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Canadian Standards Guidelines for Career Development

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					 Canadian Standards and Guidelines
      for Career Development


Areas of Specialization
    Career Counselling


             2001
                           Prepared by ATEC for the National Steering Committee
                              for Career Development Guidelines and Standards

The National Steering Committee wishes to thank the thousands of members of the Canadian Career Development
               Community who donated their time to developing these Standards and Guidelines.
  On behalf of the Canadian Career Development Community the National Steering Committee wishes to
acknowledge and thank Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) for their financial support of this
                                              project.
                                  Further information can be obtained from
               National Steering Committee for Career Development Guidelines and Standards
                                 P.O. Box 67007, Ottawa, Ontario, K2A 4E4
                                                    or
Download the documents from the National Steering Committee web site - http://www.career-dev-guidelines.org
                                 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development


                                                          Areas of Specialization
                                                                          Career Counselling

                                                                       Table of Contents
General Framework ...............................................................................................................................1
Purpose of Standards and Guidelines ...................................................................................................1
History of the Initiative..........................................................................................................................1
Scope of the Standards and Guidelines ................................................................................................2
Core Competencies ...............................................................................................................................3
Areas of Specialization ..........................................................................................................................4
Indirect Services to Clients (An Aside) .................................................................................................5
Potential Uses of the Standards and Guidelines ..................................................................................5
Practitioner Competencies and Client Outcomes ................................................................................6
How to Read the Standards and Guidelines .........................................................................................6
   Sample Page ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
   How to Read This Document .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

S3 Career Counselling ..........................................................................................................................9
 S3.1 Possess Knowledge in Career Counselling............................................................................................................................... 10
   Knowledge Competencies
   S3.1.1 explain major theories and models pertaining to counselling ............................................................................................. 10
   S3.1.2 explain major theories and models pertaining to career development ................................................................................. 10
   S3.1.3 explain major models pertaining to change and transition .................................................................................................. 11
   S3.1.4 describe barriers to career development .............................................................................................................................. 11
   S3.1.5 describe computerized career planning systems and information resources ....................................................................... 12
   S3.1.6 describe types of educational/training opportunities and resources .................................................................................... 13
   S3.1.7 work with labour market information ................................................................................................................................. 13
S3.2 Demonstrate Method of Practice in Interactions with Clients ................................................................................................. 14
   Skill Competencies
   S3.2.1 develop a method of practice that builds on established or recognized ideas ...................................................................... 14
   S3.2.2 establish and maintain a collaborative relationship with clients.......................................................................................... 14
   S3.2.3 explore issues ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15
   S3.2.4 develop and implement a process for achieving clients’ goals that is consistent with own method of practice .................. 15
   S3.2.5 monitor progress ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

CSK1 Work Search Strategies ............................................................................................................17
 CSK1.1 Guide Client in Work Search Strategies ........................................................................................................................... 17
  Knowledge Competencies
  CSK1.1.1 guide clients to identify own skills, strengths, personal characteristics, values and interests ........................................ 17
  CSK1.1.2 guide clients to complete application forms .................................................................................................................. 17
  CSK1.1.3 guide clients in writing cover letters ............................................................................................................................. 18
  CSK1.1.4 guide clients in preparing résumés ................................................................................................................................ 19
  CSK1.1.5 guide clients in using portfolios .................................................................................................................................... 20
  CSK1.1.6 guide clients to develop self-marketing plans ............................................................................................................... 20
  CSK1.1.7 guide clients in conducting cold calls............................................................................................................................ 21
  CSK1.1.8 guide clients with their personal presentations .............................................................................................................. 22
  CSK1.1.9 guide clients in networking ........................................................................................................................................... 22
  CSK1.1.10 guide clients in using references ................................................................................................................................... 23
  CSK1.1.11 guide clients in effective interview skills ...................................................................................................................... 24

CSK2 Group Facilitation .....................................................................................................................25
 CSK2.1 Facilitate Groups ................................................................................................................................................................. 25
   Knowledge Competencies
   CSK2.1.1 describe the principles of group facilitation .................................................................................................................. 25
   Skill Competencies
   CSK2.1.2 facilitate groups............................................................................................................................................................. 26
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


General Framework                                             Purpose of Standards
The main goal of the Canadian Standards and                   and Guidelines
Guidelines for Career Development initiative is to spell      The purposes of developing national standards and
out the competencies that service providers need in           guidelines for career development practitioners are to:
order to deliver comprehensive career services to
                                                               Define career development as a legitimate
clients across the lifespan. It is being undertaken in
partnership, making use of the expertise and                    specialization.
contributions of the full career development                   Provide a foundation for designing career
community. The initiative is funded by Human                    development practitioner training.
Resources Development Canada (HRDC) and matched                Provide quality assurance to the public.
by in-kind and cash contributions from career                  Recognize and validate the diverse skill sets of
development partners. By working in partnership with
                                                                practitioners working in the field.
associations and practitioner groups, the
standards/guidelines have been built from within the           Create a common voice and vocabulary for career
profession by the people who deliver career                     development.
development services and programs. Taken as a whole,
the standards and guidelines map out the knowledge,           History of the Initiative
skills, and attitudes that practitioners need in order to     In the fall of 1996, a national Assembly on Career
deliver quality career development services to clients.       Development Guidelines was convened. Stakeholders
It is hoped that associations will use them, in               drawn from a broad cross-section of sectors involved in
conjunction with their own professional codes, to             career development explored establishing a
describe more clearly the career development aspect of        collaborative process for creating national standards for
the work they do.                                             practitioners. The Assembly elected a National
                                                              Steering Committee to manage a process that included
The competencies in this document are grouped into            the following:
two clusters:
                                                               create a draft framework for guidelines and
1. Core Competencies (which all career development
    practitioners should have)                                   standards;
2. Areas of Specialization (distinct competencies              map out one model for conceptualizing the scope of
    needed for specialized areas of service)                     career development;
                                                               identify some potential uses, benefits, risks, and
The competencies in the areas of specialization are              disadvantages of guidelines and standards.
further grouped into two types:
1. Areas of Specialization (which relate to a
     specialized area of practice)                            The process followed these principles:
2. Common Skills and Knowledge (competencies                   build on consensus,
     that are common to more than one area of                  focus on practitioners providing services directly to
     specialization, but not common to all). Initial field      clients,
     testing of the standards document revealed that           recognize existing best practices,
     some competencies were relevant to more than one
                                                               Include the diversity of roles and skill sets existing
     area of specialization. Rather than list these
     competencies as part of each area of specialization,       in the field.
     they have been grouped together and called
     Common Skills and Knowledge.                             The Steering Committee operated according to a
                                                              stewardship model rather than a representative model.
                                                              In a stewardship model, members present their unique
                                                              perspectives as professionals in the field. They are not
                                                              official voices of the organizations or associations with
                                                              which they are involved. Members of the Steering
                                                              Committee were drawn from a wide variety of areas so
                                                              that multiple views would result.

