AED 341 F08 _filesMy_20ELA_20Thematic_20Unit.doc by sushaifj


									 Silence Is A Powerful Scream: Can You Hear It?

A Unit on Identifying the Issues that Exist within the
               Silence of Individuals

                  Janet C. Boyle
                    Dr. Sarver
                    AED 341
                December 10, 2008

               Silence is a Powerful Scream: Can You Hear it?
                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                            1

Table of Contents                                                     2

Lesson Plan Overview                                                  3-4

Standards Addressed                                                   5

Rationale                                                             6

Research                                                              6-7

Interdisciplinary Justifications                                       7

Respect for Difference                                                    8

Assessments                                                               8

Text Set: Annotated Bibliography                                           9-10

Unit Plan Schedule                                                        11-12

Lesson 1: “Reasons for the Silence”                                       13-18


Lesson 2: “Reading for a Deeper Understanding”                            19-25

Lesson 3: “How Can Speaking Engage Others in my Cause?”                   26-29

Lesson 4: Viewing: “Taking a Look at Images That Represent Silence”        30-35

Lesson 5: “Writing for Information”                                       36-40

Lesson 6: “The Art of Rhetoric”                                            41-46


Performance Task and Rubric                                                47-50

Bibliography                                                                  51

   How can we unveil issues, which are normally taboo, in a way
that educates and redirects the general understanding?

               Is it better to speak, or remain silent?

    { “Some people suffer in silence louder than others”-Morrie Brickman}

SUMMARY: Students will read the novel Speak and critically analyze the theme of
“silence” throughout the novel. They will receive five lessons which cover all areas of
ELA and that involve the theme of silence. What the students learn over the course of
five weeks will provide them with the skills necessary to conduct an information fair,
which will involve the display of issues that arise from silence.

Main Texts and Associated Topics:
   - Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson
   - The Dangers of Silencing an individual
   - The problems that arise as a result to silence
   - Is better to say nothing at all?

Essential Questions:
   - What kind of power lies in expression?
   - Why should we choose to speak?
   - Why do adolescents feel the need to, at times, be silent?

Essential Understanding:
- Although I may feel as though my opinions and ideas are insignificant, I must realize
this is not the case. Sometimes being silent can do more damage than good, as we see in
the novel Speak. Furthermore, silence can sometimes cover more serious problems. It is
important to exercise ideas through speaking an expression as a means of revealing that
we are and being proud of it. As we will learn, through the novel, Melinda’s silence is
actually a cry for help.

Text Set:
▫ Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson
▫ “Harlem” – Langston Hughes
▫ “The Scream”- Edvard Munch
▫ “Silence”- Google Images
▫ “Jeremy”- Pearl Jam
▫ “How to Save a Life” – The Fray

Performance Task
▫ After discussing the many ways in which teenagers are and can be silenced, students
will write a list of issues that are occurring the community in which they would like to
inform the community about.

    ▫ Students will:
   - Create a personal list of events that have been happening in school, or around the
       local community and society at large
   - Decide which issues are important to them and how they would like to make a

    -   Students will be assigned into groups with a topic in which they will research and
        prepare for the presentation fair: “Break the Silence”
    -   Organize an event that informs peers about “real life” issues that silence students
        (i.e. drugs, alcohol, sexual assault, oppression, depression)

 ▫ Students will eventually be creating a literary collection of letters that will be titled
“Break the Silence” This collection will include a polished copy of each student’s
expressive letter or thought about the topic that they choose. The collection will
symbolize the power that lies within the speaking and communicating ides that are

Task Analysis/ Topical Understandings:

 ▫ For the information fair titled “Break the Silence,” the students will work in their
groups to creation information booths:

    - How to write for information
    - How to speak to engage an audience
    - How to speak in order to elicit and emotional response from the audience
 ▫ For the School Event
   -Students will learn the skills necessary for constructing knowledge that will be
presented at a school event
   - Assuming that most schools have SADD, my students can have the opportunity to
participate in SADD week by sharing their research and information booths.

Topical Essential Questions:

    -   How has the protagonist’s silence, in the novel, created damage on the life of the
    -   How does it feel to be silenced?
    -   Why kinds of issues should never be silenced?
    -   How can we write in a way that allows us to be heard?
    -   How can we write in a way that draws in our audience?

    -   How do I create a piece of art that is powerful enough to evoke emotion form my


NYS ELA Core Curriculum:

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information
and understanding.
• Prepare and give presentations on a range of informational topics
• Use notes or speaking points to assist in delivery

• Express a point of view, providing supporting facts

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary
response and expression.
• Express opinions and support them through references to the text
- engage in a variety of collaborative conversations, such as peered
discussions, paired reading and responding, and cooperative
group discussions, to construct meaning
• Describe the features of the genre to interpret and respond to literary
• Use literary devices, such as volume, rate, rhyme, rhythm, and repetition,
to create an emotional or aesthetic response
• Use media to support presentation of original and interpretive texts
• Ask and respond to questions and follow-up questions to clarify
- engage in a variety of collaborative conversations, such as peer
discussions, paired reading and responding, and cooperative
group discussions, to make applications of the ideas in the text to
other situations, extending the ideas to broaden perspectives

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical
analysis and evaluation.
• Express opinions or make judgments about ideas, information,
experiences, and issues in literary and historical articles
• Articulate personal opinions to clarify stated positions
• Present content that is clearly organized and based on knowledge of
audience needs and interests
• Present arguments from different perspectives



Administrators: Students will learn to read, write, listen, speak and view in a critical
an analytical way through the lesson plans I have created. I have incorporated
documents and texts that are relevant to the students’ lives an carry personal
meaning. The rigorous schedule I have prepared will not only assist students
toward creating an affective culminating project, but those skills will also be helpful
for their regents examination. By having students work in a student-centered
environment, during each lesson, they will acquire and learn literacy skills that will
carry over to multiple subjects in school. Furthermore, the theme of the unit and the


novel they will be studying both have an authentic value that is relevant to the
students’ age.

