Future Advancement In Cloud Computing by ijccet

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									IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012          18
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               Future Advancement In Cloud Computing                                                                    rec
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                                     #1              #2               #3                                                Ap
                                        Ajay Maurya, Raksha Nawal, Mangilal Sharma
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            #1
               ajaymaurya@poornima.org, #2rakshapgi15@poornima.org, #3mangipgi17@poornima.org                           22
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 Abstract- In the past half century, a significant environments, to edge closer toward achieving the grand              12
advancement occurs in the field of information and vision of computing. These new computing paradigms. are
communication technology, with this advancement the cluster computing, Grid computing, P2P computing, service
computing would be the fifth utility of our daily life after computing, market-oriented computing, and most recently
water, electricity, gas and telephone. To achieve this Cloud computing. All these paradigms promise to provide
target many number of computer paradigms are certain attributes or capabilities in order to realize the
developed. The cloud computing is latest one. For possibly 1 trillion dollars worth of the utility/pervasive
                                                             computing industry according Sun Microsystems co-founder
delivering the vision of cloud computing, this paper
                                                             Bill Joy [2]. Of all these computing paradigms, the two most
lightly explains the methodology, implementation, issues
                                                             promising ones appear to be Grid computing and Cloud
of this technology and after this we would summarize
                                                             computing [3]. A computing service required to be highly
what is happening in current scenario by using cloud scalable, reliable and autonomic to support ubiquitous
computing. Furthermore, we would pay much attention access, dynamic discovery and compos-ability. In particular,
on future aspects like how we make it secure, fast, real- consumers can determine the required service level through
time access and what add-on make it more productive. Quality of Service (Quos) parameters and Service Level
We would propose some possibilities of enhancing Agreements (SLAs).
performance on cloud environments. Finally, we                  In this paper our goal is to clarify things related to cloud
conclude the need for convergence of competing IT computing with tries to answer the following questions in
paradigms to deliver our vision.                             different sections:
                                                                     Section 1: Introduction of this paper
Keywords- Cloud Computing, fifth Utility, Computing,                 Section 2: What is Cloud Computing and how it is
Virtualization, latest computing paradigm                            structured?
                                                                     Section 3: What is its methodology and how to be
                        I. INTRODUCTION                              implemented?
                                                                     Section 4: Which are current issues related to this
   The Fifth Generation of Computing (after Mainframe,               technology?
Personal Computer, Client-Server Computing, and the web)
                                                                     Section 5: What is the present scenario in market for
is the Cloud Computing. The Computing is the systematic
                                                                     cloud computing?
study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform
                                                                     Section 6: What changes should be made to design of
information: their theory, analysis, design, efficiency,
                                                                     the future applications software, infrastructure
implementation, and application [1].
                                                                     software, and hardware?
   The term "computing" is synonymous of counting and
calculating. Wikipedia definition is: “Cloud computing is            Section 7: conclusion and future directions.
Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources,                                     II. CLOUD COMPUTING CONCEPT
software and information are provided to computers and
other devices on-demand, like the electricity grid.”                         Cloud computing is way of computing in which resources,
   Firstly, in 1960, when John McCarthy opined that                       software, platforms etc are provided to the users on request
"computation may someday be organized as a public utility”                over the world wide network.
a smell of a big advanced technology spread in world. With                   The ‘cloud computing’ term is refer the a service oriented
digital Internet became widely used in the second half of the             architecture, reduced information technology overhead for
1990s ask any web developer, solution architect or anyone                 the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of
involved in web application development in any capacity:                  ownership, on-demand services and many other things[4].
Which symbol do you use to represent Internet on numerous                    Thus, Cloud computing provides delivery of applications
white-board meetings? Obviously the most widely used                      via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and
metaphor for Internet was/is cloud. Cloud computing has                   desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and
derived its name from the same line of thinking.                          data are stored on servers at a remote location.
