Seminar Seminar Appraisal of Transport by leader6


									 Seminar: Appraisal of Transport Initiatives
                                                                  Session D/C04/7i

 UK transport policy - long-term goals
 Abstract not available
                                                                  Session D/C04/7ii

 Local transport plans - update
 Abstract not available

                                                                  Session D08i

 Evaluation ex post of policy measures on traffic congestion
 LOOP, H VAN DER, Ministry of Transport (AVV), The Netherlands
 PERDOK, J, MuConsult, The Netherlands
 SCHRIEK, A VAN, Ministry of Transport (Directorate Utrecht), The Netherlands
 In the period from 1996 until 1999 in the Netherlands a new method was developed to identify
 effects of a policy programme aimed at the reduction of congestion on the trunk road network
in the
 Netherlands. Apart from measures aimed at extending the capacity of the roads (e.g. extra peak
 and measures directed at traffic management, also measures influencing the demand of trips
 planned. The problem was how to evaluate the effects of these measures (ex post). The problem
 how to deal with the many influencing factors: policy measures as well as external factors
 (developments in population, socio-economic changes, geographical factors, etc.) which are
 the use of the trunk road network during a period of several years.

 A first step is to identify a conceptual explanatory framework, the next step was to collect data.
 Further, a method was developed which could deal with the identification of the relations between the
 explanatory factors and congestion, the factor which was expected to be influenced by policy
 measures. This method uses statistics of external developments (e.g. population, labour
 geographical data, traffic congestion), results from ex post project evaluation studies and data
 experts on local developments and circumstances. The method consists of an integrated
approach in
 which regression analyses, known elasticity’s and expert opinions are used to separate external
 developments from the policy effects.

 In the paper and presentation, after a description of the conceptual framework and methodology
 developed, the results of this study in the central urban area in the Netherlands (the province of
 will be presented. Our main conclusion is that measures directed at extending the capacity of
the road
 network as well as traffic management in this region had a substantial short-term effect on
 reduction. Furthermore it was concluded that relatively small changes in intensities can have
 effects on congestion. From policy measures directed at influencing the demand for transport in
 period 1990 until 1997 no effects could be identified in the study.

                                                                  Session D08iii

 A new approach to model air quality and health implications of transport scenarios
 DIXON, R, University of Leeds, UK
 KAY, D, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK
 MAY, A D, University of Leeds, UK
 MITCHELL, G, University of Leeds, UK
 NAMDEO, A, University of Leeds, UK
 The UK National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) recognises transport as a major source of many
 significant atmospheric pollutants, particularly in towns and cities. Consequently, a key goal of
 White paper "A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone" is to address, through transport
 planning, the objectives of the NAQS, including exceedences of prescribed air quality standards
 the adverse effects on health of ambient air quality. This paper describes the development of a
 modelling package that can be used to support the NAQS. The package includes TEMMS
 Emissions Modelling and Mapping Suite), which provides detailed estimates of vehicle
emissions on
 urban road networks, together with a stationary source emissions database and an atmospheric
 dispersion model that collectively permit a detailed spatial assessment of urban air quality in
response to
 road traffic and meteorology. The model package provides the basis upon which the health
impacts of
 alternative traffic scenarios can be compared.

 The health impacts are expressed as the 'disease burden' (DB), the proportion of a population
 contracting an illness through exposure to an environmental contaminant. The DB is calculated
as the
 product of a pollutants frequency distribution and its associated dose-response relationship.
This DB
 approach was developed with reference to the microbiological quality of recreational waters,
and is the
 basis on which health related bathing water quality standards are being defined by the World
 Organisation. The first application of the DB method to air quality is described, using two
 The first illustrates the DB method applied to air quality (as PM10), monitored at a single site in
each of
  five UK cities. The second applies the DB technique to Leeds, UK, using a spatially detailed
 representation of air quality derived using the model package described above, facilitating a
 of the health impacts of alternative road traffic scenarios.

                                                                  Session D09i

 "To measure is to know": results of a system for monitoring transport policy in the

 LOOP, H VAN DER, Ministry of Transport, The Netherlands
 MULDER, M, Ministry of Transport, The Netherlands
 In the Netherlands a new system for monitoring national transport policy has been developed
 applied from 1992 until this day. This system for planning and evaluating transport policy,
named "to
 measure is to know", has been developed as a part of the national Second Transport Structure
 SVV-II, 1990-2010.

