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Lost and Found

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									                              Lost and Found
                                  Teacher Notes

This object handling activity demonstrates how the Tunnel has been used for a
number of purposes by many different people. It will help children to develop their
chronological understanding and to imagine and empathise with people from the past.
We have created three unique resource boxes of original historical artefacts. These
are similar to items which would have been worn and used by people who have been
in the Victoria Tunnel. The idea behind this activity is that these “lost” items were
discovered in the Tunnel and your group has to decide who lost them and when.



Step 1: Tunnel History (5 minutes)
Using the Time Line and the picture cards or the slide show, briefly explain the history
of the Tunnel to the class and give examples of the people who went into the Tunnel
at different points in its history:

1839 – 1860: the Tunnel was used as a colliery waggonway. 200 men worked on
building the tunnel between 1839 and 1842. After that, it was regularly inspected by
the colliery workers.

1928-9: The Tunnel became a mushroom farm. A gentleman called Thomas Moor
set up the Victoria Tunnel Mushroom Company. He would have gone into the tunnel
regularly to check on and harvest his crops of mushrooms.

1839 – 1945: the tunnel was converted into an air raid shelter. Workmen built 7
new entrances and installed lighting, toilets, benches and bunkbeds for up to 9000
people. It was used every night – mostly by women and children but also men in
reserve occupations, ARP wardens, and people home on leave.

1947 – 2006: at the end of the war all of the entrances except the one on Ouse
Street were sealed up. Children used to play in the Ouse Street section of Tunnel.
The section of tunnel under the city centre was converted into a sewer in the 1970s.

2009 onwards: the Tunnel opened as a tourist attraction in May 2009. Since then
there have been regular tours for school groups, families and even people who
remember sheltering in the Tunnel during WWII.
Step 2: Activity Example (5 minutes)
Use a couple of objects to demonstrate the activity to the class. For example:

                       Flat Cap. Box 2
                       Ask the class who they think it might have owned this hat.
                       What size is it? Would it have been worn by a boy or a girl? Is
                       this style of hat worn by people today? What was a boy doing
                       in the tunnel? What caused him to lose his hat? Explore all the
                       possible reasons and agree on the most plausible. (This is a
                       boy’s utility cap – there’s a 1941 stamp on the lining. So it
could have been lost by a boy sheltering in the tunnel during an air raid. Perhaps he
lost his hat during the rush of people to get in or perhaps he was sleeping on a bunk
and forgot to put it on when he left the tunnel.

                         Pocket Watch. Box 3
                         Who might have owned this watch? When did people use
                         watches like this? Does it look like an expensive watch? How
                         did somebody lose this watch in the Tunnel?
                         Watches like this were used by relatively wealthy men during
                         Victorian times. They would have been kept in the family and
passed on as heirlooms. This watch could have belonged to a colliery viewer who
came to inspect the tunnel. The chain used to attached the watch to his waistcoat
may have broken in a fall and he might not have realised it was gone until afterwards.
Or, the watch could have been taken into the tunnel during WWII by someone keen
to look after their family’s precious objects. It may have been stolen from them or
dropped in the rush to get into the shelter.


Step 3: Object Handling (20 - 30 minutes)

Divide the class into 3 groups. Each group should have an adult supervisor.
Give each group a box and the corresponding documents pack and allocate some
space in the classroom for them to work.

Firstly, each group needs to arrange the picture cards in chronological order to create
a time line.

Once the picture cards are in the correct order, the group can explore the objects in
the box. The best way to do this is one at a time, each child getting a turn to select
an object, followed by group discussion and a decision on where it should be placed
on the timeline. The adult supervisor in the group should ensure that the objects are
carefully handled and can refer to the notes on the Contents Sheets to assist the
group in making their decisions.


Step 4: Plenary (10 minutes)
Once all the groups have arranged their objects on their timeline, you can finish the
session by looking at some of these objects as a whole class. Each group has a metro
ticket and a key in their box – where on the timeline did each group place these
objects? What unusual objects did each group have? How did they decide where to
place them?
                               Lost and Found
                           Box 1: Contents & Clues


Since it was built in 1839, a number of items have been lost and found in the Tunnel.
Can you use your detective skills to date the items? Were they lost by Victorian
colliery workers using the waggonway; the mushroom farmer growing his crops in the
1920s; wartime families sheltering here in the 1940s; or someone who’s been into the
Tunnel more recently - engineers, tunnel tour visitors, or children who played in here
after the war? There is at least one item from every era.
Allow the group to carefully explore the objects. Use these notes to provide further
clues if necessary. These are original objects. Please ensure that they are handled
carefully. The objects will be checked for damage after the session.