   With the turn of the 21st century, the term "cloud                         A. Cloud Computing Needs
computing" began to appear more widely used. There, are
                                                                             Cloud Computing is care of the computing needs [5]:
many new computing paradigms have been developed and
adopted, with the emergence of technological advances such                  1) Dynamism: Let’s suppose our business is growing
as multi-core processors and networked computing                          exponentially. Our computing need & usage is getting bigger
                                                                          with every passing day. Would we add servers & other
          Manuscript received April 01, 2012.                             hardware to meet the new demand? That’s where Cloud
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Computing comes to our rescue! And we just need to                        organizations in the community, a third party, or some   cri
configure & our provider will take care of fluctuating                    combination of them.                                     pt
demand. There is dynamism.                                                                                                         rec
                                                                             3) Public Cloud: This cloud infrastructure is available to
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   2) Abstraction: From an end users perspective, we don’t                the general public or a large industry group and it may be
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require to care for the OS, the plug-ins, web security or the             owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or Ap
software platform. Everything should be in place without                  government organization, or some combination of them. ril
any worry. This is due to abstraction.                                                                                             22
                                                                             4) Hybrid cloud: it is the combination of two or more
   3) Resource Sharing: Cloud Computing has a beauty of                                                                            ,
                                                                          clouds (public, private or community). It is remain a unique
Resource Sharing. This is the concept which helps the cloud               entity but is bound together.                            20
providers to manage optimum utilization of resources. For                                                                          12
example a company dealing in gifts may require more server                D. Cloud Actors                                          .
resources during festive season. A company dealing in                        Studying infrastructure of cloud computing we purpose
Payroll management may require more resources during the                  that the various players/actors in the market can be
end or beginning of the month. Then this is best option.                  differentiated into the following three categories:
 B. Service Delivery Models                                                  1) Cloud Providers: They provide one or more of the
   There are a number of service offerings and                            cloud models (i.e., IaaS, PaaS or SaaS) as a service.
implementation models under the cloud computing umbrella.                   2) Cloud Enablers: They frame the technology or have
The NIST definition of cloud computing defines three                      adapted existing technology to support cloud computing. Its
delivery models:-                                                         Latest example is Oracle's partnership with Amazon to add
   1. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)                                        Oracle 11g database support (technology and licensing) to
   2. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)                                        Amazon's existing EC2 service.
   3. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) [6]
                                                                             3) Service Users: They are uses cloud models.
   1) SaaS: There a customer uses an application but does
not control the operating system, hardware or network                     E. Services offered by cloud
infrastructure on which it's executing/running.                             There are many services that can be delivered using cloud
   2) PaaS: The platform is typically an application                      computing, through advantage of the distributed cloud
framework. In this the customer uses a hosting environment                model. Some of them followings-
for their applications. The customer controls the applications               1) Hosted Desktops: A hosted desktop behave and looks
that run in the environment and there is possibly has some                like a regular desktop PC, but the software and data
control over the hosting environment, but does not control                customers use are housed in remote, highly secure data
the operating system, hardware or network infrastructure on               centres, rather than on their own machines.
which they are running.
                                                                             2) Hosted Email: Emails is stored centrally on managed
   3) IaaS: The customer uses fundamental computing                       servers, providing redundancy and fast connectivity from
resources such as processing power, storage, networking                   any location. This allows users to access their email,
components or middleware. The customer can control the                    calendar, contacts and shared files by a variety of means.
operating system, storage, deployed applications and
possibly networking components such as firewalls and load                    3) Voice over IP (Hosted Telephony): Is a means of
balancers.                                                                carrying phone calls and services across digital internet
   There are also some delivery models as requirement like                networks.
Data as a Service (Daas), Application Components as a                        4) Cloud Storage: It is the delivery of data storage as a
Service (CaaS) and Virtual Infrastructure as a Service                    service, from a third party provider, with access via the
(VaaS) [5][7].                                                            internet and billing calculated on capacity used in a certain
                                                                          period
C. Service Deployment Models
   The National Institute of standards and technology (NIST)                5) Dynamic Servers: A provider like ThinkGrid gives its
definition defines four deployment models: Private cloud,                 customer access to resources that look and feel exactly like a
Community cloud, Public cloud and Hybrid cloud [8].                       dedicated server, but that are fully scalable [9].
