ALASKA MISSILE DEFENSE WEEKLY Fifty-first Edition Compiled by: Ms. Hillary Pesanti, Community Relations Specialist Command Representative for Missile Defense 907.552.1038 To subscribe, email: email@example.com Note: Click on any storyline for more information. If you would like to view archived editions, click here: Archived Editions FEBRUARY 17, 2003-FEBRUARY 21, 2003 ALASKA SPECIFIC NEWS BREAKS • Hearing set for SBX Radar vessel, The Valdez Star (Alaska) MONDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 2003 • President’s Day TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 2003 • Airborne Laser conducts air refueling test, Aviation Week • China denies testing MRV’d missile, Agence France Presse • Britain agrees to Flyingdales’ radar upgrade, BBC Online • Arrow-2 to be partially produced in the United States, Huntsville [AL] Times • GMD may not be operational 24/7, Inside Missile Defense • DoD proposes waiving test requirement for ballistic missile defense deployment, Aerospace Daily • War planners speak of the risks, New York Times • European Union says Iraq must disarm quickly and fully, New York Times WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 2003 • Japan and the United States to test joint missile defense system, Associated Press • North Korean rhetoric spurs Japan plans for missile defense, Wall Street Journal • U.S. missile plan seems well on its way, Defense News • Christie: Aegis missile defense can be used with limited success, Inside The Navy • Astronomy technology aims to help vision, Associated Press • MDA includes $500 million R&D boost for ABL in FY-04 budget request, Inside the Air Force THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 2003 • U.S. lawmaker calls on Ukraine to help develop missile defense system, Associated Press • Christie: OT&E office getting needed information from MDA, Inside Missile Defense • MDA further defines plan for new boost phase interceptor program, Defense Daily • Japan, U.S. agree to keep close contact over missile defence system, Agence France Presse • SBR will require significant funds, clear plan for congressional approval, Defense Daily • Report: Deployment of U.S. forces in Poland is possible, Associate Press FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 2003 • GMD lacks operational capability, DOT&E report says, Defense Daily • U.S.: China aiming missiles at Taiwan, Channel NewsAsia • Lack of overseas missile sales leads to job cuts, Associated Press • Army ready to test future space capabilities in upcoming space game, Defense Daily • Hit-and-miss missile defense, MSNBC ALASKA SPECIFIC NEWS BREAKS #51 FEBRUARY 17, 2003-FEBRUARY 21, 2003 HEARING SET FOR SBX RADAR VESSEL, The Valdez Star (Alaska), February 18, 2003. The first draft of the Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed sea-based radar system, known in military jargon as SBX Radar, has been published and is available for public viewing at the Valdez Consortium Library. The voluminous document contains hundreds of pages of preliminary results for all sites under consideration by the Ground Missile Defense. It also contains information on environmental impact for the launch sites of the test missiles from all over the Pacific region. The SBX is the newest proposed addition to the Ground Missile Defense (Star Wars) program. Valdez is a candidate to serve as the home port for this sea-going radar facility. The draft EIS also contains information on locations for a Primary Support Base which will need to be located within a 1,440-nautical-mile distance of the performing region of the SBX…In brief, the EIS also addresses 16 areas of possible impact…No impact was expected for Air Quality, Biological Resources, Utilities, Health and Safety or Visual and Aesthetic Resources. The primary area of concern involved airspace. An “Electromagnetic Radiation/Electromagnetic Interference” survey and analysis would be required to minimize impact to aircraft and other potentially affected systems, the report said… On Wednesday of next week, Feb. 26, the Ground Missile Defense office will host another scoping meeting in Valdez which is open to the public. GLOBAL NEWS BREAKS #51 MONDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 2003 PRESIDENT’S DAY – NO NEWS TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 2003 AIRBORNE LASER CONDUCTS AIR REFUELING TEST, Aviation Week, February 3, 2003. The first U.S. Air Force YAL-1A Airborne Laser (ABL) aircraft demonstrated an aerial refueling capability behind a KC-135 tanker during a recent test flight in California. The Boeing 747 freighter was outfitted with an air-to-air refueling system during a two-year modification effort in Wichita, Kansas. The aircraft is now at Edwards AFB, California, where its directed-energy weapons (lasers) and optical systems will be installed. The ABL is designed to destroy boosting missiles with a high-power laser. CHINA DENIES TESTING MRV'D MISSILE, Agence France Presse, February 11, 2003. Chinese officials vehemently denied a Japanese news daily's report that China had tested a ballistic missile with multiple reentry vehicles, or MRVs. This kind of warhead design would neatly counter and overwhelm any missile defenses that the United States might be able to deploy in the near future. Said Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhang Qiyue, the report that China had tested a MRV’d DF-21 missile in mid-December was "utterly groundless." BRITAIN AGREES TO FLYINGDALES’ RADAR UPGRADE, BBC Online, February 5, 2003. The British government has formally agreed to allow the radar facilities at Fylingsdale to be upgraded and incorporated into the fledgling U.S. missile defense system. Defense Secretary Geoff Hoon alerted the U.K. Parliament on Jan. 31 that he would be "conveying the government's agreement to the U.S. request." Critics have opposed this move, fearing that it may lead to Fylingsdale becoming a target or the United Kingdom becoming permanently involved in missile defense programs of the United States. Hoon tried to ally that latter concern by stating that the upgrade does not necessarily commit his government to further participation, but it does "keep open the prospect of acquiring missile