struggling reader comp fac Guide

Document Sample
struggling reader comp fac Guide Powered By Docstoc
					                                                     Introduction to the Module


Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement
Act (IDEA) place heightened emphasis on the need to use research-based practices to help
students with disabilities gain access to and progress in the general education curriculum. One
way the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) addressed this challenge was to establish
the Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K–8 through a 5-year cooperative
agreement. The Access Center became a part of the OSEP national Special Education Technical
Assistance and Dissemination (TA&D) Network in October 2002.

The mission of the Access Center is to provide technical assistance that strengthens state and
local capacity to help students with disabilities effectively learn the content and skills embedded
in the general education curriculum. The Access Center proposes that access to the general
education curriculum occurs when students with disabilities are actively engaged in learning the
content and skills that define the general education curriculum. This most likely occurs when
students are exposed to standards-based instructional learning goals and to research-based
instructional methods and practices, materials and media, and supports and accommodations.

To that end, the Access Center has developed a library of professional development modules on
topics related to research-based practices designed to promote access to the general education
curriculum. The purpose of these modules is to provide professional development opportunities to
state, district, and school personnel, particularly through a train-the-trainer model that can be
facilitated by Access Center staff, or by individuals who have significant knowledge of the topic
and are interested in a vehicle through which this knowledge can be disseminated.

About This Module

“Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension” is a 3.5-hour module
designed to promote knowledge and understanding of the fifth essential component of reading:
comprehension.

NCLB requires that all states strive to close the academic achievement gap. This gap is
described as the significant disparity in educational achievement and attainment among groups
of students as determined by a standardized measure. Traditionally, children with disabilities
have scored among the “low achievers” on these measures. To bridge this gap, children with
disabilities must have the opportunity to develop the skills required for academic success within
the general education curriculum. Since reading is the foundational skill for all learning, it is
essential that children with disabilities receive targeted and effective instruction that addresses
their core weaknesses in reading.

In 1997, in response to the controversies over reading education, Congress asked that a
National Reading Panel (NRP) be established to determine what research has shown about the
effectiveness of various instructional approaches. As a result of the panel’s work, they published
a report entitled “Teaching Children to Read,” in which they identified five essential components
of reading. Comprehension is the fifth essential component. The other components are
phonemic awareness and phonics, which are the two components of the “Alphabetic Principle,”
fluency, and comprehension. The purpose of this module is to help provide teachers with the
knowledge and tools necessary to provide effective reading interventions for students who
struggle with reading comprehension.



                                                                                                      ii
                                                                 Introduction to the Module


Using This Module

The Access Center encourages you to customize any or all portions of this module to meet the
needs of your audiences. We recommend that professional development providers gain an
understanding of participants’ instructional settings, strengths, and areas for growth. Such
understanding may be accomplished through an assessment conducted prior to the
professional development event, supervisor recommendations, or both. These materials can be
adapted to align with participants’ teaching situations, concerns, and professional development
goals. See “Tips for Customizing Modules.”

Any portions of the module may be reproduced and disseminated without prior permission,
provided that the source is cited as:

The Access Center (2007). Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension.
Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved (today’s date), from the World
Wide Web:
http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/ReadingComprehensionModule.asp.


   This module was developed by staff at the Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K–8, funded by the U.S.
  Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (Cooperative Agreement H326K02003). The Access Center
                                      is housed at the American Institutes for Research®.
                                                http://www.k8accesscenter.org




           For additional information on this or other topics, please contact The Access Center at
                                            accesscenter@air.org.

                     The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8
              The Access Center is a cooperative agreement (H326K020003) funded by the
           U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, awarded to the
                                   American Institutes for Research
                        1000 Thomas Jefferson St. NW, Washington, DC 20007
                       Ph: 202-403-5000 TTY: 877-334-3499 Fax: 202-403-5001
                    e-mail: accesscenter@air.org website: www.k8accesscenter.org




         This report was produced under U.S. Department of Education Grant
 # H326K020003 with the American Institutes for Research. Jane Hauser served as the
 project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or
 policies of the Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of
 Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned in this publication is
 intended or should be inferred.