 A first essential element of this system is that clear and unambiguous (preferably quantitative)
 were identified for a horizon year, e.g. a maximum level of emissions of CO2 by motor vehicles
 2010, a maximum number of injuries because of traffic, a certain level of freight transport and a
level of
 probability of congestion on the trunk road network. Next, policy measures were formulated
 forecasts were made. E.g., for CO2-emissions forecasts were made on the basis of the Dutch
 Transport Model. A further step was that a course has been plotted which describes the
 milestones between 1990 and 2010 via which the objectives for 2010 could be reached by
 implementing the measures as decided upon in the Second Transport Structure Plan.

 A second essential step was that the progress in attaining the objectives was assessed each year
 reported to the government. Also, the effects of the policy measures which were implemented,
 identified (and isolated from developments of external factors such as population growth and
 growth) and reported each year (evaluation ex post). On the basis of the progress made, policy
 measures were adjusted, new measures introduced and forecasts adjusted.

 In the paper and presentation we will describe what objectives were assessed, which forecasts
 made, where progress was made and which effects were identified.

                                                                  Session D09ii

 Benchmarking of infrastructure for biking
 BORGMAN, F, Dutch Cyclists Union, The Netherlands
 KRAAN, M, Goudappel Coffeng, Netherlands
 THIJSSEN, G, Goudappel Coffeng, The Netherlands
  Biking is cheap, causes no congestion, is environmentally friendly in terms of emission and
noise and
  needs little space for parking. To stimulate the use of biking as a transport mode the
infrastructure for
  bikes should be attractive. In this paper we develop and apply a benchmarking instrument to
  between cities the attractiveness of the infrastructure for biking. This instrument should be
simple to
  apply (by local bicycle organisations) and the variables should be objectively measured (to have
  policy impact).

 The instrument measures the coherence, the directness and the comfort of the infrastructure.
 Measurement instruments used are a ‘measurebike’, a video camera on a separate bike and a
 Because it is not possible to ride all roads in a city a sample of the main routes for bikes in a
city (about
 25 kilometres) is drawn.
  Coherence is measured by the number of changes in the type of road (special bike paths or
bikes on
  the regular road) and surface material (asphalt, tile). Directness is for example measured by (i)
the time
  used by the ‘measurebike’ and the car, (ii) average time of stops per kilometre. Comfort is
among other
   things measured by (i) the number of times biking slowly per kilometre, (ii) the number of
times per
  kilometre biking behind each other, (iii) vibration. The benchmarking instrument is tested on
  method, variance in measured parameters, relation between the measured parameters and the
  judgement (obtained by interviews) of the infrastructure by bike riders.

                                                                  Session D09iii

 Midland Metro: monitoring the impacts
 BIRD, J, Centro, UK
 HARPER, R.S, Oscar Faber, UK
  In 1998 Centro, in conjunction with local authorities, DETR and Altram, commissioned a
  study for Line 1 of Midland Metro from Birmingham to Wolverhampton. Line 1 represents the
  investment in public transport in the West Midlands and is expected to have a major impact on
  and local development. The primary objectives of this study are to evaluate:

 - The reasons for use of the system, which opened in May 1999;
 - Examine the public’s perception of Midland Metro as a mode of transport;
 - Assess the impact of the system on traffic congestion; and
 - Identify economic impacts.

 To achieve these objectives has required an extensive programme of data gathering and new
 collection, both before and after the introduction of Midlands Metro. This paper describes the
 behind the monitoring programme, the techniques employed and the emerging results.

 The initial sections of the paper describe the nature of the funding package, and the consequent
 requirements for monitoring. The monitoring techniques are described in turn, and the results
of each
 summarised. Key conclusions to be drawn from each element of the monitoring programme
will be
 discussed. Observed changes in travel behaviour will be presented including the proportion of
 car and bus users attracted to the system.

 Finally, the paper describes need for continuous monitoring, and the value of the monitoring
 in informing future investment decisions, particularly the development of further light rail lines
in the
 West Midlands.