defense capabilities for the United Kingdom." ARROW-2 TO BE PARTIALLY PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES, Huntsville [AL] Times, February 12, 2003. Israel Aircraft Industry (IAI) and Boeing signed a pre-production agreement in early February that would allow Boeing to become more involved in production of the Arrow missile defense program's interceptor, the Arrow-2. About half of the Arrow-2's component parts will be assembled by Boeing at an existing facility in Huntsville, AL. This agreement is the culmination of years of effort by IAI to get the Arrow-2 produced in the United States as a way of bulking up its stockpile of the interceptors. Only 50 percent of the Arrow's components can be produced in the United States because of Missile Technology Control Regime restrictions: even to get this pre- production agreement established, the State Department had to grant Boeing a Technical Assistance Agreement. GMD MAY NOT BE OPERATIONAL 24/7, Inside Missile Defense, February 5, 2003. The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) may not be able to continually operate the Ground-based Midcourse Missile Defense (GMD) system, according to senior Defense official. Because a presidential directive called for an early deployment of the still-in-development GMD system, MDA unveiled a plan where 20 interceptors for the GMD program would be deployed by 2005. While briefing Congress about the MDA's FY 04 budget request, a Department of Defense official said that due to the limited number of interceptors being initially deployed, "it is not clear how they will be manned 24 hours a day." DOD PROPOSES WAIVING TEST REQUIREMENT FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE DEPLOYMENT, Aerospace Daily, February 14, 2003. The Defense Department has asked Congress for permission to bypass operational testing requirements so it can begin deploying ballistic missile defenses (BMD) in 2004, Sen. Carl Levin (D-Mich.) revealed Feb. 13. DOD appears to want to skip operational testing for the BMD systems to save time and keep the deployment on track. At a hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee, Levin, the panel's ranking Democrat, said DOD quietly submitted the request for a testing waiver as part of its fiscal 2004 budget proposal. The Pentagon would exempt the missile defense deployment from a law that requires DOD's director of operational test and evaluation to certify that appropriate operational testing has been completed before putting weapon systems into production, Levin said. "That law exists to prevent the production and fielding of a weapon system that doesn't work right," said Levin, who earlier criticized the Bush Administration for committing to deploy systems that he believes have not been adequately tested (DAILY, Dec. 18, 2002). Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld defended the waiver request, saying "we need to get something out there in the ground [and] at sea" to support more realistic testing and provide at least a minimal defense against ballistic missiles. To underscore the urgency of fielding missile defenses, Rumsfeld said there is "no doubt in my mind" that North Korea has a missile that could reach parts of the U.S. The Bush Administration announced last December that it intends to begin deploying up to 20 ground-based interceptors that can shoot down long-range missiles in their midcourse phase (DAILY, Dec. 17, 2002). The plan also calls for fielding up to 20 sea-based midcourse interceptors to defend against short-range and medium-range missiles. The ground-based and sea-based interceptors would be deployed by 2005. Supplemental expected 'soon' Levin also revealed at the hearing that DOD is considering several proposals to change the way it operates. They include eliminating assistant secretaries of defense that oversee reserve affairs and special operations; replacing the current four-year terms served by the service chiefs with two-year terms that can be renewed by the defense secretary; and requiring the Joint Staff to report to the defense secretary rather than to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Rumsfeld said he was unaware of the specific proposals but generally believes the department needs to modernize the way it does business. Rumsfeld also told the committee he expects the Administration to submit an FY '03 supplemental appropriations request to Congress "reasonably soon" to pay for military operations in Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf. The White House, including its Office of Management and Budget, are working on the details of the request. Although Congress recently added $10 billion to an FY '03 non-defense appropriations bill for military and intelligence activities related to the war on terrorism (DAILY, Feb. 11), a supplemental still will be needed because the war on terrorism is costing about $1.5-$1.6 billion a month and because preparations for a possible invasion of Iraq are costing an additional $2 billion or so, Rumsfeld testified. WAR PLANNERS SPEAK OF THE RISKS, New York Times, Washington, February 17, 2003 — Senior Bush administration officials are for the first time openly discussing a subject they have sidestepped during the buildup of forces around Iraq: what could go wrong, and not only during an attack but also in the aftermath of an invasion. