A Comparison of
Egypt, Greece, Rome
The NILE RIVER , the longest river in the world (6,650 kilometers or 4,132
miles), flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Its flood
plain was a magnet for life -- human, plant and animal. Humans were drawn
there because they could grow crops and settle into permanent villages.
Bounded on the south,
east and west by an
and on the north by
ANCIENT EGYPT was
protected from outside
allowed it to evolve in
its own unique way.
For centuries, THE NILE RIVER FLOODED THE VALLEY, enriching the land with a
thick layer of alluvial soil. Flooding occurred from July to September as the result of
tropical rains. The river attained its highest level in October, then began to recede to
its lowest point sometime between April and June.
TRANSPORTATION: The Nile River was the highway that joined the country
together. Up until the nineteenth century, travel by land was virtually unknown.
Located in southeastern Europe, Greece is defined by a series of mountains
and surrounded on all sides except the north by water.
Ancient Greek View of the World
The Mediterranean Sea
climate, cooling the air
in summer and providing
warmth in the winter
months. Summers are
generally hot and dry.
Winters are moderate
and rainy in coastal
regions and cold and
snowy in mountainous
Numerous MOUNTAIN RANGES, which crisscross the
peninsula, hampered internal communications and led
to the development of independent city-states.
Numerous ISLANDS and the indented coastlines of the
Greek peninsula and of Asia Minor stimulated a
The ROCKY SOIL and limited natural resources
encouraged the Greeks to establish colonies abroad.
Modern scholars believe
that in the 8th century
B.C., the inhabitants of
some small Latin
settlements on hills in the
Tiber valley united and
established a common
meeting place, the
FORUM, around which
the city of Rome grew.
Social and Political
Ancient Egypt achieved stability through the
co-operation of all levels of the population.
The PHAROAH was at the top of the
Next to him, the most powerful officers
were the VIZIERS, the executive
heads of the bureaucracy.
Under them were the HIGH
PRIESTS, followed by ROYAL
OVERSEERS (administrators) who
ensured that the 42 DISTRICT
GOVERNORS carried out the
At the bottom of the hierarchy
were the SCRIBES,
ARTISANS, FARMERS, and
To reinforce their image as powerful divine rulers, the PHARAOHS
represented themselves in writings and sculptured reliefs on temple walls.
They often DEPICTED THEMSELVES AS WARRIORS who single-
handedly killed scores of enemies and slaughtered a whole pride of lions.
The POLIS (city-state) consisted of a city and its surrounding plains and
valleys. The nucleus of the polis was the elevated, fortified site called the
ACROPOLIS where people could take refuge from attack. With the revival
of commerce, a TRADING CENTER developed below the acropolis.
Four major TYPES OF GOVERNMENT evolved in ancient Greece:
Monarchy (rule of a king) limited by an aristocratic council
and a popular assembly.
Oligarchy (rule of the few) arising when the aristocratic
council ousted the king and abolished the assembly.
Tyranny (rule by one who ruled without legal authority) riding
to power on the discontent of the lower classes.
Democracy (rule of the people), the outstanding political
achievement of the Greeks.
DIRECT PARTICIPATION was the
key to Athenian DEMOCRACY. In
the Assembly, every male citizen
was not only entitled to attend as
often as he pleased but also had
the right to DEBATE, offer
AMENDMENTS, and vote on
PROPOSALS. Every man had a
say in whether to declare WAR or
stay in PEACE. Basically any
thing that required a government
decision, all male citizens were
allowed to participate in.
Although DEMOCRACY was
an outstanding achievement,
it is important to keep in mind
that the majority of the
inhabitants of Athens were not
WOMEN, SLAVES, and
were DENIED CITIZENSHIP.
These groups had no standing
in the law courts. (If a woman
sought the protection of the
law, she had to ask a citizen
to plead for her in court.)
THE ROMAN MONARCHY to 509 B.C.
According to tradition, early Rome was ruled by KINGS elected
by the people.
The king's executive power was conferred by a POPULAR
ASSEMBLY made up of all arms-bearing citizens.
The king turned for advice to a council of nobles, called the
Each senator had lifelong tenure and the members of this
group and their families constituted the PATRICIAN class.