                                                                  Session D31i

 The appraisal of large transport project: assessing indirect benefits
 PRIJ, J., Ministry of Transport (AVV), The Netherlands
 ROSEBERG, F A., Ministry of Transport (AVV), The Netherlands
 Parallel to activities in other European countries (such as the SACTRA Committee in the UK)
 Dutch research institutes have developed a new set of guidelines for conducting a cost benefit
 (CBA). Although CBA has a long tradition in the Netherlands, the deployed methods have
 widely, resulting in heated debates among the ‘experts’ about the feasibility of (especially
 projects such as high-speed rail tracks, the extension of Amsterdam Airport, and the so-called
 ‘Betuwe-route’, which is a rail track set apart for the transportation of freight.

 The main results of this recent Dutch initiative are
 1 agreement among key Dutch research institutes on the methodological framework to be used
for the
 social evaluation of major infrastructure projects
 2 the incorporation of indirect effects and spatial distribution effects into CBA.

 It is well known that much can be gained especially in improving the prognoses of the direct
benefits of
 transport within a CBA framework. However, in the Netherlands a key topic was how to deal
with the
 indirect effects and spatial distribution effects within such a framework One reason for this is
 presence of imperfect competition and market failure. An underlying assumption in the
appraisal of most
 transport improvements is that direct benefits and costs (such as reductions in travel time) can
 translated into wider economic effects (such as effects on the national or regional business
 Crucially, the final effects are assumed to have the same total value as the initial impacts, and to
be not
 additional to them. The identity of initial and final benefits is a theoretical proposition arising
 from the assumption of perfect competition in the economy as a whole*that is, an economy is
 where all prices are derived correctly from the cost of production and the preferences of
 consumers because of (among other conditions) active competition among a number of firms
 enough to ensure that no individual firm can dominate the market. In fact, real economies are
 perfectly competitive. Therefore, in the Dutch CBA guide, much effort was put into embracing
 wider economic effects (or what are often called indirect effects).

 Another important reason is that the geographical incidence of effects could be of crucial
importance for
 a small country such as the Netherlands. The question were the benefits and costs will fall could
 important consequences for welfare. Different methods and models were evaluated that might
be able
 to calculate the welfare addition to the Dutch economy of such indirect effects.

                                                                  Session D31ii

 Productivity studies versus cost-benefit analyses - which is the best indicator for returns
 transport investments?

 BRATHEN, S, Molde University College, Norway
 ODECK, J, Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway
 This paper examines the theoretical reasons why cost-benefit analyses and the macro
 studies differ with respect to what kind of economic effects they are actually able to measure.
 studies are used for illustration. The conclusion is that the theoretical bases for these approaches
 essentially different. Our examination supports clearly the view that refinements of cost-benefit
 and practice are the best way of dealing with economic benefits of transport infrastructure.

                                                                  Session D32i

 Deciding on Dublin's integrated transport plan: the case for heavy rail
 ROGERS, M, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland
  The Dublin Transport Initiative (DTI), in its 1995 Final Report, put forward a strategy to meet
  transport needs to the year 2011. This paper examines the conclusions of this report, together
with later
  updates, and asks whether the options which performed best in the Multi-Criteria Analysis
  undertaken within the original report subsequently formed a substantial part of the chosen Core
  Strategy of transport projects. The author states that the link between the MCA and the chosen
  strategy is diminished as a result of a lack of rationality in the decision making process leading
to the
  formation of the strategy. In particular, the paper highlights the post-MCA exclusion of the two
  performing themes/options, heavy rail and extensive road development, together with the
failure to
  separate out two of the major public transport options, light rail and bus, to allow their relative
  evaluation. With the aid of the decision model VISA, the author demonstrates that the Core
Strategy is
  given a level of performance by the DTI that is inconsistent with the actual performance of its
  constituent options in the Multi-Criteria Analysis. The paper notes that the 1999 DTI Update
  to emphasise the importance of light rail, with limited reference to the examination of the heavy
  option. Given the present economic prosperity, and the delay in the actual implementation of a
light rail
  system, the author concludes that an opportunity still exists to explore in detail which option or
  combination of options would constitute the most appropriate rail-based public transport system

