By Ajay Maurya, Raksha Nawal, Mangilal Sharma Abstract- In the past half century, a significant advancement occurs in the field of information and communication technology, with this advancement the computing would be the fifth utility of our daily life after water, electricity, gas and telephone. To achieve this target many number of computer paradigms are developed. The cloud computing is latest one. For delivering the vision of cloud computing, this paper lightly explains the methodology, implementation, issues of this technology and after this we would summarize what is happening in current scenario by using cloud computing. Furthermore, we would pay much attention on future aspects like how we make it secure, fast, real-time access and what add-on make it more productive. We would propose some possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud environments. Finally, we conclude the need for convergence of competing IT paradigms to deliver our vision
IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 18 M www.IJCCET.com an us cri pt Future Advancement In Cloud Computing rec eiv ed #1 #2 #3 Ap Ajay Maurya, Raksha Nawal, Mangilal Sharma ril #1 firstname.lastname@example.org, #email@example.com, #firstname.lastname@example.org 22 , 20 Abstract- In the past half century, a significant environments, to edge closer toward achieving the grand 12 advancement occurs in the field of information and vision of computing. These new computing paradigms. are communication technology, with this advancement the cluster computing, Grid computing, P2P computing, service computing would be the fifth utility of our daily life after computing, market-oriented computing, and most recently water, electricity, gas and telephone. To achieve this Cloud computing. All these paradigms promise to provide target many number of computer paradigms are certain attributes or capabilities in order to realize the developed. The cloud computing is latest one. For possibly 1 trillion dollars worth of the utility/pervasive computing industry according Sun Microsystems co-founder delivering the vision of cloud computing, this paper Bill Joy . Of all these computing paradigms, the two most lightly explains the methodology, implementation, issues promising ones appear to be Grid computing and Cloud of this technology and after this we would summarize computing . A computing service required to be highly what is happening in current scenario by using cloud scalable, reliable and autonomic to support ubiquitous computing. Furthermore, we would pay much attention access, dynamic discovery and compos-ability. In particular, on future aspects like how we make it secure, fast, real- consumers can determine the required service level through time access and what add-on make it more productive. Quality of Service (Quos) parameters and Service Level We would propose some possibilities of enhancing Agreements (SLAs). performance on cloud environments. Finally, we In this paper our goal is to clarify things related to cloud conclude the need for convergence of competing IT computing with tries to answer the following questions in paradigms to deliver our vision. different sections: Section 1: Introduction of this paper Keywords- Cloud Computing, fifth Utility, Computing, Section 2: What is Cloud Computing and how it is Virtualization, latest computing paradigm structured? Section 3: What is its methodology and how to be I. INTRODUCTION implemented? Section 4: Which are current issues related to this The Fifth Generation of Computing (after Mainframe, technology? Personal Computer, Client-Server Computing, and the web) Section 5: What is the present scenario in market for is the Cloud Computing. The Computing is the systematic cloud computing? study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform Section 6: What changes should be made to design of information: their theory, analysis, design, efficiency, the future applications software, infrastructure implementation, and application . software, and hardware? The term "computing" is synonymous of counting and calculating. Wikipedia definition is: “Cloud computing is Section 7: conclusion and future directions. Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, II. CLOUD COMPUTING CONCEPT software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like the electricity grid.” Cloud computing is way of computing in which resources, Firstly, in 1960, when John McCarthy opined that software, platforms etc are provided to the users on request "computation may someday be organized as a public utility” over the world wide network. a smell of a big advanced technology spread in world. With The ‘cloud computing’ term is refer the a service oriented digital Internet became widely used in the second half of the architecture, reduced information technology overhead for 1990s ask any web developer, solution architect or anyone the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of involved in web application development in any capacity: ownership, on-demand services and many other things. Which symbol do you use to represent