    c. Women tend to be concentrated in the lower levels of the teaching profession.
    d. Women authors are rarely assigned.
    e. All of the above.
     ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

33. Who is most likely to be mocked by their peers for violating gender norms?
    a. Girls.
    b. Minorities.
    c. Overachievers.
    d. Children for whom English is a second language.
    e. Boys.
     ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 258

34. What sort of sex role behavior is portrayed in the media?
    a. The media typically portrays extreme gender stereotypes.
    b. The media tends to portray a fairly gender-neutral world.
    c. Television is highly stereotypic, but the same cannot be said for other forms of
       mass media.
    d. Mass media aimed at teenagers contains more stereotypes than that directed at
       other age groups.
    e. Television and movies teach children that women should be assertive, strong, and
       analytic.
     ANS: A                PTS:    1              REF: Pages 258-259

35. According to Chapter 10, why do men usually make more money than women?
    a. They are naturally predisposed to competition.
    b. They tend to have higher levels of testosterone, which gives them an edge in the
       business world.
    c. They cheat.
    d. They are more likely to spend the money of their families than women.
    e. The values and norms of contemporary society encourage them to do so.
    ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 262

36. Speaking of health and life expectancy, what did Chapter 10 call the “great equalizer”?
    a. Smoking.
    b. Handguns.
    c. Title IX.
    d. College education.
    e. Immigration.
    ANS: A                PTS:    1              REF: Page 261

37. Which of the following health disorders occurs more often in women than men?
    a. Heart disease.
    b. Cancer.
    c. Spinal meningitis.
    d. Type 1 diabetes.
    e. Depression.
    ANS: E                PTS:    1              REF: Page 261

38. Who is more likely to report never having been married?
    a. Women.
    b. Men.
    c. Hispanics.
    d. Caucasians.
    e. Members of the upper class.
    ANS: B                PTS:    1              REF: Page 261

39. How do single fathers’ incomes compare to those of single mothers?
    a. They are about the same.
    b. Single fathers make more in urban areas, but not in rural ones.
    c. Single mothers with only one child make more, but this becomes less true as they
       have more children.
    d. Single fathers make considerably more.
    e. Single mothers make considerably more.
    ANS: D                PTS:    1              REF: Page 261

40. In what two categories of crime do women outnumber men?
    a. Burglary and robbery.
    b. Extortion and embezzlement.
    c. Blackmail and wire fraud.
    d. Prostitution and runaways.
    e. Theft and assault.
    ANS: D                PTS:    1              REF: Page 262

41. Why are female runaways more likely to be reported as missing by their parents?
     a.   Girls are seen as weak and needing protection.
     b.   Girls are more likely to run away at a younger age.
     c.   Girls are more likely to go further when they run away.
     d.   Boys so seldom run away.
     e.   Parents are more likely to be happy to have male children out of the home.
     ANS: A                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 262

42. Approximately what percentage of inmates in correctional institutions are men?
    a. 62.5%
    b. 90%
    c. 10%
    d. 47%
    e. 50%
     ANS: B                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 262

43. In 2004, what percentage of secretaries were female?
    a. 7%
    b. 96.9%
    c. 68.5%
    d. 52.1%
    e. 12.7%
     ANS: B                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 263

44. Chapter 10 reports that one reason women are more likely than men to live in poverty is
    because childcare is increasingly expensive. How is this connection between poverty rates
    and childcare costs explained?
    a. Women are more likely to be responsible for the “second shift.”
    b. There are more single women with sole financial responsibility for their children.
    c. Married couples tend to divide their expenses, and women are more likely to be
       responsible for childcare.
    d. Women tend to take the expressive role.
    e. Women are more willing to pay for childcare.
     ANS: B                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 264

45. According to Chapter 10, how do men and women in the military experience gender
    harassment differently?
    a. Men never reported being harassed at all.
    b. Men are more likely to report being harassed by their fellow trainees while women
        are more likely to be harassed by their drill sergeants.
    c. Men are more likely to report being harassed by their drill sergeants while women
        were more likely to be harassed by their fellow trainees.
    d. Women were most often harassed by their superior officers.
    e. Men are far more likely to report being the object of unwanted gender harassment.
     ANS: C                 PTS:   1              REF: Page 265

46. Women are more likely to live in poverty, a situation often referred to as:
     a.   the wages of sin.
     b.   the double standard.
     c.   feminization of poverty.
     d.   third wave feminism.
     e.   the Men’s Movement.
     ANS: C                 PTS:     1             REF: Page 264