                                                         Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   1
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


In the fall of 1997 a series of regional consultations                 These practitioners include, but are not limited to;
were held. Approximately 1,250 people participated. In                 career advisors, counsellors, job marketers, teachers,
all, 70 consultation groups were conducted in eight                    community trainers, psychologists, educational
provinces and one territory. Almost 900 feedback                       planners, and social workers.
forms were returned, representing a return rate of about
70%. About 27% of the respondents were from                            Career development is an umbrella term that may
community-based agencies, 23% were from the                            include at least the following:
education sector, 15% were from mental health or                        Career education
rehabilitation settings, 10% were in private practice,
                                                                        Career counselling
and the rest were from a wide variety of sectors that
provide career development services as part of their                    Employment counselling
mandates.                                                               Human resource development
                                                                        Training in employment skills
Feedback from participants was overwhelmingly in                        Training in personal, but job-related areas, such as
favour of proceeding to develop the guidelines and                        job-search, interviewing, self-exploration, time
standards. Key findings were:                                             management and anger management,
 Over 80% of respondents thought that developing                         entrepreneurship
   guidelines and standards would be in the best                        Community rehabilitation
   interests of themselves, their clients, the
   organizations for which they worked, the profession,                Career development is provided in a variety of settings.
   and the general public.                                             These settings include schools, post-secondary
 The proposed framework made sense.                                   institutions, private vocational colleges, community-
 They supported the idea of a framework based on                      based agencies, private practitioners, federal and
                                                                       provincial government departments, organizations like
   what practitioners actually did, rather than the
                                                                       Workers' Compensation, private agencies, human
   training they took.                                                 resources departments in larger businesses, and joint
 They supported a code of ethics as the basis of the                  labour-business partnerships.
   framework.
 In response to the question, “Would you support the                  This brief overview is not exhaustive but it does
   next step, namely to develop, field-test, and validate              provide a flavour of what career development is and
                                                                       mentions some of the more common places where
   national guidelines and standards for career
                                                                       practitioners do career development work. It is
   development?”, 93% indicated they were in favour                    intended to help people locate themselves in the
   of proceeding.                                                      standards document and to begin thinking about how
                                                                       the standards can help them identify the knowledge and
A full copy of the final report on the consultation is                 skills they have.
available from the address listed in this document or
from the project Web site.                                             In Phase 1 of the project, a framework for guidelines
                                                                       and standards was developed, revised in consultation
Scope of the Standards                                                 with the field, and used in a national consultation in the
                                                                       fall of 1997. Three decisions influenced the nature of
and Guidelines                                                         the framework.
In this initiative, career development practitioner refers
to those who spend most of their time giving direct
                                                                       1. Build the framework on the common points of
services to clients in the areas of:
 Self-exploration and personal management                                existing models.
                                                                       2. Focus on competencies needed to provide direct
 Learning and work exploration
 Career building with individuals, groups, and                           services to clients.
   communities


2 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


3. Concentrate on what service providers need to do             specialization, but not in all. Initial field-testing of the
   to offer quality services to clients. This approach          standards document revealed that some competencies
                                                                were relevant to more than one area of specialization
   was chosen for several reasons:
                                                                area. Rather than list these competencies as part of
    It identifies activities that professionals perform        each Area of Specialization, they are grouped together
      and is therefore easily understood by both                and called Common Skills and Knowledge.
      practitioners and clients.
    It recognizes that people become skilled in                Core Competencies
      different ways and addresses what people can              Core Competencies are the skills, knowledge and
      do, rather than how they learned to do it.                attitudes common to all career development
    It lends itself readily to prior learning                  practitioners, regardless of their employment setting. In
      assessment and recognition. In addition, it               some work settings core competencies may be
      allows for recognition that competency can be             sufficient to deliver the range of services provided.
                                                                Other work settings may require service providers with
      gained through formal training.
                                                                competency in one or more of the specialty areas. In a
    It is tied closely to competencies specific to             setting offering comprehensive career development
      career development.                                       services, each staff member would have the core
                                                                competencies. In addition, the staff as a whole would
Based on these points, the following model was                  likely possess all of the specialty competencies needed
developed. It contains three types of competencies and          to deliver comprehensive services. Individual staff
                                                                members could however differ in their specialty areas.
uses a code of ethics as a foundation. See Figure 1.

                                                                Some examples of the core competencies follow.
                                                                1. People working in career development practice
                                                                   need to demonstrate certain attitudes. They need
                                                                   to be:
                                                                    insightful
                                                                    honest
                                                                    open-minded
                                                                    results-oriented.

                                                                2. People working in career development practice
                                                                   need to have certain skills. They need to:
                                                                    document client interactions and progress
                                                                    accommodate diversity
                                                                    collect, analyze and use information
                                                                    convey information clearly when speaking and
Core competencies consist of the skills, knowledge,
                                                                     writing.
and attitudes that all career development professionals
require.
                                                                3. People working in career development practice
Areas of specialization, are additional skills,                    need to have certain knowledge. They need to
knowledge, and attitudes that may be required                      know:
depending on the type of work setting and the client                career development models and theories
groups that are being served.
                                                                    the change process, transition stages, and career
                                                                     cycles
Common skills and knowledge consist of
competencies that are used in more than one area of                 components of the career planning process


                                                           Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   3
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


      the major organizations and resources for career
       development and community services.

4. People working in career development practice
   need to be guided by a code of ethical behaviour:
    A Code of Ethics has been developed and is
     located in Appendix A.

Areas of Specialization
The areas of specialization are competencies needed to
provide specific career development services that
clients may need. These competencies vary according
to the nature of the specific service. Service providers
may have the competencies and therefore meet the
standards in one, or more areas of specialization,
depending on the nature of their duties and the services
they provide.

The core and specialty areas are equally valued. There
is no hierarchy intended between core and specialty or
among the specializations. No area is seen as more or
less important than any others. All competency areas
are important in providing comprehensive career
development services.
                                                                       The figure presents each specialization as identical in
Currently, six main areas of specialization have been                  size, to emphasize that they are all equally important in
identified:                                                            providing comprehensive services. In practice
 Assessment                                                           however, it is likely that the extent to which the areas
                                                                       of specialization extend into the core will vary across
 Facilitated Individual and Group Learning
                                                                       specializations. It is also likely that the different
 Career Counselling                                                   specializations will require varying amounts of
 Information and Resource Management                                  competencies and likely different types and/or amounts
 Work Development                                                     of training and experience to be able to demonstrate the
 Community Capacity Building                                          competencies. The boundaries between core and
                                                                       specialty areas will be determined by consultation and
All career development practitioners will need to have                 experimentation with the guidelines and standards.
a certain number of basic competencies in all six areas
of specialization. These basic competencies appear in
the Core and are also included as basic competencies in
the appropriate area of specialization. Specializations
of course have many additional and advanced
competencies specific to each specialization. For
example, all career development practitioners will need
to have a certain amount of competence in the area of
assessment (Core). Assessment specialists have this
core as well as many additional and advanced
assessment competencies. Figure 2 illustrates how this
relationship might look.