                                                                                                                          iii
                                                                     At a Glance
                         Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Section                                             Handouts Used     Estimated Time

Introduction, Agenda, and Objectives                       1             15 minutes

The Impact of Reading Interventions                                      15 minutes

Factors That Interfere With Comprehension                                10 minutes

Assessment                                                               15 minutes

Instructional Strategies and Practice                  2, 3, 4, 5         2 hours

Processing                                                               30 minutes




                                                                                        iv
                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                               Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



CONTENTS
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension ........................... ii
I.     Introduction, Agenda, and Objectives ................................................................. 1
II.    The Impact of Reading Interventions .................................................................. 5
III.   Factors Interfere Comprehension ...................................................................... 10
IV.    Assessment ......................................................................................................... 13
V.     Instructional Strategies and Practice ................................................................ 17
VI.    Processing ........................................................................................................... 24




                                                                                                                                   v
                                                               Facilitator’s Notes
                   Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




I.   Introduction, Agenda, and Objectives
     (approximately 15 minutes)



     Slide 1           Welcome participants and introduce yourself and the topic of
                        this module. Indicate that the session will last approximately
                        3–3.5 hours and will involve presentations, small group work,
                        and hands-on activities.

                       Note to Facilitator:

                       Although this module can be delivered as a presentation directly
                       to practitioners, it was designed as a train-the-trainer module
                       complete with facilitator’s notes and handouts. It will be
                       necessary for each facilitator to adapt the materials to meet the
                       specific needs of his or her audience.

                       Because the primary audience is adult learners (teachers and/or
                       trainers), most of the text in the activities presented in this module
                       is at or above the 8th-grade level. This was done intentionally in
                       order to maintain the interest of the audience. However,
                       examples and/or tips for implementation at the elementary grade
                       levels are also provided. Explain that it will be necessary for
                       teachers to adapt the materials for their classrooms and
                       curriculum and to meet the needs of individual students.


                       Review the contents of the folder you prepare for them. The folder
                        should contain a copy of the PowerPoint slides, facilitator’s notes (if
                        presented as a train-the-trainer module), handouts, and any
                        additional materials you wish to provide them. Ask participants to
                        please not look at the handouts until instructed to do so.




                                                                                                  1
                                                  Facilitator’s Notes
          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 2   Provide an overview of what will be covered in this module:

             Impact of Reading Interventions—a review of the connections
              between effective reading interventions and all stakeholders

             Factors That Interfere With Comprehension—a review of some
              of the factors that can impede students’ ability to comprehend
              what they read

             Assessment—a review of things that should be taken into
              consideration when assessing the comprehension skills of
              struggling readers

             Strategies and Practice—a review of several evidence-based
              strategies for teaching comprehension, and the opportunity for
              participants to practice using the strategies through a Cooperative
              Learning Model

             Processing—a culminating activity that will allow participants to
              process what they have learned




                                                                                    2
                                                  Facilitator’s Notes
          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 3      Read the goal of this presentation. Explain that comprehension is
              the ultimate goal of reading instruction—the very essence of
              reading. It is not enough for students to be able to read words.
              They must be able to comprehend their meaning in context to be
              proficient in reading. Proficiency in reading is essential for
              academic achievement.

             Review the objectives from the slide.

             Explain that participants can post questions or comments on the
              chart paper that is up around the room (the “parking lot”)
              throughout the session, and that these will be addressed either
              during or after the session.

             Let participants know that you will e-mail answers to those
              questions to anyone who leaves an e-mail address on the sticky
              notes. Suggestion: You may prefer to pass around a sign-in
              sheet that includes a space for e-mail addresses. This will ensure
              you have necessary contact information for any future
              correspondence.




                                                                                   3
                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 4      Participants will now engage in a warm-up activity.

             Ask them to read the selection on handout 1 and be prepared to
              respond to several comprehension tasks.