Internet on numerous Thus, Cloud computing provides delivery of applications white-board meetings? Obviously the most widely used via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and metaphor for Internet was/is cloud. Cloud computing has desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and derived its name from the same line of thinking. data are stored on servers at a remote location. With the turn of the 21st century, the term "cloud A. Cloud Computing Needs computing" began to appear more widely used. There, are Cloud Computing is care of the computing needs : many new computing paradigms have been developed and adopted, with the emergence of technological advances such 1) Dynamism: Let’s suppose our business is growing as multi-core processors and networked computing exponentially. Our computing need & usage is getting bigger with every passing day. Would we add servers & other Manuscript received April 01, 2012. hardware to meet the new demand? That’s where Cloud IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 19 M www.IJCCET.com an us Computing comes to our rescue! And we just need to organizations in the community, a third party, or some cri configure & our provider will take care of fluctuating combination of them. pt demand. There is dynamism. rec 3) Public Cloud: This cloud infrastructure is available to eiv 2) Abstraction: From an end users perspective, we don’t the general public or a large industry group and it may be ed require to care for the OS, the plug-ins, web security or the owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or Ap software platform. Everything should be in place without government organization, or some combination of them. ril any worry. This is due to abstraction. 22 4) Hybrid cloud: it is the combination of two or more 3) Resource Sharing: Cloud Computing has a beauty of , clouds (public, private or community). It is remain a unique Resource Sharing. This is the concept which helps the cloud entity but is bound together. 20 providers to manage optimum utilization of resources. For 12 example a company dealing in gifts may require more server D. Cloud Actors . resources during festive season. A company dealing in Studying infrastructure of cloud computing we purpose Payroll management may require more resources during the that the various players/actors in the market can be end or beginning of the month. Then this is best option. differentiated into the following three categories: B. Service Delivery Models 1) Cloud Providers: They provide one or more of the There are a number of service offerings and cloud models (i.e., IaaS, PaaS or SaaS) as a service. implementation models under the cloud computing umbrella. 2) Cloud Enablers: They frame the technology or have The NIST definition of cloud computing defines three adapted existing technology to support cloud computing. Its delivery models:- Latest example is Oracle's partnership with Amazon to add 1. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Oracle 11g database support (technology and licensing) to 2. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Amazon's existing EC2 service. 3. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)  3) Service Users: They are uses cloud models. 1) SaaS: There a customer uses an application but does not control the operating system, hardware or network E. Services offered by cloud infrastructure on which it's executing/running. There are many services that can be delivered using cloud 2) PaaS: The platform is typically an application computing, through advantage of the distributed cloud framework. In this the customer uses a hosting environment model. Some of them followings- for their applications. The customer controls the applications 1) Hosted Desktops: A hosted desktop behave and looks that run in the environment and there is possibly has some like a regular desktop PC, but the software and data control over the hosting environment, but does not control customers use are housed in remote, highly secure data the operating system, hardware or network infrastructure on centres, rather than on their own machines. which they are running. 2) Hosted Email: Emails is stored centrally on managed 3) IaaS: The customer uses fundamental computing servers, providing redundancy and fast connectivity from resources such as processing power, storage, networking any location. This allows users to access their email, components or middleware. The customer can control the calendar, contacts and shared files by a variety of means. operating system, storage, deployed applications and possibly networking components such as firewalls and load 3) Voice over IP (Hosted Telephony): Is a means of balancers. carrying phone calls and services across digital internet There are also some delivery models as requirement like networks. Data as a Service (Daas), Application Components as a 4) Cloud Storage: It is the delivery of data storage as a Service (CaaS) and Virtual Infrastructure as a Service service, from a third party provider, with access via the (VaaS) . internet and billing calculated on capacity used in a certain period C. Service Deployment Models The National Institute of standards and technology (NIST) 5) Dynamic Servers: A provider like ThinkGrid gives its definition defines four deployment models: Private cloud, customer access to resources that look and feel exactly like a Community cloud, Public cloud and Hybrid cloud . dedicated server, but that are fully scalable . 