Students: The novel Speak identifies issues that occur in high school, as it is set in an
actual high school. Societal norms assume that students will be faced with problems
involving pre-marital sex, drugs and alcohol. Yet, it seems as though such problems
are “acceptable” and therefore, never thoroughly addressed. This unit is your
opportunity to say express how you, as the teenager, feel about these real-life issues.
It may seem, at times, that these issues are never discussed because they are
“taboo.” It is time, now, to break that silence.

Colleagues: This unit addresses relevant and cultural pedagogy by raising
awareness about social issues teens deal with. By having the students critically look
at several texts, they will learn the skills necessary for the regents examination, and
learn information that is crucial to their lives.


 The following excerpt is from the text “Learning to Teach for Social Justice,” and
the speaker is student-teacher Claudia Narez in the chapter “Beyond Cultural

The struggle to create culturally relevant connections:
“Being exposed to texts about topics I had encountered in my life and having the
opportunity to discuss them led me to increased self-awareness…I wanted to share my
own awareness of these issues and open a dialogue with my students. I saw myself in
them as they looked at their school and home communities. Finally, I could see that by
ignoring these difficult issues, my students were becoming disempowered as I once had
been. As a teacher, I felt it was my responsibility to turn their experiences into
empowering ones through supportive dialogue.”

Similar to the experience of Claudia, I feel as though it is an important priority of
teachers to ensure that students are being exposed to topics that are relevant to their age
and culture. The novel Speak shows how miscommunication or the lack of
communicating can have harmful effects on young teens: Melinda. Furthermore it
addresses reality of underage drinking, sexual assault and parental guidance which are all
topics that any teen will have an understanding of.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:

The above chart represents the sequences of intellectual behavior that are important to
learning. The lesson plans that I have created allow walk students through the first five
boxes, working from the bottom up. The highest level is the “creation” box which will be
achieved by my students during their performance task when they hold the “Break the
Silence” information fair. Their individual groups will synthesize everything we will
learn and then create their own information booth.


Health Education: In the novel Speak, students will see how the protagonist Melinda
develops a debilitating mental condition after being sexually assaulted. She becomes
depressed. The topics that my students will conduct research on will be directly related to
topics in health education which include: Drugs, Alcohol, Depression and Assault.

American History: When the students read the Langston Hughes poem, they will also
receive the history and background information on the “Harlem Renaissance.” This time
period is critical because it preceded the “Great Depression.”


The texts that the students will be encountering are from authors of various races and
genders. Students will also be working a student-centered environment that will promote
open discussions about issues involving race, ethnicity, language, culture, gender or
ability. Furthermore, the student with the IEP will not feel disempowered by her modified


course work by the way I have included her in every activity. Moreover, the students’
unit calls attention to these societal issues, and will therefore be discussed in a safe and
comfortable environment.


At the end of each lesson, students will have written something that corresponds to the
knowledge learned that day. Their work will be handed in and reviewed, but I will also
pay close attention to the students who participate. Each class will be student-centered so
I will stress the importance of class participation. This is also to ensure that students are
not being distracted, or becoming a distraction to one another. (The student with an IEP
must be in an environment that does not allow her to become bored.)



Anderson, Laurie Halse. Speak. 1st. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1999.
   This novel covers the topic and theme of this unit, which is “silence.” Melinda,
      the protagonist, is the speaker of the novel and she suffers having been sexually
      assaulted during the summer before she enters high school. She loses friends,
      become socially isolated, and develops a strained relationship with her family as a
      result of not speaking about the incident.

Hughes, Langston. "Harlem."

       This poem, written by Hughes, describes the decay of the aspirations of an
        individual. The poem illustrates silence in the way that it inhibits the dream of
        person and causes it to die.

Munch, Edvard. “The Scream” http <://www.edvard->
   This painting illustrates a man standing in public place and screams but no one
     pays attention. The character in the photo is ignored by a passersby and his world
     is dissolving around him. He is being absorbed by the ignorance of the

Google Images. “Silence.”
    The girl in this image is representative of Melinda in Speak. The stitching on the
       girl’s lips is similar to the image in the novel about Melinda’s mouth as having
       cuts on it. Furthermore, this “silenced” girl represents acquiescence or the effects
       that society has on people.

Pearl Jam. “Jeremy” <http:://>
    This song illustrates a young boy in school who had always been quiet, but
       emotionally disturbed. As a result of being teased and having a terrible
       relationship with his parents, the boy commits suicide. Everyone at school is
       shocked because they regret not treating him with respect. Therefore Pearl Jam
       refers to his suicide as his speech: “Jeremy spoke in class today.”

The Fray. “How to Save a Life.” < http:://>
    This song illustrates the encounter that two friends have after a long time of being
      separated. However, the reason for the separation was because of one of the
      friends’ substance abuse problem. The narrator in the song expresses that he
      wishes he would have spoke to his friend, or helped him sooner because now the
      friend is too far into his/her addiction.


                                            - 10 -
                 Unit Plan Schedule

                                - 11 -
Day 1    -Introduce the Unit                    Read pages 3-23 in Speak
              - Have students talk about their
                 own personal analysis or
                 interpretation of “silence”
              - Write silence on the board and
                 form semantic web by having
                 students volunteer other
                 words that come to mind
         -Have students juggle with the idea of
         silence: When is a good? Vs. When is
         it a bad thing?
Day 2    - Listening Skills: An approach toward      NO HW
         enhancing the students’ skills of
         listening comprehension
Day 3    -Analyze voice of Melinda and discuss       Read pages 24-44 in Speak
         events that have occurred in the book,
         thus far
         -Read “The Troubles that Face Teens”
Day 4    -Lesson 1: Silence can be harmful: A        Students will write their
         Listening Exercise                          personal song
Day 5    Students will share and reflect on their    Read pages 45-64 in Speak
         personal song annotations in class
Day 6    -Students will read background              Read “Harlem” by
         information on “The Harlem                  Langston Hughes
         Renaissance” and discuss the poet
         Langston Hughes
Day 7    -Lesson 2: Reading for a Deeper             Read pages 65-95 in Speak
         Understanding and Focusing on Word
Day 8    - Analyze the theme of alienation in the    NO HW
         novel and how it relates to opportunities
         that have been missed for Melinda and
         draw themes with “Harlem”.
Day 9    Journal Writing: Students will write a      Read 97-117
         short story about a dream or opportunity
         they have had that may have been
         pushed aside
Day 10   Identify the symbol of “IT” in Speak        Read pages 118-138 in
         and how is relates to Melinda’s             Speak
Day 11   Lesson 3: Speaking for Expression           Mini-Speech or “rant” on
                                                     topic of choice

