Functional Behavior Assessment and Individual Positive Behavior by jennyyingdi


									Overview of Positive
 Behavior Support
     Dr. Donna Wickham
    University of Kentucky
• Understand the impact of problem behavior

• Understand the characteristics of PBS

• Understand what we know about what has been
  shown to be effective in addressing problem behavior
Challenging Behavior
   Affects Us All
Challenging Behavior Affects…
          Teacher Retention and Morale
20% of all new hires leave the classroom
  within 3 years
50% (approx) within 5 years In urban districts
Special and general education teachers leave
  at about the same rates
                         (Boe, Barkanic, & Leow, 1999; Boe,
                             Cook, Bobbitt, & Weber, 1998).

“Some special education teachers feel all
  they're doing is disciplining.”
                                             Amy Burnette,
                                  Special education teacher
Challenging Behavior Affects…
Cost of surveillance cameras
Security guards, staff to conduct locker
Metal detectors
School Uniforms
Vice principal(s)
Challenging Behavior Affects…
     Student and parents feelings of safety

63 % of parents with children in school
  believed it was very or somewhat likely that
  a Columbine-style shooting could occur in
  their communities (April 2000 Gallup)
7% of students report having been bullied in
 the past six months
50% drop in rate of violent crime in public
  schools between 1992 and 2002
                                       U.S. departments of
                               Education and Justice (2004)
Challenging Behavior Impacts…
             Possibly Student Achievement

Emerging research suggests problem behavior is a factor in
  student achievement
                                    (Morrison & D’Incau, 1997;
                               Scott, Nelson, & Liaupsin, 2001)
Students with behavioral problems experience considerably
  fewer instructional interactions with teachers than typical
  peers (1991, 1998)
Preliminary descriptive data conducted by the PBIS center
  suggest a relationship between school-wide PBS and changes
  in academic performance
                    (Horner, et al, in press; Lassen, et al, in press)
Positive Behavior Supports What we
PBS is a priority for the Department of Education…
IDEA reauthorization
      IEP teams must consider PBS if a student has behavior that
       impedes students’ or other students’ learning.
      If behavior is a manifestation of disability, an FBA must be
       conducted leading to a behavior plan or if one exists it must be
       reviewed and modified as needed.
OSEP TA Center
      PBS efforts are currently being demonstrated in 40 states at school
       and district; contacts are available for technical assistance in
       almost all states
      Takes approximately 3 years to fully implement all aspects of PBS
      Reductions of up to 28% in office discipline referrals have been
       reported within one year of implementation
Positive Behavior Supports
   Recognized as an evidence-based practice

   Prevention is the key
                            (U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, 2004)

   Recommended by researchers as a promising
    practice for school reform
                                                       (Utley & Sailor, 2002)

   In published peer-reviewed literature PBS
    strategies were effective for ALL problem
    behavior examined with as much as 80%
    reductions in challenging behavior.
                                                           (Carr, et al, 1999)
Positive Behavior Support Defined

PBS refers to the application of
 positive behavioral interventions &
 systems to achieve socially important
 behavior change.
                  (OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral
                     Interventions & Supports, 1999)
The goal of PBS is to enhance the capacity
of schools to educate all students, especially
students with challenging social behaviors,
by establishing an effective continuum of
PBS systems and practices.
What are positive behavior
Emphasis on function/purpose of behavior – What does the student
  get out of doing the behavior? – Attention? Escape?
    May be learned
    May be communicative
    May be physiological

Focus on teaching new or replacement behaviors to students –
  What is a more appropriate way for the student to get attention or escape?

Change adult behaviors primarily, students secondarily –                how can
  The adult change the situation so the student can get the attention or escape
  needed rather than engaging in the problem behavior?

Redesign teaching & learning environments – How can instruction or
  room be arranged so student is less likely to engage in the problem
PBS is not……
A specific practice or curriculum… it’s a general
   approach to preventing problem behavior

Limited to any particular groups of students… it is
   for ALL students

New… it’s based on a long history of behavioral
  practices and effective instructional strategies
School-Wide Behavioral Systems Continuum

                      Tertiary – FEW
          1-5%        Reduce intensity, complications and
                      severity of current cases

          5-10%       Secondary – SOME
                      Reduce current cases

            80-90%     Primary - ALL
                       Reduce new cases
Primary Prevention
 Rules, routines, and physical
  arrangements to prevent initial
  occurrences of problem behavior
 Done by having a school meeting to
  establish 3-5 “rules” that are taught and
 Success is tracked by counting office
  discipline referrals
 4 ODRs signal a secondary or tertiary
Primary Prevention example
   School A had 682 ODRs in a school year
   School staff adopts 3 school rules,
    1. be safe
    2 be respectful
    3. be ready to learn
   Staff directly teach what these 3 rules mean
    and reward with class parties and recognition
   After one year of implementation of primary
    prevention they reported 376 ODRs, a 55%
Secondary Prevention
 Quick response (72 hours max) to a small
  group who are not responding to Primary
  Prevention efforts
 Often focuses on “at risk” behavior
 Attention to function of behavior
 Student should be a part
 More “resource rich” – weekly meeting,
  plus 10+ hours
Secondary Prevention example
A student who picks fights with other when
  teased participates in a “social skills club”
  to role play ways to handle teasing

   A student who acts out for teacher
    attention in class participates in a “check
    in/check out” program with each teacher
    prior to class to have a nonacademic
    social interaction
Tertiary Prevention
   Process for an individual student including
       conducting a functional behavioral assessment
       developing support plan with individualized,
        assessment-based intervention strategies
            Teaching new skills
            Environmental rearrangement
            Emergency procedures
   Collaborative process with special
Take Home Messages
 Prevention
 Understand function
 Be efficient with interventions

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