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld has a four- to five-page, typewritten catalog of risks that senior aides say he keeps in his desk drawer. He refers to it constantly, updating it with his own ideas and suggestions from senior military commanders, and discussing it with President Bush. His list includes a "concern about Saddam Hussein using weapons of mass destruction against his own people and blaming it on us, which would fit a pattern," Mr. Rumsfeld said. He said the document also noted "that he could do what he did to the Kuwaiti oil fields and explode them, detonate, in a way that lost that important revenue for the Iraqi people." That item is of particular concern to administration officials' postwar planning because they are counting on Iraqi oil revenues to help pay for rebuilding the nation. Although administration officials are no doubt concerned about the ultimate number of American casualties, they have declined to discuss the issue and it is not known how that risk figures in Mr. Rumsfeld's list. If there is one thing that haunts administration planners it is the thought of a protracted conflict, which could lead to increased casualties. "How long will this go on?" one senior administration official asked. "Three days, three weeks, three months, three years?" Even some of this official's aides winced as they contemplated the last time frame on that list. The Rumsfeld document also warns of Mr. Hussein hiding his weapons in mosques or hospitals or cultural sites, and using his citizenry or captured foreign journalists as human shields. The risks, Mr. Rumsfeld said, "run the gamut from concerns about some of the neighboring states being attacked, concerns about the use of weapons of mass destruction against those states or against our forces in or out of Iraq." A senior Bush administration official confirmed that a number of uncertainties remained even after months of internal studies, advance planning and the insertion of Central Intelligence Agency officers and Special Operations forces into some corners of Iraq. "We still do not know how U.S. forces will be received," the senior official said. "Will it be cheers, jeers or shots? And the fact is, we won't know until we get there." In an administration that strives to sound bold and optimistic — especially when discussing the political, economic and military power of America — such cautionary notes from the White House, the Pentagon and intelligence officials may well have a political purpose. Following the military maxim that no battle plan survives first contact with the enemy, the administration may feel it is better to warn the American public of these dangers in advance. According to his aides, President Bush has to prepare the country for what one senior official calls "the very real possibility that this will not look like Afghanistan," a military victory that came with greater speed than any had predicted, and with fewer casualties. If Mr. Bush decides to begin military action without explicit United Nations approval, other nations may well withhold support for what promises to be the far more complex operation of stabilizing and rebuilding Iraq while preventing religious and political score-settling and seeking out well-hidden weapons stores before others find them, not to speak of continuing the war on terror. "There is a lot to keep us awake at night," one senior administration official said. As America's intelligence assets focus on Iraq, senior officials worry they may be less thorough in tracking threats to the nation elsewhere. Just last week on Capitol Hill, Vice Adm. Lowell E. Jacoby, director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, said that his ability to detect the spread of nuclear weapons or missiles around the world was being "stretched thin," and he said that some parts of the world, including South Asia, Russia and China, had less coverage than he would like. The director of central intelligence, George J. Tenet, hinted at one of the deepest worries heard in the hallways of the intelligence agency, the Pentagon and the White House: that a successful removal of Saddam Hussein could be followed by a scramble among Iraqis for what remains of his military arsenal — particularly his chemical and biological weapons — before it was secured by American forces. "The country cannot be carved up," Mr. Tenet said of Iraq. "The country gets carved up and people believe they have license to take parts of the country for themselves. That will make this a heck of a lot harder." At the White House, officials acknowledged that they had been late in focusing on the question of how to bring enough relief assistance to the region in the days after an attack begins, which could turn the populace against their would-be liberators. Mr. Bush's political aides are acutely aware that if Iraq turns into lengthy military operation, or if stabilization efforts are viewed by the Iraqi people as foreign occupation, those events will quickly be seized upon by Mr. Bush's opponents. Administration officials list these among their concerns: • A muddy transition of power. Most of the planning has called for the swift removal of Mr. Hussein and his top aides. While a coup or exile might preclude the need for military action, they could create a chaotic situation in which Mr. Hussein is gone but the United States is not in control. Condoleezza Rice, the national security adviser, has begun to talk about how it will not be enough to remove Mr. Hussein, saying, "We must also get rid of Saddam-ism." Some, especially at the Pentagon, ask if, in the event of a coup or exile, the United States military might have to go into Iraq anyway to assure that the succession of power leaves in place a government that would give up all weapons of mass destruction. • Chaos after Mr. Hussein is gone. Several task forces on Iraq have examined what some call the "score-settling problem," the specter of rivalries and feuds that have been bottled up for decades spinning out of control. Most have concluded that one result may be an American military occupation likely to be longer than the 18 months that Ms. Rice has talked about. Douglas J. Feith, the undersecretary of defense for policy, noted in Senate testimony last week that getting at the stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction would be a "complex, dangerous and expensive task." • Events outside Iraq. North Korea is the first concern here, because a crisis there could require military resources tied up in the Middle East. An equal concern is terrorism here or in Europe, set off by Al Qaeda or others. One official noted recently that it might be impossible to know if an act of terror was set off by agents of Iraq or simply by terrorists taking advantage of the Iraq invasion. • Securing the oil fields. It is assumed that Mr. Hussein would try to destroy the oil infrastructure. The only question is how thorough a job he would do. Blowing up the above-ground pumping stations, while troublesome, would not be that hard to fix. Sinking explosives deep