                                 - 12 -
Day 12   Students will present their mini-speeches    Read 139-158 in Speak
         in class and assess one another on
Day 13   Analyze the dialogue between Melinda         Write a one page response
         and Her Friends and Family (Or the lack      including examples as to
         thereof)                                     how Melinda’s silence is a
                                                      debilitating catalyst to her
                                                      overall health.
Day 14   Lesson 4: Viewing images of people           Compare Melinda’s silence
         who are silenced                             to one of the images viewed
                                                      during class.
Day 15   Discuss and analyze the first “Rising        Read pages 159-179 in
         action” in the novel, when Melinda           Speak
         realizes she must speak about what
         happened to her.
Day 16   Explain the culminating project.              Reaction: Why is important
         Handout the project guidelines and           to discuss and inform
         assign students into groups.                 society about the issues
                                                      your class will be
Day 17   Lesson 5: Writing for Information            Finish biographies on
                                                      Laurie Halse Anderson
                                                      Read pages180-190
Day 18   Identify Melinda’s desire to break free      Read to page 197- Finish
         and be heard.                                the novel!
Day 19   Melinda Speaks: What happened as a           NO HW- Make sure you
         result of this? In-class reflection on the   have finished the novel!
Day 20   Lesson 6: Writing for Regents Prep           Finish your advertisement
Day 21   Read advertisements in class                 Take home quiz: Speak
Day 22   In-Class Group work for the culminating      Work on Project
         project- Computer Lab
Day 23   In-Class Group work for the culminating      Work on Project
         project- Computer Lab
Day 24   In-Class Group work for the culminating      Work on Project
         project- Computer Lab
Day 25   Performance Task: Break the Silence!         Reflection Piece on the
                                                      Empowering Aspect of

                                  - 13 -
                             Lesson Plan Template: Direct Instruction

Teacher _Janet Boyle____ Class _ENG__ __ Date ______ Grade Level ____10____
Room Number __________ Period ________ Unit Silence is a powerful scream: Can you hear
Lesson Number __1_ and Topic Reasons for the Silence: A Listening Exercise

The students have been exploring the different struggles that plague young teens as they grow
into young adulthood. They are working toward a culminating project that will involve a memoir
which identifies who they are and how they have come to be. In order for the students to fully
understand and identify adolescent-specific struggles that may cause teens to feel silenced, they
will listen to song “Jeremy” by Pearl Jam. The song indicates a young boy who is silenced by his
home life and when he speaks in class it is notable. The students will also listen to The Fray’s
song “How to Save a Life.”

Short-range learning objective: Students will listen for the purpose of interpretation and
response. By examining how both songs identify the idea of young people being silenced are
thematic in pop-culture, students will understand that problems can occur when people remain
silence in a situation when they should speak. However, the songs will motivate the students to
rise above situations that may hinder their voices as individuals. Students will be able to later
apply their findings to their memoirs about who they are.

Long-range learning objectives:
           Students will be able to understand how teens may experience silence as being
              one of the main struggles in adolescence
           Students will be aware of how to work toward being confident in who they are
           Students will be able to examine these songs and analyze their meanings
           Students will use critical thinking by identifying why the two artists chose to
              address the topics in their songs
           Students will be able to respond to the lyrics in a thoughtful writing assignment
              which will address the topics in the songs

Affective objectives (optional): Students will better understand how to better understand who
they are, and how to appreciate their individual characteristics.

Administrators: The short term and long term goals of this lesson will assist students in using
critical and analytical thinking skills. Students will be fulfilling ELA Standard 1 by listening and
interpreting a media source which are the songs. They will also be fulfilling ELA Standard 2 by
listening for the purpose of responding to their interpretations.

Students: In order to properly interpret the songs, students will also need to keep in mind the
mood and tone of the music that assist the words to the songs. The musical background is
important to the overall meaning of the song.

                                               - 14 -
Critical Pedagogues: In order to be lifelong literacy learners, students will need to recognize that
the English Language is used in various mediums for the purpose of expression. By using two
pop-culture songs, the students will understand that literacy is important for understand deep
meanings in the music that is produced in society. Songwriters and Musicians have strategies for
their messages to meet the ears of their audience for the purpose of inspiring them.

Background Knowledge and Skills
Students will need to have a general understanding of the different types of problems that
adolescents face. By recognizing these issues the students will be made aware of how they are
common among all teens, which is why the themes have been written in YA Literature.

NYS ELA Standard 1 & 2___:

Grade _10__ Performance Indicator (listening):

Students will listen to the two songs and read the corresponding lyrics. By analyzing the songs,
students will understand the harmful effects of silence on the individuals in each song

Anticipatory set                                                                         Time
Write on the board: What type of damage does silence create?                             (Minutes)
-Have a brief discussion about how students or young teens may be silenced in
society.                                                                                 10

 Today we will listen to two separate songs that have appeared in pop-culture. We
will listen to the song and find a common theme that is prevalent between both           7
songs. After listening to the first song, take a few notes about which lyrics held
meaning to you. Then, listen to the second song and do the same. Write down
similarities between both songs. What types of issues are both songs dealing with?
What is the purpose of the artists’ message for youth?
What are some techniques that are use in the songs in order to further project the
message? Think of tone and diction. If the lyrics stood alone, would you feel as
emotional for the message?
Guided Practice
Put both sets of lyrics on the ELMO in order for the students to read the words,
while listening to the music.                                                            12
Have the students read the words first. Then, play the song. Does the musical
background evoke emotion?
Who the intended audience? How might these songs speak to an older audience?
Would the message be as powerful?
How can we compare a song with music, to a poem on paper? Would you
considering songs to be poetry?
Do you understand how much ELA influences pop-culture and our daily lives?