             Allow about 5 minutes for them to read the text and discuss the
              content. Call on a couple of participants to respond to the
              comprehension tasks listed below:

              –   Based on your reading, explain the relationship between
                  flavours and hadron properties as it relates to the quark model.

              –   Provide an example of an effective test for non-perturbative QCD.

             More than likely, the participants you call upon will have difficulty
              with this task. Ask for a show of hands of how many others in the
              group also had difficulty completing the tasks.

             Apologize to the participants for putting them “on the spot” by asking
              them questions you didn’t think they would be able to answer. Remind
              them that students who struggle with reading often feel this way.

             Ask for volunteers to share why this reading is hard to comprehend,
              even though they are skilled readers. Answers may include: lack of
              familiarity with vocabulary words and no background knowledge of
              the subject area. Some may have lost interest after reading the first
              paragraph due to the difficulty of the reading material. You may also
              ask them what comprehension strategies they used to understand
              the text. Often, readers will try one strategy, such as rereading. If
              that doesn’t work, they will give up.

             Point out that the texts that struggling readers are required to read
              are often as confusing for them as this was for the workshop
              participants, and for many of the same reasons. Some students
              may have no difficulty decoding text, but still have difficulty with
              comprehension. Others may have deficits in the prerequisite
              reading skills that are essential for comprehension.




                                                                                       4
                                                                Facilitator’s Notes
                    Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




II.   The Impact of Reading Interventions
      (approximately 15 minutes)


      Slide 5            Note to Facilitator:

                         Include this section only if the participants have not been
                         introduced to the module on the Alphabetic Principle or Fluency
                         (Slides 5 & 6).

                     Tell participants that the purpose of this illustration is to explore the
                     connections between reading interventions, the role of educators, and
                     the requirements placed on them. Make the following points as you
                     explore each ring of the circle:

                         Students—Point out that there are students at both ends of the
                          achievement gap. The purpose of this module is to explore
                          interventions that can help those on the lower end of the span by
                          improving their reading skills—helping to narrow the gap.

                         Make the following points as you explore each ring of the circle.

                          –   The achievement gap is described as the significant disparity
                              in educational achievement and attainment among groups of
                              students as determined by a standardized measure.

                          –   Traditionally, children with disabilities and students without a
                              diagnosis who struggle with reading have scored among the
                              “low achievers” on these measures. They are, therefore, often
                              at the low end of the achievement gap.

                          –   To bridge this gap, all children must have the opportunity to
                              develop the skills required for academic success within the
                              general education curriculum.

                          –   Since reading is the foundational skill for all learning, it is
                              essential that all children receive targeted and effective
                              instruction that addresses their core weaknesses in reading
                              (Lloyd, J. (2005). Characteristics of effective reading
                              programs: Promising and not-so promising approaches (a
                              summary of the teleconference for the state-to-state
                              Information Sharing Community, January 25, 2005).
                              Washington, DC: The Access Center.).

                          –   An effective reading intervention plan is an essential part of
                              closing the achievement gap for students who struggle with
                              reading.




                                                                                                 5
                                           Facilitator’s Notes
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



    Note to Facilitator:

    Since teachers are the end-users for this module, it is essential
    to gain their buy-in if this training is to be effective. The
    purpose of the section below is to acknowledge their day-to-
    day realities in the classroom and to help them understand that
    effective reading interventions can be of benefit to them as well
    as their students.


    Teachers—Share with participants that while students are the
     main consumers of educational services that are dictated by the
     districts, states, and federal educational agencies, you understand
     that it is the teachers who are required to deliver the services. Use
     the following points (or include some of your own) that are
     appropriate for your particular audience:

     –   Teachers:

          ■   Are expected to overcome any and all problems that
              students may bring into the classroom with them

          ■   Must interface with the students, parents, principals, and
              state and district personnel

          ■   Are expected to do everything, do it well, and do it with
              limited time and resources

          ■   Are held accountable for student achievement

     –   Acknowledge the realities that teachers face on a day-to-day
         basis.