underground, where they damage the drilling infrastructure, could be far more destructive. EUROPEAN UNION SAYS IRAQ MUST DISARM QUICKLY AND FULLY, New York Times, Brussels, February 17, 2003 — The leaders of the 15 members of the European Union warned Iraq today that it must disarm "immediately and fully," but said that Europe wanted to achieve this disarmament peacefully and that war should be a last resort. The European statement was issued at the end of an emergency summit meeting and after a weekend of huge demonstrations in several cities against war in Iraq. It appeared to represent an effort to paper over trans-Atlantic differences through firm demands on Saddam Hussein while maintaining a distinct European position dedicated to a peaceful outcome. "War is not inevitable," the statement said. "Force should only be used as a last resort. It is for the Iraqi regime to end this crisis by complying with the demands of the Security Council." [Text of the statement is linked at the right under "Related Articles."] "The Union's objective for Iraq remains full and effective disarmament," it said, adding: "We want to achieve this peacefully. It is clear that this is what the people of Europe want." The European leaders did not approve a timetable for Iraqi disarmament and rejected a British proposal that the statement include the phrase "time is running out." That phrase was rejected by Germany, which, together with France, has stood at the forefront of European resistance to the Bush administration's plans to disarm Iraq through force if necessary. In a demonstration of the continued distance between Europe and the United States, President Jacques Chirac of France said that there was "no need" for a second United Nations resolution reinforcing the threat of force against Iraq, and that France would oppose one if the United States and Britain proposed it to the Security Council. "Iraq must have no illusions," the Greek president, Costas Simitis, said tonight, summarizing the European declaration. He added that "Iraq alone will be responsible for the serious consequences" if it continued to defy United Nations resolutions. The phrase "serious consequences" is widely viewed as meaning military force. It appears at the end of Security Council Resolution 1441, which last year provided arms inspectors with a strong mandate to return to Iraq and verify disarmament. Differences between Europe and the United States over Iraq have become so acute in recent weeks that officials have expressed concern over the future of the NATO alliance. Today, European leaders seemed anxious to allay those fears, saying they were committed to "working with all our partners, especially the United States, for the disarmament of Iraq." In its most forceful passage, the European statement said: "Baghdad should have no illusions. It must disarm and cooperate immediately and fully. Iraq has a final opportunity to resolve the crisis peacefully. The Iraqi regime alone will be responsible for the consequences if it continues to flout the will of the international community and does not take this last chance." Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain, who faces intense domestic opposition to his support for the Bush administration's war plans, insisted before the meeting that European leaders must show a united front with America as the best means of compelling Mr. Hussein to disarm. The meeting today was intended in part to try to patch up the sharp disagreement among the Europeans that has left the goal of European unity in tatters. For months now, France and Germany have resisted American pressure to go to war with Iraq, while Britain, Italy, Spain and Denmark have expressed support for the American position. That the meeting ended in a joint statement at all was something of a victory for many of the leaders who have been eager to heal the rifts caused by the Iraqi crisis and to speak in a single European voice. Indeed, in the days leading up to the meeting today, many people in Europe, noting how deeply divided the union's member nations have been on Iraq, were doubtful that any agreement would be reached at all. The next step in the complex diplomatic chess game being played concerning Iraq seems likely to come later this week, when the United States and Britain offer a resolution in the Security Council finding Iraq in "material breach" of Council resolutions, a formula for authorizing a military strike against the Hussein government. But the European declaration that force should be only a "last resort" indicated that the two major European representatives on the Security Council, France and Germany, would actively resist the American and British move. The statement seemed a careful balancing of the views that had badly divided the European Union. On the one hand, it credited the American military buildup in the Persian Gulf with forcing Iraq to readmit the United Nations weapons inspection teams, which left the country in 1998. In what seemed a concession to the British desire for a timetable for Iraq disarmament, the statement also said, "Inspections cannot continue indefinitely in the absence of full Iraqi cooperation." But the Europeans also called for the inspectors to have "the time and resources they need," reiterating what has become almost a mantra for the nations opposed to going to war, not only Germany and France but Russia and China, both of which have veto power on the Security Council. How much time that is was left unclear, but France has proposed that the chief weapons inspectors report back to the Council on March 14. Foreign Secretary Jack Straw of Britain said at a news conference after the joint declaration was released that the important question was not time for the inspectors but Iraqi compliance. "If there is not active compliance, then no amount of time or more inspectors is going to change that reality of lack of compliance," he said. Mr. Blair allowed that differences still existed among the European countries, but said, "There was a lot of common ground, and I have no doubt that many, many people around that table tonight were absolutely insistent that indeed, Saddam was in his final chance." Not represented at the meeting today were 10 countries that are expected to become members of the European Union next year. Those countries, including most of the former satellites of the Soviet Union, all signed a statement of support for the United States position on Iraq two weeks ago. WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 2003 JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES TO TEST JOINT MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM, Associated Press, February 17, 2003. Japan and the United States will test a missile-intercept system aimed at countering a potential North Korean attack, the Defense Agency said Monday. Agency spokesman Ichiro Imaizumi said the two countries are jointly developing a new missile that can be launched from ships to shoot down enemy missiles fired at Japan and that “missile testing will be carried out in due course.”