                                               - 15 -
Make sure the students understand the tone, mood and message represented in the
songs. If students understand the messages, they will also be aware of how relevant
ELA is in their everyday lives. This exercise will draw students into be more
conscious of the meaning of words in songs by analyzing diction. This practice will
carry over into their other assignments, because students will have a deeper
appreciation for diction. They will understand how to “read between the lines,” and
become more active readers.

Independent Practice
Students will now independently annotate the song they brought to class. Each           10
student will be provided to work with other classmates in small groups for the sake
of sharing multimedia.
How does the artist approach the message being sung?
Students will annotate their song of choice with similar prompts as the one they did
as a class. This will motivate the students to want to figure out meanings in their
favorite songs!

Find a student in class who worked on a different song. Share your findings with        6
one another and discuss why you think the meaning of the song speaks to your

Special notes and Reminders to myself
Make sure each student has access to a song player (i.e. walkman, tape player, ipod)

Materials and Resources needed
Both song lyric sheets
Musical accompaniment.

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs
Student will sit in the front of the classroom. Maria loses focus easily; therefore you must make
sure she works with a partner who is not going to distract her from the project.

Assessment of Student Learning
Students will hand in their notes about the two songs that were played in class. For homework,
students will have to write a one paragraph reflection on the messages they found in their own
personal songs.

Reflection on or Evaluation of Lesson

                                              - 16 -
Miss. Boyle
English 10

“How to Save a Life” – The Fray

Step one you say we need to talk
He walks you say sit down it's just a talk
He smiles politely back at you
You stare politely right on through
Some sort of window to your right
As he goes left and you stay right
Between the lines of fear and blame
You begin to wonder why you came

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

Let him know that you know best
Cause after all you do know best
Try to slip past his defense
Without granting innocence
Lay down a list of what is wrong
The things you've told him all along
And pray to God he hears you
And pray to God he hears you

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

As he begins to raise his voice
You lower yours and grant him one last choice
Drive until you lose the road
Or break with the ones you've followed
He will do one of two things
He will admit to everything
Or he'll say he's just not the same
And you'll begin to wonder why you came


                                             - 17 -
Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life
How to save a life
How to save a life

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life

Where did I go wrong, I lost a friend
Somewhere along in the bitterness
And I would have stayed up with you all night
Had I known how to save a life
How to save a life

“Jeremy”- Pearl Jam

at home
drawing pictures
of mountain tops
with him on top
lemon yellow sun
arms raised in a V
dead lay in pools of maroon below

                                         - 18 -
daddy didn't give attention
to the fact that mommy didn't care
king Jeremy the wicked
ruled his world

Jeremy spoke in class today
Jeremy spoke in class today

clearly I remember
pickin' on the boy
seemed a harmless little thing
but we unleashed a lion
gnashed his teeth
and bit the recessed lady's breast

how could I forget
he hit me with a surprise left
my jaw left hurtin
dropped wide open
just like the day
like the day i heard

daddy didn't give affection
and the boy was something mommy wouldn't wear
king Jeremy the wicked
ruled his world

Jeremy spoke in class today
Jeremy spoke in class today
try to forget this...
try to erase this...
from the blackboard

                                     - 19 -
                       Lesson Plan Template: Direct Instruction

Teacher ____Janet Boyle__ Class ___ __ Date ______ Grade Level _______10___
Room Number __________ Period ________ Unit_Silence is a powerful scream: Can you hear
Lesson Number ____2____ and Topic Reading for a deeper understanding

Yesterday in class, students read background information on the Harlem Renaissance in order to
understand the context of the poem “Harlem”. Today, students will now read the poem by reading
the poem multiple times for understanding. They will also pay close attention to each word that is
in the poem in order to recognize why certain words carry certain connotations.


Short-range learning objective:
Students will read the poem” Harlem” by Langston Hughes and pay close attention to the
imagery and detail in the poem, for interpretation and understanding. Students will recognize that
the short length of the poem places a greater emphasis on the selection of each word. By reading
for analysis, students will discover how certain words carry specific connotations in writing.

Long-range learning objectives:
    Students will read for the purpose of discovering the different meanings that words can
    Students will discover how to “read between the lines”
    Students will be able to apply their newly acquired skill of reading to different pieces of
    Students can use this skill in all areas of academia
    Students will gain lifelong literacy by learning how to read for the purpose of discovering
       hidden meaning
    By reading an effective message through a short poem, students can discover how to say
       “more with less” by using appropriate, descriptive words.

Affective objectives (optional): Students will analyze the poem in order to learn critical reading

Administrators: In order to grow as educated individuals, students will need to learn how to read
“between the lines” when reading for information. They will develop contextual reading skills by
understanding the detail that an author may add to any piece of writing. Therefore, when students
identify the importance of reading detailed words, they will be able to transfer these skills into
their writing. Furthermore, by exploring the different connotations words carry, students can gain
a greater awareness of the importance of certain details in writing. Moreover, students will learn
by seeing how an effective message can be delivered by using a small amount of words, if the
words are chosen appropriately. This skill will help them when they have to piece together their
information booths for their culminating project involving the wellness fair. Students will not be
able to have a lengthy information booth if they want their messages to be affective.


                                               - 20 -
In order to thoroughly understand the importance of word choice, you must first identify the
different connotations found in the poem “Harlem” Students will read each poem, line by line, a
draw images in order to transcribe a visual representation.

Critical Pedagogues:
Students will develop the necessary skills that will develop them into literate individuals. They
will grow from having once read on a “surface” level to thoroughly exploring words in any type
of literature they come across in the future. They will be able to apply these skills when reading
literature that comes up in pop culture such as advertisements.

Background Knowledge and Skills
Students will need to have background knowledge about the poem and Langston Hughes in order
to fully understand the context of the poem and the diction.