    State Standards

     –   Teachers are also expected to teach to their state standards in
         an effort to increase student achievement in all content areas.

     –   Many states have developed their own comprehensive
         assessments to measure progress (i.e., FCAT [Florida], ISAT
         [Illinois], and Leap21 [Louisiana]).

     –   Reading interventions should be based on instructional
         objectives and state standards.

     –   Intensive interventions can help struggling students raise their
         achievement scores on standardized tests and help teachers
         meet state standards.




                                                                             6
                                            Facilitator’s Notes
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


   Assessments

    –   Accountability is the cornerstone of NCLB, and, as a result,
        everyone is under scrutiny for the part they play in improving
        student achievement.

    –   To measure student achievement, multiple and ongoing
        assessments are conducted at every level, from the
        classrooms to state assessments.

    –   Under the accountability provisions of NCLB, all states must
        describe how they will close the achievement gap. They must
        produce annual state and school district report cards that
        report progress.

    –   All Title I states and districts are required to participate in the
        National Assessment of Education Practice—the Nation’s
        Report Card.

    –   All Reading First states are required to collect and report
        assessment data to the Department of Education.

    –   Effective reading intervention plans include comprehensive
        assessment plans, which help teachers track student progress and
        develop effective instructional strategies based on individual needs.

    –   These data can also be used to help meet school, district,
        state, and federal reporting requirements.

   No Child Left Behind

    –   According to NCLB, too many children with reading problems
        are misidentified as learning disabled and placed in special
        education classes.

    –   This overidentification hinders the academic development of
        these students and also takes valuable resources away from
        students who truly have special needs.

    –   Therefore, emphasis on scientifically based reading instruction
        for students who are struggling with reading is a key
        component of NCLB.

    –   NCLB requires that achievement data be disaggregated to
        provide a clear picture of the progress of all students, including
        those with disabilities.

    –   NCLB requires that all students, districts, and states make
        Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), and includes sanctions and
        rewards to hold all public schools accountable.



                                                                                7
                                                   Facilitator’s Notes
          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




Slide 6      Targeted reading interventions can help struggling readers
              improve their reading skills and raise their achievement scores
              across content areas.

             This in turn can help teachers, schools, districts, and states make
              AYP and begin to close the achievement gap as mandated by
              NCLB.




Slide 7      Review the five components of reading and tell participants that
              this module will focus on the fifth component—comprehension.




                                                                                    8
                                                   Facilitator’s Notes
          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 8      Ask participants to turn to a neighbor and take a few minutes to
              respond to the prompts on this slide. This will give them a chance
              to review some of what they already know about reading
              comprehension.

             After you bring the group back together, tell them that you will not
              ask them to share their ideas at this time, but that they will be
              given the opportunity to do so in the small group work they will be
              doing in this workshop.




                                                                                     9
                                                               Facilitator’s Notes
                     Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




III.   Factors That Interfere With Comprehension
       (approximately 10 minutes)

       Slide 9           There are various reasons why some students struggle with
                          reading comprehension. Some may be diagnosed with dyslexia, a
                          specific reading disability. Children with dyslexia may have
                          difficulty learning to read due to one or more information
                          processing problems, such as visual perception or auditory
                          perception deficits. However, not all children with dyslexia have
                          difficulty reading.

                         Some students may have other types of disabilities that can
                          interfere with the reading process, such as cognitive disorders,
                          attention deficit disorder, traumatic brain injuries, sensory
                          impairments, or learning disabilities.

                         Some students struggle with comprehension because they have
                          skill deficits in the prerequisite reading components of phonemic
                          awareness, phonics, fluency, and/or vocabulary. For some this
                          may be due to the disabilities mentioned above. Others may not
                          have received adequate instruction in all of the components.

                          –   In order to comprehend the meaning of text, it is necessary to
                              first recognize individual words. Knowledge of the alphabetic
                              principle, which includes phonemic awareness and phonics, is
                              essential for students to be able to recognize (or decode)
                              words.