The other class of Romans, the PLEBEIANS (commoners)
included small farmers, artisans, and many clients
(dependents of patrician landowners). In return for a
livelihood, the clients gave their patrician patrons political
support in the ASSEMBLY
In 509 B.C., according to
tradition, the PATRICIANS
expelled the last Etruscan
king and established a
The power to rule was
transferred to two new
officials called CONSULS.
Elected annually from the
patrician class, the consul
exercised their power in the
interests of that class.
PLEBEIAN STRUGGLE FOR EQUAL RIGHTS
For more than two centuries following the establishment of the
Republic, the plebeians struggled for political and social equality.
Outright civil war was averted by the willingness of the patricians
Much of the plebeians’ success in this struggle was also due to
their tactics of collective action and to their having organized a
corporate group within the state.
The unofficial body was known
as the PLEBEIAN COUNCIL.
It was presided over by plebeian
officials called TRIBUNES,
whose job was to safeguard the
interests of the plebeians and to
negotiate with the consuls and
The advancement of the PLEBEIANS during the early
Republic took two main lines: the safeguarding of their
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS and the progressive enlargement
of their share of POLITICAL POWER.
Because the consuls often
interpreted Rome's unwritten
customary law to suit
PATRICIAN INTERESTS, the
plebeians demanded that it be
As a result, about 450 B.C.,
the law was inscribed on
twelve tablets of bronze and
set up publicly in the Forum.
The LAW OF THE TWELVE
TABLETS was the first
landmark in the long history
of Roman law.
The plebeians in time acquired other
fundamental rights and safeguards:
They secured the right to APPEAL
A DEATH SENTENCE imposed by
a consul and to be retried before
the popular assembly.
The tribunes gained a VETO
POWER over any legislation or
executive act that threatened the
rights of the plebeians.
MARRIAGE between patricians
and plebeians, prohibited by the
Law of the Twelve Tablets, was
The enslavement of citizens for
DEBT was abolished
Little by little, the plebeian class acquired
more power in the functioning of government.
In 367 B.C., ONE CONSULSHIP was
reserved for the plebeians.
Before the end of the century, they were
eligible to hold other important positions:
PRAETOR (in charge of the law courts),
QUAESTOR (treasurer), CENSOR
(supervisor of public morals and state
Some plebeians succeeded in gaining entry to the SENATE.
The long struggle for equality ended in 287 B.C. when the
PLEBEIAN COUNCIL was recognized as a constitutional
body, henceforth known as the TRIBAL ASSEMBLY, with
the right to PASS LAWS that were binding on all citizens.
The Roman Republic was now technically a democracy,
although in actual practice a senatorial aristocracy of
patricians and rich plebeians continued to control the state.
POLITICAL THEORY AND
Roman political thinkers
contributed many governmental
The SOCIAL CONTRACT
theory (that government
originated as a voluntary
agreement among citizens).
The idea of POPULAR
SOVEREIGNTY (that all
power ultimately resides with
The concept that LAW must
be the basis for government.
The flooding of the Nile rendered the narrow strip of land on either side of
the river extremely fertile. INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE was practiced by
the majority of the peasant population. who played a vital role within the
country's STRICT HIERARHICAL SOCIETY. As the flood waters
receded, SOWING and PLOWING began, using primitive wooden plows.
In addition to such GRAINS as barley and emmer (a coarse wheat), a
large variety of VEGETABLES were grown, including onions, garlic,
leeks, beans, lentils, peas, radishes, cabbage, cucumbers, and lettuce.
There were also FRUITS such as dates, figs, pomegranates, melons and
The abundance of flowers provided nectar for the bees to produce
HONEY, which the Egyptians processed. FLAX was grown for making
linen, and PAPYRUS was harvested to be converted into paper, ropes,
mats, sandals and light skiffs.
Breaking the ground Reaping and Separating the grain
with plow and hoe scattering the seed from the chaff
Although the land was worked by the PEASANTS, it was owned
by the king, his officials and the temples. Farmers had to meet
GRAIN QUOTAS, which were handed over to the owners as a
form of taxation.
They were allowed to keep a portion of the crops for their own
benefit. If they did not produce the quantity expected, however,
they were severely punished.
In mid-September, farmers
blocked canals to retain
the water for IRRIGATION.
