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					                        Newton’s Laws of Motion
                      Unit Assessment – Answer Key
1. A girl on rollerblades moves forward by pushing back. This is an example of

   A.   Newton’s First Law of Motion.
   B.   Newton’s Second Law of Motion.
   C.   Newton’s Third Law of Motion.
   D.   inertia.

Answer:
        Newton’s Third Law.


2. If both of these objects were dropped from 40 feet at exactly the same time, which object
   would hit the ground first? Why? (2 Points)




Answer:
   Answers may vary. The objects should hit the ground at the same time because all objects
   fall at the same rate due to gravitational force. However, if an answer explains that the larger
   surface area of one of the objects may delay its fall and demonstrates an understanding of the
   equal pull and effect of gravity as well as the understanding of the force of friction of the
   atmosphere (i.e., air resistance) upon an object, the answer may also be accepted as an
   appropriate response.

Rubric:
Two Points – Response determines that the objects fall at the same time or that one falls
sooner/later and provides a logical reason based upon what was determined.

One Point – Response determines that the objects fall at the same time or that one falls
sooner/later but does not provide a logical reason based upon what was determined.

Zero Points – Response indicates no understanding of the concept(s).



Summit County Educational Service Center                                                   June 2006
3. A pair of dice is hanging from the mirror in a car. The car comes to a
   quick stop. At the moment that the driver slams on the brake, what will
   the dice do?

   A.   Swing forward toward the windshield
   B.   Stay in the same position
   C.   Swing back toward the driver
   D.   Make no movement at all

Answer:
        Swing forward toward the windshield


4. According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, what force makes a rolling soccer ball stop
   rolling?

   A.   Gravity and friction
   B.   Kinetic energy
   C.   Surface tension
   D.   Acceleration

Answer:
        Gravity and friction




5. The driver of this truck failed to lock its sliding door. What would happen if this truck would
   come to a sudden stop?

   A.   The sliding door would shut due to inertia.
   B.   The sliding door would stay open due to inertia.
   C.   The sliding door would close slightly.
   D.   Gravity would keep the sliding door open.


Summit County Educational Service Center                                               June 2006
Answer:
       The sliding door would shut due to inertia.


6. Recall a basketball game you may have played in or observed or any other activity you may
   have participated in during physical education class. Identify four different examples of
   Newton’s Third Law of Motion. Explain how the law applies to each of the examples that
   you have chosen. (4 Points)

Answer:
   Answers may vary. Newton’s Laws of Motion are:
     #1-A body in motion tends to stay in motion and a body at rest tends to stay at rest
       unless acted upon by an outside force.
     #2-Force equals mass times acceleration.
     #3-For every force exerted on an object, the object exerts an equal and opposite force in
       the opposite direction.

   There are many examples of the laws in everyday life. The answer must choose examples
   and apply the specific laws of motion. Examples for basketball could include, but are not
   limited to, feet pushing against the floor and the floor pushing back upon the feet, hands
   pushing against the ball and the ball pushing back upon the hands, backboard pushing
   against the basketball and the basketball pushing against the backboard, etc.

Rubric:
Four Points – Response provides examples of two different laws of motion and explains how
each law applies to the examples. There are four aspects to this response (i.e., four examples and
explanations).

Three Points – Response includes three out of the four aspects.

Two Points – Response includes two out of the four aspects.

One Point – Response includes one out of the four aspects.

Zero Points – Response indicates no understanding of the concept(s).




Summit County Educational Service Center                                                June 2006
7. Tommy threads a string through two straws. He attaches a balloon that is blown up to one
   straw with tape. He then attaches a cotton ball to the other straw with tape.




   What will happen if Tommy lets the air out of the balloon?

   A.   The balloon and the cotton ball will move toward the right.
   B.   The balloon will move toward the right and the cotton ball will move toward the left.
   C.   The balloon will move toward the left and the cotton ball will move toward the right.
   D.   The balloon will move toward the left and the cotton ball will be drawn toward the left
        more slowly by suction.

Answer:
        The balloon will move toward the left and the cotton ball will move toward the right.


8. The pictures below show the soles of Susie’s pair of running shoes at two stages, new and
   after four months of use.




                         New shoes          Same shoes after
                                            4 months of use

   What can you infer from her pair of shoes?

   A.   This runner rarely ran in these shoes.
   B.   This runner was short and very fast.
   C.   This runner ran on the edges of her feet.
   D.   Several runners wore these shoes.

Answer:
        This person ran on the edges of her feet.


Summit County Educational Service Center                                                June 2006
9. Which set of cars will collide with the most force?


   A.
                        Car A                            Car B
                       12 mph                            7 mph



   B.
                        Car A                             Car B
                        7 mph                            12 mph




   C.
                        Car A                             Car B
                       12 mph                            12 mph


   D.