47. Positions of power and authority, like “chairman” and “policeman,” often directly
    emphasize the male gender in their names. Why does this matter?
    a. Such words imply that one gender is more suited for a particular job than the other.
    b. Because it’s rude and inconsiderate.
    c. Because it’s confusing as more and more women enter these professions.
    d. It doesn’t really matter what words are used.
    e. Because it helps deter men from entering these fields.
     ANS: A                 PTS:     1             REF: Pages 266, 268

48. In the workplace aggressive men are often considered “go-getters” but aggressive women
    are often considered “bitches.” This is an example of:
    a. labeling theory.
    b. the double standard.
    c. feminism.
    d. romanticism.
    e. male liberationism.
     ANS: B                 PTS:     1             REF: Page 268

49. A belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes is called:
    a. conflict theory.
    b. feminism.
    c. social constructionism.
    d. interactionism.
    e. Darwinism.
     ANS: B                 PTS:     1             REF: Page 269

50. Social movements organized around the belief in the social, political, and economic equality
    of the sexes are called:
    a. structural functionalism.
    b. interactionism.
    c. men’s liberationism.
    d. queer theory.
    e. feminism.
     ANS: E                 PTS:     1             REF: Page 269

51. In 1913 Rebecca West said that whenever she expressed sentiments that differentiated her
    from a doormat or a prostitute she was called a:
    a. lesbian.
    b. social constructionist.
    c. Marxist.
    d. bitch.
    e. feminist.
    ANS: E                PTS:    1             REF: Page 269

52. What issue is first wave feminism most strongly associated with?
    a. Sexual harassment.
    b. Women’s suffrage.
    c. Education and equality in the classroom.
    d. Equal opportunity in the workplace.
    e. Reproductive rights.
    ANS: B                PTS:    1             REF: Page 269

53. In the opening pages of The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan wrote about a problem that
    “Laid buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women.” What was this
    problem?
    a. The fact that women didn’t have the right to vote.
    b. The unrealistic beauty standards imposed upon women by the media.
    c. Dissatisfaction with traditional gender roles.
    d. Female genital mutilation.
    e. The oppression of women in the Third World.
    ANS: C                PTS:    1             REF: Page 270

54. In 1962, future United States Senator Elizabeth Dole was told she shouldn’t be attending
    Harvard Law School. Why did her critics believe this?
    a. She hadn’t received very good grades as an undergraduate.
    b. They believed she was only admitted because she was female.
    c. She had children.
    d. They felt she was taking an opportunity away from a man.
    e. They thought she could do more for feminism by working to change the system,
        not working within it.
    ANS: D                PTS:    1             REF: Page 270

55. What criticism do third-wave feminists commonly level against the first two waves?
    a. They marginalized the concerns of women of color.
    b. They included too many men.
    c. They excluded men.
    d. They focused too much on jobs and the economy.
    e. They compromised too much.
    ANS: A                PTS:    1             REF: Page 270

56. Which group argues that, as a result of feminism, men suffer discrimination?
    a. The Republican Party.
    b. The Men’s Rights movement.
    c. Third wave feminism.
    d. Gay and lesbian groups.
    e. The Masons.
    ANS: B                PTS:   1              REF: Page 271

57. According to the pro-feminist men’s movement, why should men support feminism?
    a. Out of fairness to women.
    b. Men’s lives are constrained by gender rules as well.
    c. The ideology of male superiority is burden.
    d. Men will be happier if society is less sexist.
    e. All of the above.
    ANS: E                PTS:   1              REF: Page 271

58. Why did former Colorado University football coach Bill McCartney found the men’s group,
    the Promise Keepers?
    a. He believed society needed to return to traditional gender roles.
    b. He believed that the lessons learned coaching college football should be applied to
        all aspects of modern life.
    c. He wanted men to share in the responsibilities of childcare.
    d. He wanted to revolutionize traditional gender roles.
    e. He wanted to advance the ideas of queer theory in the mainstream.
    ANS: A                PTS:   1              REF: Page 271

59. Why might gay and lesbian groups be predisposed to believe homosexuality has a genetic
    origin?
    a. They believe that sexuality is fluid and changes over the course of a person’s
        lifetime.
    b. They want to emphasize the importance of difference.
    c. They believe that a person’s sexuality is closely related to their relationship with
        their mother.
    d. If sexual orientation is something one is born with, then discrimination is much
        less acceptable.
    e. Gays and lesbians are predisposed to believe in science.
    ANS: D                PTS:   1              REF: Page 272