Still used today, the
SHADUF is a mechanical
irrigation device used to
conduct water from the
canals to the fields.
One person can operate it
by swinging the bucket of
water from the canal to the
LIVESTOCK was important to the Egyptian economy, supplying meat,
milk, hides, and dung for cooking fuel.
A variety of DOMESTICATED ANIMALS were raised, including cattle,
oxen, sheep, goats, pigs, ducks and geese. Peasants probably enjoyed
meat on special occasions..
DRAFT ANIMALS such as oxen increased agricultural productivity.
HERDSMEN and SHEPHERDS lived a semi-nomadic life, pasturing their
animals in the marshes of the Nile.
Barley and emmer, were used to make BEER and BREAD, the main
staples of the Egyptian diet. Grains were harvested and stored in
GRANARIES until ready to be processed.
The quantities harvested each season far exceeded the needs of the
country, so much was exported to neighboring countries, providing a
rich source of INCOME for the Egyptian treasury
Grapes were processed into WINE for the noble class, but beer was
the favorite drink of the common people.
Food was served in POTTERY BOWLS, but NO UTENSILS were
used for eating.
FISHING allowed the working class to add variety to its diet. The poor
substituted fish for meat, which they could not afford. The Nile, the
marshes of the delta and the Mediterranean Sea offered them a rich
variety of species.
FISHING METHODS included the use of a hook and line, harpoons,
traps and nets.
BIRDS, including geese and ducks, were also HUNTED in the
marshes and papyrus thickets along the Nile.
Small fishing boats called SKIFFS were made from PAPYRUS
REEDS, which are naturally filled with air pockets, making them
particularly buoyant. Skiffs were also used for hunting game in the
The daily diet included CEREALS (like wheat and barley), GRAPES,
and OLIVES -- commonly called the MEDITERRANEAN TRIAD.
The Greeks typically made grapes into WINE and olives into OLIVE
OIL, so they would keep without refrigeration. Grains and cereals
were commonly used for BREAD and PORRIDGE.
Diets were supplemented with VEGETABLES and HERBS from
kitchen gardens as well as BERRIES, and MUSHROOMS. The
poor usually ate FISH, while oysters, sea urchins, octopus, and eels
were considered DELICACIES and only eaten by the wealthy.
BREAD in ancient Greece was a very important part of the daily
diet. At first all breads were prepared in the embers of a
fire. Eventually the Greeks developed a bread OVEN that is similar
in function to the ovens we use today. Because they required less
wood or charcoal (which was expensive), these ovens made bread
AVAILABLE TO ALMOST EVERYONE.
The most common type of bread in Greece was called MAZA which
was a flat bread made from barley flour. Most meals consisted of
maza and some sort of accompaniment to the bread called OPSON.
This might be vegetables, fish, olives, onions, garlic, fruit, and on a
rare occasion, meat.
MEN did most of the hard,
muscle power jobs such as
PLOWING AND REAPING.
The WOMEN SOWED SEED,
WEEDED THE FIELDS and
TENDED THE HOUSEHOLD
and CHILDREN. Women might
also grow SMALL GARDENS
around the house with
vegetables and beans. Women
might also bring in extra income
for the farm with a CRAFT
TRADE such as weaving that
they might sell at a market.
Farmers had to give a SMALL PORTION of their crops to the gods
as a SACRIFICE and to the city-state for TAXES. This left the
farmers with just enough to feed their families.
The land was divided very precisely. Each household in a polis
was given a plot of land. This plot would be handed down to the
children. If the farmer could not pay his land taxes; a WEALTHIER
LAND OWNER COULD TAKE IT and pay the debt for the
farmer. Many aristocrats built their wealth this way.
As a result of expansion,
important social and economic
problems faced Rome by the
middle of the second century
B.C. One of the most pressing
problems was the
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE
Burdened by frequent military
service, his farm buildings
destroyed by war, and unable
to compete with the cheap
grain imported from the new
Roman province of Sicily, the
SMALL FARMER SOLD OUT
and moved to Rome. Here he
joined the unemployed,
Improved farming methods learned from the Greeks and
Carthaginians encouraged RICH ARISTOCRATS to buy more
and more land and, abandoning the cultivation of grain,
introduce LARGE-SCALE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION of olive
oil and wine, or of sheep and cattle. This trend was especially
profitable because an abundance of cheap SLAVES from the
conquered areas was available to work on the estates. These
large slave plantations, called LATIFUNDIA, were now
common in Italy, while small farms were the exception.
