NOTE: Please understand that I have done my best to put together a Study Guide for the exam.
However, if there is something on the exam that is not on this study guide but it was covered this
semester, then it has the possibility of being on the exam. You should not be using this as your only
source of studying for the exam. It is my strong suggestion that you use your old tests to study for the
exam as well as looking through each chapter thoroughly. Anything covered this semester could be on
the exam.

Chapters covered this semester: 1 – 4, 6 – 8, and 10 – 11

Chapter 1

    Terms:

       biology                reproduction           development           organism               species
       stimulus               response               organization          growth                 law
       adaptation             homeostasis            environment           hypothesis             theory
       experiment             control group          observations

    What are the characteristics of living things?
    Experiments: You will be given information and data about an experiment. You will
                    have to identify the experimental group, the control group, the
                    hypothesis, and draw conclusions based upon the data.
    Graphing Data: You will be given some data for which you will have to make a graph

    1 graph: You will have to answer a few questions about a graph on population growth.
              These questions will deal with carrying capacity, the effect of altering various
              factors, the effect of introducing a new predator or prey. Also be able to
              identify a limiting factor as being density-dependent or density-independent.
              Be able to determine the independent and dependent variables and then answer
              some questions about the graph.

Chapter 2

    Terms:

       ecology                biosphere              abiotic factors       biotic factors        niche
       autotroph              heterotroph            decomposer            omnivore              herbivore
       carnivore               scavenger             food web              food chain            habitat

      Know the levels of organization of life. (page 40)
      Know the 3 types of symbiosis and be able to identify an example of each. (pages 44-45)
      Know the various levels of a food chain and be able to analyze a food chain.
      1 food web: You will need to answer some multiple choice questions about this.
Chapter 3, Section 1

    Terms:

      limiting factors               primary succession             secondary succession
      climax community

    When do primary and secondary succession occur?

Chapter 4

    Terms:

      exponential growth             J-shaped curve         S-shaped curve        prey
      carrying capacity              competition            predator
      immigration                    emigration             demography

    What are the effects of crowding and stress?
    What is meant by density-dependent and density-independent factors? What are some examples
     of each?

Chapter 6

    Terms:

      molecule               atom                     amino acids          nucleic acids     lipids
      starches               carbohydrates            proteins             acids             bases
      pH                     metabolism

    What are the 3 particles found in an atom, what is their charge, and location?
    What are the two types of bonding? Describe each. Be able to recognize each type.
    Be sure you know the differences b/w lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, & proteins. What can
     be used to test for fats, simple sugars, and proteins.
    What are the pH values for acids, bases, & neutral substances? What does litmus do in each

Chapter 7

    Be sure you know the following pats of the cell. What are the structure /function of each? These
     will be in the T/F, Multiple choice, etc.

      Cytoplasm              DNA             lysosomes              nucleus
      Mitochondria           vacuole         chlorophyll            ribosomes
      Golgo Apparatus        cell wall       plasma membrane        endoplasmic reticulum
      Nucleolus              cilia           flagella

    Know the difference b/w multicellular & unicellular organisms
    Know the difference b/w prokaryotes & eukaryotes
    Be able to identify the parts of an animal cell and a plant cell on a diagram.
Chapter 8

    Terms:

       active transport                passive transport           hypotonic
       hypertonic                      isotonic                    plasmolysis
       selective permeability          diffusion                   osmosis
       facilitated diffusion           transport proteins          fluid mosaic model
       mitosis                         centromeres                 centrioles
       chromosomes                     cell cycle                  spindle

      What is the structure of the phospholipid bilayer?
      What are some causes of cancer?
      Be able to identify the phases of the cell cycle and what happens in each phase.
      What factors limit a cell’s size? Why?
      Osmosis and diffusion: You will be given a diagram showing an experiment dealing
                              with hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions. You will have to answer
                              a few questions about this experiment. This is similar to the experiment
                              you did in class with iodine and starch and selectively permeable

Chapter 10

    Terms:

       dominant        recessive       homozygous         heterozygous           alleles         genetics
       genotype        phenotype             Gregor Mendel       traits          meiosis

    Be able to perform monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and give the genotype and phenotype ratios.
    Be able to identify the phases of meiosis and the characteristics of meiosis. Be able to compare it
     with mitosis.
    The cell cycle and meiosis: Be sure that you can recognize diagrams of the cell cycle and
     meiosis. Be sure you can compare & contrast the 2 processes. This will be in the form of a chart.

Chapter 11

    Terms:

       mutation                 frameshift mutation         point mutation       deletions
       insertions               inversions                  translocations       aneuploidy
       triploidy                trisomy                     monosomy             transcription
       translocation            amino acids

      What is the structure of DNA?
      Be able to identify the different types of mutations by description or illustration.
      What are the 3 types of RNA? How are they similar? Different?
      Be able to transcribe & translate a segment of DNA to determine the amino acid sequence of the
       protein. You need to know how to use the chart on p. 292.

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