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					                  Presented by
         Robert A. Hill; CHS-III
American Casino & Entertainment Properties, LLC
Surveillance Supervisor/Homeland Security Liaison
         About the Presenter
• Casino Surveillance since 1996.
• Four years of supervisory experience
• Level 3 Certification in Homeland Security
  through American College of Forensic
  Examiners Institute
• Served In United States Air Force and Air Force
  Reserve during Operations ‘Desert Storm’,
  ‘Noble Eagle’ and served in direct support of
  Operation ‘Southern Watch’.

                   Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
              Topics of Discussion
   Today, we will discuss:

• Overview of Terrorism
   (including a definition, history and categories of terrorism)
• Objectives of Terrorists
• Methods of Terrorism
• Preparation and Response to
  catastrophic event or terrorist act
Please hold any questions until after the presentation. Thank you.
        Overview of Terrorism

• Terrorism defined:

 “the premeditated, politically motivated
 violence perpetuated against targets by sub-
 national groups or clandestine agents.
 Usually intended to influence an audience.”

               US Code on Foreign Relations
      Overview of Terrorism
What does the previous statement mean? Lets
dissect this definition for an easier

“The premeditated, politically motivated…”
Terrorists often plan their actions well in
advance and in great detail (premeditated).
Most terrorist acts are often inspired by political,
ideological or religious goals (politically
    Overview of Terrorism
“ …by sub-national groups or clandestine

 Modern terrorists often operate in secret, without
 formal backing of sovereign nations. They do not
 claim to act on behalf of a country. However, it is no
 secret that some nations, particularly in the Middle
 East, condone terrorist acts and have provided safe
 haven for terrorists, as well as funds, training and
        Overview of Terrorism
“…usually intended to influence an audience.”

 A measure of a successful terrorist event is gaining
 attention for a cause and/or swaying the opinions,
 actions or policies of governments or the civilian
 population through coercion, intimidation and fear.

 Terrorist acts are more frequently being recorded and
 broadcast on the world-wide web and other media
 outlets. This reaches the world audience.
           Overview of Terrorism

  The history of terrorism dates back to
  the first century AD.

Zealots of Judea
• Known to the Romans as ‘sicarii’ (“dagger men”), the
  Zealots of Judea were the first known organization that
  exhibited aspects of modern terrorism.

• Assassination of Roman occupation forces and
         Overview of Terrorism
In the 13th century, a new tactic was

Nizari Ismalis (“Assassins”)
• A break-away faction of Shia Islam that adopted the
  tactic of assassinating enemy leaders.

• Limited resources and manpower.

• Inspired fear in their enemy.
         Overview of Terrorism
French Revolution (1788-1799)
• First use of the word “terrorist” and “terrorism”.

     Reference to the ‘Reign of Terror’ initiated by the
     Revolutionary government. Between 18,000 and
     40,000 were executed during this time (1793-1794).

     Agents of the Committee of Public Safety and
     National Convention committed acts of brutality,
     imprisonment and intimidation enforcing state policy,
     referred to as “the Terror” by the oppressed French
     citizens. Those agents were referred to as “terrorists”.
              Overview of Terrorism
European Anarchist Movement (1880’s-1910’s)
• Radical political theories and improvements in weapons technologies
  inspired anarchists to attempt to topple European nation-states in the late
  19th century.

• “Propaganda by Deed”: Direct action; “actions speak louder than words.”
  Propaganda by deed actions sought to inspire the masses and catalyzing
  the anarchist movement.

• Bombings of government buildings and assassination of various heads of
  state in Russia, France, England, Spain, and Italy.

• Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 triggered World War I.

• Civilian populace was not exempt from attack.
         Overview of Terrorism
Bolshevik Revolution           (1917)
• Sought spark a revolution that would lead to the
  destruction of capitalism and democracy throughout the

Lenin and the Bolsheviks ruled through oppression of
the masses.