…A Monday news report in the Nihon Keizai Shimbun said the United States and Japan were to begin testing their new anti-missile defense in Hawaii over a two-year period starting in 2004. After the testing, both sides will decide on whether to deploy the system, it said. The paper, a leading Japanese daily, also reported that Japan would shoulder about 20 billion yen (U.S.$165 million) of the development costs. Imaizumi said the cost-sharing and the testing dates have yet to be decided. He said Japan and United States are currently working on four parts of the new missile — the nose cone, kinetic warhead, infrared seeker and second-stage rocket. Since Japan has no missile testing range, it is widely believed that testing of the missile would occur in the United States. NORTH KOREAN RHETORIC SPURS JAPAN PLANS FOR MISSILE DEFENSE, Wall Street Journal, February 18, 2003. As concerns grow about North Korea’s capability and intent in long-range missiles and nuclear weapons, Japan is planning to carry out tests of missile-defense hardware with which it could one day defend itself. In cooperation with the U.S., Japan is lining up performance tests on essential components for use in an antiballistic-missile rocket that could form part of a full-fledged missile-defense system, a spokesman for the Defense Agency said Monday. Though the system is a long way from being put into place, the planned tests show the rising anxiety in Japan since North Korea disclosed that it was developing nuclear weapons… The antimissile initiative is in a study phase, but Japan is expected to decide in the next year or so whether to advance the project to the development stage. Japan and the U.S. will carry out tests on a nose cone, which would protect sensors inside the missile head from heat; an infrared seeker; a kinetic warhead, and a rocket motor. “These will be performance tests to see whether they would work in a missile eventually,” said Ichiro Imaizumi, a Defense Agency spokesman. The schedule and location of the tests haven’t yet been decided, he said. U.S. MISSILE PLAN SEEMS WELL ON ITS WAY, Defense News, February 17, 2003. Politically, U.S. missile defense has reached the same point that a warhead attains in the final stages of its flight: From here on it looks very difficult to shoot down. Since Congress approved spending $7.4 billion on it last autumn, and President George W. Bush announced in December he would begin initial deployment of a missile defense system in autumn 2003, “the big policy issues have been largely put to bed,” said Baker Spring, a defense analyst for the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank in Washington. After almost 20 years of contentious debate about whether missile defense would work, was affordable or would be destabilizing, the issue seems likely to show up much lower on the congressional radar screen this session. To the extent discussion arises this year, it “will be much more heavily weighted toward programmatics — how much money for which system, timelines for deployments, management of the Missile Defense Agency,” said Spring, a longtime missile defense proponent. “There is a different kind of political atmosphere surrounding” missile defense now, he said… Democrats in Congress might have been expected to protest louder that missile defense systems remain too unproven to deploy, but actions by North Korea helped stifle much opposition to Bush’s decision… One thing Congress is sure to heed is the performance of missile defenses if there is a war with Iraq. How well theater missile defense systems — the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 system in particular — work in combat could have substantial influence on the future of the missile defense system… CHRISTIE: AEGIS MISSILE DEFENSE CAN BE USED WITH LIMITED SUCCESS, Inside The Navy, February 17, 2003. After a series of flight tests, the Pentagon’s top tester, Thomas Christie, told Congress the Navy’s Aegis ballistic missile defense system could be employed in an emergency “with limited expectation of success.” According to excerpts from Christie’s fiscal year 2002 report to Congress -- obtained by Inside the Navy -- the Aegis BMD test strategy through FY-02 has been “commensurate with the early maturity level of the system.” While Christie, the director of operational test and evaluation, acknowledges the program has had much success in FY-02, he cautions that the program is still in its early stages… In his report, Christie reviews the Aegis BMD test strategy for FY-02, which he says has “been simplistic and limited to establishing the hit-to-kill proof-of-concept, and flight qualifying non-legacy hardware and software components of the Aegis BMD system.”