                        Car A                            Car B
                       12 mph                            2 mph




Answer:



                    Car A                             Car B
                   12 mph                            12 mph

10. A girl who is ready to dive off the edge of the diving board has

   A.   more chemical energy than potential energy.
   B.   more potential energy than kinetic energy.
   C.   more kinetic energy than potential energy.
   D.   equal potential and kinetic energy.

Answer:
        more potential energy than kinetic energy.


Summit County Educational Service Center                               June 2006
11. Which type of surface would cause the least amount of friction if you were trying to move a
    large box over it?

   A.   Grass
   B.   Carpet
   C.   Tile
   D.   Sand

Answer:
        Tile


12. Rollerblades are very popular these days. Some people say that you can glide longer on
    rollerblades than on roller skates. Explain why you think this is true? (2 Points)




Answer:
   Answers may vary. Rollerblade wheels have less surface area in contact with the ground
   than roller skate wheels. This means that friction is reduced between the ground and the
   skates. Therefore, resistance to rolling is minimal and the skates glide longer. (Note: The
   diameter of the wheels, which is usually larger on a rollerblade, or the type of ball bearings
   (e.g., ABEC) may also play a role in how long an individual can glide. If a student justifies
   the larger diameter or type of ball bearings with appropriate reasoning, the answer may also
   be counted as an appropriate response.)

Rubric:
Two Points – Response explains the effects surface area and friction whereas the increase of
surface area will increase friction and therefore the reduction of surface area will reduce the
effects of friction.



Summit County Educational Service Center                                                 June 2006
One Point – Response partially explains the effects surface area and friction.

Zero Points – Response indicates no understanding of the concept(s).


13. Sue is on an airline flight over the Appalachian Mountains. She keeps her seat belt on, but
    slightly loosened during the flight. Flying through a cloudy area, the plane suddenly slows
    down and loses altitude. What does Sue experience during her flight?

   A.   She will have more pressure from the seat behind her than the seat belt.
   B.   She will have less pressure from the seat beneath her and less pressure from her seat belt.
   C.   She will have less pressure from the seat behind her and more pressure from her seat belt.
   D.   She will have more pressure from the seat beneath her than the seat belt.

Answer:
        She will have less pressure from the seat behind her and more pressure from her seat belt.


14. According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, which object will have the greatest
    acceleration if all are thrown into the air with the same amount of force?

   A.   6 oz. baseball
   B.   3 oz. tennis ball
   C.   16 lb. bowling ball
   D.   1.5 oz. golf ball

Answer:
        16 lb. bowling ball


15. Newton’s Laws of Motion can be applied to every example of motion that we see in our daily
    lives. Provide examples of two different laws of motion that you have seen take place in
    your daily life. Explain how each law applies to the examples that you have chosen. (4
    Points)

Answer:
   Answers may vary. Newton’s Laws of Motion are:
     #1-A body in motion tends to stay in motion and a body at rest tends to stay at rest
       unless acted upon by an outside force.
     #2-Force equals mass times acceleration.



Summit County Educational Service Center                                                 June 2006
        #3-For every force exerted on an object, the object exerts an equal and opposite force in
         the opposite direction.

   There are many examples of the laws in everyday life. The answer must choose examples
   and apply the specific laws of motion.

Rubric:
Four Points – Response provides examples of two different laws of motion and explains how
each law applies to the examples. There are four aspects to this response (i.e., two everyday
examples of two different laws, application of two different laws).

Three Points – Response includes three out of the four aspects.

Two Points – Response includes two out of the four aspects.

One Point – Response includes one out of the four aspects.

Zero Points – Response indicates no understanding of the concept(s).


16. Water shoots from a fire hose with great force. As the water rushes forward (an action
    force), a reaction force pushes backward on the hose.

   What will happen to the firefighters if they do not have their feet firmly planted on the
   ground and a tight grip on the hose?



   A. The firefighters will stay in place.




   B. The firefighters will fall backward.




   C. The firefighters will go forward with the water.




Summit County Educational Service Center                                                 June 2006
   D. The firefighters will get raised up off of the
      ground.

Answer:
        The firefighters will fall backward.



17. Tony pitched the baseball south, toward home plate. Just as he released the ball, a gust of
    wind blew from the west toward the east at 20 miles per hour. Which diagram best depicts
    how the wind will affect Tony’s pitch?


                                               N




                            W                                   E




                                               S


                                                                    N
                            N

   A.                                              B.
                                     E                  W                   E
                 W


                                                                    S
                           S


                            N                                           N
   C.                                              D.

                 W                   E                      W                   E



                       S                                                S
Summit County Educational Service Center                                               June 2006
Answer:
                     N


            W                E



                    S




Summit County Educational Service Center   June 2006

				
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