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jakpro module grammar noun and adjective by 7n2Mpe


                              NOUN AND DJECTIVE
1. A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.
2. Nouns are divided into five different kinds:
Proper Nouns                                     Material Nouns
Common Nouns                                     Abstract Nouns
Collective nouns

A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing.
eg: John ( person ) ; Palm Beach County ( place ) ; The Chinese ( people ); Books (
thing )

A Common Noun is a name that can be given to any person or thing of the same kind.
eg : Man, boy, table, dog

A Collective Noun is singular in form though denoting more than one.
eg : Herd, army, flock.

A Material Noun is the name of a substance
eg : Milk, iron, wood.

An Abstract noun is the name of a quality.
eg : Love, truth, color.

Number of Nouns
1. Number shows whether one is meant, or more than one.
2. There are two Numbers:
         The Singular Number                        The Plural Number
The Singular number denotes only one object: boy, girl
The Plural number denotes more than one object: boys, girls.

The Plural is generally formed by adding s to the Singular :
pen pens            chair    chairs
book books          garden gardens

When the noun ends in s, x, ch, or sh, the Plural is formed by adding es to the Singular : -
glass glasses     watch watches
box    boxes     dish       dishes

If the noun ends in y, and the y has consonant going before it, the Plural is formed by
changing y into ies : -
duty duties       army armies
fly     flies      lady ladies

But if the y has vowel going before it, the Plural is formed by simply adding s:
day days         key       keys
boy boys monkey monkeys

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                              NOUN AND DJECTIVE

Most nouns ending in f or fe form the Plural by changing f or fe into ves
calf calves      life      lives
knife knives      wife wives
leaf leaves      thief thieves

If the noun ends in o, and the o is preceded by a consonant, the Plural is generally (not
always) formed by adding es to the Singular:
cargo cargoes       negro negroes
hero heroes         potato potatoes

But if the o is preceded by a vowel, the Plural is formed by simply adding s to the
singular :
bamboo bamboos           curio curios
cuckoo cuckoos          studio studios

Some nouns from their Plurals irregularly:
man    men       tooth     teeth
woman women       mouse mice
foot   feet      ox        oxen
goose geese      child    children

Some Nouns have the same from in the Plural as in the Singular :
deer deer         fish    fish ( fishes )
sheep sheep       dozen dozen ( dozens )


1. An Adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
2. Adjectives are divided into six different kinds :
Proper Adjectives are derived from proper nouns.
eg : a. Chinese soldiers fought bravely.
     b.We are studying the English language.

In (a) the word " Chinese " is a proper adjective because it is derived from the proper
noun " China "
In (b) the word " English " is a proper adjective because it is derived from the proper
noun " England ".
Note -- Every proper adjective should begin with a capital letter.

Descriptive Adjectives qualify a noun by adding some quality or state to it.
eg : a. A brave soldier killed the enemy.
     b. There are some sick soldiers in the hospital (state)

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                               NOUN AND DJECTIVE
Quantitative Adjectives indicate how much of a thing is meant.
He has much rice.                               He has not any rice.
He has little rice.                             He has enough rice.
He has no rice.                                 He has sufficient rice.
He has some rice.                               He sold all the rice.

Numeral Adjectives express number.
Numeral Adjectives are subdivided into (a) Definite and (b) Indefinite

a) Definite Numeral Adjectives denote some exact number. Those which show how many
things there are are called Cardinals; Those which show in what order things stand are
called Ordinals.
Cardinals : one, two three, etc.
Ordinals : first, second, third, etc.

b) Indefinite Numeral Adjectives do not denote any exact number.
Examples :
All men are mortal.                             More men came today than yesterday.
Some men died young                             Most men must work for their living.
No men were present.                            Several men came.
Many men are poor.                              Sunday men went away.
Few men are rich.

Demonstrative Adjectives show which thing is meant.
This house is mine.                              That house is your.
These adjectives are also subdivided into Definite and Indefinite.

a) Definite demonstrative Adjectives point out some particular objects.
He is in the house.                              Those pens are yours.
This book is mine.                               I cannot do such a thing as that.
That pen is yours.                               This is the same story as I heard the
These books are mine.                            other day.

b) Indefinite Demonstrative Adjectives do not point out any particular object.
He has an horse.                                Some man came here.
He has not any brother.                         Give me any other box.
He saw me one day in the theater.               I have another box.
A certain man came here.                        Other men would not do so.

Distributive Adjectives point out that the objects named are to be taken separately.
There are only four distributive adjectives.
Examples :
I will give a book to each scholar in this                    astonished.
class.                                                        You may have either book.
Every person in the room was                                  You may have neither book.
Source:h t t p : / / w w w . e n g l i s h d a i l y 6 2 6 . c o m

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