                          –   The ability to decode words, however, is not enough. Students
                              must be able to decode fluently. A child who reads haltingly
                              will work so hard at the mechanics of the task that little mental
                              energy will be left to understand the meaning.

                          –   While fluent word recognition is essential for comprehension,
                              so is grade level vocabulary knowledge. This is not just the
                              ability to recognize words from a vocabulary list, but a
                              complete understanding of the meaning of the words in the
                              context of the reading.

                         Struggling readers usually have a history of academic difficulty.
                          Therefore, they often have gaps in grade-appropriate knowledge
                          of various topics, such as literature, history, and geography.
                          These knowledge gaps interfere with their understanding of
                          material they encounter in new texts and compound their reading
                          comprehension problems.




                                                                                                  10
                                                     Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


              Students who struggle with reading often show signs of giving up
               too quickly when faced with a difficult passage. This so-called task
               persistence is especially important for successful reading of
               expository test, such as history and science textbooks.

              To comprehend new information, students must be able to
               integrate it with what they already know. In some cases, the
               students’ prior knowledge about certain topics may be limited or
               nonexistent. This is of particular importance for students for whom
               English is their second language. There may not be a similar word
               in their native language, or it may have another meaning for them.
               They may not have had any experience with the subject matter of
               the text.

              Disinterested students are students who are not engaged in
               reading, and students who are not engaged have difficulty
               comprehending what they read. These students are seldom
               motivated to practice reading independently.




Slide 10      Review the suggestions of some of the things practitioners can do
               (in addition to specific instructional strategies in comprehension) to
               address the needs of students who struggle with reading
               comprehension.

               –   Students with disabilities

                    ■   It may be necessary for some teachers to increase their
                        knowledge base about specific disabilities that can
                        interfere with reading comprehension, such as short-term
                        memory loss in students with traumatic brain injuries or
                        processing disorders in students with learning disabilities.
                        This information will help guide and inform instruction.

                    ■   It may be necessary to refer a student for diagnostic
                        assessments if the teacher suspects a problem that is
                        undiagnosed.




                                                                                        11
                                        Facilitator’s Notes
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


        ■   It may be necessary to provide a student with
            accommodations, such as large print, additional time for
            reading, or perhaps assistive technologies.

   –   Students with skill deficits—It will be necessary to provide
       remediation in all of the deficit skill areas before you can
       expect a student to progress in reading comprehension. If a
       review of their records does not pinpoint specific problems,
       screening assessments should be conducted to identify the
       deficits.

   –   Students with lack of background knowledge—Conduct
       screening assessments to gauge the knowledge base and
       literacy development of the students. Provide targeted
       prereading interventions that address the knowledge gaps as
       they relate to what is being read.

   –   Students with lack of engagement—Select appropriate texts.
       Choose reading materials that are not too difficult for the
       student to read, but challenging enough to be interesting. If at
       all possible, select texts that are of interest to the students,
       and allow students to choose what they will read, within the
       framework of your guidelines. Adjust the length of the required
       reading to meet the needs of individual students.

Students who develop effective reading strategies and who have the
additional supports they need can improve their reading skills and
their ability to persist until they are proficient readers.




                                                                          12
                                                              Facilitator’s Notes
                     Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




IV.    Assessment
       (approximately 15 minutes)


      Slide 11          Assessment of reading comprehension is essential, particularly for
                         students who struggle with reading. Accurate assessments can
                         identify students who need remediation, pinpoint individual needs,
                         and guide teachers in their instructional planning.

                        A number of things should be taken into consideration when using
                         these tests to assess the comprehension skills of struggling
                         readers.

                         –   Different tests may tap underlying reading comprehension
                             abilities—such as word decoding, vocabulary, and fluency—to
                             different extents, such that scores sometimes vary
                             substantially in individual cases.