• Incarceration and execution of political opponents
        Overview of Terrorism
Islamic Revolution (Iran) (1978)
• Popularized terrorism as an acceptable form of Islamic
• Marked by huge, violent protests.
• Widespread arson and bombings. Over 400 killed in
  single attack on a cinema.
• The terror group which later became known as
  Hezbollah was formed. Served as “strong-arm thugs”
  who attacked those critical of Ayatollah Khomeini.
• Iran Hostage Crisis: 66 Americans kidnapped by Islamic
  student-protesters. Ordeal lasted 444 days.
        Overview of Terrorism
  Terrorism has evolved over the
  centuries, but several constants
• No regard for laws.
• Violent means to achieve political, social or
  religious goals.
• Psychological impact and fear
• Deliberate targeting of non-combatants
      Overview of Terrorism
             TRUE OR FALSE
‘terrorists are irrational, mindless killers’

         Overview of Terrorism

    Terrorist violence is usually not without
    purpose; seldom random or irrational.
•   Conception
•   Organizing/Planning
•   Financing
•   Goal-oriented
•   Execution of plan
        Overview of Terrorism
• Typical Criminal Behavior vs. Terrorist Behavior

              Typical criminals are:
                 • Opportunistic
                 • Uncommitted
                • Self-centered
               • Lacking a cause
                   • Untrained
               • Escape oriented
        Overview of Terrorism
• Typical Criminal Behavior vs. Terrorist Behavior
                  Terrorists are:
                    • Focused
              • Committed by ideology
               • Often team oriented
              • Consumed by a cause
                  • Well trained
                 • Attack oriented
                     and above all

     Overview of Terrorism
Terrorists want to make a statement
through their actions.


          Overview of Terrorism
  Sometimes, terrorist actions are
  “retaliation” for alleged transgressions.
• Israeli – Palestinian conflict

• Kidnapping and brutal slaying of hostages in Iraq
Overview of Terrorism
Two Categories of Terrorism

     • International

       • Domestic
        Overview of Terrorism

International Terrorist Organizations
• Three Categories

1. International Jihad

2. Formal Terrorist Organizations

3. State Sponsored Terrorism
            Overview of Terrorism
1.   International Jihad

•    Clandestine militants affiliated with Islamic “extremists” around the world.

•    Perception among many Muslims that American foreign policy, as it
     relates to Middle Eastern affairs, is unfair and oppressive by favoring

•    Justify violence as “God’s will”, as prescribed in the Koran. “Jihad” (holy
     war) against those who don’t convert to Islam.

•    “Jihad in Islam is simply a name for striving to make this system of
     life dominant in the world” - Sayyid Qutb, Islamic Fundamentalist (1906 – 1966)

•    Al Qaeda and Islamic Jihad are categorized as an international jihad
            Overview of Terrorism

“…Cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off
   their heads and strike off every fingertip...” Koran [8.12]
“Fight (the infidels), Allah will punish them by your hands…” Koran [9.14]
“And (as for) those who disbelieve, for them is destruction ...” Koran [47.8]
         Overview of Terrorism
  There are an estimated 1.5 billion
  Muslims around the world.
• If only 1% of the worlds Muslims were
  considered “extremists” or “radical” =

  This roughly equals the total combined
  populations of New York City, Los Angeles
  and Chicago! (2005 census info provided by
             Overview of Terrorism
Al Qaeda
•   “the base”
•   Founded in 1988 by Osama Bin Laden to
    repel the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
•   Sunni Islam
•   No formal state backing. Operatives trained to act independently in support
    of goals.
•   Objectives include: elimination of foreign influence in the Muslim world;
    eradication of “infidels” (non-Muslims); elimination of Israel; creation of a
    Islamic “caliphate” (unified global Islamic government).
•   Tactics include: bombings, kidnapping, assassination, sabotage, attempts
    to proliferate WMD.
•   Prior to 9/11, Al Qaeda was responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center
    attack, the 1998 twin bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Tunisia and
    Kenya, and the bombing of the USS Cole. Al Qaeda supplied weapons and
    training to Somali militants who were responsible for the “Blackhawk Down”
    attack in 1993.
•   Affiliated cells throughout the world that have carried out scores of
    devastating attacks, killing hundreds since 9/11.
•   Sleeper cells believed to be in as many as forty states, according to the FBI.
Al Qaeda
              Overview of Terrorism
2.      Formal Terrorist Organizations

•       Maintain a local, regional or international presence.

•       Cloak activities behind the front of ‘legitimate’ organizations.
        Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development; Richardson TX.

     December 2001: Investigation by FBI found this organization had funneled
                   over $12 million to HAMAS between 1995 and 2001.
    Seven indicted on forty-two charges including money laundering, tax evasion
                 and providing support to a foreign terrorist organization.

