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					GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program   November 2009




           Sunbury Transportation Ltd. and Department of Transportation
         Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Quantification Plan




                         Trailer Skirt Installation Program




Prepared by CSA Standards in Conjunction with Sunbury Transport Ltd and the
Department of Transportation, Government of New Brunswick


Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                       1
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program                                                                November 2009




1     GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................... 3
    1.1       BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................................... 3
    1.2       THE IMPORTANCE OF REPORTING EMISSION REDUCTIONS ................................................................... 3
    1.3       ISO PRINCIPLES FOLLOWED IN EMISSION REDUCTION ESTIMATION .................................................... 3
    1.4       BEST PRACTICE GUIDANCE................................................................................................................... 4
    1.5       PROGRAM AND INTENDED USER ........................................................................................................... 4
    1.6       PROJECT PROPONENT ............................................................................................................................ 4
2     PROJECT DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................ 5
    2.1       PROJECT TIMELINE ................................................................................................................................ 5
    2.2       TECHNOLOGY ....................................................................................................................................... 5
    2.3       CURRENT SITUATION IN NEW BRUNSWICK ........................................................................................... 6
    2.4       GHG REDUCTIONS STRATEGY............................................................................................................... 8
    2.5       CO-BENEFITS OF PROJECT ..................................................................................................................... 8
3     IDENTIFICATION OF SSRS ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE PROJECT................................................ 8
4     SELECTION AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE BASELINE SCENARIO ........................................... 9
5     QUANTIFICATION OF GHG EMISSIONS AND/OR REMOVALS..................................................11
    5.1       ESTIMATED BASELINE AND PROJECT EMISSIONS ..................................................................................11
    5.2       QUANTIFICATION OF GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS AND REMOVAL ENHANCEMENTS ...........................12
6     VERIFICATION STATEMENT ..............................................................................................................12




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                                                                                      2
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program              November 2009

1     General

1.1    Background

The New Brunswick Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012 provides a greenhouse gas
emissions reduction target of 1.2 million tonnes (Mt) CO2e from transportation related
activities. Documents that elaborate on this target indicate that 250 kt (0.250 Mt) CO2e is to
come from work within the trucking industry to improve engine efficiency and aerodynamics.
The NB Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012 also states that the Climate Change
Secretariat aims to track and report on greenhouse gas emissions trends and progress
regarding the implementation of all climate change initiatives in this action plan. Furthermore,
the provincial authorities have decided to quantify the emission reductions according to the
ISO 14064 framework.

This document quantifies the impact of the Sunbury Goes Green - Installation Aero Dynamic
Skirting on Van Trailers project on GHG emission reductions. This is a project aimed at
installing truck skirts on transport truck trailers in order to boost energy efficiency and reduce
GHG emissions. The project has received $200,000 of funding through the Climate Action
Fund. Since it is expected that the implementation of this project will result in emission
reductions below 25,000 tonnes of CO2e per year, this specific quantification follows a track 2
quantification procedure. This process of quantification is consistent with ISO 14064-2
principles, but does not require the same level of rigour and accuracy as for track 1 projects.
Further, it is not required that these emission reductions be monitored or verified by third
parties.

1.2 The Importance of Reporting Emission Reductions
Efforts have been undertaken to report on the emission reductions accrued from this project so
that the emission reduction assertion is viewed as credible. There are a number of reasons that
underlie the need to adequately document and report efforts to reduce emissions.

        The basic premise of climate change policy is to take actions that lead to real
        reductions in GHG emissions to the atmosphere. In this respect, it is critical to
        understand what would have occurred in absence of the project, and to adequately
        describe what the project is and how it will reduce emissions relative to this
        “baseline”. This in turn increases the rigour and transparency of an emission reduction
        assertion.
        It is important that there is accountability to how funds are invested and the
        environmental and economic benefits resulting from this investment. In this regards, it
        is important that estimates or measurements are provided of both the environmental
        and economic impacts of a project
        The emission reductions resulting from a project can ultimately be “retired” (i.e. used
        to reduce a company’s or government’s emissions), or sold in the carbon market. In
        terms of this latter option, how rigorous the emission reduction assertion is will help
        dictate the market price of the emission reduction – i.e. offsets created from a high
        quality project will be deemed more valuable than for a project seen of lower quality.