                              ■   For instance, although all reading comprehension
                                  measures tap word decoding, one test may tap word
                                  decoding skills more heavily than another. Similarly,
                                  reading comprehension assessments that require
                                  students to write answers to open-ended questions may
                                  be tapping components of writing as well as reading. Also,
                                  a test with stringent time limits clearly will tap speed of
                                  reading more than an untimed test.

                         –   In addition, tests of reading comprehension are broad
                             measures that, by themselves, do not usually help teachers
                             pinpoint difficulties in individual students.

                              ■   For example, two children may obtain the same score on
                                  a measure of reading comprehension but may arrive at
                                  that score in very different ways. One child may have a
                                  strong vocabulary and oral comprehension skills, but may
                                  be weak in decoding. The other student may decode well
                                  but have a weak vocabulary. The instruction for these two
                                  students should be different, based on their individual
                                  needs.

                         –   Finally, current measures of reading comprehension are not
                             geared toward distinguishing specific comprehension
                             processes that might underlie poor comprehension in both
                             listening and reading. Formal diagnostic assessments may be
                             required to identify specific problems.

                             Spear-Swerling, L. (2006). Children's Reading Comprehension
                             and Oral Reading Fluency in Easy Text. Reading and Writing:




                                                                                              13
                                                       Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


                    An Interdisciplinary Journal, 19(2), 199-200.




Slide 12       Practitioners can do various things to enhance the assessment
                process for struggling readers. These include:

                –   Looking for and using tests that are technically adequate.

                     ■   Technical adequacy includes reliability (i.e., accuracy and
                         consistency of measurement) and validity (i.e., the test
                         measures what it is intended to measure). Information
                         about the technical adequacy of published tests can be
                         found in the test manuals as well as in many textbooks on
                         assessment.

                –   Using more than one test to assess reading comprehension
                    performance (if possible).

                     ■   An average of scores across two or three tests may give a
                         more accurate indicator of current reading comprehension
                         performance in some cases.


               Note to Facilitator:

               Acknowledge to participants your recognition that all schools will
               not have appropriate assessment tests available. In these cases,
               they will need to use what they have. This is even more reason to
               use more than one assessment, if more than one is available.

               If possible, find out what assessments are available for the
               participants to give and tailor this section of the presentation
               accordingly.


                –   Assessing all of the essential components of reading and
                    using the results of those assessments to interpret reading
                    comprehension performance and for planning instruction.



                                                                                       14
                                         Facilitator’s Notes
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


         ■   Essential components include: phonemic awareness,
             phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

    –   Taking everyday classroom performance into account.

         ■   Observations of everyday classroom performance may
             provide valuable insights into comprehension strengths
             and weaknesses, which may include interests and
             learning styles. For example, individual students may
             have a strong interest in or knowledge base about a
             particular topic that may enable them to read more difficult
             texts about that topic as compared to other types of
             content.

    –   Considering both current and upcoming grade expectations.

         ■   The comprehension demands of texts, as well as the
             sheer volume of reading expected of students, escalate
             dramatically in the middle and upper elementary grades.
             Thus, component weaknesses—such as mild vocabulary
             deficits or slow reading—that appear to have little impact
             on comprehension in one grade may have a much greater
             impact in subsequent grades. Early identification and
             remediation of these component weaknesses may
             prevent or ameliorate later reading comprehension
             problems.

        Spear-Swerling, L. (2006). Children's Reading Comprehension
        and Oral Reading Fluency in Easy Text. Reading and Writing:
        An Interdisciplinary Journal, 19(2), 199-200.

   Point out that comprehension assessments are the most common
    type of reading assessment, with over 26 published tests. Refer
    participants to the link at the bottom of the slide for more
    information on these assessments.




                                                                        15
                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 13      Ask participants to turn to their partner and take a couple
               of minutes to discuss what assessments they currently use.
               Ask them to also consider how the information provided in
               Slides 11 and 12 may help inform their assessment process in the
               future. You may need to use some guided questions to facilitate
               their discussions. Suggestions include: What do the assessments
               you currently use measure? What can you do in your assessment
               process to pinpoint underlying issues that may impact a student’s
               ability to comprehend text?