•       Hezbollah, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, Abu Nidal Organization, the
        Irish National Liberation Army and FARC (Columbian communist
        revolutionary group) are examples of Formal Terrorist Organizations.
           Overview of Terrorism
•   “Party of God”
•   Founded in 1982 as an Islamic militia in Lebanon
•   Follows teachings of Shi’a Islam as developed by Ayatollah Khomeini during
    the Islamic Revolution in Iran.
•   Objectives include: eradication of Western “colonialism” in Lebanon;
    establish Lebanon as an Islamic state; complete destruction of Israel.
•   Tactics include: ambushes, assassinations, bombings
•   Prior to 9/11, Hezbollah terrorists had killed more Americans than Al Qaeda.
    Responsible for bombing of the Marine Corps barracks in Lebanon which
    killed nearly 300 servicemen, and the U.S. Embassy in Lebanon which
    killed over 60.
•   The FBI believes there are between 2,000 and 10,000 Hezbollah members
    currently in the United States. The FBI says Hezbollah is a major threat and
    may surpass the threat posed by Al Qaeda. (courtesy: Fox News; 1/18/07)
         Overview of Terrorism
3. State Sponsors of Terrorism
•   Political term for nations who finance, equip, and
    provide intelligence to, terrorist organizations across
    international boundaries.
•   Includes providing compensation to families of
    militants/terrorists, who are killed carrying out terrorist
•   Used to produce strategic results where conventional
    use of armed forces is not practical or possible.
•   Not to be confused with “state terrorism”, which is
    violence against civilians perpetrated by a national
    government or proxy-state.
•   HAMAS is an example of a state-sponsored terrorist
           Overview of Terrorism
• Acronym for “Harakat al-Muqawama
  al-Islamiyya” or ‘Islamic Resistance Movement’
• Founded in 1987 in Syria as a Palestinian resistance movement
• Objectives: Withdraw from Israeli-occupied territories and utter
  destruction of Israel. “There is no solution to the Palestinian
  question except through jihad.”
• Receives support from Iran and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia
• Known for extensive use of suicide bombings, guerilla warfare,
  rocket and mortar attacks in the Israeli-occupied territories.
• Came into surprising political power in 2006, winning a majority of
  seats in the Palestinian elections.
• Engaged in a month-long war with Israel in summer of 2006.
• In November 2006, HAMAS called for Muslims around the world to
  attack the interests of the United States across the globe.
          Overview of Terrorism
3. State Sponsors of Terrorism

1.   Iran (since 1984)
2.   North Korea (since 1988)
3.   Cuba (since 1982)
4.   Sudan (since 1993)
5.   Syria (since 1979)

     Libya and Iraq were recently removed from this list.
                                                  US State Department
      Overview of Terrorism
Between 1980 and 2001, the FBI recorded

Actual or suspected terrorist incidents
    directed at the United States.
  310 were attributed to domestic terror groups.

                             Federal Bureau of Investigation
          Overview of Terrorism
           Terrorism by Event: 1980 to 2001

324 bombings; 33 arsons; 22 other; 21 assassinations; 19 shootings; 19
                 sabotage; 6 WMD related; 3 hijackings
                                                Pie chart courtesy:
        Overview of Terrorism
Domestic Terrorism
•   There are three categories of Domestic Terrorism
                   1. Right-Wing

                    2. Left-Wing

        3. Special Interest (single issue)
          Overview of Terrorism
      Terrorism by Group Class: 1980 to 2001

164 terrorism incidents attributed to International terrorists; 130 to left-
  wing terrorist groups; 85 to right-wing terror groups and 81 to special
                              interest groups.
                                                    Pie-chart courtesy:
        Overview of Terrorism

                                                   Graph courtesy

Domestic Terrorism Incidents by Region: 1980 to 2001
                310 total domestic terrorism incidents
   Northeast: 144 Puerto Rico: 130 Western: 97 Southern: 72
                          North Central: 54
         Overview of Terrorism
Examples of Domestic Terrorism