1.3 ISO Principles Followed in Emission Reduction Estimation
The following principles from the ISO-14064 standards were followed in the estimation of
emission reductions resulting from the implementation of this project:



Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                      3
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program            November 2009

Transparency: We have tried to make the measurement/estimation of emission reductions as
transparent as possible by explaining all data sources used and providing all equations used in
the estimation

Accuracy and rigour: We have followed or adapted best practices in order to help ensure
accuracy and rigour in the emission estimations

Conservativeness: In order to not overestimate emission reductions, we have been
conservative in our assumptions

1.4       Best Practice Guidance

Other than the requirements identified in ISO 14064-2 the following documents were used as
a best practice guidance documents:

      •    The Aerodynamics for Efficient Road Freight Operations Best Practices document
           developed by the Department of Transport, Government of United Kingdom
           (http://www.part20.eu/AerodynamicsGuideforEfficientRoadFre.pdf)
      •    The Improved Aerodynamics document developed by SmartWay Transport
           Partnership of the United States Environmental Protection Agency
           (http://www.epa.gov/smartway/transport/documents/tech/aerodynamics.pdf)
      •    Leuschen, J. and Cooper, K. 2006. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Tests of Production and
           Prototype, Second-Generation Aerodynamic Drag-Reducing Devices for Tractor-
           Trailers. SAE 06CV-222
      •    Surcel, M-D. 2008. Energotest 2008: Fuel Consumption Test for Prototypes of the
           Transtex Composites MFS Trailer Side Skirts. Contract report CR-441-9&25. FP
           Innovations (FERIC) 580 boul. St. Jean, Pointe Claire, QU H9R 3J9.

1.5       Program and Intended User

This quantification is intended to be used to:
   • Track progress by the Department of Transportation towards internal goals and targets
       surrounding energy consumption reductions and greenhouse gas emission reductions;
   • Report to the Climate Change Secretariat on the greenhouse gas emissions reductions
       that have occurred due to this program as part of the Climate Change Action Plan
       2007-2012 reporting requirements.
   • Report back to the people of New Brunswick on the impact of the actions taken to
       reduce GHG emissions

This quantification does not take into account any other program requirements.

1.6       Project proponent

The project proponent is Sunbury Transport Ltd. The contact details of the project proponent
are:

Name:            Wayne Williams
Title:           Manager, Technology Integration
Address:         Sunbury Transport Ltd.
                 PO Box 905, Station A


Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                     4
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program             November 2009

                Fredericton, NB
                E3B 5B4
Email:          williams.wayne@sunbury.ca


Name:           Carrie Mercer
Title:          Business Improvement Analyst
Address:        Sunbury Transport Ltd.
                PO Box 905, Station A
                Fredericton, NB
                E3B 5B4
Email:          mercer.carrie@sunbury.ca

2     Project Description

The Sunbury Goes Green - Installation Aero Dynamic Skirting on Van Trailers is an initiative
where the Climate Action Fund contributes to the capital costs of installing skirts on van
trailers. These panels hang down from the bottom of a trailer to enclose the open space
between the rear wheels of the tractor and the rear wheels of the trailer.1 The US EPA
suggests that this can improve fuel economy by upwards of 5%.

The following is a list of suppliers who provided trailer skirts to Sunbury Transport Ltd. for
this project.

         Transtex Composite
         6200 Henri Bourassa Ouest
         Montreal, Quebec
         H4R 1C3

2.1 Project timeline
The emission reduction initiative started in 2008 when 50 skirts were installed on trailers. A
further 27 are expected to be installed in 2009.

2.2    Technology

                                             Light weight reinforced thermo plastic panels,
                                             or trailer skirts, are attached to the underside
                                             of a trailer and stretch between the tires of the
                                             tractor and the
                                             trailer.    The
                                             panel changes
                                             the flow of air
                                             around       the
                                             vehicle and in
                                             turn decreases
                                             the        aero
dynamic drag. The effect achieved is a reduction in the fuel
1
 From “A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies, Improved Aerodynamics” ,
http://www.epa.gov/smartway/transport/documents/tech/aerodynamics.pdf


Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                       5
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program               November 2009

consumption of trucks and a subsequent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

2.3 Current Situation in New Brunswick
Sunbury Transport is a transportation company specializing in US and Canadian cross-border
shipments and offering full service logistics services throughout North America. Sunbury has
a fully integrated, highly technical international operation with a driving force of 300 power
units and over 100 office associates. The company’s head office is located in Fredericton,
New Brunswick, with terminals in Saint John, NB, Dartmouth, NS and Mississauga, ON. In
addition, the company has over 100 partnerships with over the road carriers and rail/reload
operations.

