Preschoolers Identified as Having Autism: Characteristics

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Preschoolers Identified as Having Autism: Characteristics Powered By Docstoc
					          Preschoolers Identified as Having
        Autism: Characteristics, Services, and
                    Achievement
                    Elaine Carlson and Amy Shimshak, Westat

                    OSEP National Early Childhood Conference
                                Washington, DC

                                    December 12, 2005
                                                                   1
PEELS is funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, National
Center for Special Education Research
                Overview
• PEELS is following 3,100 children with
  disabilities from preschool into their early
  elementary years
• Children were 3 through 5 years old at entry
  into the study (and 1st data collection)
• PEELS will examine children’s
  – preschool experiences and outcomes
  – transition to kindergarten
  – early elementary school experiences and outcomes


                                                  2
                 Sampling
• Nationally representative sample of 223
  LEAs

• LEAs stratified by
  – Enrollment size
  – Geographic region
  – Wealth




                                            3
               Data collection
• 5 waves between 2004 and 2009
• Wave 1 included:
  – Family Telephone Interview (N = 2,800)
  – Direct Child Assessment (N = 2,792)
     • 13 subtests
  – Mail Questionnaires
     • Teachers/service providers (N = 2,084)
     • SEA administrators (N = 51)
     • LEA administrators (N = 196)
     • Principals/program directors (N = 895)
                                                4
   Profile of Primary Disabilities
  among Children with Disabilities
              Ages 3-5
Speech or language impairments   49%
Developmental delay              27%
Autism                           7%
Mental retardation               4%
Learning disabilities            2%
Other health impairments         2%
Orthopedic impairments           2%
Emotional disturbance            1%
Other disabilities               6%
                                       5
 Characteristics of preschoolers
   identified as having autism
• Compared to preschoolers identified as
  having other disabilities, those with
  autism
    •   were disproportionately male,
    •   had similar racial/ethnic backgrounds,
    •   had similar household incomes,
    •   had mothers with similar levels of education,
    •   were as likely to have been premature, and
    •   were more likely to have had concerns raised
        about their development between 12 and 35
        months.                                         6
           Preschoolers’ demographic characteristics
                                                        Autism                   Other Disabilities

  Gender*
     Male                                        84%                        69%
  Race/ethnicity
      Hispanic                                   30%                        22%
      Black                                      14%                        10%
      White                                      56%                        67%
  Household income
     $20,000 or less                             20%                        28%
     $20,001-$30,000                             16%                        16%
     $30,001-$40,000                             11%                        12%
     $40,001-$50,000                             13%                        10%
     >$50,000                                    40%                        33%
*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary               7
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
             Preschoolers’ demographic
               characteristics, con’t.
                                                  Autism              Other disabilities
Mother’s education
   < H.S. diploma                            16%                   20%
   H.S. diploma                              30%                   39%
   Some college                              29%                   29%
   4-year degree+                            25%                   21%

Prematurity
   3+ weeks early                            24%                   24%


These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Special Education
Research, Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,”                 8
Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
Age at which concerns first expressed




These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.   9
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
          Communication skills
• Compared to preschoolers with other
  disabilities, those identified as having autism
  – From parent interviews
     • were less likely to use words to communicate,
     • demonstrated fewer expressive and receptive language
       skills, and
     • had more difficulty making their needs known.




                                                              10
      Preschoolers’ primary methods
            of communication
     Primarily communicate
                                               Autism               Other disabilities
     using

  Spoken Words*                                  56%                         81%
  • Single words                                           7%                       3%
  • 2-3 word utterances                                   54%                      30%
  • Complete sentences                                    39%                      67%

  Other ways                                     44%                         19%


*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Special Education
Research, Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave
1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005                                                 11
            Preschoolers’ articulation
 When talking with
 people they don’t                         Autism                  Other disabilities
 know, they are…
 Very easy to
                                              8%                              11%
 understand
 Fairly easy to
                                              13%                            30%
 understand
 Somewhat hard to
                                              41%                            42%
 understand
 Very hard to
 understand                                  38%                             18%

p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Special Education             12
Research, Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,”
Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
Preschoolers’ understanding of verbal
    and nonverbal communication
                                        Autism                 Other disabilities
    As well as other
                                          7%                             54%
    children
    Have a little
                                         47%                             35%
    trouble
    Have a lot of
                                         47%                             11%
    trouble



p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Special Education
Research, Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,”          13
Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
       Preschoolers’ ability to make
              needs known
                                            Autism                   Other disabilities

