Transport in the Netherlands by leader6


									                            Transport in the Netherlands

Rail transport

Railway tracks in the Netherlands (2001)

Railway tracks

The Netherlands has an extensive and much-used
railway network, connecting virtually all cities
and many towns with each other. Trains are
frequent, with two trains per hour on most lines in
the country, up to 8 or 10 trains an hour between
the big cities. Trains are divided into stoptreinen
(stop trains, stopping at all stations), sneltreinen
(fast trains, stopping in bigger towns) and
intercities, providing fast connections between the
bigger cities.

   •   all standard gauge (1.435 m) (from 1839
       till 1864: 1.945 m.; it was changed
       because Germany and Belgium had 1.435
   •   total: 2809 route-km, 6505 track-km
   •   electrified 2061 km (2001), 1500 volt DC.
   •   3,004 level crossings, of which 2,144 are protected.

ProRail takes care of maintenance and extensions of the national railway network infrastructure
(not metros or trams), allocating rail capacity, and traffic control. The rail capacity supplied by
ProRail is used by five public transport operators as well as cargo operators: Railion, ERS,
ACTS, Rail4Chem. Also there is Herik Rail, with seven carriages, where trains can be chartered
for parties, meetings, etc.

Not operational is the NESM Nostalgie Expresse.

New tracks operated since December 2003

   •   Hemboog between Schiphol/Amsterdam-Lelylaan and Zaandam, bypassing the crossing
       at Amsterdam Sloterdijk Hemboog at Amsterdam Sloterdijk. It provides a direct
       connection between Schiphol and Zaandam / Hoorn. It would also allow a direct train
       service from Schiphol to Alkmaar, but that is not provided yet.
   •   Gooiboog between Hilversum/Naarden-Bussum and Almere Muziekwijk
   •   Utrechtboog between Schiphol/Amsterdam-Rai and Bijlmer/Utrecht, bypassing the
       crossing at Duivendrecht.

New lines under construction

   •   The HSL Zuid
   •   A freight line from Rotterdam to Germany, the Betuweroute.
   •   The Hanzelijn project is a planned railway line Lelystad-Dronten-Kampen and upgrading
       of the stretch Kampen-Zwolle. This is also supposed to replace the deemed too expensive
       maglev line Amsterdam - Almere - Lelystad - Emmeloord - Heerenveen - Drachten -
       Groningen (city).

There are two crossings of regular railway lines, both non-level and with a station providing
stops on both lines: Amsterdam Sloterdijk and Duivendrecht. A third crossingis under
construction east of Zoetermeer, also non-level but without stops, one line is the HSL Zuid.

Non-electrified lines

(with timetable number)

   •   Groningen-Delfzijl 84
   •   Groningen-Roodeschool 83
   •   Groningen-Nieuweschans Grens 85
   •   Groningen-Leeuwarden 80
   •   Leeuwarden-Harlingen 81
   •   Leeuwarden-Stavoren 82
   •   Zwolle-Kampen 63
   •   Zwolle-Wierden 65
   •   Almelo-Marienberg 72
   •   Zutphen-Hengelo 73
   •   Enschede-Glanerbrug Grens 522
   •   Zutphen-Apeldoorn 67
   •   Zutphen-Winterswijk 71
   •   Arnhem-Winterswijk 70
   •   Arnhem-Tiel 68
   •   Nijmegen-Roermond 29
   •   Landgraaf-Landgraaf Grens 525

Railways for public transport

   •   operated mainly by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), minor parts by NoordNed, Syntus,
       Connexxion, DB Regionalbahn Westfalen, and (from Dec 2004) Prignitzer Eisenbahn
       (PE Holding AG, Arriva); all have a common tariff system.

Most trains have 1st and 2nd class; some local trains belonging to local railway operators
NoordNed and Syntus only have 2nd class.