The land problem was further complicated by the government's
earlier practice of LEASING part of the territory acquired in the
conquest of the Italian peninsula to anyone willing to pay a
percentage of the crop or animals raised on it. Only the
patricians or wealthy plebeians could afford to lease large
tracts of this PUBLIC LAND and in time they treated it as their
own property. Plebeian protests had led to an attempt to limit
the holdings of a single individual to 320 acres, but the law was
EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS: THE RAMP THEORY
One theory suggests that RAMPS were used to haul the
STONE BLOCKS on WOODEN SLEDS up the side of the
pyramids. The ramps were LUBRICATED WITH WATER to
reduce friction when hauling the blocks. As few as 10 men
were needed to drag a stone block up a ramp. may have
been several ramps on each side of the pyramid at different
levels, and a ramp may have been coiled around the pyramid
as it grew in height. Once a stone block reached its desired
level, wooden rockers may have been used to maneuver it
Ramp on pyramid
Stone block on sled
Pouring water to lubricate the ramp
Rocking a block into position
The pyramids were probably NOT BUILT BY SLAVES because slave
labor was not widely used in Egypt at the time. PEASANT FARMERS,
however, were required to spend a number of weeks working on
construction projects. This provided the paid labor needed to build these
gigantic structures. Since the fields were under water during the summer,
wages earned in building the gigantic pyramids SUPPLEMENTED THE
Pyramids did not stand alone; they were part of a FUNERARY
COMPLEX. The complex includes a PROCESSIONAL CAUSEWAY
that links a FUNERARY TEMPLE to the pyramid.
The Parthenon Today
The Acropolis of Athens
Pinakotheke Shrine Theater of
Odeum of Herodes Eumenes Sanctuary of
Atticus (Roman) Asclepius
In designing their bridges and
aqueducts, the Romans
placed a series of STONE
ARCHES next to one another
to provide mutual support.
stretching a total of 265 miles,
supplied some 50 gallons of
water daily for each inhabitant
The practical nature of the
Romans and their skill and
initiative in engineering were
demonstrated in the many
DAMS, RESERVOIRS, and
HARBORS they built.
The BARREL VAULT,
basically a series of adjoining
arches forming a structure
resembling a tunnel, was a
new method of enclosing
space. In the barrel vault the
supports of the arches
became heavy masonry walls
to bear the weight of the
The Romans next developed
the CROSS VALUT by
intersection two barrel vaults
at right angles.
Another important advance
in architecture was the
Roman's success in
DOMES on a large scale.
The weight of the dome was
transferred directly to the
walls and no other support
was necessary. The largest
of the dome structures was
the PANTHEON (temple of
all the gods).
The standard type of Roman public building was the BASCILICA, a
colonnaded structure that became a model for early Christian churches.
Rows of columns divided the interior into a central nave and side aisles,
with the roof over the nave raised to admit light, creating a
CLERESTORY (an upper portion of a wall containing windows for
supplying natural light to a building.
RELIGION is the glue that binds local communities together and
transforms them into nations. It creates common understandings and
shared values that are essential to the growth of a civilization.
Like all religions, that of ancient
Egypt was COMPLEX. It
evolved over the centuries from
one that emphasized local
deities into a national religion
with a smaller number of
There was no single belief
system, but the Egyptians
shared a common
understanding about the
CREATION OF THE WORLD
and the possibility of
REVERTING TO CHAOS if the
destructive forces of the
universe were unleashed.
PRIESTS worked at the
temples, conducting the daily
rituals of clothing, feeding
and putting to bed the
sculpted images that
represented the gods.
In mortuary temples, priests
ceremonies to nourish the
KA (soul-spirit) of a
deceased pharaoh or noble.
The priests shaved their
heads and body hair, and
washed their bodies twice
daily as a ritual act of
purification. They wore
gowns or kilts of pure white
Entering a Temple
The ancient Egyptians believed in the RESURRECTION OF THE
BODY and LIFE EVERLASTING. This belief was rooted in what they
observed each day.
The sun fell into the western horizon each evening and was reborn
the next morning in the east.