1) Private Cloud: this cloud infrastructure exclusively F. Comparison to another computing ways used by a single organisation with multiple business units. It For a clear understanding of what exactly is Cloud may be managed, operated and owned by the organisation or computing, we compare Cloud computing with two other a third party or some combination of them. recent, widely-adopted or explored computing paradigms: 2) Community Cloud: This cloud infrastructure is shared Cluster Computing and Grid Computing. by several organizations. It supports a specific community “A cluster is a type of parallel and distributed system, that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security which consists of a collection of inter-connected stand-alone requirements, policy, and compliance considerations) . It computers working together as a single integrated computing may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the resource.”  “A Grid is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 20 M www.IJCCET.com an us geographically distributed ‘autonomous’ resources cri will determine the key objective of moving  to the cloud dynamically at runtime depending on their availability, and addressing the key areas like security and privacy, pt capability, performance, cost, and users' quality-of-service technical, business and customer impact, economics, rec and requirements.” governance and policy. eiv At a cursory view, Clouds appear to be a combination of ed clusters and Grids. 2) Define a Cloud Strategy: The organisation document Ap Let’s see the web search trend, The web search a complete understanding of each entity of architecture.rilWe popularity, as measured by the Google search trends during examine the required user services, processing of services, 22 the current year 2011, for terms “cluster computing”, “Grid software standards; integrated software for each entity ,and computing”, and “Cloud computing” is shown in Figure 1. information security. 20 12 3) Create an Implementation Plan: Identifying of . roles and responsibilities, Work Breakdown Structure, risk plan, dependencies, control mechanism, operating models is done in this step to implement cloud strategy successfully. After completing Phase 1, the organization will have fully analyzed its options, identified all requirements, thoroughly assessed short-term and long-term costs and benefits, gained executive governance approval, and socialized the solution with stakeholders (including Fig. 1: Google search trends for the Jan., 2011 to mid Nov., 2011. oversight entities) . Spot points in Figure 1 indicate the release of news related to Cloud computing as follows: B. The Cloud Deployment phase (A) Cloud Computing Platform Automates Health Spending In this phase we focus on implementing the strategy for Canadians developed in the planning phase. Some of the criteria used in (B) Centrify Delivers Robust Support for Canonical's New recommending a vendor are the vendor's primary service Ubuntu 11.10 Release to Enable Secure Desktop, model (i.e., infrastructure, platform, or software). There are Server and Cloud Computing following stages- (C) World should follow India & Japan in cloud computing: Vivek Kundra 1) Select the Cloud Provider(s): This select/assessment (D) The Cloud Computing Market Grows Up step deals with analyzing the components of the architecture (E) Do business leaders understand the scale of cloud and identifying the optimal vendor offerings. One of the computing? main criteria in selecting a provider is its ability to leverage (F) Demystifying cloud computing for consumers existing technologies. (G) Domestic cloud computing estimated to grow at 53 Study. 2) Establish Service Level Agreements (SLAs): SLAs Related things to popularity of cloud computing we formalize the contractual agreement between the further discuss in section 4. organization and the selected vendor(s) and will highlight the offerings of the vendor(s), so the expectations on both III. METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION sides are clear . A typical SLA will identify service Cloud Computing Transition Methodology designed to levels for the- address the issues and risks associated with migrating an Uptime: The percent of the time that the system will existing system to the cloud is developed. Figure 2 provides be available (e.g., 99.8%) an overview of the methodology. Performance and throughput Security and Data protection The level of support offered (e.g., 24/6) Guarantee of data protection and privacy when other foreign entities are host Downtime, backup, and recovery, and ensure that objectives and established benchmarks are being met. 3) Execute Transition: The primary steps