Chapter 14: Evaluation Research
What is evaluation?
The Major types of Evaluation in Social Work.
Is there a Role for Intuition?
Studying Your Community.
The Role of Diversity in Evaluation.
The use of scientific research methods：
to plan intervention programs
to monitor the implementation of new programs and the operation of existing ones
to determine how effectively programs or clinical practices achieve their goals
Is the best available evidence being used to support social work interventions?
Are resources being well spent? Are services efficient and cost-effective, and are they
reaching the target population?
How well are client needs being met? Are successes being celebrated? Are clients
being empowered? Are ineffective programs being changed or replaced?
If goals are not poorly defined or unrealistic, or if interventive strategies are not
grounded in practice wisdom.
If data are unavailable or unusable.資料難以取得
If evaluations will be used only to show positive outcomes or for political purposes.評
If resources are insufficient, if the program is not well developed or if enough time has
not passed for an intervention to have taken effect.
Evaluability assessment 衡量可評估性
3. 建構方案之流程圖 (flow model)
internal evaluators are likely to be more familiar, more involved, have institutional
memories and are likely positioned to follow up on evaluation recommendations.
include their possible lack of independence and bias; they may know clients, they may
have ethical conflicts, they may lack power, and the extra work required may detract
from their regular duties.
they may have superior skills, fresh ideas, and new perspectives, in addition to more
independence and objectivity.
less knowledge of the organization and limited access to stakeholders; they may also
be more expensive and lack the
capacity for follow-up.
Range – whether an evaluation should involve a centralized or decentralized authority
Coverage – what kinds of activities, efforts and alternatives should be included or
Time Frame – short-term or long-term assessment. 短期或長期結果評估
Target population – do those intended to receive an intervention actually receive it. Do
others benefit who are not originally targeted (the spillover effect)?
Gap effectiveness：What is the gap between where clients started out before an
intervention and what would have been an ideal position or condition for the clients
after the intervention. How much did the intervention close the gap?
Summative evaluation 總結性評估
looks at existing information across a number of areas to see how well an existent
system has functioned via retrospective assessment.
Formative evaluation 形成性評估
looks at what can be done differently in the future by a prospective assessment.
The Logic model
is a method for graphically presenting links between program goals, efforts, and
expected outcomes. 連接方案目標、努力及預期結果
It graphically illustrates an agency’s Inputs-Activities-Outputs-Initial and
一、結果評估 Impact-Outcome Evaluation
Can a program be shown to provide intended benefits or outcomes. Who was helped?
Were there any unintended outcomes, positive or negative?
Who does what to whom with what intended outcomes?誰對誰做了達成預期的結果
二、結果評估之研究設計 Impact/Outcome Evaluation Designs
Experimental - a classical or other major design involving treatment and control
Quasi-experimental - a variation of classical design missing one or more elements.
Non-experimental - involves before/after comparisons, time series, and cross sectional
三、過程評估 Process Evaluation
Process Evaluation - assesses how a program operates, how services are delivered, and
how well the interventive model is being delivered.
Case Study - a detailed analysis of one or a few selected program sites or clients who
are representative of those not selected.
Focus groups are aimed at understanding the intentions and beliefs of a few key
informants and stakeholders in a group discussion setting.
Ethnography relies on observation and involvement in the local setting; in this case,
the researcher uses largely qualitative data gathering strategies.
六、單案設計 Single Case Designs
A combination of research and practice that assesses the progress of a single client or
case observed during both interventive and non-interventive periods.
A Period is a time of clinical baseline observation and measurement of the client’s
condition or targeted behaviors. No intervention takes place during this period; it is
analogous to the control group.
B Period is a time of clinical of intervention, observation, and measurement in which
the treatment is introduced; it is analogous to an experimental group.
A-B-A Design - a baseline period is done, followed by a clinical intervention or
treatment period, followed by another non-treatment control period.
A-B-A-B Design is similar to the A-B-A design with the addition of another clinical
intervention period following the second control period.
B-A-B Design is when a clinical intervention period begins the design that is followed
by a control period and then another interventive period; it is often used when
intervention must begin immediately.
B-A-B設計：處遇階段- 控制階段- 處遇階段，常使用在處遇必須立即開始的個案
can be used with minimal disruption of clinical practice 對實務衝擊最少
provides continuous information on interventive effectiveness 對處遇有效性提供持
can be highly integrated into practice 高度連結實務
avoids outside evaluators 避免外在評估者
is easy to use 易執行
It is a highly quantitative design that may overemphasize only the more obvious
evidence of success. 高度量化設計，過度強調成功的證據
In addition, it may lead professionals to consider only behavioral interventions
there may be too many responsibilities for a single practitioner and outside opinions
may be ignored.
Absorb the experience as it unfolds and make sense out of it later.
Have patience; do not decide in advance what will count as research experience.
Engage in reflective note taking on thoughts, feelings, and experience.
There are no rules regarding intuition, so use your experience.
Tape record your thoughts and feelings and listen to your own voice..
Make lists of personal biographic events that help you focus.
Engage in your work in the company of others for the benefit of collective insight
一、定義需求 Defining Need
Normative need 規範（標準）性需求
is assessed when a situation is identified by a social worker or key informant who
already knows of a gap in service.
Felt need 感知的需求
is the traditional definition of the opinions of clients or community residents.
Expressed Need 表達的需求
are evidenced by those who have applied for service or on a waiting list.
Comparative Need 比較性的需求
is assessed by studying those who already receive services and estimating the needs of
those who are in similar situations, but don’t currently receive services.
二、該考慮誰的需求 Who Should Be Involved？
三、評估需求的方法 Methods For Assessing Needs