NYS ELA Standard _2__:

Grade _10__ Performance Indicator (Reading):

By reading the Langston Hughes poem twice, students will read and analyze the effectiveness of
the literary techniques which include imagery, symbolism and language. Students will practice by
expressing the same idea using different vocabulary words in order to see how certain words
carry more detail than others. Students will transform from being inactive readers, to deep and
critical readers.

Anticipatory set                                                                        Time
Write on the Board:
Column A:                                   Column B:
I am having a good day, today.              I am having a bad day, today.               8
I am having a fantastic day, today.          I am having a horrible day, today.

Ask students to first identify the phrases in Column A. Ask students what the
difference between “good” and “fantastic” may be. Do the same comparison for
words in Column B. Then, ask students to give a general contrast between Column
A and Column B. Introduce the idea that certain words carry specific connotations.
Therefore, when someone says that have had a “bad” day, it is less severe sounding
than when someone says they have had a “horrible” day.

                                               - 21 -
 Today, we will be looking at the poem “Harlem” by Langston Hughes. The poem
contains words that create images and carry a certain connotation. Read the poem         5
once, a write a brief summary of the poem. Next we will then go through the poem
again, line by line, and identify the images that come to our mind. Additionally, you
will draw or write a brief illustration of how you interpret each line of the poem.
Pay close attention to the language, images and possible symbols that you may
discover while reading the poem.
Guided Practice
 Place the poem on an ELMO and go through the poem, line by line, with the               20
students. After one line is read, stop and ask student to identify what types of
images that may come to their mind. Make sure each student is familiar with the
words in the poem. Additionally, ask the students why Hughes may have chosen the
words that he did. Plug in different words for each line and show students how each
word makes a difference in the meaning of the poem. Once the annotation process
is finished be sure to ask the following questions:

What dream was he referring to?

What happened to his dream?

How can this relate to the Melinda?

Independent Practice
Reflection: Use the last few minutes in class to summarize the two different times       5
they read the poem. Ask students to write down and compare how reading the poem
for detail either changed their interpretation of poem, or gave them a greater
understanding for the poem.

Have student share their illustrations of the Langston Hughes poem with their            3
classmates in order to see how their peers interpreted certain words.

Special notes and Reminders to myself
Make sure students are sitting in a circle so that the classroom is set in a way to promote
conversation in a student-centered learning environment,

Materials and Resources needed
Langston Hughes’ poem “Harlem”
Chalk and Chalkboard

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs
Make sure Maria, again, is sitting toward the front of the classroom. Prompt her with questions to
make sure she is absorbing the material that she is reading. Keep her focused!

                                               - 22 -
Assessment of Student Learning
Students will receive a follow-up hangout for homework which will include questions involving
the poem. The ditto will allow students to relate the poem to their own life. This type of
homework will ensure that they understand the content in the poem.

Reflection on or Evaluation of Lesson

                                            - 23 -
(This sheet will be given to the students the day BEFORE the lesson on “Harlem”)

Background Information: THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE

The Harlem Renaissance was a period between World War I and the Great Depression
when black artists and writers flourished in the United States. Critics and historians have
assigned varying dates to the movement’s beginning and end, but most tend to agree that
by 1917 there were signs of increased cultural activity among black artists in the Harlem
section of New York City and that by the mid-1930s the movement had lost much of its
original vigor. While Harlem was the definite epicenter of black culture during this
period, and home to more blacks than any other urban area in the nation in the years after
World War I, other cities, such as Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia, also
fostered similar but smaller communities of black artists.

The movement came about for a number of reasons. Between 1890 and 1920, the near
collapse of the southern agricultural economy, coupled with a labor shortage in the north,
prompted about two million blacks to migrate to northern cities in search of work. In
addition, World War I had left an entire generation of African Americans asking why,
when they had fought and many had died for their country, they were still afforded
second-class status. By the end of the war, many northern American cities, such as
Harlem, had large numbers of African Americans emboldened by new experiences and
better paychecks, energized by the possibility of change. A number of black intellectuals,
such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Alain Locke, were making it clear that the time had come
for white America to take notice of the achievements of African-American artists and
thinkers. The idea that whites might come to accept blacks if they were exposed to their
artistic endeavors became a popular one.

To this end, magazines such as the Crisis, published by the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People, and Opportunity featured the prose and poetry of
Harlem Renaissance stars Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Nella
Larsen, and Zora Neale Hurston. Major New York-based publishing houses began to
search for new black voices and print their poems, short stories, and novels. White
intellectual society embraced these writers and supported— financially and through
social contacts—their efforts to educate Americans about their race, culture, and heritage
through their art. Ultimately, however, the financial backing began to run dry in the early
1930s with the collapse of the New York stock market and the ensuing worldwide
economic depression. The Renaissance had run its course.


                                               - 24 -
NAME: __________

Miss Boyle

English 10


Langston Hughes
What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore—
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over—
like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?

                                    - 25 -
Miss. Boyle
English 10

              Worksheet for “Harlem” by Langston Hughes

What is a dream deferred?

Think about a dream that you have or have had. Imagine if each time you desired to
achieve any goal you were ignored or even denied the opportunity. What would your
“dream deferred” look like if no one listened? Use descriptive language and imagery to
illustrate this image.

(Tips: Write down a dream of yours. Then, imagine what it would look like if it could not
leave the depths of your imagination.)


                                          - 26 -
                     Lesson Plan Template: Direct Instruction

Teacher ___Janet Boyle___ Class ___ __ Date ______ Grade Level ___10___
Room Number __________ Period ________ Unit Silence is a powerful scream: Can
you hear it?
Lesson Number _3__ and Topic How can speaking engage others in my cause?
(Adapted from Do something about it.Org) _

The students have been approaching the end of the novel speak and have discovered the
many ways in which silence has harmed the protagonist, Melinda, and are have identified
the issues that may exist from being silenced. At this point they have been exposed to
multi-genre works that have further identified the harmful effects of remaining silent in
an event when one should speak. Additionally, the students have been divided into
groups for their culminating project which is a wellness fair that identifies “The silence
that speaks.” Each group has been given a topic that they will have to research, for
example: alcoholism, sexual assault, drug use, for the purpose of informing their peers
and the faculty members that attend. This lesson will assist my students in how to create
information that will be displayed for the purpose of “engaging others in [the] cause.”