                                                                  Session D32ii

 Transportation impact statement: a new tool for joint land use transportation planning
 BEN-ELIA, e, Technion, Israel
 SHEFER, D, Technion, Israel
 SHIFTAN, Y, Technion, Israel
This paper advances a new approach to transportation and land-use planning: the Transportation Impact Statement
(TIS). Current planning practice suffers from a lack of understanding and tools to evaluate the complex relationships
between land use and transportation. Consequently, land-use development frequently overloads the transportation
system. TIS exposes the complex interdependencies through a multi-modal and regional assessment of the impact of
land-use development on the transportation system. The paper offers a theoretical background for this new approach
and an empirical illustration of its potential use through a case study based on the city of Haifa in Israel. The
objective of the study is to investigate the local and regional transport related impacts of proposed developments
thus guiding the planning decision making process. The impact of the proposed land use developments on the
transportation system was studied under several transportation scenarios including travel demand management
strategies, using the metropolitan data base and travel demand modeling system. The results show that the total
amount of trips generated by the proposed developments is by far inconsistent with the transportation network’s
capabilities to accommodate forecasted demand under all transport scenarios, including travel demand management
measures. Excess demand on the road network was estimated, for all scenarios, by using a novel procedure of user
identification on congested links. There are a number of key implications to the results. First, TIS clearly extends
our understanding of land use development on the transportation system and should be used for decision making
regarding development approving. Second, TIS stresses the importance of transit and TDM strategies in the planning
process as mitigation measures. Third, TIS illustrates the need for of a wider (i.e. non-site) planning perspective –
including overall metropolitan planning goals and objectives.

                                                                  Session D33

 Multi-modal corridor studies: conclusions of research on the study programme and
 implications for appraisal

 COHEN, T, Steer Davies Gleave, UK
 RYAN, P, Steer Davies Gleave, UK
 STEER, J, Steer Davies Gleave, UK
 In this paper the authors will aim to establish the extent to which the differences in principle
 structure between this form of study and its predecessors will affect two key areas: the roles of
 and client and the outcome of the study.

 Drawing on their collective experience in bidding for the multi-modal studies, in carrying out
 into their potential and in managing large and small studies over the years, the authors will
monitor and
 assess progress of the three multi-modal studies won to date by their company's consortium.
They will
 also summarise the characteristics of transport studies across continental Europe over recent
years. A
 comparison between these two streams of information will enable reasoned analysis of the
 study's true potential.

 First the issue of role will be examined: transport planners must develop their strategy
consulting skills
 and clients must adapt to the more amorphous task of directing a study which does not seek a
yes or
 no answer.

  Second they will consider the outcome. The question of whether multi-modal studies are
likelier than
  more conventional studies to generate effective responses to identified problems will be dealt
with, as
 will the chances that genuine innovation or wisdom will survive the political melee.

 The likely conclusion is that the studies have the potential to alter the planning landscape
 significantly but that this will depend on the willingness of stakeholders to embrace the new

                                                                  Session D55i

 Rail-oriented development -potentials, impact, policies
 ENDEMANN, P, City of Ettlingen Planning Department, Germany
 MUELLER, G, ILS, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
 Although there are controversial discussions about the right strategies to fight transport-related
 problems, all experts agree that a lasting effect to reduce traffic growth can only be achieved by
 effectively integrating transport and land-use. One important aspect is to connect new housing
 development to existing passenger rail infrastructure. Among the policies of the regional
government of
 North Rhine-Westphalia there are specific grants to cities developing housing close to rail
stations. This
 policy is not undisputed as many towns especially in suburban and rural settings do not have
any such
 land available. Also, until recently there were few current studies on the effect of a close rail
station on
 modal choice.

 ILS has finished a three-year study for the North Rhine-Westphalian Ministry of Urban
 both on the potentials and the impact of a rail-oriented development. The presentation will
focus on the
 results, their transferability and the implication for further policy development.

 For the potentials there has been a survey among over hundred cities in three regions. The
results show
 a considerable amount of available land for new housing around rail stations, but also a
 variation between regions and among cities. A survey taken among 2100 persons from six
 suburban areas shows, that there is a significant difference in their modal choice, although the
 is lower than might be expected. Results illustrate that integration of land-use and transport is
 and possible, but cannot succeed alone. Innovative mobility services adapted to the spatial
context play
 a supporting role and examples will be presented.