4 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


      Indirect Services to Clients                              Potential Uses of the
                (An Aside)                                      Standards and Guidelines
There are important areas of work associated with the           Using standards and guidelines to regulate a profession
provision of quality career development services which          is a provincial/territorial matter. Making the
do not involve direct contact with clients. For example,        achievement of standards and guidelines a condition of
a person involved in gathering and analyzing labour             membership is a decision of a professional association.
                                                                This Standards and Guidelines initiative is a cross-
market information might never actually interact
                                                                Canada partnership, not provincial. Many professional
directly with clients seeking career development                associations are active in the initiative, but the
assistance. However, the information provided by such           initiative has no identity as a professional association.
a person will be vitally important to the service               Neither the National Steering Committee nor the
provider. Similarly, a person who develops self-                National Stakeholder Group has any authority to
exploration tools for clients might not be involved in          regulate, introduce a certification process, or invite
                                                                membership.
providing services to clients, but the results of his or
her work will be used by service providers in meeting           Once the standards and guidelines are available and
client needs. These are “Indirect Services.”                    have been accepted by the career development
                                                                community, it is possible that a provincial movement
Indirect Services could be organized into several               might be launched to regulate or license the practice of
categories, such as:                                            career development using the standards and guidelines.
                                                                However, this would need to be an initiative coming
1. Development of programs, services, and resources
                                                                from the career development community within a
2. Research and evaluation                                      province and moved through appropriate provincial
3. Marketing                                                    channels.
4. Administration of programs and services
5. Advocacy                                                     Similarly, Regional Action Groups or Professional
                                                                Associations may decide to adopt the standards and
Standards for those who provide indirect services are           guidelines and use them to promote membership and/or
beyond the scope of the current initiative. However,            use them as a basis for membership. This again would
                                                                be a decision of the Executive and members of that
these services play an indispensable role in the
                                                                Action Group or Association. Both these scenarios are
provision of quality career development services to             beyond the mandate and the influence of this initiative.
clients. In many cases, the results of the work of those
who provide indirect services to clients are part of the        The Guidelines and Standards, once developed, will
knowledge needed by those who provide direct                    need a “custodian” so that they remain current, are
services. For example, a person who teaches job search          readily available, and are used by the field.
                                                                Consultations with the field suggest that the
skills to clients may not need to know how to gather
                                                                standards/guidelines could be used in many ways: a
and organize labour market information, but will need           guide for practitioners to self-assess their knowledge
to know how to access the finished product and how to           and skills; a means for identifying gaps in training or
relay that information to clients.                              service delivery; a template for curriculum
                                                                development; a model for performance appraisal; or a
The decision to focus this initiative on those who              method for planning professional development. After
                                                                extensive field consultation has been completed, a
provide direct services to clients is not intended to
                                                                paper will be prepared outlining options for
undervalue the essential nature of those who provide            maintenance and implementation. The decision about
indirect services. It is simply the attempt to make sure        maintenance will be one made by the Stakeholders.
the initiative addresses a manageable goal.                     Implementation will depend on the career development
                                                                community.



                                                           Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   5
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


Practitioner Competencies                                              How to Read the
and Client Outcomes                                                    Standards and Guidelines
In the consultations conducted to date, people have                    A bolded competency statement indicates a skill that a
asked about the role of clients in the Canadian                        career development practitioner should be able to
Standards and Guidelines project. A companion                          demonstrate. A competency statement that is not
initiative is focusing on defining more clearly the types              bolded indicates knowledge that a career practitioner
of outcomes that clients can expect to receive as a                    needs. All competencies are introduced by the
result of services provided by career practitioners. The               statement: “To demonstrate this competency, career
initiative focusing on clients, the Blueprint for                      development practitioners will strive to:”. This
Life/Work Designs, is simultaneously occurring using                   statement outlines the scope of knowledge and also
wide national consultation networks as well. Both                      serves as the performance criteria, if the competency is
initiatives represent significant advances for the career              a demonstrable skill.
development field and each initiative is compatible
with the other.                                                        There is only one attitude competency in the standards,
                                                                       as it is thought that the attitudes described in C1.2.1 are
The Standards and Guidelines and Blueprint initiatives                 comprehensive and apply to all of the skills and
are independent, but very complementary. The                           knowledge a career development practitioner should
Blueprint is a national effort to outline the outcomes of              possess.
quality career development programs and services. The
Blueprint specifies what individuals can expect to learn               Glossary terms are in bolded italics the first time they
from services at different developmental levels,                       appear in the standards. The purpose of the glossary is
ranging from elementary school, to secondary and                       to define industry terms that readers would not find in a
adult populations. The Blueprint also has a strong                     dictionary.
focus on implementing career development programs
and helping providers be clear about the outcomes                      Examples are used throughout the standards to clarify a
actually achieved by specific programs.                                point or to indicate that a list is not exhaustive. The
                                                                       examples are in italics.
The Standards and Guidelines initiative is a national
effort to outline the competencies needed by career                    An employer or client may have policies that affect the
development practitioners in order for them to help                    way a skill is performed. The standards do NOT
people achieve personal career development outcomes.                   replace internal policies. In the event that standards
The Standards and Guidelines have a strong                             contradict internal policies, the individual is expected
application to practitioner preparation and professional               to follow the internal policy, but must be able to
training. They focus on the knowledge and skills                       identify how it differs from the standard.
needed to deliver career development services which
facilitate meeting the outcomes needed by individuals.                 The competencies in this document are grouped into
                                                                       two Clusters:
Outside the career development profession people are
often unclear about what career development is, what it                 Core Competencies, which all career development
achieves, and what career development practitioners                      practitioners should have, designated by the letter
do. The Standards and Guidelines and Blueprint                           “C.”
initiatives are innovative leaps forward in becoming                    Advanced or unique competencies required for
more clear about the answers to these questions among                    specialized areas of service, designated by the letter
ourselves and with the public.                                           “S.”

                                                                       Core (C)
                                                                       Areas of Specialization (S)




6 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


In addition, the competencies in the Areas of
Specialization are of two types:                               Clusters                             Areas
                                                                                C1 Professional Behaviour
1. Areas of Specialization (which pertain to a
   specialized area of practice)                                Core (C)        C2 Interpersonal Competence
2. Common Skills and Knowledge, competencies that                               C3 Career Development Knowledge
   are common to more than one area of                                          C4 Needs Assessment and Referral
   specialization, but not common to them all,
   designated by the letters “CSK.”                                             S1 Assessment
                                                                                S2 Facilitated Individual and Group
                                                               Areas of            Learning
Core (C)                                                     Specialization S3 Career Counselling
                                                                  (S)       S4 Information and Resource
Areas of Specialization (S)
                                                                               Management
Common Skills and Knowledge (CSK)
                                                                                S5 Work Development
                                                                                S6 Community Capacity Building
Within each cluster, there are several areas of                Common
competency that career development practitioners              Skills and        CSK1      Work Search Strategies
need. These are identified by a letter followed by a          Knowledge
                                                                (CSK)           CSK2      Group Facilitation
number, e.g., C1, C2, S1.