in execution Fig. 2: Overview of methodology  are to establish multiple environments, such as development, testing, production, and training. It makes actual transition of A. Cloud Strategy and Planning phase components identified in earlier steps. Based on the number This phase consist three steps to ensure that all aspects of and type of components that are being ported to the cloud, moving to cloud are appropriately agreed upon. These steps execution can be an iterative process. are- 4) Help Desk and O&M: The help centre is the most 1) Conduct a strategic plan: The objective of this is to required for successful execution of any service. In the cloud identify the major factors that are appreciate the decision to this is provided by the cloud vendor and may be driven by move the cloud environment and find to best approach. We the selected cloud model(s) and will be determined by the IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 21 M www.IJCCET.com an us SLAs previously established. Different vendors provide E. Data backup cri different support models and at different levels. It's pt important to ensure the kind of essential support functions Cloud providers employ redundant servers and routine rec that will be provided by vendors for successful continuity of data backup processes, but some people worry about being eiv operations and to understand how operations will be restored able to control their own backups. Many providers are nowed on time at the backup site. offering data dumps onto media or allowing users to back up Ap data through regular downloads. ril After the desired period of a parallel run, and with the 22 primary support of an external consultant update the F. Data Portability and Conversion , documentation, best practices and other artifacts so that the Some people are concerned that, should they wish to 20 in house IT staff can continue with support and operation switch providers, they may have difficulty transferring data. 12 management on the cloud platform . Porting and converting data is highly dependent on . the nature of the cloud provider’s data retrieval format, IV. CURRENT ISSUES particular in cases where the format cannot be easily The character of cloud computing – is its external discovered. As service competition grows and open management concept – opens the door for questions about standards become established, the data portability issue will data security and how this process should be managed . ease, and conversion processes will become available Here is a rundown on most of the current issues concerning supporting the more popular cloud providers. Worst case, a cloud computing. Attention is required about these for cloud subscriber will have to pay for some custom data successful use of cloud computing. conversion. A. Privacy G. Multiplatform Support The most valuable issue is privacy a big issue in More an issue for IT departments using managed services deployment of cloud. Cloud computing privacy can be is how the cloud-based service integrates across different examined within the following three categories: platforms and operating systems, e.g. OS X, Windows, 1) Unintentional user-driven data leaks Linux and thin-clients. Usually, some customized adaption 2) Lack of controls or protections from the Cloud provider of the service takes care of any problem. Multiplatform 3) Intentional data leaks for monetary gain support requirements will ease as more user interfaces An example of Instance when privacy licked such as the become web-based. secret NSA program, working with AT&T, and Verizon, which recorded over 10 million phone calls between H. Intellectual Property American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy A company invents something new and it uses cloud advocates, and the greater powers it gives to services as part of the invention. Is the invention still telecommunication companies to monitor user activity . patentable? Does the cloud provider have any claim on the B. Security invention? Can they provide similar services to competitors? All good questions and answerable on a case-by-case basis. While a leading edge cloud services provider will employ data storage and transmission encryption, user Here we purposed some more issue that are also required authentication, and authorization (data access) practices, to attention of cloud actors- many people worry about the vulnerability of remote data to such criminals as hackers, thieves, and disgruntled I. Misuse- employees. Cloud providers are enormously sensitive to this As with privately purchased hardware, crackers posing as issue and apply substantial resources to mitigating concern. legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. This includes password C. Reliability cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services Some people worry also about whether a cloud service . In 2009, a banking Trojan illegally used the popular provider is financially stable and whether their data storage Amazon service as a command and control channel that system is trustworthy. Most cloud providers attempt to issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs mollify this concern by using redundant storage techniques, that were infected by the malware. but it is still possible that a service could crash or go out of business, leaving users with limited or no access to their J. Sovereignty data. A diversification of providers can help alleviate this When we are in dispute with the service provider over concern, albeit at a higher cost. payments and they won't give our data back, then we don’t know which country's court we are going to deal with them D. Ownership in? Once data has been relegated to the cloud, some people worry that they could lose some or all of their rights or be K. Sustainability unable to protect the rights of their customers. Many cloud Cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green providers are addressing this issue with well-crafted user- computing", there is as of yet no published study to sided agreements. That said, users would be wise to seek substantiate this assumption . This type of sustains are advice from their favorite legal representative. Never use a required to prove. provider who, in their terms of service, lays any kind of ownership claim over your data. K. Real-Time Processing IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 22 M www.IJCCET.com an us We are required to real time feedback from the services to 1) SaaS market: There CRM, Financial Planning, Human cri works that are required to fast accessing. In present time pt Resources, Word processing type of applications are offered cloud application are required to fast-access internet and by the providers. E-mail services also come in SaaS rec required some seconds to give feedback of our request. category. Some key things are- eiv Fast access is further issue that is relates to real-time ed Following are some SaaS service providers- accessing. Ap Salesforce.com: Provide call center, incident We are recommending solution of this issue that are- ril management, complaint tracking, and service portal First times when we work on cloud then automatically 22 services. files that are not relate to security issue are copy to virtual , Emailcloud: Emailcloud is a premium email messaging 20 computer system. So, next-time we able to accessing fast- service provider. This services save you time, accessing. 12 bandwidth and the hassle of dealing with email . This thing used in very less organisations and less messaging issues such as spam, viruses, downtime and amount. But this required in much quantity to save. For relaying services . example graphics files are must be copy as temporary into Google Apps: is a service from Google providing virtual computer. independently customizable versions of several Google V. SCENARIO OF CLOUD MARKET products under a custom domain name. It features several Web applications with similar functionality to According to the research firm Zinnov, the current cloud traditional office suites, including: Gmail, Google computing market is $110 Million today with, Groups, Google Calendar, Talk, Docs and Sites. up to approximately, 66 Million in the SaaS market dominated by march, 2010 25 million people had "switched to applications such as collaboration apps, CRM and ERP. The Google Apps" According to Google blogs . remaining $ 44 Million is shared by the PaaS and IaaS. According to Zinnov, the main areas where cloud 2) PaaS market: There application design, application computing will be used extensively are- development, testing, deployment and hosting as well as Banking and Financial sectors application services such as team collaboration, web service Telecom integration and marshalling, database integration, security, Manufacturing scalability, storage, persistence, state management, Government application versioning, application instrumentation and If we see web search trend of Google insight then cloud developer community facilitation type of services provided. computing most searched term from India with respect to Some PaaS service Providers are- another countries. However, Infrastructure was always a Google AppEngine: Google AppEngine is targeted weak point in the Indian market. We suppose that next few exclusively at traditional web applications, enforcing years are going to be interesting in the market and see more an application structure of clean separation between a cloud based vendors coming out of India. stateless computation tier and a stateful storage tier. AppEngine’s impressive automatic scaling and high- availability mechanisms and the proprietary MegaStore data storage available to AppEngine applications, all rely on these constraints. Microsoft’s Azure are: It is written using the .NET libraries, and compiled to the Common Language Runtime, a language-independent managed environment. Thus, Azure is intermediate between application frameworks like AppEngine and hardware virtual machines like EC2 is the provider of cloud computing as PaaS. Mosso/ Rackspace: The Rackspace Cloud was originally launched as Mosso LLC on March 4, 2006, a wholly owned subsidiary startup billed as a utility computing offering. As it pre-dated mainstream Fig. 3: Leading Cloud Computing Providers  adoption of cloud computing it was "retooled" and The global cloud computing market is expected to relaunched on February 19, 2008, adopting the tagline grow from $37.8 billion in 2010 to $121.1 billion in 2015 at "Mosso: The Hosting Cloud". The "Mosso" a CAGR of 26.2% from 2010 to 2015. SaaS is the largest branding (including the mosso.com domain) was then segment of the cloud computing services market, accounting dropped on June 17, 2009 in favour of "The Rackspace for 73% of the market’s revenues 2010.  