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Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing

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					         普及計算
Embedded Interactive Systems
  (Pervasive & Ubiquitous
        Computing)

       Hao Chu (朱浩華)
         2/20/2006

                               1
                   Outline
• Faculty Intro
• Student Intro
• What is Pervasive / Ubiquitous Computing?
• Course Topics
• Course Format
• Course Projects
• Grading


                                              2
                     Faculty Intro
• Ubicomp Lab, i-space Labs
• Education:
   – PhD (1999), Computer Science, UIUC
   – BS (1994), Computer Science, Cornell
• Previous Work Experience:
   – Xerox, Intel, NTT DoCoMo USA Labs
• Married with a 3.5Y daughter
• Hobbits: reading, traveling, movies, sports (skiing,
  swimming, golfing, etc)
• Personality: friendly, easy-going, happy, perfectionist, quiet,
  careless, forgetful, changeable

                                                                3
                   Students Intro
• Please tell us about:
   – Current (future) research area, interests, & faculty
     advisor
   – Background
      • Software programming skills (C/C++, Java)
      • Hardware skills
      • Networking
      • User Interface
      • Vision
      • Interdisciplinary
      • English (presentation, reading, and writing)
   – Why are you interested in this course?

                                                            4
What are computers for?

calculations vs. communications
   getting a computing job done vs.
     communicating information
    (capture, process, transmit, interaction)


                                                5
Ubiquitous Computing Vision

 Provide (natural) access & interaction of
  digital information for humans in the
               physical world


                                             6
             Ubicomp Defined
• What is pervasive & ubiquitous computing
  (ubicomp)?
  – Ubiquitous = 到處存在的;遍在的
  – Other names: everyday computing, context-aware
    computing, invisible computing, ambient intelligence,
    embedded interactive computing, etc.
• How to realize ubicomp?
  – One approach: embed computing (sensing, networking,
    and processing) into everyday objects.


                                                            7
   Toward Smart Everyday Objects
• Wall can sense temperature,          • Clothes can show the latest
  humidity, lighting, and adjust air     fashion or monitor your
  conditioning, de-humidifier,           physical/mental health.
  lighting accordingly.                • Medicine cabinet can remind you
• Calendar can tell you meeting          when to take medicines.
  schedule.                            • Dresser can give you fashion
• Pencils can record everything you      advices.
  write.                               • Washing machines and dryers
• Book shelf can tell you the            adjust to washing & drying
  location of the book/paper you         instructions on dirty clothes.
  need.                                • Credit card will warn if you are
• Shoes can tell you where you           spending too much money.
  have walked to.                      • Smart chair, smart dining table,
• Refrigerator can offer dinner          etc.
  recipes and dietary
  recommendation.

                                                                       8
             Smart Objects (I)
• Posture Chair (MIT)
• Bionic Running Shoes
  (Adidas)
• Tasting Spoon (MIT)
• Emotional Décor (NYU)
• Moving Portrait (MIT)




                                 9
              Smart Objects (II)
• History table cloth (EU
  Equator)
• Key Table (EU Equator)
• Counter Intelligence (MIT)
• Smart mirror (Candy &
  Candy)




                                   10
         Ubicomp is the Future …
• “The (Computing) World is not a desktop!” ... Mark Weiser
• “The PC today is an obedient, powerful, but unaware and
  narrow-minded beast confined within a box.” … Jane Hsu
• Ubicomp is about “Moving beyond Desktop Computing’
   – Unleash the power of computing outside of the black box
   – Break boundary between digital and physical world
• How?
   – in everyday activities
   – invisibly through embedding in the physical objects




                                                               11
     Evolution Path of Ubicomp
• How does Ubicomp come about? (the evolution
  path)
  – Distributed systems (PC + networks)
     • Challenges: performance, scalability, reliability, networking …
  – Mobile computing (Mobile devices + wireless networks)
     • Challenges: resource limitation, unpredictable network, power
       saving, …
  – Ubiquitous computing (Everyday objects + wireless
    networks)
     • Challenges: user experience & human computer interaction,
       understanding user intention & context, heterogeneous
       ubicomp environments, …

                                                                         12
      Course Topics (Tentative)
• Vision
• Smart objects
• Localization systems
• Ambient and tangible interfaces
• Security and privacy
• Smart environments
• (Persuasive computing)


                                    13
                Course Objectives
• To prepare us (students and faculty) for research in
  ubicomp.
• (Try to) duplicate experience from similar courses taught at
  MIT, Stanford, Georgia Tech, etc.
   – Learning by reading papers
       • Define problems & challenges
       • Understand state-of-art techniques & solutions
       • Identify limitations of state-of-art solutions
   – Learning by doing projects
       • The project must have a research component.