As well as other
                                              14%                                 51%
children

Have a little trouble                         50%                                 36%

Have a lot of trouble                         36%                                 12%



p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Special Education
Research, Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,”              14
Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
     Behavior and social skills
• Compared to preschoolers identified as having
  other disabilities, those identified as having
  autism
  – From teacher rating scales
     • displayed more problem behaviors and
     • exhibited less well-developed social skills.
  – From parent interviews
     • were more challenging to manage and
     • had a harder time paying attention, managing change, and
       playing with other children.

                                                              15
           Preschoolers’ mean scores on various
                  social behavior scales
                                                       Autism                Other disabilities

                                                        Mean                            Mean
   PKBS Social Skills*                                   73.2                           93.4
   PKBS Problem Behaviors*                              109.5                           97.5
   ABAS Self-Care*                                        4.9                            7.9
   ABAS Self-Direction*                                   5.6                            8.6

*p < .05
NOTE: The higher the score on PKBS Problem Behaviors, the higher the level of problem
behaviors. The scaled score mean for ABAS Self-Care and Self-Direction is 10.
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire,” “Kindergarten Teacher
Questionnaire,” and “Adaptive Behavior Assessment System – Second Edition (ABAS II)
Teacher/Daycare Provider Form: Self-Care and Self-Direction,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data,         16
January 2005.
      Percentage of preschoolers with scores in
        each decile on PKBS social skills scale
      70
      60
      50
      40
      30
      20
      10
        0
             Children identified as having Children identified as having
                             autism                             other disabilities
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire” and “Kindergarten        17
Teacher Questionnaire,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005.
    Percentage of preschoolers with scores in
   each decile on PKBS problem behaviors scale
       25

       20

       15

       10

         5

         0
             Children identified as having Children identified as having
                             autism                             other disabilities
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire” and “Kindergarten        18
Teacher Questionnaire,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005.
                    Appropriateness of
                   preschoolers’ behavior
                                              Autism                       Other disabilities

    Typical for
                                                 17%                                  61%
    his/her age
    Mildly
                                                26%                                   23%
    inappropriate
    Moderately
                                                42%                                   12%
    inappropriate
    Severely
                                                 15%                                   4%
    inappropriate


p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary         19
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January
2005
Parents’ ability to manage behavior

                                                Autism                   Other disabilities

    Easy to manage                                 14%                              37%

    Sometimes hard to
                                                   51%                              50%
    manage

    Often hard to
                                                   35%                              13%
    manage



p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January          20
2005
           Preschoolers’ ability to pay
           attention and stay focused
                                                Autism                    Other disabilities

    Good at paying
                                                  10%                                 31%
    attention
    Somewhat good at
                                                  39%                                42%
    paying attention

    Not good at
                                                  51%                                28%
    paying attention

p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January          21
2005
      Preschoolers’ ability to adjust
                to change
   Adjusting to
                                                  Autism                    Other disabilities
   changes poses…

   A great deal of
                                                    52%                                25%
   difficulty

   Some difficulty                                  32%                                34%

   No difficulty                                    16%                                41%


p < 0.05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January            22
2005
           Preschoolers’ ability to play
               with other children

                                                 Autism                  Other disabilities


      No trouble                                    13%                              59%

      Some trouble                                  46%                              33%

      A lot of trouble                              42%                               8%



p < 0.05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January          23
2005
        Preschoolers’ participation in
              group activities

                                            Autism                     Other disabilities


      At least once a
                                              37%                                 51%
      month




These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January          24
2005
      Cognitive skills and pre-
       academic achievement
• From parent interviews
  – Cognitive skills of preschoolers identified as having
    autism lagged behind those of preschoolers
    identified as having other disabilities.
• From direct child assessment
  – Preschoolers identified as having autism scored
    higher than preschoolers identified as having
    other disabilities on the WJ Letter-Word subtest
    but lower on other pre-academic assessments.
                                                      25
          Preschoolers’ ability to learn,
            think, and solve problems
  Compared to
  children the same                               Autism                    Other disabilities
  age…