New life sprouted from grains planted in the earth, and the moon
waxed and waned.
As long as order was maintained, everything was highly dependable
and life after death could be achieved. But there were certain
conditions. For example, the body had to be preserved through
MUMMIFICATION and given a properly furnished tomb with
everything needed for life in the afterworld.
Around 450 B.C., the Greek historian HERODOTUS
documented the art of MUMMIFICATION.
As much of the brain as it is possible is extracted
through the nostrils with an iron hook, and what the
hook cannot reach is dissolved with drugs. Next, the
flank is slit open . . . and the entire contents of the
abdomen removed. The cavity is then thoroughly
cleansed and washed out . . . Then it is filled with
pure crushed myrrh, cassia, and all other aromatic
substances, except frankincense. [The incision] is
sewn up, and then the body is placed in natron,
covered entirely for 70 days, never longer. When this
period . . . is ended, the body is washed and then
wrapped from the head to the feet in linen which has
been cut into strips and smeared on the underside
with gum which is commonly used by the Egyptians
in the place of glue. -- Herodotus
NATRON, a disinfectant and dehydration agent,
was the main ingredient used in the mummification
process. A compound of sodium carbonate and
sodium bicarbonate (salt and baking soda), natron
essentially dried out the corpse.
The body was filled with Nile mud, sawdust, lichen
and cloth scraps to make it more flexible.
Small COOKING ONIONS or linen pads were
sometimes used to replace the eyes.
Beginning in the third dynasty, the internal organs
(lungs, stomach, liver and intestines) were
removed, washed with palm wine and spices, and
stored in four separate CANOPIC JARS made of
limestone, calcite or clay.
However, the HEART was left in the body because
it was considered the center of intelligence
MATERIALS USED IN MUMMIFICATION:
1. Linen 6. Natron
2. Sawdust 7. Onion
3. Lichen 8. Nile mud
4. Beeswax 9. Linen pads
5. Resin 10. Frankincense
The ancient embalmers used
very few tools. The basic tool
kit included a KNIFE to make
the abdominal incision, hooked
bronze RODS to extract brain
matter, a wooden ADZE-like
tool to remove internal organs,
and a FUNNEL to pour resins
into the cranial cavity through
The Greeks were POLYTHEISTIC and did not all worship the
same gods. Some small villages worshiped the main gods and
their own village gods.
There were hundreds of Greek gods (perhaps around
1,000). Some of the most famous gods were Zeus, Hera,
Apollo, Artemis, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Athena, Demeter,
Hermes, Ares, and Hades.
ZEUS surpassed all other gods in spirit, wisdom and justice
and his wife HERA was the queen of the gods.
SACRIFICES to please the gods were a major part of every Greek's
religion. Most gods preferred an animal sacrifice -- generally a
DOMESTICATED ANIMAL like a chicken, goat or cow.
When an animal was sacrificed, it was burned on top of an altar.
After it was fully cooked, it had to be EATEN ON THE SPOT --
usually before nightfall. These sacrifices were the property of the
god, and had to be eaten in his presence.
This was especially important because the ancient Greeks believed
that the god's spirit was within the animal sacrificed, and by eating
the animal, the worshippers CONSUMED HIS POWER. In this way,
they strengthened the connection between man and god.
Religion played a very important
role in the daily life of Ancient
Rome. The Romans believed that
GODS CONTROLLED THEIR
LIVES and, as a result, spent a
great deal of their time
The most important god was
JUPITER. He was the king of
gods who ruled with his wife
JUNO, the goddess of the sky.
Other gods includes MARS,
MERCURY, NEPTUNE, JANIS,
DIANA, VESTA, MINERVA,
After the reign of the EMPEROR
AUGUSTUS (27 BC to AD 14),
the emperor was also considered
to be a god and he was
worshipped on special occasions.
TEMPLES to worship the
gods were built throughout
the Roman Empire.
Each family home would
also have a small altar
and shrine. The Romans
HOUSEHOLD GODS or
spirits called “lares” which
were worshipped every
day at home. The shrine
contained statues of the
“lares” and the head of the
household led family
prayers around the shrine
Arts and Sciences
The EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE was one of the earliest languages
to be written down, perhaps only the Sumerian language is older.