International trains

   •   Amsterdam C - Schiphol Airport - The Hague HS - Rotterdam C - Dordrecht -
       Roosendaal - Antwerp - Berchem - Mechelen - Brussels Noord - Brussels C - Brussels
       Zuid). Also known as The Benelux train.
          o The train has a multisystem locomotive which can use 1500 volt DC
              (Netherlands) and 3000 volt DC (Belgium).
   •   Thalys : Amsterdam C - Schiphol Airport - The Hague HS - Rotterdam C - Antwerp
       Berchem - Brussels Midi -Paris Nord; twice a week also to Marne-La-Vallée-Chessy
       (Disneyland Resort Paris)
           o  The train can use 1500 volt DC (Netherlands), 3000 volt DC (Belgium) and
              25000 volt AC 50 Hz (France).
          o High-speed between Brussels and Paris.
          o HSL Zuid-project: a new high-speed railway is being built between Schiphol
              Airport and Brussels.
   •   Amsterdam Centraal - Berlin Ostbahnhof, Germany, has stops in the Netherlands at::
          o Amsterdam Centraal
          o Amersfoort
          o Deventer
          o Hengelo
   •   Amsterdam Centraal - Frankfurt Hbf, Germany and Basel SBB, Switzerland and once a
       day City-NightLine further to Munich, Germany and Vienna Westbf, Austria, partly by
       ICE , has stops in the Netherlands at:
          o Amsterdam Centraal
          o Duivendrecht (not all trains stop here)
          o Utrecht Centraal
          o Arnhem
   •   Maastricht- Brussels direct train

Night service

There is a night service, called Nachtnet (Night Network, although it is just a single U-shaped
line) with a hourly service connecting Rotterdam Central, Delft, The Hague Central, Leiden
Central, Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam Central, Utrecht Central (i.e., most of the large cities in
the Randstad as well as the main airport). Due to the U-shape, the travelling time from the first
four stations to Utrecht is longer than during the day.

Public transport in general
Metros and trams usually run from around 06:00 until midnight.
There are night buses in a number of cities, but only on Friday and
Saturday night in the smaller ones. Sometimes these will only run
during the first part of the night, or in one direction only; e.g. the

A public transport pass for train (2nd class), bus, metro and tram
costs 3360.50 euro/year (2006). It is also valid on the ferries
Vlissingen-Breskens, Amsterdam-IJmuiden and Rotterdam-
Dordrecht. It is not valid on most other ferries, nor on the Thalys.
Night services by train are included, those by bus are not.

Other public transport
All metros and trams and almost all buses share the National Tariff System (nl) . For buses
exceptions are:

   •   neighborhood buses (small 8-person vans driven by mostly elderly volunteers in lowly
       populated areas; operated by bus companies but with different tariff system)
   •   night buses
   •   some bus services that are mainly for pleasure, such as serving an amusement park or
       beaches, e.g.:
           o   special summer bus service from Zandvoort train station to the south side (near
               the nude beach) and to Bloemendaal aan Zee


(all standard gauge (1.435 m))

   •   Amsterdam, Diemen, Ouder-Amstel, operated by Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf (GVB)
       (GVB site, Urbanrail site)
          o power 750 volt DC
   •   Rotterdam, Schiedam, Spijkenisse, Albrandswaard, Capelle aan den IJssel, operated by
       Rotterdamse Electrische Tramweg Maatschappij (RET);
          o power 750 volt DC
          o The eastern parts of the system have some level crossings (with priority), and
              could therefore be called light rail instead of metro; however, they are integrated
              in the system; these parts have overhead wires, while the rest has third-rail, the
              vehicles can handle both.

Tram / light rail

All have standard gauge (1.435 m).