                   Lump of Coal
                   Coal is a black rock that can be burnt to produce heat energy. Coal was mined
                   in and around Newcastle from Medieval times until the late twentieth century.
                   The Victoria Tunnel was used as a waggonway between 1842 and 1860 to
                   transport coal from Spital Tongues Colliery to the Tyne for export.

                   Horn Snuff Box
                   Snuff is powdered tobacco which people inhale. It was very popular in the 18th
                   and 19th century when many people owned fancy snuff boxes. Less well off
                   people generally smoked tobacco. Smoking was dangerous in mines because of
                   explosive gases, so Victorian colliery workers often used to use snuff. This snuff
                   box is made from horn – a cheap material.

                   Cufflink
                   Since the 1700s, men have used cufflinks to hold together their shirt cuffs.
                   Expensive cufflinks are made from gold or silver and can include precious
                   jewels. Cheap steel cufflinks like this one were mass-produced in the 19th and
                   early 20th century and were worn by middle class businessmen.

                   Cigarette & Match Box
                   Cigarette smoking in Britain became popular during WWI (1914 – 1918). This
                   cigarette and match box date from the 1920s.




                   ARP Whistle
                   During WWII, whistles were issued to all Air Raid Precaution Wardens. ARP
                   wardens had to ensure that everyone was safe during a raid. They used the
                   whistle to warn anyone who appeared to be ignoring the warning siren.
Powder Compact
Make up became popular in the 1920s. This compact has a mirror and a face
powder section. Until the production of make up and compacts stopped
during WWII, men in the armed forces used to purchase these as presents for
their sweethearts.


Button Collection
This is an assortment of plastic and metal buttons that would have been mass-
produced and cheap to manufacture. They post-date the introduction of plastic
in the 1920s.



Coins
In 1971, Britain went decimal. The old currency – pounds, shilling and pence
was replaced with pounds and pence which we still use today. These coins are
pre-decimalisation. They are stamped with the date they were minted and the
portrait of the monarch who ruled at the time.

Eye Sheilds (very delicate – do not remove from bag)
Packs of anti dust and anti gas eyeshields were issued to soldiers during WWII.
The tinted ones were often used as sun glasses.




Lesney Yellow Toy Car
Lesney created Matchbox toys. In the 1960s they were the biggest producer of
die cast miniature models. This is a model of the Vauxhall Victor –
manufactured in the UK between 1964 and 1967. It was a very popular car at
the time.

Rusty Pliers
Pliers were invented hundreds of years ago as hand tool used to hold objects
firmly. These pliers are made from a steel alloy that has gone rusty with age.
Steel objects have been mass-produced since the mid 19th Century.



Bic Ballpoint Pen
The ballpoint pen was invented by Marcel Bich in 1950. The hexagonal shape
was based on the shape of a wooden pencil. Since 1991, the pen’s plastic cap
clip has had a small hole in it to reduce the risk of choking on it.



Metro Ticket
The Newcastle Metro system opened in 1980. This ticket is stamped with the
date it was purchased.




Mortice Lock Key
This key is made from a zinc alloy that has been die cast – molten metal is
poured into a mould. This process became popular in the 1930s for mass-
producing cheap metal products.
                               Lost and Found
                                Lost and Found
                          Box 2: Contents and Clues
                            Box 2: Contents & Clues

Since it was built in 1839, a number of items have been lost and found in the Tunnel.
Can you use your detective skills to date the items? Were they lost by Victorian
colliery workers using the waggonway; the mushroom farmer growing his crops in the
1920s; wartime families sheltering here in the 1940s; or someone who’s been into the
Tunnel more recently - engineers, tunnel tour visitors, or children who played in here
after the war? There is at least one item from every era.
Allow the group to carefully explore the objects. Use these notes to provide further
clues if necessary. These are original objects. Please ensure that they are handled
carefully. The objects will be checked for damage after the session.