                                                                  Session D55ii

 Same place, two worlds? a comparison of travel behaviour between households in
 and new developments

 HEADICAR, P, Oxford Brookes University, UK
 HIGGIT, M, Steer Davies Gleave, UK
 Current UK policy aimed at reducing the need to travel is promoting the use of accessibility
profiles to
 help steer the location of new developments. There is also a presumption in favour of locations
 or on the edge of existing towns.

 The evidence in support of these policies derives for studies of travel behaviour of existing
residents in
 these locations. But how far are newcomers likely to replicate this behaviour?
 This paper reports the results of detailed research comparing travel behaviour of households in
 established and new residential developments in the same towns. It shows that households
 the new development lead less locally contained lives and engage in substantially more travel
 and car-dependent behaviour.

 This has significant implications in an era of large scale growth in household numbers. It is
unlikely that
 incoming households will adopt the lifestyles of people already living in the towns they are
moving to,
 although this is a common planning assumption. The differences in outcome as far as travel
 and impact are concerned are considerable.

 Research which seeks to develop our understanding of how travel behaviour interacts with the
land use
 pattern it takes place within is essential if we are to be able to develop land use policies that can
 reduce the need to travel.

                                                                  Session D55iii

 Evaluation of the mobility effects of new dwelling locations
 HILBERS, H, TNO Inro, Delft, The Netherlands
 LEUTSCHER, C, Ministry of Transport (AVV), The Netherlands
 WILMINK, I, TNO Inro, Delft, The Netherlands
 Mobility objectives play an important role in the spatial planning policy in the Netherlands.
Over the
 past decade, locations were chosen based on their proximity to existing cities and their
accessibility by
 public transport. Now that people have moved into these new neighbourhoods, it was time to
 whether the inhabitants do indeed have environmental friendly travel patterns.

 The Dutch national travel survey (OVG) contains records of the trips of people throughout the
 Netherlands and their personal characteristics and home address. The data from inhabitants of
 dwellings were selected and used to analyse the mobility patterns of different groups inhabitants
of new
 dwellings at various types of locations. This way, the influence of personal characteristics and
of the
 spatial and accessibility characteristics of their location on travel behaviour could be studied.

 The analysis provided useful insights about the possibilities of urban planing to influence
mobility. It
 shows how the development of new dwellings within the current city limits is successful in
reducing car
 use. But it also showed that the first inhabitants of the major new dwelling locations just outside
the city
 have a high level of mobility, sometimes even higher than in rural areas. The analyses of the
influence of
 factors as proximity and accessibility of public transport can contribute to a renewed urban
 policy. The study will therefore be used as input for the new 5th national report on physical
planning in
 the Netherlands and for the national traffic and transportation plan.

                                                                  Session D56

 Induced travel:A review of recent literature and the implications for transportation and
 environmental policy

 LEM, L. L, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, US
 NOLAND, R. B, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College, UK
 The phenomenon of induced demand has been debated by transport planners for many years. In
 simple terms, this is the behavioural reaction of travelers to the expansion of road capacity
either by
 adding lanes to existing roads or the construction of new routes. Research into these
 effects has occurred in both the US and the UK over the last decade. Amongst much of the
 community there appears to be a general consensus on overall effects, though some critics
debate the
 robustness of various studies. This paper provides a review of much of the research in this area
 including an overview of some of the remaining research questions. As the research debate has
 active, policy makers and planners have been responding to the evidence in both the US and the

 The policy responses taken in both countries are examined with case studies and a preliminary
 assessment of their effectiveness and the impact on environmental measures. Suggestions on
how both
 countries can learn from the experience of policy implementation are discussed.

                                                                  Session D56ii

 Modal split changes induced by the High Speed Rail line Madrid-Seville
 GUIRAO, B, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
 MENENDEZ, J. M, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
 In April 1992, the first Spanish high speed rail line (220 km per hour) drawn out to connect the
 cities of Madrid and Seville was put into operation. The new service allowed covering the 481-
km of
 this stretch in two and a half hours with 140 trips on average every week. The study conducted
on the
 rail line’s first eight years into operation between Madrid and Seville has revealed a substantial
shift in
 the initial passenger modal split observed in the corridor. Owing to this shift, the air mode has
 experienced a reduction of over 60% in terms of passenger modal choice with this percentage
 over 80% in the conventional rail-line previously in existence.