60. How does Chapter 10 define homophobia?
    a. People who identity with a sex they were not born into.
    b. The dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals.
    c. Violence directed at gays and lesbians.
    d. The unusual and deviant behavior engaged in by gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.
    e. People who are sexually attracted to both men and women.
    ANS: B                PTS:   1              REF: Page 275

61. What was the first network television show to feature an onscreen gay male kiss?
    a. Ellen
    b. Queer Eye for the Straight Guy
    c. Will & Grace
    d. Dawson’s Creek
        e. The Homosexuals
        ANS: C                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 277

  62. According to a study cited in Chapter 10, how do men believe that they express intimacy in
      friendships and other relationships?
      a. Through emotional revelation and conversation.
      b. Through relationships with the nuclear family.
      c. Through therapy and counseling.
      d. Through shared activity.
      e. All of the above.
        ANS: D                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 267

  63. Chapter 10 discussed several myths about gender and friendship, including the idea that
      women and men can never truly be friends because sex will always get in the way. What
      assumption is one basis for this myth?
      a. Men only see women as sex objects when they are young.
      b. Women are unable to control themselves.
      c. Men only pretend to care about sex in front of other men.
      d. Everyone is heterosexual.
      e. All of the above.
        ANS: D                 PTS:   1               REF: Page 267

  64. Nineteenth-century explorers and missionaries described Native American individuals who
      were neither male nor female, but somehow both. What did they call them?
      a. Transsexuals.
      b. Berdaches.
      c. Transvestites.
      d. Queers.
      e. Homosexuals.
        ANS: B                 PTS:   1               REF: Pages 254-255

ESSAY

   1. According to Chapter 10, a person’s sex is not the same thing as a person’s gender. Explain
      the difference.

        ANS:
        In basic terms, sex is biological while gender is socially constructed. Any answer should
        mention that a person’s sex is either male or female, depending on their primary sex
        characteristics, while their gender refers to any number of traits that a group considers to be
        normal for men or women. In other words, sex is inherited and gender is learned.

        PTS:   1               REF: Section - What is Sex? What is Gender?

   2. How do functionalists and conflict theorists differ in their approaches to and understandings
      of gender inequality?
   ANS:
   According to Chapter 10, the functionalist perspective sees some merit in a patriarchal
   division of labor within a family in which the man is the breadwinner and the woman is the
   caretaker. A good answer will mention Talcott Parsons’s conception of the complementary
   nature of the man’s “instrumental role” and the woman’s “expressive role.” However,
   according to Chapter 10, this theory does little to explain the persistence of inequality in this
   setup. Conflict theorists like Friedrich Engels, on the other hand, believe that gender
   inequality is exploitative of women and persists because the capitalist system is bolstered by
   keeping women in uncompensated support roles.

   PTS:    1              REF: Section - Gender Inequality

3. Interactionists argue that people learn their gender identity from everyday interactions and
   that a person’s family is the primary source for gender socialization. Explain some of the
   ways a person’s parents and siblings can teach them gender.

   ANS:
   According to Chapter 10, gender is taught in families in a variety of ways. Any answer
   should mention factors like imitation (girls learning from their mothers’ examples), the
   clothing children are dressed in, and the different manner of toys that are given to boys and
   girls, as well as the different expectations, privileges, and chores doled out to boys and girls
   (the example given in the book is of a son being asked to mow the lawn and a daughter to do
   the dishes). A good answer will also discuss Kara Smith’s argument that parents begin the
   gender socialization process even before a child is born in the way they address the fetus,
   specifically word choice and tone of voice.

   PTS:    1              REF: Section - Gender Role Socialization

4. According to Chapter 10, differences in the educational experiences of boys and girls appear
   early and persist throughout the education system. Explain how these differences result in
   gender inequality.

   ANS:
   Early gender socialization in school involves children being placed in same-sex groups, and
   often being given gender-stereotyped activities. Any answer should mention the idea that
   teachers, male or female and whether they realize it or not, tend to treat boys and girls
   differently. Boys get more attention in the classroom, are called on more frequently, and are
   given more complicated tasks, but they also tend to get into trouble more often. A good
   answer will point out that while girls overcome this unequal treatment in elementary school,
   by middle school and high school, they become more self-conscious about competing with
   boys and less confident in the academic abilities, especially in traditionally male-dominated
   fields like math and science. A good answer might also mention the prevalence of sexist
   language and stereotypes in textbooks and the fact that, within the education system, women
   are more concentrated in lower-level jobs with men dominating in management and
   administrational levels.