                          Lump of Coal
                          Coal is a black rock that can be burnt to produce heat energy. Coal was
                          mined in and around Newcastle from Medieval times until the late
                          twentieth century. The Victoria Tunnel was used as a waggonway
                          between 1842 and 1860 to transport coal from Spital Tongues Colliery to
                          the Tyne for export.

                          Twist of Chewing Tobacco
                          Although smoking was popular in Britain for centuries, miners were not
                          allowed to smoke in underground mines because of the danger from
                          explosive gases. Victorian miners therefore often used to chew their
                          tobacco.


                          Shirt Collar Studs
                          Until washing machines made it easier to clean clothes, shirts used to
                          come with detachable collars. One shirt would come with several collars
                          which could be removed and cleaned more regularly than the rest of the
                          shirt. The collars were attached to the shirt with collar studs.

                          Photograph
                          This picture postcard shows two women wearing clothing and hairstyles
                          that were common in the 1920s. At the time, few people owned their own
                          camera, so people would go to a photographer’s studio to have their
                          picture taken.




                          Glass Feeding Bottle
                          This type of feeding bottle dates from the 1920s. The measurements are
                          marked on the side. There would have been a rubber teat for feeding on
                          one end, while the other hole let in the air. The bottle would have been
                          passed down through families as daughters had children of their own.
ARP Badge & Button
Air Raid Precaution wardens were volunteers. They were given overalls
and a silver badge at the end of their training. It was their duty to ensure
that people were safe during an air raid and that Black Out regulations
were maintained.


Sewing Kit
This sewing kit probably dates from Victorian times. It would have been
passed down to daughters in the family and could still have been in use
during WWII. It is unlikely that there was enough light to see to sew in
the tunnel, but working mothers would not have had much time to carry
out any clothing repairs.

Coins
In 1971, Britain went decimal. The old currency – pounds, shilling and
pence was replaced with pounds and pence which we still use today.
These coins are pre-decimalisation. They are stamped with the date they
were minted and the portrait of the monarch who ruled at the time.


Utility Flat Cap
Flat caps were worn by almost all working class men in the 19th century
and were still popular in the 20th century. During WWII, clothing was
rationed. In 1941, the government introduced utility clothing with the aim
of aiding the economy. This wool cap is stamped inside with a utility
mark.

Toy Tank
Zylmex produced die cast miniature models between the late 1960s and
1996. This is a model of the Leopard 2 German tank which has been
produced and used world wide as a Main Battle Tank since 1979.



Padlock
This padlock is made from a zinc alloy and has a brass cylinder lock.
These metals are a good material for padlocks because they do not
corrode or rust. It has been made by riveting the two sides of machined
metal together. This technique became widespread at the start of the 20th
century.

Bic Ballpoint Pen
The ballpoint pen was invented by Marcel Bich in 1950. The hexagonal
shape was based on the shape of a wooden pencil. Since 1991, the pen’s
plastic cap has had a small hole in it to reduce the risk of choking on it.



Metro Ticket
The Newcastle Metro system opened in 1980. This ticket is stamped with
the date it was purchased.




Door Key
This door key is for a cylinder lock. This type of lock was invented by Yale
in 1865. The key is stamped with the name Timpson. This high-street
firm began cutting keys as well as repairing shoes in 1987.
                                Lost and Found
                             Box 3: Contents & Clues

Since it was built in 1839, a number of items have been lost and found in the Tunnel.
Can you use your detective skills to date the items? Were they lost by Victorian
colliery workers using the waggonway; the mushroom farmer growing his crops in the
1920s; wartime families sheltering here in the 1940s; or someone who’s been into the
Tunnel more recently - engineers, tunnel tour visitors, or children who played in here
after the war? There is at least one item from every era.
Allow the group to carefully explore the objects. Use these notes to provide further
clues if necessary. These are original objects. Please ensure that they are handled
carefully. The objects will be checked for damage after the session.

                         Beeswax Candle
                         Beeswax is better than tallow (animal fat) for making candles because it
                         produces less smoke and a more pleasant odour. Beeswax is more
                         expensive than tallow, so in the past, only wealthy people and the church
                         used them.