                                                       Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   7
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


Sample Page                                                            How to Read this Document

                                                                                      Competency Statement
S1.1.4 use standardized career                                                         Bold: performance
       assessment instruments                                                         Not bolded: knowledge


Why is this competency important?
 to gather more information for the career                                             “Why Important?”
  development process                                                                  value of competency


To demonstrate this competency, career
development practitioners will strive to:                                                 “To demonstrate”
a) explain steps of the chosen assessments                                 guidelines for how competency is demonstrated
b) administer the selected instruments
c) follow the proper procedures
d) score the results
e) interpret the data from the results
f) communicate findings in a format suited to clients’                                 “e.g. or for example”
    needs, e.g., create reports, discuss with clients                             examples to clarify main point;
                                                                                    are not required behaviours

Notes
 Certification is necessary for individuals
  administering some standardized instruments. If a
  career development practitioner is not qualified to                                         “Notes”
  administer an assessment, the client must be referred                      Additional or “good to know” information
  to an appropriate individual or agency.
 Scoring of a standardized career assessment
  instrument may be done externally. The instrument
  may also be administered and scored by a certified
  individual other than the career development
  practitioner.




8 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling




                        NOTE

 The main distinctions between the Career Counselling
 specialization and the competencies identified in the
 Core are:

 a) in the knowledge competencies (S.3.1), career
    counsellors need to be able to describe the
    theories in terms of:
     basic premises,
     assumptions,
     biases,
     applications,
     strengths and limitations

 b) in the S.3.2 competencies, career counsellors need
    to be able to demonstrate a method of practice
    with clients.




                                                     Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   9
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


S3         Career Counselling                                         S3        Career Counselling

S3.1       Possess Knowledge in Career                                S3.1      Possess Knowledge in Career
           Counselling                                                          Counselling

S3.1.1 explain major theories and models                              S3.1.2 explain major theories and models
       pertaining to counselling                                             pertaining to career development

Why is this competency important?                                     Why is this competency important?
 to be able to integrate different theories together to               to follow a method of practice guided by theory
  come up with the best way to help the clients                        to be aware of personal biases
 to follow a method of practice guided by theory and                  to understand that there are different theories and
  expertise                                                             beliefs about how individuals develop preferences,
 to be aware of personal biases                                        achieve transitions and progress through their
 to understand that people have different ways of                      working lives
  making choices, achieving transitions and                            to be able to integrate different theories together to
  progressing through their work lives                                  come up with the best ways to help the clients

To demonstrate this competency, career                                To demonstrate this competency, career
development practitioners will strive to:                             development practitioners will strive to:
a) explain the major theories and models pertaining                   a) explain major theories and models pertaining to
    to counselling, for example:                                          career development, for example:
     behaviourist, e.g., Wolpe, Frankl, Skinner                           developmental, e.g., Supe
     choice theory, e.g., Glasser                                         trait-factor, e.g., Holland
     cognitive, e.g., Piaget, Kohlberg                                    social learning, e.g., Krumbolt
     cognitive-behavioural, e.g., Ellis, Meichenbaum                      constructivist, e.g., Peavy
     constructivist, e.g., Mahoney                                        decision making, e.g., Janis and Mann,
     feminist, e.g., Gilligan                                              D’Zurilla and Goldfried, Tiedeman
     humanist, e.g., Rogers, Maslow                                  b) describe the theories and models in terms of:
     pyscho-dynamic, e.g., Jung                                           basic premises, assumptions and biases
b) describe the theories and models in terms of:                           strengths and limitations, including research
     basic premises, assumptions and biases career                         support
      counselling applications                                             career counselling applications
     strengths and limitations, including research
      support

Notes
 Typically, career counsellors would also possess the
  competencies described in the specialization of
  assessment (S1) and facilitated learning (S2).




10 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


S3       Career Counselling                                   S3          Career Counselling

S3.1     Possess Knowledge in Career                          S3.1        Possess Knowledge in Career
         Counselling                                                      Counselling

S3.1.3 explain major models pertaining to                     S3.1.4 describe barriers to career development
       change and transition

Why is this competency important?                             Why is this competency important?
 to understand different theories and beliefs about           to strive to understand clients’ worlds from their own
  how individuals react to change and transitions               frame of reference
 to follow a method of practice guided by theory              to assess barriers
 to be aware of personal biases                               to help clients cope with and overcome barriers in
                                                                order to achieve career goals
To demonstrate this competency, career
development practitioners will strive to:                     To demonstrate this competency, career
a) describe how change and transition affect clients          development practitioners will strive to:
    moving through the career process (see C.3.1.3)           a) identify that barriers have multiple components,
b) explain the major theories and models pertaining               including:
    to change and transition, for example, those of:               contextual
     William Bridges                                              systemic
     Nancy Schlossberg                                            organizational
c) describe the theories and models in terms of:                   affective
     basic premises, assumptions and biases                       cognitive
     strengths and limitations, including research                behavioural
      support                                                      emotional
     career counselling applications                         b) describe the impact of barriers, for example:
     coping strategies                                            diversity, for example, the client may be dealing
                                                                    with:
                                                                     cultural issues
                                                                     language or literacy issues
                                                                     discrimination
                                                                     disabilities
                                                                     gender issues
                                                                   development issues, for example:
                                                                     family dysfunctions
                                                                     mental health problems
                                                                     addictions
                                                                     insufficient training
                                                                   organizational challenges, for example:
                                                                     restrictive policies
                                                                     workplace accommodation issues
                                                                   perception of self and others, for example, the
                                                                    client may lack:
                                                                     self-efficacy
                                                                     realistic self-knowledge
                                                                   psychological reactions to change, for example:



                                                       Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   11
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


        trouble adjusting to unemployment, injury or                 S3       Career Counselling
         illness
      ineffective decision-making styles, for example:               S3.1     Possess Knowledge in Career
        difficulty comparing alternatives                                     Counselling
        only one way of thinking
        impulsive decision making                                    S3.1.5 describe computerized career planning
      low motivation, for example:                                          systems and information resources
        procrastination
        underlying issues, e.g., fear                                Why is this competency important?
                                                                       to be aware of the numerous resources available
Notes                                                                  to use resources effectively with clients
 There are assessment instruments that can be used to
  identify client barriers, e.g., Co-Pilot.                           To demonstrate this competency, career
                                                                      development practitioners will strive to:
                                                                      a) identify common computerized career planning
                                                                          systems and information resources, for example:
                                                                           software programs, e.g., Choices, Répères
                                                                           databases, e.g., Job Futures, OccInfo
                                                                           on-line libraries
                                                                           Internet sites, e.g., Canada WorkInfoNet,
                                                                            Worksearch, CareerExplorer, eChoices
                                                                           bulletin board sites
                                                                           interactive sites
                                                                      b) describe computerized career planning systems
                                                                          and information resources in terms of:
                                                                           strengths and limitations
                                                                           basic premises, assumptions and biases
                                                                           access for clients
                                                                           career counselling applications
                                                                           applicability to clients
                                                                      c) describe with clients the steps involved in using
                                                                          the computerized career planning systems and
                                                                          information resources with clients

                                                                      Notes
                                                                       These resources may not be available to all career
                                                                        development practitioners.