In New Brunswick, almost 100 percent of goods move by truck with the common practice being
that most trailer operators do not use skirts or other operational devices to increase the
efficiency of their fleet by improving aerodynamics.

Estimates are that most trucks in New Brunswick travel between 150,000 and 200,000
kilometres per year, while skirts have been suggested to have the ability to save as much as
6% of fuel per year.2 Initial estimates therefore suggest, based on the estimated total distance
traveled per year, assumed fuel burn rate (FBR), and emission factors for diesel, that full
implementation of such a project across the entire Sunbury fleet could lead to the reduction of
emissions of between 2,800 tonnes CO2e and 3.8 tonnes CO2e (2.8 kt CO2e and 3.8 kt CO2e)
per year. This is summarized in table 1.




2
    See http://www.apta.ca/webcura/files/1033.pdf


Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                    6
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program                         November 2009

      Table 1 Estimated fuel savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with full
                                      implementation of project

                                        Base case (per vehicle)


                                Total annual         FBR       Fuel use      Emission
                                 VKT (km)        (litres/km)    (litres)     (tonnes)
                    Lower            150,000           0.375      56,250          157
                    Upper            200,000           0.375      75,000          209

                                           Project


                                      %
                               improvement        Savings
                                 in energy         from        Kgs CO2/
                                 efficiency       project       vehicle
                    Lower               6.00%        3,375         9,416
                    Upper               6.00%        4,500        12,555

                            Program level (100% implementation)


                                                    Total         Total
                                                 emission      emission
                                                 reduction     reduction
                                                    (kgs        (tonnes
                                   Units           CO2e)         CO2e)
                    Lower                  300    2,824,875         2,825
                    Upper                  300    3,766,500         3,767

     Table notes:

     The fuel burn rate used is that given for heavy duty diesel trucks in Canada in 2006, as provided
     by Natural Resources Canada’s Comprehensive Energy Use Database
     (http://www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/tablestrends2/tran_nb_40_e_3.cfm?att
     r=0)

Natural Resource Canada provides data that suggests there are approximately 13,000
heavy duty trucks in operation in New Brunswick, while Environment Canada
estimates that heavy duty trucks contributed about 1.5 Mt CO2e of greenhouse gas
emissions in 2006. This would mean that the average heavy duty vehicle in New
Brunswick is responsible for about 115 tonnes of CO2e per year. This would be lower
than the average emissions per vehicle estimated for Sunbury’s vehicles. However,
the per capita emissions rate of 115 tonnes is inclusive of vehicles such as buses,
ambulances, snow plows, etc, all vehicle classes that travel less per year than
transport trucks used for hauling goods.
If it is assumed that 90% of the 1.5 Mt CO2e of emissions associated with heavy duty
trucks are from transport trucks, and using a conservative value of 5% of fuel saved
per year with the installation of a trailer skirt, this would suggest that the full
implementation of this project in New Brunswick (i.e. on all truck-trailer
combinations) could result in reductions of GHG emissions of upwards of 75,000
tonnes of CO2e per year.




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                               7
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program                November 2009

2.4    GHG reductions strategy

This project falls under the transportation category. The strategy is to install skirts on trailers
so that this reduces the aerodynamic drag of the trailers.

2.5 Co-benefits of project
The implementation of this project to install trailer skirts on truck trailers in New Brunswick
will have a number of important co-benefits. These can be summarized as:

        The installation of trailer skirts will decrease the operating expenses of carriers,
        thereby making them, and the trucking industry in New Brunswick more competitive.
        Reductions in fuel costs could also lower the costs of transportation, thereby resulting
        in lower costs for consumers for items such as food, clothing, or other consumable
        goods that require transport between producers, wholesalers, retailers, to the end
        consumer.
        Reducing fuel consumption will also have other environmental benefits in addition to
        the reduction in GHG emissions. Even low sulphur diesel contains sulphur that
        contributes to sulphites and sulphur dioxide, air pollutants that contribute to air
        pollution (smog) and acid rain. Decreasing the amount of fuel required will result in
        reductions in other fuel-related pollutants, including particulate matter and nitrogen
        dioxide.