   1) Private Cloud: this cloud infrastructure exclusively                F. Comparison to another computing ways
used by a single organisation with multiple business units. It               For a clear understanding of what exactly is Cloud
may be managed, operated and owned by the organisation or                 computing, we compare Cloud computing with two other
a third party or some combination of them.                                recent, widely-adopted or explored computing paradigms:
   2) Community Cloud: This cloud infrastructure is shared                Cluster Computing and Grid Computing.
by several organizations. It supports a specific community                   “A cluster is a type of parallel and distributed system,
that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security                         which consists of a collection of inter-connected stand-alone
requirements, policy, and compliance considerations) [8]. It              computers working together as a single integrated computing
may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the                 resource.” [10]
                                                                             “A Grid is a type of parallel and distributed system that
                                                                          enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of
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geographically      distributed  ‘autonomous’     resources                                                                        cri
                                                                          will determine the key objective of moving [11] to the cloud
dynamically at runtime depending on their availability,                   and addressing the key areas like security and privacy,  pt
capability, performance, cost, and users' quality-of-service              technical, business and customer impact, economics, rec    and
requirements.”[10]                                                        governance and policy.                                   eiv
   At a cursory view, Clouds appear to be a combination of                                                                         ed
clusters and Grids.                                                          2) Define a Cloud Strategy: The organisation document Ap
   Let’s see the web search trend, The web search                         a complete understanding of each entity of architecture.rilWe
popularity, as measured by the Google search trends during                examine the required user services, processing of services,
                                                                                                                                   22
the current year 2011, for terms “cluster computing”, “Grid               software standards; integrated software for each entity ,and
computing”, and “Cloud computing” is shown in Figure 1.                   information security.                                    20
                                                                                                                                   12
                                                                             3) Create an Implementation Plan: Identifying of      .
                                                                          roles and responsibilities, Work Breakdown Structure, risk
                                                                          plan, dependencies, control mechanism, operating models is
                                                                          done in this step to implement cloud strategy successfully.
                                                                                   After completing Phase 1, the organization will
                                                                          have fully analyzed its options, identified all requirements,
                                                                          thoroughly assessed short-term and long-term costs and
                                                                          benefits, gained executive governance approval, and
                                                                          socialized the solution with stakeholders (including
Fig. 1: Google search trends for the Jan., 2011 to mid Nov., 2011.        oversight entities) [12].
   Spot points in Figure 1 indicate the release of news
related to Cloud computing as follows:                                    B. The Cloud Deployment phase
(A) Cloud Computing Platform Automates Health Spending                       In this phase we focus on implementing the strategy
      for Canadians                                                       developed in the planning phase. Some of the criteria used in
(B) Centrify Delivers Robust Support for Canonical's New                  recommending a vendor are the vendor's primary service
      Ubuntu 11.10 Release to Enable Secure Desktop,                      model (i.e., infrastructure, platform, or software). There are
      Server and Cloud Computing                                          following stages-
(C) World should follow India & Japan in cloud computing:
      Vivek Kundra                                                           1) Select the Cloud Provider(s): This select/assessment
(D) The Cloud Computing Market Grows Up                                   step deals with analyzing the components of the architecture
(E) Do business leaders understand the scale of cloud                     and identifying the optimal vendor offerings. One of the
      computing?                                                          main criteria in selecting a provider is its ability to leverage
(F) Demystifying cloud computing for consumers                            existing technologies.
(G) Domestic cloud computing estimated to grow at 53
      Study.                                                                 2) Establish Service Level Agreements (SLAs): SLAs
   Related things to popularity of cloud computing we                     formalize the contractual agreement between the
further discuss in section 4.                                             organization and the selected vendor(s) and will highlight
                                                                          the offerings of the vendor(s), so the expectations on both
      III.     METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION                             sides are clear [11]. A typical SLA will identify service
   Cloud Computing Transition Methodology designed to                     levels for the-
address the issues and risks associated with migrating an                         Uptime: The percent of the time that the system will
existing system to the cloud is developed. Figure 2 provides                       be available (e.g., 99.8%)
an overview of the methodology.                                                   Performance and throughput
                                                                                  Security and Data protection
                                                                                  The level of support offered (e.g., 24/6)
                                                                                  Guarantee of data protection and privacy when
                                                                                   other foreign entities are host
                                                                                  Downtime, backup, and recovery, and ensure that
                                                                                   objectives and established benchmarks are being
                                                                                   met.