   •   Amsterdam, Diemen, Amstelveen, operated by GVB
         o power 600 volt DC, length 80,5 km

   •   Rotterdam, Schiedam, operated by RET
          o lines: 1 Schiedam Woudhoek - CS - De Esch, 2 Charlois - Lombardijen NS, 4
              Molenlaan - CS - Heemraadsplein, 5 Schiebroek - CS - Willemsplein, 7 Spangen -
              CS - Woudestein, 8 Spangen - CS - Oostplein, 20 CS - Lombardijen, 23 CS -
              Beverwaard, 25 CS - Carnisselande, total length appr. 100 km[1]

   •   The Hague, Rijswijk, Leidschendam-Voorburg, Delft, Nootdorp, operated by HTM
          o power 600 volt DC, total length unknown

   •   Utrecht, Nieuwegein, IJsselstein, operated by Connexxion (light rail in the sense of
       intermediate form between tram and train, with its own right-of-way, with level crossings
       with priority).
           o Stops for both branches: Moreelsepark - Stadsbusstation - Westplein - Graadt van
               Roggenweg - Ziekenhuis Oudenrijn - Vijf Meiplein - Vasco da Gamalaan -
               Kanaleneiland Zuid - Westraven - Zuilenstein - Batau Noord - Wijckersloot -
               Nieuwegein Centrum.
           o Further stops on Nieuwegein branch: Merwestein - Fokkesteeg - Wiersdijk -
               Nieuwegein Zuid.
           o Further stops on IJsselstein branch: St. Antonius Ziekenhuis - Doorslag - Hooge
               Waard - Eiteren - Clinckhoef - Achterveld.

   •   Houten, operated by NS (light rail line, could be called metro, though not underground,
       with its own right-of-way, without level crossings).
          o power 1500 volt DC (tram has been adapted with a so-called 'downchopper' to
               allow the use of this higher voltage), overhead wires

RandstadRail and other light rail projects
RandstadRail (named after the Randstad agglomeration) connects Rotterdam, The Hague,
Zoetermeer and the suburbs in between with each other.

   •   The Erasmus Line of the Rotterdam metro system goes all the way to The Hague central
       station. In the near future this metro will continue towards southern Rotterdam. At the
       moment it terminates at Hofplein.

   •   RandstadRail lines 3 and 4 in The Hague are lightrail connections from The Hague South
       to Zoetermeer. Existing tram tracks in The Hague are adapted for the longer and wider

   •   RijnGouweLijn between Gouda and Alphen aan den Rijn. For more information and
       future developments, see RijngouweLijn.

There are plans for the construction of a light rail line between Maastricht and Kerkrade and
converting the Dordrecht - Geldermalsen railway line into a light rail service.


Both regional and city buses can be found throughout the country. Because of the extensive train
system, the number of long-distance buses is limited to a few missing railway connections.

A special bus line around Amsterdam is the Zuidtangent, which has largely its own bus lane,
with priority at crossings.

       Route: Station Haarlem - Hoofddorp - Schiphol (railway station) - Amstelveen -
       Amsterdam Zuidoost

Arnhem has a trolleybus system.

Bus companies include Arriva, Connex, Connexxion, Hermes, NoordNed, Syntus.

Cycle ways
The Netherlands have a very high amount of well-constructed bicycle lanes. Biking is a common
way of transport, and there are big bicycle parkings near stations.

total: 125,575 km
paved: 113,018 km (including 2,235 km of expressways)
unpaved: 12,557 km (1998 est.)

5046 km, of which 47% is usable by craft of 1000 metric ton capacity or larger.

crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km
Ports and harbors
Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Groningen, Haarlem, IJmuiden,
Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Utrecht, Vlissingen)

Merchant marine
total: 563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,035,899 GRT/4,576,841 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 343, chemical tanker 41, combination bulk 2, container 56, liquified
gas 20, livestock carrier 1, multi-functional large load carrier 8, passenger 8, petroleum tanker
25, refrigerated cargo 32, roll-on/roll-off 16, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 5 (1999
note: many Dutch-owned ships are also operating under the registry of Netherlands Antilles
(1998 est.)

Schiphol, the Amsterdam airport, is the main airport in the Netherlands, and the fourth largest in
Europe. There are also a number of regional airports, the most popular being Eindhoven Airport,
Maastricht Aachen Airport, Rotterdam Airport and Groningen Airport Eelde.

Transport in the Netherlands falls under the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and
Water Management.


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