 The paper puts across an explanatory scheme of the modal split redistribution induced by the
 high-speed rail line Madrid-Seville. The application of this model has allowed calculating
 transfers as well as the new passenger extent of use to be further confronted with real data.
 Additionally, the first batch of results has helped us identify those variables that appear to be
 illustrative in that they determine modal split.
 The analysis and collection of the specific data necessary to gauge the appropriateness of this
 entailed a fundamental step in the research process, since these data clearly underscored the
 importance of accurately establishing the traffic flow for private car recorded between the two
 cities above mentioned. Likewise, the correct management of average daily flows recorded in
the road
 gage stations on a par with the mobility surveys conducted to this end represented the only two
  available to determine the O-D traffic by private vehicle (origin-destination) between the two
 The definition of this proportion has had a direct impact on modal redistribution as well as on
 calculation of the number of passengers induced by the new service, since it lends itself to
 miscalculations of up to 30% depending on the calculation hypotheses chosen for the road

  Finally, the low number of government-funded mobility surveys to be applied in the Spanish
  corridors coupled with the diversity in methodological approaches –a drawback also shared by
  and England- have in many cases opened up some information gaps that are difficult to bridge,
   as regards forecast and demand assessment studies prior to the implementation of a new

  All the above appraisals seem to be all the more convenient in view of the forthcoming second
  speed rail line between Madrid and Barcelona that will in turn connect to the French high speed
  and, consequently, to the rest of European high speed networks. This new line is scheduled to
open in

                                                                  Session D57i

 TRANSLAND: the integration of transport and land use planning

 PAULLEY, N.J, Transport Research Laboratory, UK
 PEDLER, A, Transport Research Laboratory, UK
 There is increasing concern about congestion and the costs it imposes, particularly on
accessibility, the
 environment, other social factors, such as accidents, and the economy in general. Strong and
 growth in mobility, especially in road traffic, means that transport trends are unsustainable if only current policies
 are pursued: with constraints on resources, space, safety and the environment there are only limited possibilities to
 extend transport supply to safeguard accessibility.

 Transland is a study of the integration of transport and land use planning in Europe in order to
 planning practices in Europe that attempt, inter alia, to reduce the need to travel by car. The
 was commissioned by the EC to investigate and improve the present state of the art and practice
 transport and land use planning. To assess the state of the art, successful land use and transport
 policies were identified based on theoretical, empirical and modelling studies. In addition, the
degree of
 co-ordination between transport and land use planning in each EC country was examined, and
 assessment made of institutional constraints and opportunities. The state of the practice was
 by the evaluation of twenty-six innovative case studies in the field of integrated urban transport
 land-use planning.

 This paper will describe the findings of state of the art and state of the practice, discuss the good
 best practices identified and draw out conclusions for the integration of land use and transport

                                                                  Session D57ii

 The impacts of urbanization along infrastructure corridors on land use and transport:
 opportunities for integrated policy development

 JORRITSMA, P, Ministry of Transport (AVV), The Netherlands
 MARTENS M.J., TNO Inro, The Netherlands
 VERROEN, E. J, TNO Inro, The Netherlands
 Recently, the so-called ‘corridors’, the area around the main infrastructure between two urban
 have received a lot of attention of Dutch transport and land use planners and policy makers. It is
 that instead of fighting market driven developments the government has to initiate corridor
 development in addition to the compact city concept. It is important to investigate the
opportunities and
 threats of this new planning concept, for regional economies and transport systems. Therefore a
 number of studies were executed. These studies aimed to assess the existence and the impact of
 different kinds of spatial designs for corridor development. Because of the possible conflicting
 of freight transport and passenger traffic, spatial designs for both types of transport were
included. The
  designed spatial scenarios were analysed using simulation models for freight transport,
passenger traffic
  and regional economic growth. It appeared that corridors are especially useful as a spatial
concept for
  freight transport on rail-and waterways, and combined transport, while the differences in modal
  effects for passenger transport are limited. Corridor development can however contain
  and threats for the national highway network. Urbanization along corridors will lead to more
traffic on
  the national highways and will result in more delays for long distance travel like freight
  However, the model simulation showed that it is possible to limit the negative effects by
  landuse planning or transport planning. The study showed also that land-use and transportation
  strategies should be differentiated between regions, also within large corridors.

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