                                                                             3) Execute Transition: The primary steps in execution
   Fig. 2: Overview of methodology [11]                                   are to establish multiple environments, such as development,
                                                                          testing, production, and training. It makes actual transition of
A. Cloud Strategy and Planning phase                                      components identified in earlier steps. Based on the number
   This phase consist three steps to ensure that all aspects of           and type of components that are being ported to the cloud,
moving to cloud are appropriately agreed upon. These steps                execution can be an iterative process.
are-
                                                                             4) Help Desk and O&M: The help centre is the most
   1) Conduct a strategic plan: The objective of this is to               required for successful execution of any service. In the cloud
identify the major factors that are appreciate the decision to            this is provided by the cloud vendor and may be driven by
move the cloud environment and find to best approach. We                  the selected cloud model(s) and will be determined by the
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SLAs previously established. Different vendors provide                    E. Data backup                                           cri
different support models and at different levels. It's                                                                             pt
important to ensure the kind of essential support functions                  Cloud providers employ redundant servers and routine  rec
that will be provided by vendors for successful continuity of             data backup processes, but some people worry about being eiv
operations and to understand how operations will be restored              able to control their own backups. Many providers are nowed
on time at the backup site.                                               offering data dumps onto media or allowing users to back up
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                                                                          data through regular downloads.                          ril
   After the desired period of a parallel run, and with the
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primary support of an external consultant update the                      F. Data Portability and Conversion
                                                                                                                                   ,
documentation, best practices and other artifacts so that the                Some people are concerned that, should they wish to   20
in house IT staff can continue with support and operation                 switch providers, they may have difficulty transferring data.
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management on the cloud platform [13].                                    Porting and converting data is highly dependent on . the
                                                                          nature of the cloud provider’s data retrieval format,
                     IV. CURRENT ISSUES
                                                                          particular in cases where the format cannot be easily
   The character of cloud computing – is its external                     discovered. As service competition grows and open
management concept – opens the door for questions about                   standards become established, the data portability issue will
data security and how this process should be managed [14].                ease, and conversion processes will become available
Here is a rundown on most of the current issues concerning                supporting the more popular cloud providers. Worst case, a
cloud computing. Attention is required about these for                    cloud subscriber will have to pay for some custom data
successful use of cloud computing.                                        conversion.
A. Privacy                                                                G. Multiplatform Support
    The most valuable issue is privacy a big issue in                        More an issue for IT departments using managed services
deployment of cloud. Cloud computing privacy can be                       is how the cloud-based service integrates across different
examined within the following three categories:                           platforms and operating systems, e.g. OS X, Windows,
1) Unintentional user-driven data leaks                                   Linux and thin-clients. Usually, some customized adaption
2) Lack of controls or protections from the Cloud provider                of the service takes care of any problem. Multiplatform
3) Intentional data leaks for monetary gain                               support requirements will ease as more user interfaces
    An example of Instance when privacy licked such as the                become web-based[27].
secret NSA program, working with AT&T, and Verizon,
which recorded over 10 million phone calls between                        H. Intellectual Property
American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy                          A company invents something new and it uses cloud
advocates, and the greater powers it gives to                             services as part of the invention. Is the invention still
telecommunication companies to monitor user activity [16].                patentable? Does the cloud provider have any claim on the
B. Security                                                               invention? Can they provide similar services to competitors?
                                                                          All good questions and answerable on a case-by-case basis.