• Ruby Ridge Standoff; Idaho

• 1992. White separatist family holed-up in mountain
  home shoot it out with federal agents after a ten-day
  stand off. Several family members killed, including the
  wife of Randy Weaver, the groups leader.
         Overview of Terrorism
Examples of Domestic Terrorism
 Branch Davidian Standoff; Waco TX
 1993. Religious extremists die after a 51 day stand-off siege.
 Standoff began when authorities tried to serve a warrant on
 suspected illegal weapons charges and ended with a fiery siege on
 the cult’s compound. Eighty-two members of the group died in the
 fire, including twenty children, as well as four federal agents.
         Overview of Terrorism
Examples of Domestic Terrorism
 Oklahoma City bombing; Oklahoma
 1995. A truck driven by an anti-government radical and packed with
 explosives was detonated outside a federal office building. The
 blast killed 168 people, including scores of children, and destroyed
 the building.
        Overview of Terrorism
Examples of Domestic Terrorism

 Columbine School Massacre; Colorado
 1999. A pair of teens go on shooting rampage at their
 school, killing 12 students, a teacher, then themselves.
       Overview of Terrorism
Examples of Domestic Terrorism

University of North Carolina; NC

 2006: An Iranian-born graduate from the University of
 North Carolina ran down 9 students on campus while
 driving an SUV. Claiming it was to avenge perceived
 transgressions against Muslims, the suspect said that he
 was “thankful for the opportunity to spread the will of
    Overview of Terrorism
What is a form of domestic terrorism that
       is frequently overlooked?

         Overview of Terrorism
• Over one million active gang members in the
  United States.
• Principle activity of gangs: Illegal Drug
• Drug money has been shown to be a major
  source of terrorist funding. US Department of Justice, 2000
• The Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
  refers to gangs as “urban terrorists” as they
  instill fear in the community through acts of
        Overview of Terrorism
1. Right Wing
•   Racial, ethnic, “hate” groups
•   Extreme religious views; separatist or
    supremacy views
         Aryan Nation, Neo-Nazi and Skin-head groups
                         Ku Klux Klan
                 World Church of the Creator
                    Jewish Defense League
          Overview of Terrorism
2.   Left Wing
•    Socialist or Revolutionary doctrine
•    Anti-government views
•    View themselves as ‘true patriots’; protectors of the
     people against ‘dehumanizing’ effects of capitalism
•    Militia groups can fall into this category
       Overview of Terrorism
3. Special Interest (single issue)
• Seek to resolve specific issues rather than
   wide-spread political change.
• Extreme views
                  Animal Rights
            Environment (“eco-terror”)
        Overview of Terrorism
• Lone Wolves
Major cause for concern for Law Enforcement

• Concept of small cells or individuals acting
  independently in support of political or social
  goals of larger organizations.

• Lone Wolves are championed by supremacist
  groups, eco-terrorists and animal rights groups.
          Overview of Terrorists
• Lone Wolves
• Isolation from friends and family
• Somewhat to highly intelligent
• Need attention; they need to “matter”
• Willingness but lack social ability to join larger groups of
  like-minded individuals
• Consider themselves “above” others
• Paranoid personality traits
• Some have psychopathic traits
           Overview of Terrorism
• Lone Wolves
• “True Believer” syndrome: Frustration with members of larger
  organizations who “talk the talk” but don’t “walk the walk”.

• “Warrior” complex: View themselves as warriors against the
  perceived evils in the world (e.g.: ethnic groups; the government,
  people who abuse the environment; those with religious, political or
  social differences). This fuels their desire to join groups who will
  value their warrior persona.

• Compensation for their own failures in life: Frustrations over inability
  to achieve personal goals, failed relationships with the opposite sex,
  or ability to fit in with larger groups.
       Overview of Terrorism

It is important to remember a terrorist can be
        any race, religion, gender or age.

  Terrorist violence does not discriminate.
    Objectives of Terrorism

Powerful emotions are aroused with the
  possibility of serious harm or death.