12 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


S3       Career Counselling                                S3          Career Counselling

S3.1     Possess Knowledge in Career                       S3.1        Possess Knowledge in Career
         Counselling                                                   Counselling

S3.1.6 describe types of educational/training              S3.1.7 work with labour market information
       opportunities and resources

Why is this competency important?                          Why is this competency important?
 to develop individualized career plans                    to ensure clients’ career plans are personally
 to make clients aware of options                           appropriate
                                                            to be aware that labour market information is one
To demonstrate this competency, career                       piece of the career decision-making process
development practitioners will strive to:
a) describe education and training opportunities, for      To demonstrate this competency, career
    example:                                               development practitioners will strive to:
     degree programs                                      a) identify the sources of labour market information,
     apprenticeships                                          e.g., Job Futures, Prospects, regional labour
     certificate programs                                     market information, local training boards (see
     distance education                                       C.3.1.7)
     private training providers                           b) analyze and interpret labour market information in
     armed forces                                             terms of:
     diploma programs                                          basic premises, assumptions and biases
     on-the-job training                                       strengths and limitations, including research
     available financial aid                                     support
b) describe resources for employment, for example:              career counselling applications
     advertised job opportunities                         c) describe the steps involved in using labour market
                                                               information with clients in a relevant manner, e.g.,
     placement offices
                                                               connect trends with classroom activities
     community services
     networking
     job search
     subsidy programs
     employers and on-the-job training/volunteer
      work
c) evaluate educational and training opportunities and
    resources for employment:
     use the evaluation to determine which programs
      meet client needs
     identify funding sources
     identify financial aid available
d) encourage clients to liaise with the appropriate
    contacts independently, when possible




                                                    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   13
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


S3         Career Counselling                                         S3       Career Counselling

S3.2       Demonstrate Method of Practice                             S3.2     Demonstrate Method of Practice
           in Interactions with Clients                                        in Interactions with Clients

S3.2.1     develop a method of practice that                          S3.2.2   establish and maintain a collaborative
           builds on established or recognized                                 relationship with clients
           ideas
                                                                      Why is this competency important?
Why is this competency important?                                      to allow clients to become fully engaged and active
 to conduct practice guided by theory                                  in the counselling process
 to ensure consistency and flexibility in your
  counselling approach                                                To demonstrate this competency, career
 to develop strategies and techniques for assisting                  development practitioners will strive to:
  clients                                                             a) demonstrate:
                                                                           professional attributes (see C1.2.1)
To demonstrate this competency, career                                     communication skills (see C2.2)
development practitioners will strive to:                                  skills required to establish and maintain
a) synthesize theories and models to establish a                            collaborative work relationships (see C2.2.6)
    personally-held model or theory (this may be a                    b) ensure interactions are client-focused:
    single model, a combination of models or a                             clarify clients’ expectations, needs and goals
    personally-evolved model)                                              identify and respond to clients’ personal
b) describe the personally-held model or theory:                            characteristics related to career development
     explain the influence the model has on his/her                  c) provide clients with information:
      method of practice                                                   explain his/her method of practice
     identify his/her own biases                                          describe all service options available
c) integrate the interdependence of life planning,                         give constructive feedback about clients’
    work and society into his/her method of practice,                       progress
    considering the:                                                  d) respond to the barriers that may appear in
     contextual factors affecting client decision                        counselling relationships
      making, e.g., labour market trends, technology,                 e) help clients to be self- and goal-directed
      globalization, privatization                                         facilitate clients’ independence in taking action
     holistic experience pertaining to life planning                       or initiating new processes
d) establish a professional development plan to keep
    up to date with issues, trends, technologies and                  Notes
    new applications in career counselling approaches                  Establishing a collaborative relationship that is
                                                                        respectful, engaging and non-judgmental is very
                                                                        important to successful outcomes.
                                                                       It is a good idea for a career development
                                                                        practitioner to follow up with clients during different
                                                                        stages of the process.




14 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


S3        Career Counselling                                 S3          Career Counselling

S3.2      Demonstrate Method of Practice                     S3.2        Demonstrate Method of Practice
          in Interactions with Clients                                   in Interactions with Clients

S3.2.3    explore issues                                     S3.2.4      develop and implement a process for
                                                                         achieving clients’ goals that is
Why is this competency important?                                        consistent with own method of
 to assist clients in identifying their priorities                      practice

To demonstrate this competency, career                       Why is this competency important?
development practitioners will strive to:                     to enable clients to become actively engaged in the
a) apply knowledge and skills of assessment (see S1)           counselling process
b) help clients to identify and understand relevant           to enable clients to take action
    aspects of their situations, for example:
     personal characteristics related to careers            To demonstrate this competency, career
     purpose, passion and dreams                            development practitioners will strive to:
     work maintenance issues                                a) determine initial goals jointly with clients using
     social contextual conditions affecting careers             appropriate strategies, for example:
     barriers                                                    reframing
     values                                                      challenging beliefs
     familial, subcultural and cultural structures and           affirmations
      functions as they relate to careers                         brainstorming
     career decision-making processes                            reality checks
     attitudes towards work and workers                          stories
     biases toward work and workers, such as:                    clients’ dream jobs
       gender                                                    guided imagery
       age                                                  b) determine with clients a process for reaching goals,
       sexual orientation                                       using appropriate strategies, for example:
       religious affiliation                                     identify the steps involved
       race                                                      identify support systems
       cultural stereotypes                                      identify short- and/or long-term goals
c) challenge and encourage clients to explore options:            select a model of decision making
     discuss potential courses of action                         establish manageable time frames
     prioritize issues                                      c) determine the indicators of success with clients
                                                                 using appropriate strategies, for example:
                                                                  self-monitoring forms
                                                                  subjective impressions
                                                                  goal achievement
                                                                  self-reports
                                                                  check lists
                                                                  standardized tests
                                                             d) tailor process to clients:
                                                                  consider the clients’ ages and developmental
                                                                   stages
                                                                  determine appropriate interventions and levels of
                                                                   structure required