3     Identification of SSRs attributable to the project
Sources, sinks, and reservoirs (SSRs) refer to the possible ways emissions can be both added
and taken out of the atmosphere. The identification of these is important in order to help
assess the complete GHG impacts of a project to reduce emissions. This should then be
followed by an assessment of the emissions associated with all project-related SSRs.
Nonetheless, it should be noted that only those emissions under the direct control of project
proponents (i.e. those emissions that are “owned”) will ultimately be those which project
proponents can claim in terms of emission reductions. Ultimately, all emission reductions
(whether related, owned, or affected) will be reported on the Dashboard.

The following SSRs were identified relevant to this project (see figure 1).




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                        8
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program                                                  November 2009

                              Figure 1 Sources, sinks and reservoirs identified with project

    Upstream SSRs during project operation
                                                              P3 : Fossil fuel
                                                              production




    Upstream SSRs before                       Onsite SSRs during project                         Downstream SSRs after project
    project operation                          project operation                                  operations
           P1: Manufacturing of van                                                                 P5: Transportation of van skirts
                                                         P4: Operation of
           skirts
                                                         vehicles

                                                                                                    P6: Disposal of van skirts
           P2: Transportation of van
           skirts




The following presents a brief description of the SSRs identified (see table 2):

                             Table 2: A description of sources, sinks and reservoirs identified

           SSR                                          Description                                   Owned, related or affected
P1: Manufacturing of van       Includes GHG emissions or removals resulting from the                 Related
skirts                         extraction and treatment, or production of the raw material that
                               is required for manufacturing of van skirts
P2: Transportation of van      Transportation of van skirts                                          Related
skirts
P3: Fossil fuel production     Includes the GHG emissions resulting from the extraction,             Related
                               refining and transportation of the diesel fuel required for the
                               transportation of the standard light systems from the
                               manufacturing facility to the consumer (via the distributor).
P4 : Operation of vehicles     Operation of vehicles                                                 Owned

P5: Transportation of van      Transportation of van skirts                                          Related
skirts
P6: Disposal of van skirts     Disposal of van skirts                                                Related



4      Selection and Justification of the Baseline Scenario
There are two possible scenarios to consider in terms of what could occur in terms of the
operation of trailers in the Province of New Brunswick, including:

            No van skirts are installed on trailers
            Van skirts are installed on trailers

A barriers test was selected to determine and justify the baseline for this project. The barriers
test is illustrated in Table 3.




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                                                             9
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program                               November 2009

                          Table 3. Barriers test for implementation of trailer skirts

               Possible          1. Do not install van skirts on trailers   2. Install van skirts on trailers
               baselines

        Barriers
        Regulatory barriers      No barrier                                 No barrier

        Common practice          No barrier                                 Somewhat. The installation of
        barriers                                                            trailer skirts is not common practice
                                                                            in New Brunswick
        Financial barriers       No barrier                                 Somewhat .The installation of
                                                                            trailer skirts is not common practice
                                                                            in New Brunswick because it comes
                                                                            with a relatively high capital cost
                                                                            for the initial investment
        Barriers due to the      No barrier                                 No barrier
        geographical
        location
        Barriers due to          No barrier                                 No barrier
        public perception
        Market barriers          No barrier                                 No barrier


        Technological            No barrier                                 No barrier
        barriers



Identification of SSRs attributable to the baseline

As it was done in the project case, a life cycle assessment has been performed on the baseline
components to determine the sources sinks and reservoirs (SSRs) of GHG emissions that are
controlled, related or affected. The SSRs occurring during the baseline scenario were
identified and a mass and energy balance was done on the various components to determine
the upstream and downstream related SSRs before, during and after the baseline. These are
illustrated in Figure 2, and described in Table 4.

                Figure 2: Controlled, related and affected SSRs for the baseline scenario


                              Upstream SSRs during project operation

                                                   P3 : Fossil fuel
                                                   production




                                                Onsite SSRs during project


                                                   P4: Operation of
                                                   vehicles




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                                          10
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program                                            November 2009

As it was the case in the project scenario, the SSRs should include the emissions resulting
from the production of fossil fuel (see table 4):

       Table 4 A Summary and Description of Sources, Sinks, and Reservoirs Associated with Project

           SSR                                        Description                                Owned, related or affected
B1: Fuel extraction,          Includes the GHG emissions resulting from the extraction,         Related
refining and transportation   refining and transportation of the diesel fuel required for the
                              transportation of the standard light systems from the
                              manufacturing facility to the consumer (via the distributor).
B2: Operation                 Includes the GHG emissions resulting from the activities          Owned
                              related to the operation of the trailer