Cloud" branding (including the rackspacecloud.com domain) . A. Present market status AWS: S3: vCloud is a cloud computing initiative from Cloud computing continues to gain more mainstream VMware which will allow customers to migrate work adoption as more companies move into the cloud. Market on demand from their "internal cloud" of cooperating growth in different type of cloud service models are follows- VMware hypervisors to a remote cloud of VMware hypervisors. The goal of the initiative is to provide the IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 23 M www.IJCCET.com an us power of cloud computing with the flexibility allowed There are many benefits of migrate to clouds due to cri by virtualization. pt outstanding characteristics like Cost savings, power savings, green savings, Pay per use, Instant Scalability, Advanced rec 3) IaaS market: The service offers multiple options for eiv security technologies, Reliability, Broad network access, computing, memory, network configuration, operating Virtualization, increased agility in software deployment.ed So, system and Disaster Recovery (DR) to fit client’s specific with these lots of characteristics of cloud we able to sayApthis needs. technology are future of computer science development ril and Some IaaS service Providers are- required much and much research. 22 Flexiscale: FlexiScale is a complete rebuild of Europe’s Hence, developers would be cared to design their next , first cloud computing platform using Flexiant’s generation of systems to be implemented into Cloud 20 revolutionary Extility technology . Computing. In general, the importance should be horizontal12 AWS: EC2 Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud delivers . scalability to hundreds or thousands of virtual machines over scalable, pay-as-you-go compute capacity in the cloud. the effectiveness of the system on a single virtual machine. Amazon EC2 is at one end of the spectrum. An EC2 While we are confident about the future of Cloud instance looks much like physical hardware, and users Computing, we would feel affection for to look into a can control nearly the entire software stack, from the gemstone sphere to see how popular it is and what it will kernel upwards. look like in coming years. NetMagic Solutions : These provider team monitors all critical parameters related to the performance of the ACKNOWLEDGMENT network and the servers being hosted. We would like to thank our computer Science Department InstaCompute (from Tata Communications): It provide of PGI for their contributions, insights and support. We Pre- or-post-paid payment options. Multiple processing would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their power options. Private or Public Connectivity. useful comments and suggestions that helped improve this InstaCompute changes with our changing requirements. paper. B. Expected Future market status REFERENCES In coming time some hybrid Cloud services are ready to  Computing As a Discipline” by Peter J. Denning, Douglas E. Comer, David Gries, Michael C. Mulder, Allen Tucker, A. Joe Turner, And come or newly come in market. Some of the key things Paul R. Young are—  Computing in the Clouds” by A. Weiss., netWorker, 11(4):16-25, Dec. OpenNebula: OpenNebula is an open-source cloud 2007. computing toolkit for managing heterogeneous  Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities” by Rajkumar Buyya, distributed data center infrastructures. 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Retrieved 13 October 2011.  http://www.flexiscale.com  http://www.fincloud.freehostingcloud.com/ IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012 24 M www.IJCCET.com an us  http://www.dataplex.com/blog/index.php/2010/01/05/Issues cri DataPlex_com-blog-.htm pt  http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/03/25-million-people-have- rec gone-google.html  “Addressing the Issues & challenges in cloud computing” by K K eiv Lavania, Ajay Maurya, Nitish Jain, Deepak Mohta at IEEE ed International Conference at Puducherry-2011 ( ICECCT11) ISBN – Ap 978-81-909042-4-7 ril 22 Ajay Maurya , is Asstt. Prof. in Computer Science Dept. at Poornima , Group of Colleges, Jaipur. He has done his Masters in Computer Science 20 and in Computer Application. He is member of Computer Society of 12 India and research scholar from Singhania University. . Raksha Naval & Mangilal are student of B.Tech. ( Computer Engg.) at Poornima Group of Institutions, Jaipur.
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