                                                      Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners   15
Areas of Specialization
Career Counselling


      use computerized career planning systems and                   S3        Career Counselling
       information resources with clients, as
       appropriate                                                    S3.2      Demonstrate Method of Practice
      use educational opportunities and resources with                         in Interactions with Clients
       clients, as appropriate
      use labour market information with clients, as                 S3.2.5    monitor progress
       appropriate
                                                                      Why is this competency important?
Notes                                                                  to increase probability of success
 This process can be used with clients seeking or                     to help both clients and practitioners remain
  progressing in work.                                                  motivated and engaged in the process by identifying
 Some of the strategies used to assist clients’ progress               indicators of success
  in work include self-directed learning, corporate                    to help clients and practitioners spot difficulties early
  mentoring, company-sponsored training, and cross-                     and to help them identify more appropriate strategies
  training.
                                                                      To demonstrate this competency, career
                                                                      development practitioners will strive to:
                                                                      a) monitor the indicators of success
                                                                      b) adjust the process and goals, as necessary
                                                                      c) keep records of the outcomes

                                                                      Notes
                                                                       Career development practitioners should look for
                                                                        patterns with clients and use this information to
                                                                        adjust future practice.
                                                                       In addition to the competency outlined in C1.5.3
                                                                        (document clients’ interactions and progress), refer
                                                                        to the ethical guidelines applicable to the creation
                                                                        and storage of records, e.g., CPA, Canadian
                                                                        Counselling Association (CCA). Career development
                                                                        practitioners will need to fulfill their contractual
                                                                        obligations with regards to record keeping.
                                                                       This competency may not be necessary for single
                                                                        interventions.




16 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1         Work Search Strategies                           CSK1           Work Search Strategies

CSK1.1       Guide Client in                                  CSK1.1         Guide Client in
             Work Search Strategies                                          Work Search Strategies

CSK1.1.1 guide clients to identify own skills,                CSK1.1.2 guide clients to complete application
         strengths, personal characteristics,                          forms
         values and interests

Why is this competency important?                             Why is this competency important?
 to help career development practitioners to:                 to increase clients’ probability of success in the work
                                                                search
    market clients to employers
                                                               to provide clients with step-by-step instructions on
    determine barriers and limitations
                                                                how to effectively compile job application forms
 to help clients gain:
                                                               to meet employers’ expectations
    confidence and improve self-esteem
    a better understanding of themselves                     To demonstrate this competency, career
    a better understanding of what they have to offer        development practitioners will strive to:
                                                              guide clients to:
To demonstrate this competency, career                        a) obtain two copies of application forms:
development practitioners will strive to:                          suggest one be used for practice and clients’ own
guide clients to:                                                   files
a) identify skills, including:
                                                                   suggest the good second copy be given to the
     technical skills/ job skills:                                 prospective employer
       usually obtained in school and on the job             b) follow instructions carefully:
     transferable skills/ functional skills:                      ensure the form is:
       developed throughout life, e.g.,                             filled out completely and accurately:
         communication, working with others                          signed and dated, if required
       used in almost any work situation                     c) use correct grammar and spelling
     self-management skills                                  d) use neat handwriting or printing
b) identify work, leisure experiences and community           e) be honest
    accomplishments, including:                               f) be specific, e.g., include a specific position title
     barriers that have been overcome                        g) refer to résumé, if applicable
     skills used                                             h) fill in the additional comments section:
     sources of motivation                                        suggest clients use as an opportunity to promote
     satisfaction gained                                           themselves
c) identify strengths, interests and values                        emphasize skills, abilities and accomplishments
d) identify aptitudes, e.g., technical orientation,
    mechanical inclination                                    Notes
     connected with ability to learn a particular skill       Inform clients that not all application forms are the
      or job quickly                                            same and that some require a résumé to be attached.
     can point to future career objectives                    An application form may become part of an
e) identify skills that they would like to develop, e.g.,       employee’s permanent record.
    language skills:                                           On-line applications are becoming common. These
     set goals for development                                 require practice, as some do not easily allow editing
f) identify personal characteristics, e.g., attitudes           once a box has been filled in.
                                                               When a career development practitioner is working
                                                                with a client, he or she may need to explain



                                                       Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners 17
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


  vocabulary that is unfamiliar or ambiguous, e.g.,                   CSK1         Work Search Strategies
  bondable
 An application form might be the first contact with                 CSK1.1       Guide Client in
  an employer, and is therefore very important.
                                                                                   Work Search Strategies

                                                                      CSK1.1.3 guide clients in writing cover letters

                                                                      Why is this competency important?
                                                                       to help clients tailor an approach to an employer or
                                                                        an employment opportunity
                                                                       to enhance the application process
                                                                       to showcase clients’ relevant strengths to the
                                                                        company

                                                                      To demonstrate this competency, career
                                                                      development practitioners will strive to:
                                                                      guide clients to:
                                                                      a) use cover letters to introduce résumés or
                                                                          application forms:
                                                                           encourage the employer to read the résumé or
                                                                             application form:
                                                                              appeal to the prospective employer’s needs
                                                                               and interests
                                                                      b) match information in a letter with the job
                                                                          description’s list of duties and qualifications
                                                                      c) highlight skills and accomplishments in cover
                                                                          letters
                                                                      d) target cover letter to the industry, field or company
                                                                      e) keep cover letter to one page
                                                                      f) link themselves to employers, e.g., refer to the job
                                                                          advertisement or person who referred them
                                                                      g) include sections that:
                                                                           provide important facts about themselves and
                                                                             offers information about why the particular
                                                                             company or opportunity appeals to them
                                                                           describe how the company would benefit by
                                                                             hiring the applicant
                                                                           ask for an interview
                                                                      h) sign their names

                                                                      Notes
                                                                       Cover letters are used most often for advertised and
                                                                        professional positions. They are also used in
                                                                        impersonal forms of job search, i.e. not face-to-face,
                                                                        but e-mailed or faxed résumés.
                                                                       Clients who are seeking self-employment
                                                                        opportunities should be informed that proposal
                                                                        writing is an extension of the points in this
                                                                        competency.