                                                            14
What can you get out of this course?
{In addition to ubicomp concepts and projects}

• Develop your own belief on where computer science is
  going
• Learn research experiences
   – Scenario, problem definition, related work survey, design &
     implementation, evaluation, etc.
   – Reading, writing, and presentation skills




                                                                   15
          Collaborative Learning
• This is a research seminar course, so everyone (faculty and
  students) will contribute to the learning process.
   – Paper discussion
   – Paper presentation
   – Project presentation
• Ubicomp is a new, fast changing field, so faculty may not
  know all materials!




                                                              16
        (Unusual) Course Format
• Each lecture will discuss 3~5 papers on a specific topic.
• For each paper,
   – All will write a paper review before the class
   – Faculty & presenters will pose questions before the start of the
     class
   – Presenter will give an overview of the paper for 15 minutes.
   – Everyone will join the discussion for 15 minutes.
• Students will sign up for papers for presentation.




                                                                        17
          How to read a paper?
• For each paper, try to answer the following
  questions:
   – What is the problem?
   – What is the current state-of-the-art?
   – What is the key make-a-difference (new) method and
     technique?
   – What is good/bad/ugly about this make-a-difference
     method?
   – What has actually been done?
   – What is the future work?


                                                          18
               Reading in Depth
• Must challenge what you read!
• Attack the paper (use your common sense)
  –   Are assumptions reasonable?
  –   Is the method similar to other methods in related work?
  –   Is the improvement marginal or significant?
  –   Are arguments logically sound?
  –   Are evaluation metrics reasonable?
  –   Is conclusion drawn logically from measurements?



                                                           19
       Develop Critical Thinking
• Critical thinking is "the examination and testing of
  suggested solutions to see whether they will
  work." Lindzey, Hall, and Thompson, 1978.




                                                     20
                    WiKi Page
• There a WiKi website (collaborative website).
   – The assigned presenter must post presentation slides
     and paper summary on swifi course page before the
     class.




                                                            21
              Reading Sources
• ACM Ubicomp (2002 ~ 2005)
• Pervasive (2002 ~ 2005)
• IEEE Percom (2002 ~ 2005)
• ACM CHI (~ 2005)
• IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine
• ACM Mobisys, ACM Mobicom, ACM Mobihoc, ACM Sensys,
  SOSP, etc.
• Can also be in any system & networking conferences, UI
  conferences, etc.


                                                       22
          Project Component
• Rapid research prototype of an ubicomp
  application in one semester.
• Push you to do some research
• Find a fit with your current research
• Learn some team work




                                           23
  Lifecycle of a Research Project
• Define motivation scenario       • Design
  (Tell an interesting story)         – Differentiate your work from
   – Emphasize the parts of             related work
     scenario where it is currently   – What’s new? Why is it
     not possible, but with your idea,  significant?
     it will become possible.         • Rapid prototype
   – Show me a proof-of-concept         implementation
     demo prototype
• Derive problem(s)                • Evaluation of Prototype
                                     Implementation
   – Assumptions, requirements,
     implementation vs. research      – Define evaluation metrics
     problems                         – Experiments & user studies
• Survey related work              • Shoot a video & write a
                                     report
                                                                  24
                   Project Phases
• Phase 1: project idea presentation (4 weeks)
   – Fun, realizable within one semester time framework and
     computing equipments, has a research component.
   – [Scenario]
• Phase 2: project proposal document (4 weeks)
   – Form teams, define goals, plan, and needed equipments.
   – [Problems, related work, and design]
• Phase 3: progress checkpoint (4 weeks)
   – [Preliminary prototype, evaluation metrics]
• Phase 4: project working prototype and final report (4
  weeks)
   – Working prototype demonstration

                                                              25
    Last Year’s Project Samples
• Diet-aware dining table
   – Smart table aware of what you eat
• Geta sandals
   – Smart shoes aware of where you walk to
• Privacy camera
   – Smart camera aware of accidental passers
• Adaptive Wi-Fi localization



                                                26
         Diet-Aware Dining Table
          Table that watches what you eat and helps you eat healthy


• Aware of human dietary behaviors
  over a tabletop surface
• Embed a dietary tracker inside a
  dining table
   – Weight and RFID sensors hidden
     underneath table surface
   – Track what & how much we eat
• Demonstrate ubicomp concepts
   – Invisible computing
   – Natural interaction with computers

                                                                      27
                     Geta Sandals
• Aware of human walking
  motions & derive his/her current
  location
• Embed a location self-tracker
  inside shoes
   – Pressure, ultrasonic, orientation,
     and RFID sensors
• Demonstrate ubicomp concept
   – Human-centric design