   PTS:    1              REF: Section - Gender Role Socialization
5. According to arrest rate data listed in Chapter 10, one of the only categories in which
   females outnumber males as offenders is the juvenile offense of running away from home.
   How does gender socialization and stereotyping influence this phenomenon?

   ANS:
   According to the statistics put forth in Chapter 10, men dominate the arrest records for most
   crimes. Any answer should mention the idea that girls are more often arrested for being
   runaways because girls, in general, are seen as more vulnerable and in need of protection
   and therefore are more likely to be reported missing by their parents and more likely to be
   noticed or sought after by police. A good answer will also mention that, since boys and men
   are generally seen as more apt to violence or destruction, they are often more closely
   watched and more often arrested by police.

   PTS:    1              REF: Section - Sex, Gender, and Life Chances

6. While the use of “man” or “mankind” in reference to all humans is fairly easily identifiable
   as evidence of a default preference toward men in our language, some commonly used
   words are more tricky. In what ways do feminine nicknames like “cupcake” or “babydoll,”
   or even derogatory ones like “heifer” or “cow” perpetuate gender stereotypes and
   inequality?

   ANS:
   These sorts of slang nicknames are used almost exclusively to refer to women or girls. Any
   answer should discuss the underlying implication behind the literal words: food, like a
   cupcake, is meant to be consumed; babies, or babydolls, are meant to be coddled; and
   animals, like cows, are to be controlled. In this way, the nickname serves to perpetuate ideas
   of how the women themselves are to be treated.

   PTS:    1              REF: Section - Gender and Language

7. A signpost of the second wave of the feminist movement in the United States was Betty
   Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique. What concept was Friedan referring to with the
   phrase “feminine mystique?”

   ANS:
   The idea behind The Feminine Mystique was that women in the 1960s were no longer
   satisfied by their traditional roles in society. Any answer should mention the sense of
   limitation and dissatisfaction among women, as observed by Friedan. A good answer will
   discuss the idea that, though this period was marked by a great deal of prosperity, “the
   mystique of feminine fulfillment” was no longer fulfilling for many women and those who
   did try to venture into the professional world, away from the traditional roles of wife and
   mother, were often labeled “unfeminine.”

   PTS:    1              REF: Section - The Women’s Movement

8. Why were members of the third wave of the feminist movement critical of the first and
   second waves? How was the third wave different from the previous two?

   ANS:
    According to Chapter 10, third-wave feminists felt that the first two waves concentrated on
    and primarily benefited white, middle-class women, while underserving minority women
    and other marginalized groups like lesbians and working-class women. Any answer should
    discuss the fact that the third wave of the feminist movement, which got underway in the
    80s and 90s, branched off into other causes as well: women’s rights in foreign countries,
    animal rights, and the environment. A good answer will also mention the broader
    participation in the third wave. According to Chapter 10, even if they don’t call themselves
    feminists, most college students do belong to the third wave.

    PTS:    1             REF: Section - The Women’s Movement

 9. The male liberationism movement is concerned with the stress inherent in being a man,
    including the pressure to succeed and the inability or reluctance to express themselves. Why
    did this movement break off into two distinct movements and what distinguished each from
    the other?

    ANS:
    According to Chapter 10, as the feminist movement began to gather steam and demand
    more radical changes, men’s liberationism splintered. Any answer should mention that the
    break in the movement was caused by a difference in opinion as to how to react to the
    feminist movement: the men’s rights movement found serious problems with the feminist
    movement, arguing that feminism actually caused discrimination against men in the legal
    arena as well as every day life; the pro-feminist men’s movement, on the other hand,
    supports the feminist movement. In fact, proponents of the pro-feminist men’s movement
    believe that many of the stresses faced by men are caused by the perception that men should
    be superior. They argue that men will be happier and more well-adjusted when feminism
    gains more ground and society becomes less sexist.

    PTS:    1             REF: Section - The Men’s Movement

10. The debate over the underlying cause of homosexuality - whether it’s genetic, hormonal, or
    the result of socialization - remains unresolved. Explain why many in the gay rights
    movement have embraced the genetic explanation.

    ANS:
    According to Chapter 10, gays and lesbians often rally behind the genetic model of
    homosexuality because it’s easier to argue for equal rights if the assumption is that their
    sexuality is an inherited trait (just like being a woman or a minority). A good answer will
    also mention that the genetic argument makes it possible to bypass the religious debate over
    whether sexuality is “morally right,” and the idea that many straight Americans are more
    sympathetic to the gay rights cause if they feel that sexual orientation is not a choice but a
    characteristic one is born with.

    PTS:    1             REF: Section - Sexual Orientation

				
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