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Template for Mini-Lesson Development Subject, Skill Indicator, and Description: Math 2.3.1 – Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction. Example: You have 13 pencils and your friend has 12 pencils. You want to know how many pencils you have altogether. Write a number sentence for this problem and use it to find the total number of pencils. Assessment: Develop several versions of short mastery tests for this skill. Identify prerequisite skills: Write and solve number sentences from problem situations involving addition and subtraction Create word problems that match given number sentences involving addition and subtraction. Note: Turn the list of prerequisite skills into a logical sequence of instructional activities (mini lessons) that span about nine days. Each mini lesson should be designed to last about 5-10 minutes. Connection to Other Learning: Note: Find ways to connect the current skill to real life and prior learning. Be sure to do it at least once formally at the beginning of the first mini lesson. Let students know that everything they do can be put into a number sentence/math problem. For example, 5 people live in my house – mom, dad, Jeff, Cindy, and Rosie. Rosie and Cindy went to the mall. What number sentence could represent this? 5 – 2 = 3 Mini Lesson 1 Number sentences to story problems. Write a number sentence on the board, such as 14 + 28. Have student tell you what this number sentence means. It means that there is the number 14 and you add the number 28 to it. So we could say that there are 14 students in the gym and 28 more students walk in. We need to know how many students are in the gym in all. Discuss how putting words with a problem does not change the way we compute the number sentence, but makes it real and easier to understand. Give students a number sentence and have them write their own “story” to go with it. Allow a few to share. Use subtraction, too. Mini Lesson 2 Recite a story problem and have the students write the number sentence that matches it. Mini Lesson 3 Use a balance scale to solve problems. For example, place 7 cubes on one side of the scale. Write a 7 on the chalkboard to represent those cubes for an addition problem. Place 2 additional cubes on the same side as the 7 cubes. Leave a space after the 7 on the chalkboard and write a 2 on the board to the right of the 7. Have students tell you how many cubes would need to be on the other side of the scale to make it balance. They should say 9 because there are 9 on the other side. Write the number 9 on the board to the right of the 2, leaving a space for the equal sign. Ask students how the numbers on the board go together. They should state that it is an addition problem and the number sentence is 7 + 2 = 9. Repeat a few times to allow for understanding of the use of the balance scale, and be sure to use subtraction, too. Mini Lesson 4 Use the balance scale again to demonstrate the finding of a missing number. For example, using the same problem as in mini lesson 3, place 7 cubes on one side of the scale and 9 cubes on the other side of the scale. Ask students why the scale is not balances. Using the numbers 7 and 9, how can one make a complete number sentence? 7 + _ = 9. Repeat and be sure to use subtraction, too. Mini Lesson 5 Draw a tree on the board (as good as you can!). Make 6 circles in the tree to represent apples. Draw 2 more circles on the ground. This will represent 2 apples falling off of the tree. Ask students to write a number sentence to go along with the drawing. Discuss answers. The correct answer is 8 – 2 = 6, because there are 8 apples in all, but 2 have fallen off, leaving 6 on the tree. Repeat using addition. Mini Lesson 6 Draw a number line on the board. Label where the 0 and 10. Start at 0 and draw a “hop” to the number 2. Place an arrow here, pointing to the dash representing the number 2. Draw another “hop” three more lines to the right. Place an arrow here where the dash represents the number 5. Ask students what number sentence would match this number line problem. Answer is 2 + 3 = 5. Repeat with subtraction. Mini Lesson 7 Repeat mini lesson 6 to gain additional understanding of number line addition subtraction. Mini Lesson 8 Put students in pairs and have them write one addition and one subtraction problem for ‘what is the missing number.’ Example: 13 - _ = 7. Have students trade their problems with their partners and work them. Day 9 Assess mastery of the skill for all students using a short 5-item test of the intended skill Day 10 Analyze results of mastery test and use results to plan for remediation. Learning styles, multiple intelligences addressed in these mini-lessons: Verbal/Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Visual/Spatial Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy addressed in these mini-lessons: Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating List of resources provided with this lesson? Balance scale, cubes Developed by: Amanda Smith, Title I, Oakdale Elementary Assessment: 1. Use the picture above to select the correct number sentence that matches the picture. a. 3 + 2 = 5 b. 5 – 2 = 3 c. 5 – 5 = 0 d. 2 + 3 = 5 Find the missing number for numbers 2 and 3. 2. 11 - ___ = 5 3.___ + 7 = 21 Choose the number sentence that matches the number line for problems 4 and 5. 4. 0 10 a. 4 + 3 = 7 b. 5 + 2 = 7 c. 1 + 6 = 7 d. 10 – 7 = 3 5. 0 10 a. 9 – 4 = 5 b. 8-4=4 c. 4 + 4 = 8 d. 10 – 5 = 5