Selection of relevant SSRs for quantification or estimation of GHG emission reductions

In order to determine the relevant SSRs, the following criteria were used according to the ISO
14064-2 requirements and principles:

      1- If the SSR did not result in GHG emissions it was considered not relevant except if the
         activity level for this SSR was necessary to calculate the emissions of another SSR.
      2- If the SSR was similar in both the project and the baseline scenario qualitatively and
         quantitatively then the SSRs was considered not relevant since it would not have any
         impact on the GHG emission quantification
      3- If the SSR was similar qualitatively in the baseline and the project scenario, and the
         GHG emissions were greater in the baseline than in the project scenario then it was
         possible to consider the SSR not relevant since it is conservative to do so.

5      Quantification of GHG emissions and/or removals
Estimation is provided of the baseline emissions, the project emissions, and the emission
reductions accrued from the project.

5.1 Estimated baseline and project emissions
A controlled road test was conducted by Sunbury to determine the impact of trailer mounted
skirts on fuel consumption and the resulting GHG emissions in February 2009. Travelling
repeatedly over the same sections of highway, two trucks pulled two trailers with and without
the trailer skirts to allow for paired testing of the difference in fuel consumption between the
two trucks. The two trucks (98022 and 98041) each remained with the same driver for the
duration of the study, and other then for the swapping for testing trailers, 87758 and 87759
remained for the test. The fixed track was a public highway divided into 4 sections: East
bound Saint John NB (IPI yard) to Sussex Mainway Irving Station, and east bound Sussex
Mainway Irving Station to the Irving Big Stop in Salisbury. Westbound was conducted in the
same two sections. At each section the trailers were switched and ECM readings were taken
from the engines to gather fuel consumption. Cruise control was used as much as possible
set at 100 km/hr and Unit 98041 was the lead truck for the duration of the test. Baseline data
was developed by running the test track three times with both trailers equipped with skirts.
By comparing the difference in fuel consumption between the two test trucks, effects from
variables other than the trailer skirting were mitigated as they can be assumed to remain
constant or to affect each truck in the same way for each test section. This allows the
assumption to be made that any change in difference between the fuel consumption recordings
is due primarily to the skirt configuration.




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                                                    11
GHG Quantification Report – Trailer Skirt Installation Program               November 2009

It was concluded that the skirts accounted for a fuel consumption reduction of 3% for one
truck and 6% for the second. This equates to an annualized estimate of approximately 2,700
litres of fuel savings/yr for a typical truck. These results correspond well with an NRC study
predicting 2,800 litres/yr savings per truck and are lower than found through an oval test track
test done by PIT predicting a savings of 7.5.

Sunbury concluded, therefore, that aerodynamic trailer skirts lead to a reduction, on average,
of 4.5 % of the fuel required for a transport truck-trailer combintion. Sunbury has only
installed 77 van trailers with skirts so the approximate estimate of 2,700 liters is not going to
occur. Given that Sunbury trailers travel a conservative 45,000 miles a year at a current MPG
of 6.3 the skirts would improve that MPG to 6.58 and save anually 107,525 liters of fuel in
total. That would equate to a reduction of 290 tonnes CO2e annually.

5.2    Quantification of GHG emission reductions and removal enhancements

The fuel savings and emission reductions associated with the implementation of this project
are summarized in table 5.

      Table 5 A Summary of Annual Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions Resulting From Project

                                        Fuel
                                       Burn
                         Average       Rate
                #        Distance     (Litres/        Fuel            Fuel        Emission
            Vehicles     Traveled       100      Consumption       Savings       Reductions
            Involved   (Kilometres)     km)      (Litres/Year)   (Litres/Year)    (kg CO2e)
 Baseline         77         72,405      37.34       2,081,774             N/A           N/A
 Project          77         72,405      35.75       1,993,129          88,645       247,321

The emission reductions associated with this projected will be estimated and considered for an
eight-year period. This is a common time-length when accounting for GHG emission
reduction projects. Over this eight year period, it can be expected that there will be a total of
1,978.57 tonnes of emissions reduced as a result of this project.

6     Verification Statement
A verification of emission reductions is not required for track 2 projects since it would not be
economical to verify these by a third party.




Sunbury Transportation Ltd (The proponent)                                                      12

				
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