Terrorists seek to exploit these emotions,
        thus succeeding in inspiring

      Objectives of Terrorism
Terrorists seek an audience

• The audience is the real target of their
• Secure audience through shocking and
  violent acts
• Terrorists often hope to sway opinion of
      Objectives of Terrorism
Terrorists are militarily weak

• Most organizations are of modest numbers
• Limited resources
• Violence must be shocking to get
  maximum impact on their audience.
       Objectives of Terrorism
Likely Terrorist Targets

•   Prefer “soft” targets
•   Large numbers of people
•   Critical infrastructure
•   Economic Targets
•   Symbolic significance

    Striking military, or ‘harder’ targets, sends a
    message of defiance and strength.
      Objectives of Terrorism
Terrorist violence is bent on causing

• Physical harm and death

• Damage or destruction of assets or
       Methods of Terrorism
Terrorists employ many methods, including:
         Weapons of Mass Destruction
          Methods of Terrorism

1. Hijacking
• Most often used in the 1970’s and
•   TWA flight 847 (Organization for the Oppressed of the Earth;
    linked to Hezbollah)
•   Cruise ship ‘Achille Lauro’ (Palestine Liberation Front)
•   Not as widely used today as it was in the
•   Can be used to devastating ends
•   September 11, 2001
          Methods of Terrorism
2. Bombing
   Most preferred and widely used method
   of terrorism. Includes:

•   Pipe bombs
•   Vehicle-borne bombs
•   Booby traps
•   Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
•   Suicide bombers

Can be effectively used against people or facilities.
            Methods of Terrorism

3.   Assassination
     Carried out through ambush or explosive device.

     Regular assassinations occur:
•    Israeli-Palestinian conflict
•    US supported Afghan and Iraqi officials

     Did you know? There have been four U.S. Presidents
     assassinated (Lincoln in 1865; Garfield in 1881; McKinley in 1901 and
     Kennedy in 1963), and nine others to have survived
     assassination attempts including the past seven Presidents
     (Nixon (1974), Ford (1975), Carter (1979), Reagan (1981), Bush (41)
     (1993), Clinton (1994) and current President George W. Bush in 2005).
        Methods of Terrorism
4. Kidnapping

    Holding of prisoners to exchange for
    money (extortion) or other demands.
•   Often accompanied with threats of violence if
    demands are not met within a specified time-
         Methods of Terrorism
5. Sabotage

    Directed at infrastructure, other structural or
    material targets.
•   Comes in the forms of explosion, arson or
    mechanical destruction.
•   Sabotage aims to disable or destroy target
•   Make a statement (includes vandalism)
•   Designed to cause chaos or panic
           Methods of Terrorism
6.   Cyber-Terror
     The “new frontier” for terrorists
•    Targets likely to be commerce rather than military
•    Hackers/Terrorists seek to:
                          disrupt commerce
                              steal money
                          commit espionage
                        sabotage infrastructure
     identity theft – identity theft is the fastest growing crime
     in the world and criminologists have reported a large
     number of cases have been found to be suspected
 “Acquiring arms for the defense of Muslims is a
 duty. If it is true that I have acquired (chemical
or nuclear) weapons, I thank God who has made
     it possible. And if I seek to procure such
 weapons, this is a duty. It would be a sin not to
  try to possess the weapons that could prevent
         the infidels from harming Muslims.”

                         Osama bin Laden, 2002
 Methods of Terrorism
Three types of Weapons of Mass
        Destruction (WMD)

        (Remember: NBC)
      Methods of Terrorism
Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear Weapon
A weapon whose destructive power is produced
from a violent, uncontrolled atomic reaction.
     Methods of Terrorism
Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Biological Weapon
Weapon armed with living organisms or
toxins (such as disease or germs).

Plague and Small Pox are examples of
biological agents that can be weaponized.
   Small Pox Victim
Photo Courtesy of
      Methods of Terrorism
 Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction

 Chemical Weapon
 A weapon armed with manufactured
 incendiary mixtures, irritants, poisonous or
 asphyxiating gasses.
Acts as a blood, blister, choking or nerve agent
 Mustard Gas are Nerve Gas are chemical

                             Photo courtesy of
         Methods of Terrorism
  Make no mistake, terror organizations such as Al
  Qaeda are hard at work attempting to procure
• Between 1998 and 2003, FBI opened 2,477 criminal
  investigations involving threatened use of WMD against
  the United States.
• April 2004, Jordan; Al Qaeda chemical weapon attack
  against three targets, including a US consulate, was
  foiled. The attack was said to be only days away from
  being carried out.
• Hundreds of nuclear weapons and materials are still
  unaccounted for following the collapse of the Soviet
           Methods of Terrorism
Most likely WMD attacks might be (according to the FBI):
       Biological toxin which is produced from the castor bean.
    Colorless, odorless liquid nerve agent which has a high rate of
       Bacterial spore found in wild animals, livestock and soil.
                          Dirty Bomb
   Conventional high-explosive wrapped with radiological material.
   Detonation is designed to disperse radiological material over a wide
           Methods Of Terrorism
     The FBI maintains there is no specific
     information indicating a WMD attack on US
     is immanent.
There have been a number of potentially devastating attacks that
have been foiled, thanks to the efforts of our nations intelligence
community, law enforcement and military!