… However, flight tests against “separating threats, or threats that employ countermeasures, are required to fully address the discrimination and designation capability of Aegis BMD,” the report states, adding, “These test limitations will be addressed as the Aegis BMD program matures and the test program becomes more challenging.” Accordingly, Christie concludes, “since these firings have been from functional, fully manned, operational ships, this system could be employed in an emergency with limited expectation of success. There are significant capabilities yet to be demonstrated before the engagement conditions can be considered operationally realistic.” ASTRONOMY TECHNOLOGY AIMS TO HELP VISION, Associated Press, February 17, 2003. Technology that astronomers developed to take the twinkle out of starlight as it enters their telescopes is now peering in the opposite direction, revealing the eye’s complexities as never before. Scientists hope the detailed images of light-gathering cells they can now see will lead to early diagnoses and treatment of eye diseases to spare patients from blindness. The same system of lenses, flexible mirrors and computers is also making laser eye surgery more accurate. One day it may even allow surgeons to user lasers to zap away tiny aneurisms within the eye… Called adaptive optics, it was first proposed in 1953 by an astronomer eager to compensate for the distortions that light from stars, planets and galaxies picks up while passing through Earth’s soupy atmosphere. But it was not until the 1980s that such technology was refined, as part of research on President Reagan’s failed “Star Wars” program to build a missile defense shield of space-based lasers. After that technology was declassified in 1991, it quickly found its way into the nation’s biggest telescopes. Deformable mirrors that can be rapidly changed in shape to compensate for atmospheric turbulence soon began steadying starlight in major observatories… Adaptive optics’ potential uses for vision science purposes was not lost on the National Science Foundation, which began funding research studying its vision applications in the 1990s. MDA INCLUDES $500 MILLION R&D BOOST FOR ABL IN FY-04 BUDGET REQUEST, Inside the Air Force, February 14, 2003. The Missile Defense Agency has requested an almost $500 million boost in research and development funds from fiscal years 2004 to 2007 for the Airborne Laser, which is designed to attack and destroy hostile missiles while in the boost phase of flight. MDA funds the platform’s research and development while the Air Force funds and manages its procurement and will eventually operate the system…In the president’s FY-03 budget request, MDA projected a need for $2.12 billion for ABL R&D efforts in FY-04 through FY-07. The agency has, since then, boosted the request to $2.62 billion for that same time period in the FY-04 Defense Department budget, according to a DOD official…Meanwhile, the Air Force sliced the ABL procurement account by nearly $2.6 million…The FY-04 budget request contains $25.7 million for procurement in FY-06, $95.5 million in FY-07, $293.3 million in FY-08 and $1.3 billion in FY-09. With those monies, the service plans to procure one ABL system, which includes the aircraft, lasers and other internal systems, in FY-09, according to Air Force spokesman Capt. Peter Kerr. THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 2003 U.S. LAWMAKER CALLS ON UKRAINE TO HELP DEVELOP MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM, Associated Press, February 19, 2003. U.S. Congressman Curt Weldon called Wednesday for Ukraine to join the United States in developing a missile defense system. The Pennsylvania Republican appealed to Ukrainian space and defense officials to dedicate their “outstanding scientists and researchers” to help develop the system. Weldon also praised Ukraine’s acceptance of U.S. President George W. Bush’s proposal that it provide experts to decontaminate areas affected by the potential use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons in a potential conflict with Iraq. “In this time of insecurity, with threats of the potential use of weapons of mass destruction, it is reassuring and comforting to know that ... all of your leadership understand the importance of this request,” Weldon said. U.S. Ambassador Carlos Pascual, who joined Weldon at a news conference, said Ukraine’s forces could save “tens of thousands of lives” if weapons of mass destruction were used. Weldon also stressed the need to expand existing threat reduction and nonproliferation programs to prevent sensitive technologies from getting into terrorists’ hands. CHRISTIE: OT&E OFFICE GETTING NEEDED INFORMATION FROM MDA, Inside Missile Defense, February 19, 2003. During reviews of the fiscal year 2003 Defense Department budget request last year, Sens. Carl Levin (D-MI) and Jack Reed (D-RI) questioned whether the Pentagon’s operational test and evaluation office had enough access to the programs being developed by the Missile Defense Agency to provide adequate oversight. In his most recent report to Congress, Thomas Christie, the OT&E director, said he and his staff are getting that access. “Presently, my staff and technical support personnel have access to all the information necessary to independently evaluate the MDA goals and objectives, assess demonstrated operational capabilities, and determine test program adequacy,” Christie said. His report covers DOD testing during fiscal year 2002. MDA will develop its programs in two-year blocks; Christie said his office would review these plans. “My assessment for each block will be a characterization of demonstrated capabilities and will point out operational strengths and weaknesses that feed a military utility study,” the report states. “The decision will be made to procure or field in an emergency a block increment after my assessment and the military utility study is complete. This is a significant departure from the traditional acquisition approach in which such decisions are based upon the degree to which demonstrated performance meets specified operational requirements.” The development goals of each of MDA’s two-year block improvements will be based on broad classes of missions and threat characteristics, but “operational assessments of a block’s demonstrated capabilities will be based on more specific missions and threats,” Christie said. MDA FURTHER DEFINES PLAN FOR NEW BOOST PHASE INTERCEPTOR PROGRAM, Defense Daily, February 20, 2003. The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) this week has outlined its plans for developing a new kinetic energy boost phase interceptor (KE BPI) that could take out targets in all phases of flight. MDA, in a formal request for proposals (RFP) statement of objectives released yesterday, said it plans to use an evolutionary, spiral