18 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1         Work Search Strategies                            Notes
                                                                In some cases, it may be necessary for a career
CSK1.1       Guide Client in                                     development practitioner to explain to a client what a
                                                                 résumé is and why it is important.
             Work Search Strategies
                                                                A career development practitioner should be able to
CSK1.1.4 guide clients in preparing résumés                      create résumés in all formats.
                                                                A résumé must represent the client who is involved
Why is this competency important?                                in the work search.
 to assist clients in using the most appropriate tool for      It is important that clients understand the
  their work searches                                            significance of gaps in their work histories and
 to help clients use their marketable skills                    develop strategies to effectively field questions
                                                                 regarding these gaps.
 to meet requirements for interview selections

To demonstrate this competency, career
development practitioners will strive to:
guide clients to:
a) create fact sheets describing employment,
    volunteer and education histories
b) choose formats that are effective, considering:
     chronological résumés:
       list education and work experience
       start with the most recent entry and work back
     functional résumés:
       list skills and achievements
     combination résumés:
       list education, work experience, achievements
         and skills
     electronic résumés, e.g., list key words in noun
      form to be read by electronic scanners
c) target résumé emphasize qualifications, skills and
    abilities relevant to fields of work sought
d) ensure résumés are concise and clear
e) use action words, e.g., negotiate, demonstrated,
    improving
f) avoid the pronoun “I”
g) enhance the readability of their résumés, for
    example:
     bold specific information to draw the eye to key
      sections
     use bullets
     indent material
     put headings in larger fonts
h) edit résumés to check for:
     errors
     effectiveness




                                                        Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners 19
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1           Work Search Strategies                                 CSK1         Work Search Strategies

CSK1.1         Guide Client in                                        CSK1.1       Guide Client in
               Work Search Strategies                                              Work Search Strategies

CSK1.1.5 guide clients in using portfolios                            CSK1.1.6 guide clients to develop self-marketing
                                                                               plans
Why is this competency important?
 to assist clients in self-management and self-                      Why is this competency important?
  promotion                                                            to assist clients in creating their own opportunities
 to identify marketable skills                                        to assist clients in self-marketing
 to help clients to prepare for interviews
                                                                      To demonstrate this competency, career
To demonstrate this competency, career                                development practitioners will strive to:
development practitioners will strive to:                             guide clients to:
guide clients to:                                                     a) research needs of companies/fields/communities
a) provide evidence of skills, personal styles and                        they are interested in
    accomplishments                                                   b) match marketable skills and relevant experiences
b) assemble materials in an appropriate manner, e.g.,                     (see CSK1.1.1) to identified needs
    bound, binder                                                     c) provide evidence of past relevant accomplishments
c) collect items related to their careers, for example:                   (see CSK1.1.9)
     certificates                                                    d) develop presentation packages, including:
     awards                                                               clear statements of tasks and associated budgets
     photos                                                                for each task
     evaluations
     samples of past work
     letters of commendation/reference letters
     relevant newspaper articles
d) organize the items, e.g., create categories
e) select portfolio materials to target specific
    employment opportunities

Notes
 A career development practitioner should have
  experience in creating a portfolio prior to instructing
  a client on the creation of portfolios.
 A career development practitioner should explain to
  clients how and when to present portfolios during an
  interview.




20 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1        Work Search Strategies                              interviewing tend to be more effective ways of
                                                                accessing the hidden job market.
CSK1.1      Guide Client in                                    It can be beneficial for a career development
                                                                practitioner to use phone script example dialogues
            Work Search Strategies
                                                                and outlines with clients.
CSK1.1.7 guide clients in conducting cold calls

Why is this competency important?
 to help clients expand search for prospective jobs
 to identify hidden job markets

To demonstrate this competency, career
development practitioners will strive to:
guide clients to:
a) plan strategies, for example:
     create introductions
     achieve a set number of calls per day
     spend the day visiting certain types of companies
b) conduct telephone cold calls by:
     introducing themselves
     stating the purpose of their call
     asking for a key person by name, if name is
      known:
       pronounce the name correctly
       ask to speak to the person responsible for
         hiring, if name is not known
     handling refusals by:
       asking for a name and time to call back
       asking if you can drop of a résumé in person
         or fax/email a résumé to the appropriate
         person:
        call back to confirm receipt of résumé, if
           appropriate
       asking for an appointment
c) conduct person-to-person cold calls by:
     dressing appropriately
     introducing self upon arrival:
       state the purpose of the visit
       ask to speak to the person responsible for
         hiring
     handling refusals by:
       asking for an appointment
       asking for a business card of the person
         responsible for hiring
       leaving a résumé

Notes
 It is important to note that some employers find cold
  calls intrusive. Networking and informational


                                                       Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners 21
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1           Work Search Strategies                                 CSK1         Work Search Strategies

CSK1.1         Guide Client in                                        CSK1.1       Guide Client in
               Work Search Strategies                                              Work Search Strategies

CSK1.1.8 guide clients with their personal                            CSK1.1.9 guide clients in networking
         presentations
                                                                      Why is this competency important?
Why is this competency important?                                      to be aware of and access the hidden job market
 to increase clients’ ability to self-market                          to assist clients in overcoming fears and challenges
 to increase clients’ understanding/awareness of
  themselves and the impact this awareness has on                     To demonstrate this competency, career
  work searches                                                       development practitioners will strive to:
 to identify cultural differences                                    guide clients to:
 to increase clients’ self-confidence                                a) list all networking resources, for example:
                                                                           professional associations
To demonstrate this competency, career                                     past co-workers/supervisors
development practitioners will strive to:                                  government agencies
guide clients to:                                                          colleagues
a) identify the factors of personal presentation, which                    family
    are:                                                                   friends
     verbal communication, including:                                     social contacts
       tone of voice                                                 b) nurture relationships with networking resources
       speed                                                         c) demonstrate how to:
       volume                                                             use networking scripts and checklists to obtain
       language                                                             job leads
     non-verbal communication, e.g., body language,                       network, e.g., use phone
      facial expressions                                              d) offer examples of networking strategies from past
     accessories, e.g., jewelry                                          clients
     attitudes/behaviours
     clothing, e.g., shoes                                           Notes
     grooming, e.g., hair, perfume or cologne,                        It is important for a career development practitioner
      makeup                                                            to emphasize to clients the value of networking.
     hygiene, e.g., skin, teeth, fingernails
b) ensure their presentation is appropriate to the field
    and adapted to the company in which work is
    sought




22 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1        Work Search Strategies                          Notes
                                                             Inappropriate use of references can be damaging.
CSK1.1      Guide Client in                                  Many organizations have an internal policy of not
            Work Search Strategies                            giving written reference letters and limiting verbal
                                                              references to confirming date of employment.
CSK1.1.10 guide clients in using references                   Clients may require coaching on how to get personal
                                                              (versus company) references from colleagues under
                                                              such circumstances.
Why is this competency important?
 to be able to verify information on applications and       Whether listed or not, most employers are interested
  résumés                                                     in speaking with an individual’s most recent
                                                              supervisor or manager. Omitting this person can act
 to increase success in the work search
                                                              as a “red flag”, suggesting there was a problem. An
                                                              individual should be prepared to have the supervisor
To demonstrate this competency, career
                                                              or manager contacted.
development practitioners will strive to:
guide clients to:
a) consider the criteria for good references:
     not a family member
     can be long distance if email or online phone
      address is given
     references should speak English or French
     someone who has worked with client in a job or
      educational setting
     someone who has personal knowledge of client’s
      character
b) ask selected references for permission to use their
    name
c) prepare the references:
     describe the job that he/she is applying for
     provide current résumé to references
     indicate what experiences and qualifications
      he/she would like emphasized
     confirm that references are accessible
d) obtain letters written to the potential employers
    from the references, if possible
e) review references periodically:
     add or delete out-dated references
     ensure contact information is current
f) take a list of references to an interview