•    2006: A plan to blow up commercial airliners over major American
     cities was stopped only days before it could be carried out.

•    2006: A plot to detonate bombs in the NYC subway system to flood
     lower Manhattan was uncovered.

•    2004: A plan to use limousines packed with explosives to attack the
     nations financial sector on the East Coast was stopped.
“…slay the idolaters wherever you find them…lie in wait
 for them in every ambush…” Koran [9.5]

  Terrorism experts agree. We are in the midst of World War III! The War
  on Terror is the most pressing issue facing our Nation, and indeed the
  rest of the civilized world, today! It will last for generations.

• Osama bin Laden called for jihad (“holy war”) against the United States
  and Western civilization in 1998.

  Bin Laden issued a Fatwah (religious proclamation) in February 1998,
  stated it was the duty of all Muslims to kill US citizens, civilians and
  military, and their allies, everywhere in the world.

  This was followed by twin bombings of American
  Embassies in Kenya and Tunisia, which left hundreds
       Methods of Terrorism
Al Qaeda and other Islamo-facist terror groups desire to
replace the current world order with a new system of
government, based on Sha’ria law, similar to the iron-fisted rule
of the Taliban.

Centralized control over political, economical, educational,
theological and social systems. All forms of entertainment
would be banned.

Strict measures to control the masses; perceived threats will be
eradicated by executions on a scale that would dwarf the

Multi-racial and cultural intolerance on a global scale.

                     Dr. David Ciampi, PhD.; “New and Emerging Terrorist Threats   ”
         Preparation and Response
                             • Developed after the 9/11 attacks
                                  HSAS was designed to be a
                                 national threat advisory scale.

                                 • Different color-coded levels
                                   Trigger a specific response
                                 By federal agencies and state
                                       And local governments.
Homeland Security Advisory
   System (HSAS)
  Preparation and Response
The Homeland Security Advisory System consists of five
color-coded threat levels intended to reflect the
probability and severity of a potential terror attack.
                       Severe risk

                        High risk

                 Elevated-Significant risk

                  Guarded-General Risk

                         Low risk
  Preparation and Response

Terrorism can strike at any time, with little
or no warning.

It is our inherent responsibility to be
prepared for catastrophe.
     Preparation and Response
The growing sophistication of attacks has
led to an increase in casualties per incident.
•    Taking time to plan and execute large-scale attacks
•    Coordinated, synchronized attacks
•    Conduct rehearsals
•    Sophistication in bomb-making techniques
1.   Larger amount of explosives
2.   Deployment/initiation techniques for maximum
     casualties and damage
       Preparation and Response
•   Seven Signs of Terrorism
                                   1.      Surveillance
                      Monitoring or recording of facility or activities
                                    2.      Elicitation
                 Attempts to gain information about facility or operations
                              3.         Tests of Security
    Attempts to breach physical security to assess security response and procedures
                            4.          Acquiring Supplies
          Purchase or theft of explosives, weapons, uniforms, pass keys, etc.
                            5.      Suspicious Persons
                      Loitering in the area; “just doesn’t look right”.
                                   6.     Dry Run/Test
     In position at or near target and inconspicuously simulating the planned attack.
                             7.         Deploying Assets
        Attacker(s) and supplies are in position and ready to carry out the attack.
    Preparation and Response
•   Department of Homeland Security Principles of
    Proactive Security (the “Four D’s”)



    Preparation and Response
• Deter

“To prevent or discourage the occurrence of an
  action, as by means of fear or doubt.”

- Actions that cause the potential attacker to
  perceive that the risk of failure is greater than
  that which the terrorist would find acceptable.
                                    -   -Department of Homeland Security
   Preparation and Response
• Examples of Deterrence
   Preparation and Response
• Examples of Deterrence
              Visible Security
     Preparation and Response
• Detect
Identify potential attacks

• Conduct risk assessment of your property; identify
  vulnerable areas.