Short-range learning objective: Students will be able to speak for the purpose of clearly
and effectively expressing ideas and information for the purposing of making the
audience aware of the cause. Students will be asked to identify the characteristics of a
good speaker. In doing this, students will then be asked to “rant” about a minor topic in
order to practice for their culminating activity. This lesson will introduce techniques that
will be useful to the students’ ability to properly deliver information in a way creates the
greatest influence on the audience.

Long-range learning objectives:
     Students will be able to understand the appropriate techniques that must be used
        when speaking for the purpose of informing an audience
     Students will learn speaking skills that will be transferable to other disciplines and
        promote lifelong literacy
     Students will Students will understand the meaning and use of the techniques of
     Students will be able to recognize the techniques of a credible and effective
        speech and apply such skills when they are asked to speak about a topic that
        concerns the welfare of people
Affective objectives (optional):
Students will gain a better understanding of how to conjure words into meaningful
phrases that elicit emotional responses from the audience, while delivering important

                                           - 27 -
Students will be taught the essential elements of different uses of verbal communication
skills (e.g., projection, tone, volume, rate, articulation, pace, phrasing) During class time,
we will listen to an excerpt from Martin Luther King Jr’s “I have a dream” speech and
identify the ways in which King’s uses of these elements make his speech effective. Next,
students will be given a topic, which will involve something minor such as their feelings
toward homework, in which they will incorporate these elements into delivering an
effective mini-speech to their classmates. The student will assess one another on the
effectiveness of their mini-speech. Furthermore, the short and long-range objectives of
this lesson will teach students how to become more aware of how to deliver important
messages effectively and how to interpret speeches they hear. This lesson covers ELA
Standard 3, and captivates the essence speaking for the purpose of presenting information
clearly and logically.

In order to properly deliver a speech, or verbally communicate ideas, students must first
be introduced to the elements that make speaking effective. Furthermore, students must
also be provided an example of an effective speech in order to identify those elements in
a successful speech.
Critical Pedagogues:
Students will be given “real life” scenarios in which they will practice speaking about.
Once they have effectively learned how to verbally discuss a topic that is important to
them, students will then be able to transfer this skill into a more academic form for their
culminating project.

Background Knowledge and Skills
Student will need to be familiar with the significance of the Martin Luther King Jr.
speech, as well as whom MLK Jr. was.

NYS ELA Standard _3__:

Grade _10 _ Performance Indicator (_Speaking_):

Students will be introduced to the characteristics that represent a great speaker. They will
then listen to a short excerpt of Martin Luther King Jr.s speech, “I have a Dream,” and
they will listen to his powerful tone. Next, students will have the opportunity to emulate a
great speaker by “ranting” about a topic that they feel passionate about. Students will see
how their peers interpret and define an effective speaker.


                                            - 28 -
Anticipatory set                                                                 Time

Write the following example on the blackboard:
                                                                                 8 mins.
Warm-up: Have students fill in the blank. A great speaker is
___________(charismatic, dynamic, inspirational, etc.). Share lists of words.

Ask students what's the difference between reading a speech and listening to
someone say it aloud. Which do they prefer? Why? What are the benefits of


Today, we will be discussing the importance of effective speaking skills. As     13 mins
a class we will identify what makes a person an effective speaker. You will
receive two handouts. One will include a list of the varieties of verbal
communication (e.g. volume, tone, etc) and the other handout will include a
list of necessary elements that are used for persuasive speaking. You must
hold onto these sheets for they will be a necessary guide for your group
presentations at the fair “Breaking the Silence.” We will listen to an excerpt
from the Martin Luther King Jr’s speech titled, “I have a Dream.” While we
listen you must refer to your sheet that has the the list of verbal
communication skills and write down how MLK Jr. uses these element to
deliver an effective speech. We will go around the class and share our
Guided Practice
Next we will play an activity which will require each student to “rant” about    12 mins
something that bothers them. The word “rant” will be written and defined on
the blackboard in order to ensure students’ understanding of the term.
Students will pick an index card out of a hat. On each of the index cards
there should be a "topic" for students to rant about which will include school
topics or issues for youth (e.g. curfews, homework, or parental authority).
Then they will pick another index card. This card will decide the audience
they should their speech for. Use a chair and place it in the front of the
classroom so each student can have a moment to “rant” in front of their
peers. Ask for volunteers to stand in front of the class and read their rant.

Independent Practice                                                               6 mins
Students will now choose a personal topic in which they would like to “rant”
or speak about effectively. They will be given a few minutes in class to
begin writing about their topic, but they will have the assignment for
homework. During class tomorrow, the students will present their mini-
speeches in front of the class.

                                           - 29 -
I will end the class by making sure that the students have understood how to       4 mins
deliver a speech about any topic. I will insist that they choose a “light” topic
to speak about in order to emphasize the techniques of verbally delivering
their message.

Special notes and Reminders to myself
Make sure that the students capable of identifying the specific speaking elements.

Materials and Resources needed
Chalk and chalkboard
The two handouts on speaking techniques
Martin Luther King Jr. audio recording
A basket with a list of “topics” for the students to speak about

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs
Encourage her to share her ideas. She becomes easily discouraged because she feels as
though she is not smart. Make sure she feels comfortable with the “rant.”

Assessment of Student Learning
Students will complete a homework assignment which will involve writing a mini-speech
to share in front of their classmates.

Reflection on or Evaluation of Lesson

                                            - 30 -
                       Lesson Plan Template: Direct Instruction

Teacher __Janet Boyle_____ Class _ENG__ __ Date ______ Grade Level __10______
Room Number ____ Period _____Unit Silence is a powerful scream: Can you hear it? ______
Lesson Number ____4___ and Topic Viewing: Taking a look at images that represent silence

Students have analyzed a listening exercise and a reading exercise in which they identified
silence. Now, students will have to think a little more deeply about the topic as they view images,
and construct knowledge from what they see.