approach to achieve increasingly greater and more robust capabilities over time against ballistic missiles in all phases of flight to include boost/ascent as well as mid- course and exoatmospheric terminal phases. MDA’s plan is to first demonstrate a kinetic energy capability against ballistic missiles in the boost/ascent phase of flight from a deployable ground-based launch platform. The goal, MDA said, is to have demonstrated this capability in the ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) testbed in the Block ‘08 BMDS increment, anticipated for Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2009. This capability will then evolve over time to mate with other launcher platforms, such as sea-based in Block ‘10 and to fill capability shortfalls in the overall BMDS architecture, MDA added. JAPAN, U.S. AGREE TO KEEP CLOSE CONTACT OVER MISSILE DEFENCE SYSTEM, Agence France Presse, February 20, 2003. Japan and the United States agreed on Thursday to keep close contact with each other over a future system to intercept ballistic missiles, a defence agency official said. Defence Agency chief Shigeru Ishiba held talks with Pete Aldridge, the Pentagon’s procurement chief, now visiting Tokyo, as fears grow that North Korea may resume its own missile test-firing. “A missile defence system is a very important subject to study for our nation’s security,” Ishiba told Aldridge, according to the defence agency official. Ishiba said Tokyo hoped to establish its own missile defence system by maintaining close contact with the U.S. on the plan, the official said. “Mr. Aldridge said the United States fully understands the situation surrounding Japan,” the official said. “He said his country wants to exchange information closely in various occasions.” SBR WILL REQUIRE SIGNIFICANT FUNDS, CLEAR PLAN FOR CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL, Defense Daily, February 20, 2003. The Air Force is going to need significant resources to field the Space Based Radar (SBR) it has in mind, according to Peter Teets, under secretary of the Air Force and director of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). And in obtaining those resources, the Air Force is going to have to prove to Congress that it has a solid plan in place for the program, he told reporters last week at the NRO offices in Chantilly, Va. Congress, Teets said, “still has remaining concerns” about the Air Force and NRO’s military space programs due to cost and schedule troubles that surfaced in programs like the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) High program and Future Imagery Architecture (FIA) program… Recently, Congress has been responsive to the changes that have been made in those programs to get them on track, Teets said. However, he said the service and NRO are now putting better cost estimating in place and trying to create funding reserves for program managers to ensure there are no repeats on the emerging programs like SBR. And, SBR certainly will be on the congressional radar screen for cuts if problems crop up. REPORT: DEPLOYMENT OF U.S FORCES IN POLAND IS POSSIBLE, Associate Press, February 18, 2003. U.S. forces could be stationed at some point in Poland and the deployment would not violate agreements between NATO and Russia, the Interfax news agency quoted the Polish ambassador to Russia as saying Tuesday. Stefan Meller, the Polish ambassador, also told Interfax in an interview that the transfer of U.S. military bases from Germany to Poland was not under discussion at the current time…Meller said that although the agreement between Poland and NATO rules out the permanent deployment of troops in Poland, a limited deployment of two motorized divisions would be possible if the alliance were to face a threat… Meller also told Interfax that the United States had suggested that at some point a part of a future missile defense system could be deployed in Poland. FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 2003 GMD LACKS OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY, DOT&E REPORT SAYS, Defense Daily, February 21, 2003. The Pentagon’s Ground Based Midcourse Defense system has not shown “significant operational capability,” according to a new report from Pentagon Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) Thomas Christie in his FY 2002 Annual Report. “Due to the stage of development and…testing limitations, the GMD (Ground Based Midcourse Defense) element has yet to demonstrate significant operational capability,” Christie wrote in the report released this month. “The GMD test program has suffered from the lack of production representative test articles and test infrastructure limitations.”… Major GMD test program limitations noted by Christie include the lack of a deployable test vehicle, the lack of a realistically placed midcourse sensor and a fixed intercept point. The MDA has developed mitigation plans for the FY ‘04 test program, according to the DOT&E report. But Christie cautioned that the FY ‘04 test program may include “key exceptions” such as “demonstrating kill vehicle [a Raytheon product] performance in the absence of detailed foreknowledge of target characteristics and against tumbling or off-nominally deployed targets,” he wrote. “Given the uncertainty of the threat, it is unclear that the target signatures will be consistent with the threat when fielded.” The FY ‘04 budget request would post more than $9 billion for missile defense-related activity, including $7.7 billion for the research and development associated with fielding initial capability--and 10 ground-based interceptors--in FY ‘04. U.S.: CHINA AIMING MISSILES AT TAIWAN, Channel News Asia, February 21, 2003. The Bush administration claims China is aiming more missiles at Taiwan. A Pentagon official said Beijing is adding 75 ballistic missiles yearly to its arsenal, and could deploy missiles designed to attack land targets before 2005. The remarks were made at a meeting of defence industry officials from the U.S. and Taiwan in Texas this month. During the session, the Bush administration urged Taiwan to buy more U.S. and Israeli-made missile defence systems, to counter what it called a “daunting threat” from China… In addition to its ballistic-missile buildup, Beijing is expected to deploy first-generation cruise missiles designed to attack land targets. Beside the Patriot PAC-3 system, another short to mid term option for Taiwan could be the Arrow missile interceptor, developed jointly by Israel and the United States and declared operational in October 2000. Other options included upgrading Taiwan’s Tien-Jung 2A interceptors, reported to have been tested in 1998, and obtaining surface-launched U.S.