• Employ vigilant, professional security and surveillance

• Develop liaison with local authorities and businesses in
  the area.
       Preparation and Response
• Detection – Red flags
•   False alarms requiring a response from first responders
•   People wearing clothing not consistent with weather
•   Individuals showing unusual interest in your facility
•   Theft of employee uniforms, IDs, parking stickers
•   Damage to security equipment, locks, lights, cameras
•   Attempts to gain access to restricted areas of facility
•   Abandoned vehicles in parking lots
•   Computer hacking attempts
•   Unexpected or unfamiliar deliveries
•   Unscheduled repair or maintenance of HVAC, electrical, pluming
•   Individuals video taping, photographing, diagramming or taking
    notes of your facility.
      Preparation and Response
• Defend
Preventing or delaying a potential attack

•   Perimeter fencing
•   Vehicle access control
•   Pedestrian access control
•   Professional security officers; vigilant
    Prevention and Response
• Examples of Defending
   Preparation and Response
• Devalue
If you have taken steps to
1. Deter an attack,
2. Detect an attack,
3. Defend against an attack,
You have Devalued yourself as an attractive
Target, reducing the attackers incentive.
     Preparation and Response
Effects of 9/11 on the Las Vegas economy:

• Passenger traffic at McCarran down by 1/3
  Average of 3,000,000 per month dropped to just over 2 million.

• Lost revenue
  A loss of $60 million dollars to the economy in Sept. 2001 alone.
  Las Vegas lost roughly $50-$60M for the next 6 months.

• Thousands were laid-off days after the attack
      Preparation and Response
    What might the result of a terrorist attack
    in Las Vegas be?

•   Mass casualties
•   Large scale destruction of property
•   Long-term economic disaster
•   Increased crime
      Preparation and Response
                      Recent Hotel Attacks
• Membosa, Kenya (2002): Paradise hotel attacked by suicide car
  bomber. The attack left 13 dead and 80 injured.
• Baghdad, Iraq (2003): A suicide attack using a truck packed with
  explosives detonated at the Canal Hotel. 22 killed; over 100 injured.
• Indonesia (2003): A suicide car bomber crashed into the lobby of
  the Marriot Hotel, killing 12 and injuring 150.
• Casablanca, Morocco (2003): A suicide bomber kills 2 and injures
  20 at the Hotel Farah.
• Sinai, Egypt (2004): A bomb was planted at the Hilton and
  detonated, killing 34 and injuring 171.
• Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt (2005): A suicide car bomber kills 88 and
  injures over 100 at the Ghazak Gardens Hotel.
• Amman, Jordan (2005): Suicide bombers simultaneously kill 60 and
  injure 115 at the Grand Hyatt, Radisson and Days Inn.
                                    •   Courtesy: DHS Soft Target Awareness Course; 2006
 Preparation and Response

   It is essential for any professional
  organization to have an Emergency
   Response Plan (ERP) to deal with
catastrophic events, such as a terrorist
     Preparation and Response
     Planning for Disaster
     An Emergency Response Plan should
     include guidelines for response to:
1.   Bomb; explosion or threats
2.   Evacuation
3.   Earthquake, flood, severe weather, fire
4.   Kidnapping
5.   Hostage Situation
6.   Extortion demand
 Preparation and Response
Planning for Disaster

Development of an Emergency Response
Plan should consider situations which
occur on property, as well as off-property
but close to your establishment which may
effect safety and business.
   Preparation and Response
• Priorities in Plan Development

1. Protect Human Life
  Essential to protect lives and safety of
  employees and patrons. Steps should be
  taken to ensure persons who remain in the
  effected area are as protected as possible.
   Preparation and Response
• Key considerations

 Protection and safety of all persons, both
 employees and patrons, is paramount.
   Preparation and Response
• Priorities in Plan Development

2. Support and Assistance
   Have a clear evacuation plan
  – Employee evacuation plan should include a
     rallying point so managers can account for
     all personnel.
  – Employees should be able to clearly and
     calmly explain evacuation procedures to
     patrons in case of an emergency.
   Preparation and Response
• Priorities in Plan Development