   While a leading edge cloud services provider will employ
data storage and transmission encryption, user                               Here we purposed some more issue that are also required
authentication, and authorization (data access) practices,                to attention of cloud actors-
many people worry about the vulnerability of remote data to
such criminals as hackers, thieves, and disgruntled                       I. Misuse-
employees. Cloud providers are enormously sensitive to this                  As with privately purchased hardware, crackers posing as
issue and apply substantial resources to mitigating concern.              legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud
                                                                          computing for nefarious purposes. This includes password
C. Reliability                                                            cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services
   Some people worry also about whether a cloud service                   [26]. In 2009, a banking Trojan illegally used the popular
provider is financially stable and whether their data storage             Amazon service as a command and control channel that
system is trustworthy. Most cloud providers attempt to                    issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs
mollify this concern by using redundant storage techniques,               that were infected by the malware.
but it is still possible that a service could crash or go out of
business, leaving users with limited or no access to their                J. Sovereignty
data. A diversification of providers can help alleviate this                 When we are in dispute with the service provider over
concern, albeit at a higher cost.                                         payments and they won't give our data back, then we don’t
                                                                          know which country's court we are going to deal with them
D. Ownership                                                              in?
   Once data has been relegated to the cloud, some people
worry that they could lose some or all of their rights or be              K. Sustainability
unable to protect the rights of their customers. Many cloud                  Cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green
providers are addressing this issue with well-crafted user-               computing", there is as of yet no published study to
sided agreements. That said, users would be wise to seek                  substantiate this assumption [22]. This type of sustains are
advice from their favorite legal representative. Never use a              required to prove.
provider who, in their terms of service, lays any kind of
ownership claim over your data.                                           K. Real-Time Processing
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   We are required to real time feedback from the services to                1) SaaS market: There CRM, Financial Planning, Human cri
works that are required to fast accessing. In present time                                                                        pt
                                                                          Resources, Word processing type of applications are offered
cloud application are required to fast-access internet and                by the providers. E-mail services also come in SaaS     rec
required some seconds to give feedback of our request.                    category. Some key things are-                          eiv
   Fast access is further issue that is relates to real-time                                                                      ed
                                                                           Following are some SaaS service providers-
accessing.                                                                                                                        Ap
                                                                                Salesforce.com: Provide call center, incident
   We are recommending solution of this issue that are-                                                                           ril
                                                                                management, complaint tracking, and service portal
   First times when we work on cloud then automatically                                                                           22
                                                                                services.
files that are not relate to security issue are copy to virtual                                                                   ,
                                                                                Emailcloud: Emailcloud is a premium email messaging
                                                                                                                                  20
computer system. So, next-time we able to accessing fast-                       service provider. This services save you time,
accessing.                                                                                                                        12
                                                                                bandwidth and the hassle of dealing with email    .
   This thing used in very less organisations and less                          messaging issues such as spam, viruses, downtime and
amount. But this required in much quantity to save. For                         relaying services [21].
example graphics files are must be copy as temporary into
                                                                                Google Apps: is a service from Google providing
virtual computer.
                                                                                independently customizable versions of several Google
              V. SCENARIO OF CLOUD MARKET                                       products under a custom domain name. It features
                                                                                several Web applications with similar functionality to
   According to the research firm Zinnov, the current cloud                     traditional office suites, including: Gmail, Google
computing market is $110 Million today with,                                    Groups, Google Calendar, Talk, Docs and Sites. up to
approximately, 66 Million in the SaaS market dominated by                       march, 2010 25 million people had "switched to
applications such as collaboration apps, CRM and ERP. The                       Google Apps" According to Google blogs [28].
remaining $ 44 Million is shared by the PaaS and IaaS.
   According to Zinnov, the main areas where cloud                           2) PaaS market: There application design, application
computing will be used extensively are-                                   development, testing, deployment and hosting as well as
         Banking and Financial sectors                                    application services such as team collaboration, web service
         Telecom                                                          integration and marshalling, database integration, security,
         Manufacturing                                                    scalability, storage, persistence, state management,
         Government                                                       application versioning, application instrumentation and
   If we see web search trend of Google insight then cloud                developer community facilitation type of services provided.
computing most searched term from India with respect to                    Some PaaS service Providers are-
another countries. However, Infrastructure was always a                        Google AppEngine: Google AppEngine is targeted
weak point in the Indian market. We suppose that next few                      exclusively at traditional web applications, enforcing
years are going to be interesting in the market and see more                   an application structure of clean separation between a
cloud based vendors coming out of India.                                       stateless computation tier and a stateful storage tier.
                                                                               AppEngine’s impressive automatic scaling and high-
                                                                               availability mechanisms and the proprietary MegaStore
                                                                               data storage available to AppEngine applications, all
                                                                               rely on these constraints.