  Better                                            15%                                 11%

  As well                                           12%                                45%

  Slightly less well                                39%                                32%

  Much less well                                    35%                                13%

p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January            26
2005
               Preschoolers’ pre-academic
                   assessment scores
                                                    Autism                 Other disabilities

                                                     Mean                             Mean

   W-J III Letter Word                               108.8                            97.4

   W-J III Applied
                                                      80.7                            90.6
   Problems

   PPVT                                               88.2                            90.0



These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Woodcock-Johnson III: Letter-Word and Applied Problems,”         27
and “Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005.
   Percentage of preschoolers with autism
     scoring in each decile on Woodcock-
          Johnson III: Letter-Word
          25

          20

          15

          10

            5

            0
                Children identified as having Children identified as having
                               autism                            other disabilities
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary        28
Education Longitudinal Study, “Woodcock-Johnson III: Letter-Word,” Wave 1 Restricted
Use Data, January 2005.
   Percentage of preschoolers with autism
     scoring in each decile on Woodcock-
       Johnson III: Applied Problems
         50

         40

         30

         20

         10

           0
                Children identified as having Children identified as having
                               autism                            other disabilities
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary        29
Education Longitudinal Study, “Woodcock-Johnson III: Applied Problems,” Wave 1
Restricted Use Data, January 2005.
   Percentage of preschoolers with autism
       scoring in each decile on PPVT
          80
          70
          60
          50
          40
          30
          20
          10
            0
                 Children identified as having Children identified as having
                                autism                           other disabilities
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary        30
Education Longitudinal Study, “Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,” Wave 1 Restricted Use
Data, January 2005.
  Variation in pre-academic and
     social behavior scores
• Pre-academic scores sometimes varied by
  – ability to understand verbal or non-verbal
    communication
  – ability to make needs known
  – ability to think, learn, and solve problems
• Social behavior scores sometimes varied by
  – ability to think, learn, and solve problems
  – ability to understand verbal or non-verbal
    communication
  – ability to make needs known
                                                  31
         Mean scores for preschoolers identified as
         having autism on pre-academic assessments
          based on ability to understand verbal or
                  nonverbal communication
                                             WJ III                  WJ III
                                             Letter-                 Applied                   PPVT*
                                              Word                  Problems*
  Understands as well
                                               105.4                     98.7                  103.6
  as other children
  Has a little trouble
                                               112.1                     87.2                  85.9
  understanding
  Has a lot of trouble
                                               113.0                     77.7                  86.1
  understanding
* p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Woodcock-Johnson III: Letter-Word and Applied                           32
Problems,” “Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,” and “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted
Use Data, January 2005
       Mean scores for preschoolers identified as
       having autism on pre-academic assessments
       based on ability to make their needs known
                                        WJ III                       WJ III
                                                                                               PPVT*
                                      Letter-Word                Applied Problems
 Communicates as
 well as other                              107.4                           94.9               92.0
 children
 Has a little trouble
                                             112.7                          85.7               89.3
 communicating

 Has a lot of trouble
                                             112.5                          69.4               76.6
 communicating
*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Woodcock-Johnson III: Letter-Word and Applied                          33
Problems,” “Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,” and “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted
Use Data, January 2005
Mean scores for preschoolers identified as having
 autism on pre-academic assessments based on
   ability to think, learn and solve problems
                                                     WJ III                 WJ III
Compared to peers                                    Letter-                Applied             PPVT*
                                                      Word                 Problems
Better                                                  121.4                  86.8             97.6

As well                                                 111.5                  94.7             95.0

Slightly less well                                      112.5                  84.8             84.3

Much less well                                          99.1                   76.4             79.3

 *p < .05
 These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
 Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
 Education Longitudinal Study, “Woodcock-Johnson III: Letter-Word and Applied
                                                                                                        34
 Problems,” “Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,” and “Parent Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted
 Use Data, January 2005
      Mean scores for preschoolers identified as
     having autism on social behavior scales based
      on ability to think, learn and solve problems
                                            PKBS               PKBS             ABAS           ABAS
 Compared to children
                                           Problem             Social           Self-          Self-
 the same age…
                                          Behaviors            Skills*        Direction*       Care
 Better                                      107.2               96.6                9.2        6.9