              Ask for volunteers to share any of their ideas with the whole
               group.




                                                                                   16
                                                               Facilitator’s Notes
                    Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




V.    Instructional Strategies and Practice
      (approximately 2 hours)


     Slide 14           Tell participants that for most of the remainder of the workshop
                         they will be involved in learning about and practicing instructional
                         strategies for teaching comprehension.

                        First, however, you will review some of the key findings of the
                         research base for comprehension instruction.




     Slide 15           Use the following to support the bullet points:

                         –   Good readers are extremely active as they read. They use a
                             variety of strategies at the same time, such as making predictions
                             about the upcoming text, associating what they are reading with
                             what they already know and noting whether their predictions and
                             expectations about the text are being met. Struggling readers do
                             not usually exhibit this kind of activity while they read.

                         –   When students learn to use comprehension strategies
                             appropriately, these strategies can assist them with the more
                             basic skills of comprehension (such as recalling what they
                             read and asking questions) to more complex skills (such as
                             summarization and analyses of text). Improved
                             comprehension skills may be reflected in standardized test
                             scores.

                         –   Of course, excellent readers do not use such techniques one
                             at a time, nor do they use them simply when under strong
                             instructional control. Struggling students need to be taught
                             different comprehension techniques and how to self-regulate
                             which strategies they use and when they need to use them.




                                                                                                17
                                                   Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




                  Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction
                  be the instruction of? In M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. Pearson, &
                  R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 545–
                  561). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.




Slide 16      Read the list of evidence-based strategies. Tell participants that
               there are other comprehension strategies, but these are a few that
               are supported by the most extensive research base.

              Tell participants that they are actually going to use the first
               strategy, the Cooperative Learning Model, to learn about and
               practice four additional strategies: comprehension monitoring
               (handout 2), graphic organizers (handout 3, answering questions
               (handout 4), and summarization, (handout 5).




                                                                                    18
                                                     Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 17      Explain that cooperative learning is actually a generic term that
               refers to numerous methods for grouping students. For example,
               teachers can assign heterogeneous groups by ability level, groups
               can be randomly selected for team assignment, or groups can be
               formed by areas of interest.

              Review the key elements:

              Positive Interdependence

               –   Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable
                   for group success.

               –   Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the
                   joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and
                   task responsibilities.

              Face-to-Face Interaction

               –   Explaining orally how to solve problems

               –   Teaching one's knowledge to others

               –   Checking for understanding

               –   Discussing concepts being learned

               –   Connecting present with past learning

              Individual and Group Accountability

               –   Keep the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the
                   greater the individual accountability may be.

               –   Give individual tests to determine individual growth.

               –   Randomly examine students orally by calling on one student to
                   present his or her group's work to the teacher (in the presence
                   of the group) or to the entire class.

               –   Observe each group and record the frequency with which each
                   member contributes to the group's work.

               –   Assign one student in each group the role of checker. The
                   checker asks other group members to explain the reasoning
                   and rationale underlying group answers.

               –   Have students teach what they learned to someone else.




                                                                                     19
                                       Facilitator’s Notes
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


   Interpersonal and Small-Group Skills—Social skills must be
    taught:

    –   Leadership

    –   Decision-making

    –   Trust-building

    –   Communication

    –   Conflict-management skills

   Group Processing

    –   Group members discuss how well they are achieving their
        goals and maintaining effective working relationships.

    –   Group members describe what member actions are helpful
        and not helpful.

    –   Group members make decisions about what behaviors to
        continue or change.




                                                                  20
                                                         Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 18          One method for using the Cooperative Learning Model is through
                   the “Jigsaw” structure. This strategy allows participants to work
                   independently. This process makes it possible for the adult
                   learners to “own” their training experience, while at the same time
                   making it possible to cover more material than would be possible
                   through totally trainer-directed activities.

                  Read the features of the Jigsaw from the slide.

               Tips for Setting up the Jigsaw Activity

                    If you have any control over the setup of the presentation
                     room, arrange chairs around small tables and ask participants
                     to sit four to eight people to a table.