3. Reduce Exposure of Assets
  Each department of an organization should
  have an emergency action plan that protects
  company funds and assets.
     Preparation and Response
  Emergency Action Plan specific to Surveillance
• Have emergency equipment available in the monitor room (first
  aid supplies, two-way radios, flash lights, fire extinguishers)
• Emergency camera coverage programmed and ready for use in
  minimal time
• Set DVRs to motion activation and reduce frame recording
• Ability to transition VCRs into extended recording mode;
  emergency tapes available
• Emergency Response Plan specific to Surveillance readily
  available to personnel. Periodic training. Personnel need to
  know their role in an event of an emergency.
• Relevant phone numbers readily available
• All Personnel know evacuation procedure
    Preparation and Response
Preparation at Home
• Make a family emergency kit
 Include enough non-perishable food, and water for your family (including
 pets) for three days; first aid kit; battery powered radio

• Have a plan
 How will you contact each other; Where will you meet; What would you do
 in different situations?

• Stay Informed
 Learn about potential emergencies that could affect your area and
 appropriate way to respond; Learn about established emergency plans.
         • For more information, visit
 Preparation and Response

According to the Las Vegas Metropolitan
Police Departments Homeland Security
Bureau, there are a number of active terror
support cells right here, right now in Las
Vegas, representing HAMAS, Hezbollah,
Abu Nidal and Al Qaeda.
     Preparation and Response
The most likely terrorist targets in Las Vegas are
  believed to be:
                  • Hoover Dam
    A successful attack on Hoover Dam could result in catastrophic
  flooding, millions left without water and power, and countless deaths
                  • Nellis Air Force Base
 Nellis is one of the Nations most active and populated military bases.
    Any successful attack on a military (hardened) target is seen as a
                       significant victory by terrorists.
                   • Stratosphere Tower
The Stratosphere Tower is visible from nearly any vantage point in the
   Las Vegas Valley. An attack on the Stratosphere, or any famous
   hotel on the Strip, would be the death blow to the economy of the
           city and have a crippling effect on that of the state.
 Preparation and Response

The most likely form of terrorism that
experts believe may occur in Las Vegas is
believed to by attacks by suicide bombers
or vehicle-borne explosive devices,
directed at the tourism industry.
           Closing Remarks
• Las Vegas represents everything that the
  Islamic terrorists oppose.

• Las Vegas is a high profile target.

• At any given time, there are between
  100,000 and 400,000 tourists in the city; in
  addition to the nearly 2 million that reside
  in Las Vegas.
            Closing Remarks
• The threat of terrorism is now part of our
  every day lives and will be for generations
  to come.
• Terrorists strike with little or no warning.
• In the event of a major disaster, government or
  local agencies cannot be depended on for swift
• You must be aware of and prepared for the
  threats we all face. Your life, and others, could
  depend on it.
    I gratefully acknowledge the following sources of information which
    were invaluable in the preparation of this presentation.

•   ACFEI Certification in Homeland Security
•   FBI Intelligence Assessments; Counter-Terrorism Division;
•   Department of Homeland Security (DHS) web site and publications
•   US Code on Foreign Relations
•   US State Department Publications
•   US Department of Justice Publications
•   “New and Emerging Terrorist Threats”; Dr. David F. Ciampi, PhD
•   Nuclear explosion photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
•   Darrin Norcutt; Surveillance Manager, ACEP
•   Wikipedia online encyclopedia
•   “Soft Target Awareness” course provided by DHS (2006)
•   American Society of Industrial Security
                                                    • Continued on next slide
    I gratefully acknowledge the following sources of information which were
    invaluable in the preparation of this presentation.

•   Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department’s Homeland Security Bureau
•   “Disaster Control”, Merritt Publishing 1998
•   “The Weapons of Terrorism”, Merritt Publishing 1999
•   Fox News Channel
•   Derk Boss; CFE, CPP, Vice President of Surveillance, ACEP
•   Patrick Gray; Director, X-Force Operations
•   Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition 1999
•   “Lone Wolf Study”; SA Kathleen Puckett, PhD
•   International Foundation of Protection Officers
•   “Wars on Terror” (2002); E. Thomas Wood, Pembroke College

                                                   •   Continued from previous slide
“The price of freedom is eternal vigilance.”
                          Thomas Jefferson

     This concludes the presentation.
      Thank you for your attention.

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