                                          28
                  Privacy Cameras
• Aware of accidental passers
• Embed a passer-tracker inside
  cameras
   – Ultrasonic Location systems
   – Check if passers are in camera
     view
   – Inform passers to move
   – Photo-montage
• Demonstrate ubicomp
  concept
   – Privacy in a world full of
     cameras
                                      29
 Adaptive Wi-Fi Location Systems
• Quick overview on WiFi based
  location system (fingerprinting)
   – Calibration phase: RSSI radio maps
   – Estimation phase: matching closest
     points on radio maps
• Aware of environmental factors
  through sensors
   – humidity, open/closed doors, and
     people
• Contribution
   – Improvement on positioning accuracy


                                           30
                    Project Ideas
• Smart object(s): embed computing,
  e.g., using Telos sensor node(s), to
  create collaborative, smart
  everyday objects (e.g., wall,
  dresser, medicine cabinet, book
  shelf, etc.). These smart
  embedded objects can support
  "natural user interaction" with
  users.




                                         31
              More Project Ideas
• Persuasive objects: smart objects
  not only aware of human behavior
  but also change or shape human
  behavior.
• Persuasive lunch tray:
   – An interactive game - coloring
     cartoon character, is used to
     improve dietary behaviors of
     young children.
• Smart dresser that not monitor a
  person's clothing preference, but
  can improve his/her fashion sense

                                      32
            More Project Ideas
• Energy-aware indoor localization: come up a way
  to reduce the amount of energy consumption on a
  mobile unit in a localization system.




                                                33
              More Project Ideas
• Ambient display or tangible UI
   – Use Phidgets (physical UI widgets) to build ambient
     display or tangible user interfaces.
• Examples from U. of Calgary
   – (http://grouplab.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/phidgets/gallery/ind
     ex.html)




                                                          34
               More Project Ideas
• Ubicomp games: create a game that
  is played both in the digital and
  physical world
• Example:
   – Can you see me now? (Equator)
• Few ubicomp game workshops
   – Ubicomp 2005:
     http://ubicomp.techkwondo.com/index.p
     hp/Main_Page




                                             35
               More Project Ideas
• Social computing
  – Apply computing to help your everyday social lives
    (physical world)
     • Find your dream girls/boys?
     • Facilitate face-to-face interactions?
     • Social networking?
• Check out ambient intelligent group (MIT media
  lab)
  – http://interact.media.mit.edu/research.html


                                                         36
               More Project Ideas
• Pollution monitor
• Monitor your exposure to pollutants
  –   Toxic Air
  –   Acid rain
  –   Toxic drinking water
  –   Food chemical or bacteria
  –   Environmental radiation (SUN)
  –   Radiation cell phones & WLAN



                                        37
               More Project Ideas
• Smart Kitchen
• Interactive Recipes
• Everywhere Display
  –   Smart refrigerator
  –   Smart chopsticks
  –   Smart robes
  –   Smart pads




                                    38
                Ubicomp Toys I
• Telos Berkeley Motes
• Nokia and Windows CE Smart
  phones
• HP IPAQ 5500 (Bluetooth +
  802.11)
• IPAQ Accessories: expansion pack,
  camera, memory card, GPS,
  GPRS, ..
• Sensors: light, tilt, temperature,
  accelerometer, pressure, weight,
  orientation, ultrasound, etc.
• Philgets RFID kits
                                       39
                  Ubicomp Toys II
•   Passive RFID tags & readers (Skyetek and Alien)
•   Biometric sensors (heart rate, BVP, GSR, etc.)
•   Projector
•   WiFi based location systems (ekahau.com)
•   Ultrasound-based positioning systems (Navinotesd)
•   Use your imagination
    – Anything you can find on the network or from your own lab …
    – However, budget may be limited 




                                                                    40
                    Grading
• Class Participation (30%)
  – Paper presentation
  – Paper review
  – Paper discussion
• Project (70%)




                              41
            Course Requirements
• Class attendance (MUST!)
    – Please don’t register if you cannot wake up in the morning.
• Creativity
• Good programming skill
• Some systems & networking background
• Willing to spend extra time & efforts than what a regular
  course would need
• M1 and undergrads (not my students), please come & talk
  with me after the class.




                                                                    42
      Course WiKi page

http://mll.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubicomp06/




                                        43
Who are still interested in this
          course?
   <Collect Students’ Email Addresses>




                                         44
                      Next week
• Read the next week papers
   – Mark Weiser, The Computer for the 21th Century, (1991) [Hao]
   – Mark Weiser, Some computer science issues in ubiquitous
     computing (1993) [Peggy]
   – Winograd, T., From computing machinery to interaction design
     (1997) [Kinda]
   – Mark Weiser, John S. Brown, The Coming Age of Calm Technology,
     (1996) [Peter]
• Learn how to use WiKi
• Create/link your personal page under WhoIsWho06 page


                                                                  45

				
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