                                                                               Microsoft’s Azure are: It is written using the .NET
                                                                               libraries, and compiled to the Common Language
                                                                               Runtime,       a    language-independent        managed
                                                                               environment. Thus, Azure is intermediate between
                                                                               application frameworks like AppEngine and hardware
                                                                               virtual machines like EC2 is the provider of cloud
                                                                               computing as PaaS.
                                                                               Mosso/ Rackspace: The Rackspace Cloud was
                                                                               originally launched as Mosso LLC on March 4, 2006, a
                                                                               wholly owned subsidiary startup billed as a utility
                                                                               computing offering.[2][3] As it pre-dated mainstream
Fig. 3: Leading Cloud Computing Providers [23]                                 adoption of cloud computing it was "retooled" and
        The global cloud computing market is expected to                       relaunched on February 19, 2008, adopting the tagline
grow from $37.8 billion in 2010 to $121.1 billion in 2015 at                   "Mosso: The Hosting Cloud".[4] The "Mosso"
a CAGR of 26.2% from 2010 to 2015. SaaS is the largest                         branding (including the mosso.com domain) was then
segment of the cloud computing services market, accounting                     dropped on June 17, 2009 in favour of "The Rackspace
for 73% of the market’s revenues 2010. [15]                                    Cloud" branding (including the rackspacecloud.com
                                                                               domain) [23].
A. Present market status                                                       AWS: S3: vCloud is a cloud computing initiative from
   Cloud computing continues to gain more mainstream                           VMware which will allow customers to migrate work
adoption as more companies move into the cloud. Market                         on demand from their "internal cloud" of cooperating
growth in different type of cloud service models are follows-                  VMware hypervisors to a remote cloud of VMware
                                                                               hypervisors. The goal of the initiative is to provide the
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      power of cloud computing with the flexibility allowed                  There are many benefits of migrate to clouds due to    cri
      by virtualization[23].                                                                                                        pt
                                                                          outstanding characteristics like Cost savings, power savings,
                                                                          green savings, Pay per use, Instant Scalability, Advanced rec
   3) IaaS market: The service offers multiple options for                                                                          eiv
                                                                          security technologies, Reliability, Broad network access,
computing, memory, network configuration, operating
                                                                          Virtualization, increased agility in software deployment.ed So,
system and Disaster Recovery (DR) to fit client’s specific
                                                                          with these lots of characteristics of cloud we able to sayApthis
needs.
                                                                          technology are future of computer science development ril   and
 Some IaaS service Providers are-                                        required much and much research.                          22
      Flexiscale: FlexiScale is a complete rebuild of Europe’s               Hence, developers would be cared to design their next  ,
      first cloud computing platform using Flexiant’s                     generation of systems to be implemented into Cloud        20
      revolutionary Extility technology [25].                             Computing. In general, the importance should be horizontal12
      AWS: EC2 Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud delivers                                                                                .
                                                                          scalability to hundreds or thousands of virtual machines over
      scalable, pay-as-you-go compute capacity in the cloud.              the effectiveness of the system on a single virtual machine.
      Amazon EC2 is at one end of the spectrum. An EC2                    While we are confident about the future of Cloud
      instance looks much like physical hardware, and users               Computing, we would feel affection for to look into a
      can control nearly the entire software stack, from the              gemstone sphere to see how popular it is and what it will
      kernel upwards.                                                     look like in coming years.
      NetMagic Solutions : These provider team monitors all
      critical parameters related to the performance of the                                      ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      network and the servers being hosted.                                 We would like to thank our computer Science Department
      InstaCompute (from Tata Communications): It provide                 of PGI for their contributions, insights and support. We
      Pre- or-post-paid payment options. Multiple processing              would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their
      power options. Private or Public Connectivity.                      useful comments and suggestions that helped improve this
      InstaCompute changes with our changing requirements.                paper.