                    If not, divide the participants by asking them to count off by
                     fours (for the four strategies that will be demonstrated).
                     Depending on the size of your audience, you may need to
                     subdivide your groups. There should be no more than eight
                     people per group.

                    If your group is extremely large, or the setting is not conducive
                     to group work, divide the room into quadrants and ask the
                     participants to work in pairs to complete the readings and
                     activities.

                    Arrange tables/group areas to promote ease of transition
                     between group activities.

                    Prepare tent cards to identify the strategies that will be
                     reviewed at each table.




                                                                                         21
                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 19      Display this slide as you review the procedures for implementing
               the Jigsaw with the participants:

               –   Once the participants are seated, tell them that this will be
                   their “home team.” Ask each team to take about 5 minutes to
                   introduce themselves and select a leader. A suggestion for an
                   easy (and quick) way to select a team leader is to ask them to
                   state their birth month and date during their introductions. The
                   leader can be the one with the most recent birthday. The
                   leaders will be responsible for facilitating “expert group”
                   assignments and group dissemination activities.

               –   In the Jigsaw, each home team member will have the
                   opportunity to discover a “piece of the comprehension puzzle”
                   by joining an expert group. In the group they will read
                   background information, complete an activity related to one
                   comprehension strategy, and determine how they will
                   disseminate this information to their home team.

               –   After introductions in the home team session, team members
                   will count off one through four (including the team leader),
                   for each of the expert groups. Depending on the size of each
                   group, there may be more than one team member assigned to
                   the same expert group. Team members should then move to
                   join the participants in their assigned expert group.

               –   Once each expert group is formed, ask them to complete the
                   following:

                   ■   Select a team leader using the same process as that for
                       their home team.

                   ■   Remove the handout from their folders that corresponds
                       with their assigned strategy. Each handout includes:
                       (a) background information about their strategy, (b) an
                       activity they will use to practice the strategy, and (c) grade
                       level examples and/or tips for implementation in the
                       classroom. An answer sheet is also provided for
                       handout 4 of suggested responses for the activity.

                   ■   Each group member will read the background information
                       silently. Then each group leader will read the directions
                       for the activity aloud and facilitate the implementation of
                       the activity. Step-by-step directions are provided for
                       the group leaders.

                   ■   Allow about 30 minutes for the activity.




                                                                                      22
                                        Facilitator’s Notes
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension


       ■   After completing the activity, each team member should
           take about 15 minutes to decide how they will
           disseminate the information they gain about their strategy
           to their home team. For example, they may choose to
           summarize what they have learned, to provide examples,
           or to have their team participate in an activity. If more than
           one person on the expert team is from the same home
           team, they should work together to develop a
           dissemination plan.

       ■   Next, the participants will rejoin their home team, where
           they will share their findings about the strategy they
           reviewed with the other members of their team.

       ■   Allow approximately 45 minutes for this activity. Time will
           vary depending on the size of the group and the method
           they choose for sharing with their team.




                                                                         23
                                                             Facilitator’s Notes
                     Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension




VI.    Processing
       (approximately 30 minutes)


      Slide 20          Ask home teams to take a few minutes to review the key elements
                         of cooperative learning and discuss which elements they
                         experienced during the Jigsaw activity. Tell them to refer to their
                         handout of Slide 17.




      Slide 21          Allow participants the opportunity to process what they have
                         learned during this session that they can take back to their
                         classroom by working within their home team to discuss the
                         questions on this slide. The team leader should facilitate this
                         process by reviewing the questions on the slide with the team,
                         asking for comments from the team members, asking clarifying
                         questions, keeping the team on track, etc.




                                                                                               24
                                                     Facilitator’s Notes
           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Comprehension



Slide 22      If time allows, open the floor for questions. If not, remind
               participants to leave their questions in the parking lot along with
               their contact information; you will respond by e-mail.




                                                                                     25

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:6/8/2012
language:English
pages:30