                         Lump of Coal
                         Coal is a black rock that can be burnt to produce heat energy. Coal was
                         mined in and around Newcastle from Medieval times until the late
                         twentieth century. The Victoria Tunnel was used as a waggonway
                         between 1842 and 1860 to transport coal from Spital Tongues Colliery to
                         the Tyne for export.

                         Silver Pocket Watch
                         Until World War I, men used pocket watches. Wrist watches were seen as
                         feminine, but during the War, officers realised that value of having a
                         watch strapped to their wrist. Pocket watches were still seen as precious
                         items and would have been kept by families as heirlooms.

                         Lighter & Cigarette Packet
                         Cigarette smoking in Britain became popular during WWI (1914 – 1918).
                         This cigarette packet and lighter date from the 1920s.




                         NFS & AFS Buttons
                         At the start of World War II, volunteers set up the Auxiliary Fire Service to
                         support regular fire brigades during air raids. In 1941 they merged to
                         become the National Fire Service. Both the AFS and the NFS recruited a
                         lot of women. They wore uniforms adorned with these buttons.
Knitting Pattern
During WWII, people were encouraged to Make Do and Mend. Clothing
was rationed, so people would make new garments by recycling cloth and
wool from worn out clothes. This knitting pattern is a series of
instructions on how to knit a tank top.



Patterned Handkerchief
This hanky is made from Rayon – a type of manmade silk that was
invented in 1891. It became a common material in the 1920s before
being replaced by Nylon, a cheaper synthetic silk, in the 1940s.




Leather Wallet
This brown leather wallet has lots of compartments to keep coins, notes
and important documents safe. The sections that are labelled for money,
show that this wallet was produced before our currency was decimalised
(in 1971).

Coins
In 1971, Britain went decimal. The old currency – pounds, shilling and
pence was replaced with pounds and pence which we still use today.
These coins are pre-decimalisation. They are stamped with the date they
were minted and the portrait of the monarch who ruled at the time.

White Belt Buckle
This Art Deco belt buckle dates from the 1930s. It is made from an early
type of plastic.




Lesney Red Toy Car
Lesney created Matchbox toys. In the 1960s they were the biggest
producer of die cast miniature models. This is a model of the Pontiac
Grand Prix – manufactured in the US since 1962.


Tape Measure
Tape measures designed for carpentry or construction have a metal ribbon
which remains stiff when extended, but can be coiled for storage. Tape
measures came into wider usage in the 1940s when they replaced the
folding wooden carpenter’s ruler. This tape measure was made in
Western Germany so must post-date WWII when Germany was divided.

Bic Ballpoint Pen
The ballpoint pen was invented by Marcel Bich in 1950. The hexagonal
shape was based on the shape of a wooden pencil. Since 1991, the pen’s
plastic cap clip has had a small hole in it to reduce the risk of choking on
it.


Metro Ticket
The Newcastle Metro system opened in 1980. This ticket is stamped with
the date it was purchased.
                                     Victoria Tunnel
                                         Timeline
Queen Victoria     1837
                                                    1839    Work starts on the Tunnel
Victoria
                                                    1842    Tunnel is finished




                                                    1860 Spital Tongues Colliery
                                                            closes


                                                    1870    Both ends of the Tunnel
                                                            are closed




  Edward VII      1901

    George V       1910

                 WWI starts
                              1914

                 WWI ends
                              1918

                                                    1928 Victoria Tunnel Mushroom
                                                            Company

Edward VIII        1936
George VI                     1939                  1939    Tunnel is opened as an air
              WWII starts                                   raid shelter
                              1945
              WWII ends                             1947    All Tunnel entrances are
                                                            closed except Ouse St
                   1952
  Elizabeth II




           Decimalisation
                              1971
                                                    1976 Part of the Tunnel is
                                                            turned into a sewer




                                                    1998    Ouse St entrance is closed



                                                    2009 Tunnel opens for guided
                                                            tours
Coal Waggonway
  1839—1860
Victoria Tunnel Mushroom Company
            1928—1929
Air Raid Shelter
  1939—1945
Abandoned Tunnel 1945 - 2006
   (Part sewer since 1976)
Tourist Attraction
 2009 onwards

								
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