Short-range learning objective: Students will view the two photos for interpretation,
understanding and response. The students will interpret the photos by writing down any types of
ideas that come to their minds when they look at the photos. Students will understand how images
can be interpreted in more than just one way. The class will be divided into groups in order to
share their findings; every student will take notes.

Long-range learning objectives:
      Students will understand how one text can carry multiple levels of meaning
      Students will be able to examine and analyze visual sources
      Students will understand how images can create powerful messages
      Students will be made aware that visual art is another form of an expressive ELA
      Student will use critical thinking when analyzing the two photos for meaning

Affective objective: Students will understand how to “read” a photo or image for a deeper
meaning that lies beneath the image.

The short term and long term goals of this lesson, and the corresponding assignment, will help
students to read and view fluently across many different types of literary genres. Additionally,
this will cover ELA Standard 2: Language for literary response and expression.
Students must pay attention to the detail of the images and be encouraged to express any
associations they have wit the images. Therefore, they will better understand how to be confident
in their interpretations.
Critical Pedagogues:
By analyzing the images they see, students will become more aware of how images can be
subjective to each individual viewer. This will develop students’ ability to search for knowledge,
rather than being taught what they are seeing.

Background Knowledge and Skills
Students must have an understanding about artwork, in general. They must know that artists
create image for the purpose of delivering messages.

                                              - 31 -
NYS ELA Standard _2__:

Grade _10__ Performance Indicator (Viewing__):

Students will now receive an artistic visual representation of what a silenced individual may look
like. Students will use their existing knowledge, and knowledge they have learned from the novel,
to interpret these images. Furthermore, students will compare these images of the protagonist in
Speak, and gain a greater sense of compassion by seeing what pain may look like.

Anticipatory set                                                                       Time
Write the names of both images on the blackboard including the following               (Minutes)

How or Why do pictures hold ‘a thousand’ words?                                        7
- Invite students to understand how the meanings in pictures or images are subject
to interpretation of the viewer
 Today, we will be looking at two photos that represent silence. One photo carries
the idea of silence more abstractly than the other. However, they both carry           14
powerful message by what we see. Additionally, the thoughts and ideas that come
to mind may be different than another person’s. I also want for you all to keep in
mind, the idea of Melinda.
For both images, open the discussion, but make sure student carry the discussion:
“The Scream”
We must all come to understand that just because a person’s pain is not strikingly
apparent, does not mean that a person in not hurting inside.

This image of silence is apparent, unlike the first image. However, pay attention to
the girl’s relaxed face. Though her lips are sewn shut, her expression tells us that
she may have surrendered.

Guided Practice
 Students will now fill out the handout you have given to them. Allow students to
work in pairs so that they can also discuss what they have seen with their partners.   10
Students will complete the question sheet in class. Make sure that students discuss
how and in what ways the images represent Melinda. Would she be illustrated
similarly to these images?

Independent Practice
For homework, students will complete a handout that will ask them to compare one       4
of the photos to Melinda. Students may begin the hangout in class.

                                               - 32 -
DISCUSS: Now that we have seen a visual representation of silence, how can we
further understand why Melinda becomes so isolated from society? Does it make           7
sense that she isolates herself due to being ignored? Do you feel as though it should
have been the responsibility of a friend or family member to communicate with her,
rather than forcing her to try and break her own silence?

Special notes and Reminders to myself
Make sure students are not engrossed in anything other than what is being viewed and discussed.
(I.e. texting, passing notes, other homework)
Make sure students are sitting in a Socratic seminar. This class will rely heavily on discussion and
class participation.

Materials and Resources needed
“The Scream” Edvard Munch (painting)
“Silence” Google images (photo)

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs
Maria’s cognitive thinking may be limited compared to her peers. Therefore, encourage her to be
insightful and to look beyond what she is simply looking at.

Assessment of Student Learning
Students will be assessed on their homework handout sheet which reflects the day’s lesson.
(Homework assignment is written on the in-class handout.)

Reflection on or Evaluation of Lesson

                                               - 33 -
Miss. Boyle
English 10




                                             - 34 -
Miss. Boyle
English 10

“SILENCE” Google Images



                                             - 35 -
Miss Boyle
English 10

1. Edvard Munch “The Scream”

   Do you see the bystanders in the picture who ignore the man who is screaming?

   What does this image symbolize?

   Do the bystanders ignore him because they do not care? Or, do they simply not hear him
   because his pain is internal?

   2. “Silence” (Google Images)
    How does this girl’s face remind us of Melinda?

    Does she look as though she has surrendered her attempts to speak?

    Why do you think she may be calm even though her lips are stitched?

HOMEWORK: Write a paragraph which compares the effects of
Melinda’s silence to one or both of these images. Make sure to use
details from the book that support your findings.

                                           - 36 -
                       Lesson Plan Template: Direct Instruction

Teacher _Janet Boyle__ Class _ENG__ __ Date ______ Grade Level ___10_______
Room Number __________ Period ________ Unit_What types of issues arise from silence?
Lesson Number ____5____ and Topic Writing for Information (Adapted from

Now that students have been taught the different ways in which communication can work in ways
that elicit an emotional response from an audience, students will now put their knowledge into
practice. Students will begin to gather material that will assist them in the creation of their final
project assignment. At this point, students will have been assigned to a group with a specific topic
that is present among teenage struggles. Now each student in the entire class will conduct
research in order to find facts about the author of Speak: Laurie Halse Anderson. As a class the
students will perform a “mini-report” during class time and then share their findings. By doing
this activity, students will gain a better understanding as to what “writing for information” means.

Short-range learning objective: Students will write for the purpose of delivering information.
Students will need to read and write for information and understanding, so this exercise will
develop those skills. This lesson will teach students how to write for the purpose of informing and
educating an audience. In this exercise, they will dismiss “personal feelings” that may create their
writing as biased. Therefore, each student will practice, first, by doing an in-class mini-research
project on Laurie Halse Anderson.