B. Expected Future market status                                                                            REFERENCES
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      Zimory: Zimory's cloud management software can                      [6]    A white paper by the Cloud Computing Use Case Discussion Group”,
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      that is tailored to our customer needs.                                    computing
                                                                          [7]    xgs whitepaper on cloud computing”, www.xerox.com/globalservices
      IBM-Juniper Partnership: "Demonstrate how a hybrid                  [8]    The NIST Definition of Cloud computing”, Special Publication 800-
      cloud could allow enterprises to seamlessly extend their                   145, September 2011
      private clouds to remote servers in a secure public                 [9]    ThinkGrid White Paper: Introduction to cloud computing” by Rob
      cloud...“.                                                                 Lovell
                                                                          [10]    www.buyya.com/papers/Cloud-FGCS2009.pdf
      VMWare VCloud:             “Federate resources between              [11]   Cloud Computing: A Transition Methodology Roadmap to the Cloud”
      internal IT and external clouds”.                                          by Rod Fontecilla
      “Google and IBM plan to roll out a worldwide network                [12]   www.cereson.com/cloud_computing_server_farm
                                                                          [13]   Cloud Transition Methodology - Approach and Best Practices, A step-
      of servers for a cloud computing infrastructure”. [18]                     by-step approach from the datacenter to the cloud” By Srinivasan
      Its Architecture is combination of Open source, Linux                      Sundara Rajan
      hosts, Xen virtualization (virtual machine monitor), and            [14]    http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/cloud-computing-and-
      Apache Hadoop (file system).                                               security-issues-for-providers-and-users-133172098.html
                                                                          [15]    http://www.salisonline.org/market-research/cloud-computing-market/
      This is “open-source software for reliable, scalable,               [16]   http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/home/news/
      distributed computing” as said IBM Tivoli                           [17]    http://arstechnica.com/software/news/2008/10/washington-dc-latest-
      Provisioning Manager [19].                                                 to drop-microsoft-for-web-apps.ars
      Jonathan Heiliger, Facebook's vice president of                     [18]   http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/08/27/35NF-cloud-
                                                                                 providers_2.html
      technical operations said that-“We don't need fancy                 [19]   IBM cloud presentation at BAH cloud computing” summit\ 10/29/08
      graphics chips and PCI cards," he said. “We need one                [20]   http://news.cnet.com/8301-13953_3-10027064-80.html?tag=mncol
      USB port and optimized power and airflow. Give me                   [21]   http://www.emailcloud.com/
      one CPU, a little memory and one power supply. If it                [22]   Cloud computing's green paradox" by James Urquhart (January 7,
                                                                                 2010), CNET News, http://news.cnet.com/8301-19413_3-10428065-
      fails, I don't care. We are solving the redundancy                         240.html Retrieved March 12, 2010
      problem in software.” [20]                                          [23]   Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm
                                                                          [24]   OpenNebula Key Features and Functionality", OpenNebula
         VI. CONCLUSION & AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS                                  documentation. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
                                                                          [25]   http://www.flexiscale.com
                                                                          [26]   http://www.fincloud.freehostingcloud.com/
IJCCET International Journal of Computer, Communication and Emerging Technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012   24
                                                                                                                 M
www.IJCCET.com                                                                                                   an
                                                                                                                 us
[27] http://www.dataplex.com/blog/index.php/2010/01/05/Issues                                                    cri
     DataPlex_com-blog-.htm                                                                                      pt
[28] http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/03/25-million-people-have-
                                                                                                                 rec
     gone-google.html
[29] “Addressing the Issues & challenges in cloud computing” by K K                                              eiv
     Lavania, Ajay Maurya, Nitish Jain, Deepak Mohta at IEEE                                                     ed
     International Conference at Puducherry-2011 ( ICECCT11) ISBN –                                              Ap
     978-81-909042-4-7
                                                                                                                 ril
                                                                                                                 22
Ajay Maurya , is Asstt. Prof. in Computer Science Dept. at Poornima                                              ,
   Group of Colleges, Jaipur. He has done his Masters in Computer Science                                        20
   and in Computer Application. He is member of Computer Society of
                                                                                                                 12
   India and research scholar from Singhania University.
                                                                                                                 .

Raksha Naval & Mangilal are student of B.Tech. ( Computer Engg.) at
  Poornima Group of Institutions, Jaipur.

								
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