First appearing on stone and pottery dating from 3100 B.C. to
3000 B.C., it remained in use for almost 3,000 years.
The last inscription was written in A.D. 394.
DRAFTSMEN were scribes
who specialized in drawing.
They followed a formula that
makes standing and sitting
figures look stiff.
Using a traditional grid of 18
squares, they sketched
figures according to a
making no attempt to show
The eyes and shoulders are
drawn from the front and the
face, torso, arms and legs
MATHEMATICS: Although the Egyptians lacked the symbol for
zero, they calculated numbers based on the DECIMAL and the
repetitive (numbers based on the POWER OF 10). The following
signs were used to represent numbers in the decimal system
1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
Numbers were usually written LEFT TO RIGHT, starting with
the highest denominator. See if you can translate this number:
The Egyptians did not develop abstract mathematical formulas.
They used the simple arithmetic of ADDITION AND
MEDICINE: The doctors of ancient Egypt combined MAGIC
SPELLS with REMEDIES. If a person fell sick, the illness was
thought to be caused by the wrath of the gods or by an evil spirit
that had entered the body. Both PRIESTS AND DOCTORS were
called upon to heal the sick, combining their powers and skills to fix
Doctors found cures for many diseases and some of their concepts
are still used today. They used CASTOR OIL as laxatives, TANNIC
ACID from the acadia tree to heal burns, CORIANDER in a tea for
stomach illnesses, and CUMMIN SEEDS on aching or arthritic
joints and to calm a cough.
They also made and used TOOLS FOR SURGICAL USE that are
similar to the ones that we use today.
The Ancient Greeks are known for three main items: their
SCULPTURES, their TEMPLES, and their VASE PAINTINGS.
The art work embodies the ideas of EXCELLENCE, COURAGE
The Greeks IDEALIZED HUMANS, showing the strong and
youthful depiction of men and women. The topics shown in their
vases reflect the importance of strength, athletic competition, and
battles. Their temples reflected their religious beliefs in the gods.
Philosophy enabled many thinkers to move beyond
mythic explanations of the universe and arrive at ones
based on self-conscious rational methods of inquiry.
The early COSMOLOGISTS, such as THALES,
PYTHAGORAS, and DEMOCRITUS, developed
RATIONAL ACCOUNTS OF NATURE in terms of
imperishable substances, mathematical principles,
or the properties of atoms.
Similarly, HIPPOCRATES and his followers rejected
mythic-religious explanations of disease and observed
symptoms in order to identify their natural causes.
Against the Cosmologists, the SOPHISTS argued that
speculation about the universe was futile. Instead,
these thinkers scrutinized people and society and
instructed men in the skills of oratory (winning an
Protagoras and other Sophists examined questions of
ETHICS, LAW, and MORALITY, but they were
PHILOSOPHICAL RELATIVISTS whose critical method
undermined traditional authority
The Romans developed a distinctive
SCULPTURE which was realistic,
secular, and individualistic.
EQUESTRIAN STATUES sculpted
coffins (SARCOPHAGI), and the
RELIEFS found on imperial
monuments were exceptionally fine
works of art. The Romans were
particularly skilled in producing floor
MOSAICS and in painting
FRESCOES. Roman epic, dramatic,
and lyric POETRY forms were usually
written in conscious imitation of Greek
The Romans were attracted to two Hellenistic ethical philosophies:
EPICURIANSIM taught that the wise man could achieve
happiness simply by freeing his body from pain and his mind
from fear -- particularly the fear of death. To reach this goal,
men must AVOID BODILY EXCESSES, including those of
pleasure, and accept the scientific teaching of Democritus that
both body and soul are composed of atoms which fall apart at
death. Thus, BEYOND DEATH THERE IS NO EXISTENCE and
nothing to fear.
STOICISM argued that THE UNIVERSE IS
CONTROLLED by some power -- variously called
Reason, World Soul, Fortune, and God -- which
determines everything that happens. The wise man
conforms his will to the World Will and
“STOICALLY" ACCEPTS whatever part fortune
allots him in the drama of life.
Stoicism had a humanizing effect on Roman law
by introducing such concepts as the LAW OF
NATURE, the LAW OF BROTHERHOOD OF
MEN (including slaves), and the view that a man
is INNOCENT UNTIL PROVED GUILTY.