-built AMRAAM missiles. The United States is weighing a Taiwan request for immediate delivery of AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range, Air-to-Air missiles purchased in 2000. The missiles were to be stored in the United States until or unless China fielded a similar air-to-air system, something it may have since done, U.S. officials have said. LACK OF OVERSEAS MISSILE SALES LEADS TO JOB CUTS, Associated Press, February 20, 2003. A lack of sales overseas for advanced versions of its Patriot antimissile system means defense contractor Raytheon Co. will lay off about 300 people next month, a company official said. “A delay in Patriot international contracts has created a gap in production needs at the Andover plant” where the missiles and other components are made, said Raytheon spokesman David Polk. Company officials, who broke the news to Andover workers at a meeting Wednesday morning, said the job cuts will be split equally between the unionized, blue-collar work force and salaried managers and engineers, according to employees at the meeting… Some foreign governments may be holding off on ordering until there is a new version of the Patriot missile, made by Lockheed Martin Corp. at plants in Texas and Arkansas, Owen Cote, associate director of the Security Studies program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, told The Boston Globe. However, officials said the new version may not be ready for export for several years… Raytheon has boosted production of some components of the Patriot system because of rising demand from the U.S. Army in anticipation of a war with Iraq. However those orders have not been enough to compensate for the loss of expected foreign sales. ARMY READY TO TEST FUTURE SPACE CAPABILITIES IN UPCOMING SPACE GAME, Defense Daily, February 21, 2003. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) officials said yesterday they intend to play a role in a space wargame starting today set in the year 2017 in which a variety of futuristic space systems will be tested. The joint wargame, known as Schriever II, will take place today through the end of next week. It is hosted by the Air Force at Schriever AFB, Colorado Springs, Colo. SMDC said the game will focus on space support to national security and future warfare and explore critical space issues in depth and investigate the military utility of new space systems… Throughout the course of the games, SMDC officials said they expect for the participants to seek to leverage space, support increased deployability of Army warfighters and reduce the Army’s footprint in theater. Space, they said, can enhance the Army’s situational awareness, support precision maneuver fire and enable continuous information and decision superiority… Although the wargame specifics are classified, SMDC said the classic strategy of pitting friendly “blue” forces against enemy “red” forces will be followed, featuring a worldwide range of conflict that stresses space systems. The first space wargame, “Schriever 2001,” was held in January 2001. About 250 military and civilian experts from more than 30 agencies around the country will participate. OPINION/LETTERS HIT-AND-MISS MISSILE DEFENSE, MSNBC, February 20, 2003. While the world awaits war in Iraq, little attention has been paid to President Bush’s military budget proposal for next year - less still to a line item that would have attracted enormous notice in more placid times. This is the Missile Defense program, the successor to what, in Ronald Reagan’s day, was called the Strategic Defense Initiative or “Star Wars.” The program’s budget, which was released to no fanfare on Feb. 3, is startling for a couple of reasons. First, it totals $9.1 billion. That’s nearly three times what Reagan managed to spend on the program in any of his years in office and a 20 percent increase over the $7.5 billion that Congress gave Bush last year - completing the transformation of the Pentagon’s Missile Defense Agency from an insular research shop into one of the flushest branches of the U.S. armed forces. Second, to go with the big boost, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld has asked Congress to exempt Missile Defense from the law that requires all weapons systems to undergo operational tests before being deployed in the field… At first glance, this may sound like a prudent step. North Korea is on the verge of restarting its long-dormant nuclear-weapons program; it is also developing long-range ballistic missiles… A closer look, however, reveals some drawbacks to this haste: a) By the MDA’s own admission, the $9.1 billion… buys little, if any, protection in the near future; b) in the longer run, again by their own testimony, the MDA’s managers don’t know where the program is going, what it will look like, when it will be finished, or how much it will cost; and c) the program is still technologically immature — some of its most vital elements have yet to be built, even as prototypes. These problems exist quite apart from a couple of broader issues: There are far cheaper ways, which Bush has resolutely dismissed, to neutralize the North Korean threat; and there are far cheaper ways, which he has gravely shortchanged, to deal with more immediate threats… If Bush is worried about North Korea, as he has every reason to be, he should do what his predecessor did and what the North Koreans have practically begged him to do for four months now — sit down for direct talks and work out a trade: the resumption of economic aid for a halt (and, this time, a more decisive halt) to their nuclear program. Fred Kaplan is the author of “The Wizards of Armageddon” and writes the “War Stories” column for Slate.
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