                                                     Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners 23
Common Skills and Knowledge
Work Search Strategies


CSK1           Work Search Strategies                                 c) prepare clients for interviews, for example:
                                                                          role play
CSK1.1         Guide Client in                                            videotape mock interviews
               Work Search Strategies                                     review portfolios or résumés
                                                                          encourage clients to be conscious of their body
CSK1.1.11 guide clients in effective interview                             language
          skills                                                          have clients practice answering anticipated
                                                                           questions
Why is this competency important?                                         get clients to write questions that they would like
 to increase clients’ competencies within interview                       to ask the prospective employer, e.g., What kind
  strategies                                                               of training is available?
 to increase clients’ confidence in the interview                    d) advise clients not discuss salary at the first
  process                                                                interview, unless asked:
                                                                          clients should have an answer prepared, in case
To demonstrate this competency, career                                     they are asked, e.g., market rate
development practitioners will strive to:                             e) discuss with clients how to develop rapport with an
identify client guidelines for interviews, including:                    interviewer
a) describe the purpose of different types of                             discover what is important to the interviewer, for
    interviews:                                                            example:
     information interviews:                                               “What skills, in your opinion, are important
        for applicant to gather information about the                        for success in the job?”
         company                                                            “What are the main challenges in this
     screening interviews:                                                   department?”
        to determine which applicants are qualified for                  discover why the position is available, e.g.,
         the job                                                           expansion, injury
     hiring interviews:                                                  provide information to the interviewer to address
        to determine the suitability of candidates                        key concerns and motives:
        can be in various formats, including:                            clarify how interviewee can fulfill the
         panel interviews                                                 company’s needs
         group interviews                                                restate interest in the job
         phone interviews                                                ask when the decision will be made, if
     combined screening and hiring interviews:                            appropriate
        to explore both qualifications and suitability                   recognize closure, i.e., when interview is over,
b) describe different kinds of questions asked during                      when a thought is complete
    interviews:
     open-ended, e.g., “Tell me about yourself.”                     Notes
     close-ended, e.g., “Have you ever used an IBM                    Interviews provide useful learning opportunities.
       computer?”                                                      Explain to clients why employers ask particular
     situational, e.g., “If _____, then ______?”                       questions. Encourage clients to develop effective
     behavioural, e.g., “Describe the things you do to                 answers to common questions.
       try and improve the moral in your office?”




24 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners
Common Skills and Knowledge
Group Facilitation


CSK2         Group Facilitation                                 e) the facilitator’s role is to serve as the process
                                                                   expert:
CSK2.1       Facilitate Groups                                      a facilitator should use his or her knowledge and
                                                                     skills to guide the group members toward their
CSK2.1.1 describe the principles of group                            goals
         facilitation                                           f) the clients act as content experts:
                                                                    a facilitator should respect and draw upon
Why is this competency important?                                    members’ experiences, knowledge and expertise
 to increase interaction among all group members               g) the most productive groups are those that exist in
                                                                   an environment:
 to increase the facilitator’s confidence and
  competence in dealing with groups                                 that is safe and comfortable
 to anticipate behaviours in group settings                        where expectations and desired outcomes are
                                                                     clear
 to adjust interventions to different types of groups
  and to individuals within those groups
                                                                Notes
 to enhance client learning in a group setting
                                                                 For this cluster (CSK2) facilitation refers to an
                                                                  individual who is an expert in process only. For
To demonstrate this competency, career
                                                                  those individuals who communicate content, please
development practitioners will strive to:
                                                                  refer to Facilitated Individual or Group Learning
describe the principles of group facilitation:
                                                                  (S2).
a) a group’s atmosphere and performance will change
    as it goes through stages:
     recognize that each group progresses through
      stages differently
     describe different stages, e.g., initial, planning,
      working
     describe models of stages, for example:
       forming, storming, norming, performing
       Bridges transition model
       the job loss cycle
       the grief cycle
b) the group members take on roles in the group (e.g.,
    blocker, gatekeeper):
     there is value in all roles
     the roles that group members take on will vary
      from group to group
     group members can take on multiple roles
     group members may change their roles during
      the process
c) facilitators will need to adjust their strategies and
    approaches to meet members’ needs and roles
d) a facilitator’s behaviours have an impact on the
    group dynamics:
     a facilitator should be aware of his or her own
      behaviours and beliefs and how they impact on
      the group
     a facilitator should demonstrate respect for all
      group members




                                                         Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners 25
Common Skills and Knowledge
Group Facilitation


CSK2           Group Facilitation                                     i) listen and observe:
                                                                          monitor the process and content
CSK2.1         Facilitate Groups                                          monitor the dynamics between themselves and
                                                                            the group members:
CSK2.1.2       facilitate groups                                             be aware of how their own behaviours and
                                                                              reactions impact the group
Why is this competency important?                                            model the desired behaviours through
 to create conditions of safety, comfort and clarity for                     anecdotes, self-disclosure and other
  participants                                                                communication skills
 to understand the importance of building a sense of                     monitor the dynamics between the group
  community in a group situation                                            members:
 to determine the group members’ needs                                      encourage productive behaviours
 to understand and agree to the purpose of the                       j) be nonjudgmental:
  interaction                                                             remain neutral about content issues
 to achieve both the clients’ and the organizations’                 k) solicit group members’ feedback regularly
  goals                                                               l) monitor progress towards goals:
                                                                          make appropriate interventions
To demonstrate this competency, career                                    revisit the group expectations and the desired
development practitioners will strive to:                                   outcomes to focus discussions
a) determine the needs and composition of the group,                      use strategies to guide the group to the next
    e.g., youth, special needs, adult learners                              stage, e.g., summarize the problem and then
b) design and/or adapt a process tailored to the                            pose a question to generate solutions to it
    purpose and composition of a group, e.g., learning,                   follow the planned process, but be flexible as
    information gathering, therapeutic                                      needs emerge:
c) review the goals of the process, e.g., information                        adapt the approach as necessary
    gathering:                                                        m) evaluate group outcomes
     if the goals are pre-determined, practitioners will
       verify them with the group:
        ensure the goals match the expectations of the
         group members
     if the goals are not pre-determined, practitioners
       will establish them with the group:
        clarify the expectations of the group members
        determine what the desired outcomes are
d) help the group members establish how they will
    treat each other
e) identify the environmental preferences, values and
    beliefs of group members
f) develop and maintain a rapport with group
    members
g) initiate and maintain group members’ involvement
h) facilitate communication among group members,
    for example:
     pose questions
     acknowledge group members’ comments
     link group members’ comments
     build on group members’ comments
     summarize



26 Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners

				
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