 As well                                     103.4               91.6                8.5        8.0

 Slightly less well                          107.3               87.2                7.1        6.2

 Much less well                               110.2              82.5                7.5        5.4

*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire,” “Kindergarten
Teacher Questionnaire,” “Adaptive Behavior Assessment System – Second Edition (ABAS-
II) Teacher/Daycare Provider Form: Self-Care and Self-Direction,” and “Parent
                                                                                                      35
Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
      Mean scores for preschoolers identified as
     having autism on social behavior assessments
       based on ability to understand verbal or
               nonverbal communication
                                        PKBS                   PKBS                ABAS
                                                                                              ABAS
                                       Problem                 Social              Self-
                                                                                            Self-Care*
                                      Behaviors                Skills*           Direction*
Understands as well
                                           96.7                 103.1                  9.5     9.0
as other children
Has a little trouble
                                          109.8                  91.9                  8.2     6.7
understanding

Has a lot of trouble
                                          107.1                  79.9                  6.8     5.3
understanding
*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire,” “Kindergarten Teacher
Questionnaire,” “Adaptive Behavior Assessment System – Second Edition (ABAS-II)                      36
Teacher/Daycare Provider Form: Self-Care and Self-Direction,” and “Parent Interview,” Wave 1
Restricted Use Data, January 2005
      Mean scores for preschoolers identified as
     having autism on social behavior assessments
      based on ability to make their needs known
                                        PKBS                PKBS              ABAS             ABAS
                                       Problem              Social            Self-            Self-
                                      Behaviors             Skills*         Direction*         Care*
 Communicates as
 well as other                           103.2               105.1                 9.4          7.5
 children
 Has a little trouble
                                         108.5                87.8                 7.8          6.5
 communication
 Has a lot of
 trouble                                 106.5                78.1                 6.8          5.4
 communicating
*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire,” “Kindergarten
Teacher Questionnaire,” “Adaptive Behavior Assessment System – Second Edition (ABAS-                   37
II) Teacher/Daycare Provider Form: Self-Care and Self-Direction,” and “Parent
Interview,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
              Child find
• 50% of preschoolers identified as having
  autism had an IFSP before age 3 compared to
  38% of preschoolers identified as having
  other disabilities.
• On average, preschoolers identified as having
  autism were 30 months old when services
  began compared to 32 months for
  preschoolers identified as having other
  disabilities.

                                             38
                   Services
• Compared to preschoolers identified as having
  other disabilities, those identified as having
  autism
  – received more hours a week of service and more of
    their services in special education settings and at
    home
  – were more likely to receive a variety of services,
    including…
     • Occupational therapy
     • Behavior management
     • Augmentative communication
     • Assistive technology                              39
For children in kindergarten and preschool
 classes, hours a week in various settings
                                            Autism                       Other disabilities

                                     Mean            Median               Mean                 Median
    Total hours/week of
    service*                           20                19                 17                   13
    Hours/week in
    regular education*                  4                 0                  8                   1
    Hours/week in
    special education*                 14                13                  8                   5
    Hours/week in home
    instruction*                        1                 0                 0.1                  0

*p < .05
Total hours of service does not equal the sum of hours spent in regular education, special
education, and home instruction because other service settings were not included here due to
their small means and medians.
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary                 40
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire,” and “Kindergarten
Teacher Questionnaire,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
     Services preschoolers received
                                                          Autism                 Other disabilities

 Speech therapy                                             88%                                89%
 Occupational therapy*                                      70%                                32%
 Behavior management*                                       43%                                13%
 Learning strategies                                        39%                                29%
 Augmentative
                                                            35%                                8%
 communication *
 Assistive technology *                                     25%                                10%


*p < .05
These data are preliminary. Final Wave 1 data will be available in winter 2005. Source: U.S.
Department of Education, National Center for Special Education Research, Pre-Elementary
                                                                                                      41
Education Longitudinal Study, “Early Childhood Teacher Questionnaire,” and “Kindergarten
Teacher Questionnaire,” Wave 1 Restricted Use Data, January 2005
PEELS Web Site


www.peels.org



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