Long-range learning objectives:

               Students will learn how to Students will read internet and book sources in order
                to search for factual information.
               Students will write for the purpose of delivering information that is unbiased
               Students will develop the skills necessary to distinguish the difference between
                writing for information versus writing for persuasion
               Students will learn how to identify important facts when they conduct the
                research that will be used in their assigned topics for the culminating project.

Affective objectives (optional): Students will write for the purpose of delivering information.

Students will need these skills in order to write for information on the Regents Examination.
Students will learn the ways to write for the purpose of delivering fact-based information. By
using the handout that I have provided, students will be made aware of how to develop writing
without sounding biased. To begin learning the technique, students will first practice this
informative writing by reading a sample of factual information. Particularly, students will look at
the same document in class which will be a biography on Laurie Halse Anderson. Once they have

                                               - 37 -
practiced this informative writing by using a small document, the students will then transfer these
skills when they conduct research for their culminating topic. Standard one under the ELA state
requirements demand that on the commencement level students will be capable of writing for the
purpose of delivering information from research documents, articles, etc. This skill of writing will
be transferable to various disciplines when students conduct and record any type of research

Students: In order to write an informative document, you must be able to identify important facts
within a given text that will then used to inform readers.

Critical Pedagogues:
Students will understand the proper way to conduct research as they gather information that is
factual. This exercise will engage students to critically think about what they are reading by
paying attention to facts and details.

NYS ELA Standard _1__:

Grade 10___ Performance Indicator (Writing_):

Students will conduct a small research project so they exercise their skills of writing for

Anticipatory set                                                                          Time
Write on the Blackboard:                                                                  (Minutes)

Writing for Information: Facts vs. Fluff                                                  5
How can we write for information that will educate our audiences?

Today’s Topic : Laurie Halse Anderson

 Today, we will look at the handout I have given you, which is titled “Informative
Writing.” I would like for you look over the sheet and we will read each section          7
aloud. Furthermore, you will have to conduct a mini-research project on the author
of Speak: Laurie Halse Anderson. I will give you a handout that will include a list
of questions you must answer by the end of the class period.

Guided Practice
Students will use the computer labs in order to answer the questions given. Walk          20
the class through finding reliable sources in which they will find their information.
*Take this opportunity to show students HOW to rely on a source.

                                               - 38 -
Independent Practice
Students will take all of the research they found and create their own personal        8
biography on the author. Therefore they will transform “choppy” information into a
smooth-flowing paragraph. (Any unfinished work with be homework)

Closure                                                                                2
Say to class:
Now that you have conducted a mini-research, you must use the skills covered
today, in your project for the fair!

Special notes and Reminders to myself
Make sure students are not “surfing the web” for anything other than research. Ask the computer
lab specialist to make sure that sites such as “Facebook” are blocked on the computer.

Materials and Resources needed
Both handouts
Computer Lab
ELMO (For the guided practice)

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs
Make sure that she does not lose focus due to the limited timing. Pair her with a partner and allow
her to conduct research with another classmate.

Assessment of Student Learning
Students will hand-in their biographies that they created, at the end of class.

Reflection on or Evaluation of Lesson

                                                - 39 -
Name: ______________
Miss. Boyle
English 10
December 2008

                               INFORMATIVE WRITING

If you're writing an informative essay, you need to make sure that you're using the right
techniques; otherwise, your piece could wind up without any substance (or, worse yet, in
the bottom of the "circular file.")

Too often, so-called "informative" essays are actually flowery, doctored-up creations.
Though they may cite one or two facts, they leave the reader without any more
knowledge of the topic area than when he or she began reading the piece.

If you truly want to inform your audience, you need to follow some simple guidelines
that will ensure that your words are memorable, informative, and concise. Below are
seven helpful hints to get you started on an essay that is fact-based, pithy, and powerful:

1. What's The Point?

Before you ever begin your informative essay, create a thesis statement; in more basic
terms, this means you must have a "point". By formulating a hypothesis and using that as
the basis of your informative essay, your work won't meander like a snaking stream.
Instead, it'll stay on point from beginning to end.

2. Ditch The Flowery Prose

Flowery language can be effective in the right forum; however, overly embellished
sentences do not belong in your informative essay. Keep your verbiage simple and
straightforward, or your reader will pay too much attention to your overuse of adjectives
and adverbs.

3. Put Your Feelings Aside

You probably have an opinion about what you're writing, but unless your essay is meant
to be read as a personal syndicated column, leave your feelings at the door. Instead of
editorializing, tell the facts like a good journalist; if you do, your readers will be able to
draw their own conclusions instead of having yours foisted upon them.

4. Get Your Facts Straight

An informative essay needs to have supporting data to give it clarity and authority.
However, that doesn't mean you can rely on any statistics you find online. Unfortunately,
the World Wide Web is filled with "facts" that are actually only half-truths (or even
outright lies.) Make sure the ones you choose for your work are from reliable sources,
such as well-known companies or government agencies.

                                             - 40 -
5. Go to The Sources

If you need to interview individuals to add power or legitimacy to your informative essay,
make sure you choose your interviewees carefully. Avoid the temptation to allow just
anyone to use your essay as a mouthpiece. Judiciously pick who you want to quote, then
make sure that your quotes are accurate.

6. Active Voice = Strong Essay

Present your information in a strong tone, using active words and powerful adjectives that
"pop" off the page, not simply dribble down onto the reader's lap. For instance, replace
words like "good" or "bad" with much more expressive counterparts. Remember, though
- your goal isn't to be poetic; it's to add proper emphasis to your thesis and supporting

7. Write About What Interests You

If you don't like the topic of your informative essay, no one else will, either. Of course,
we cannot always choose what to write about (unless we're very lucky authors, indeed!)
Therefore, you owe it to yourself and your readers to find an element of your essay that
intrigues you. Even if you have to manufacture enthusiasm for your work, that's okay;
just never allow your audience to hear your disinterest or they'll surely follow suit.

By using some or all of the above seven ideas, you can ensure that your next informative
piece of writing is strong, interesting, and succinct.



                                              - 41 -
Miss. Boyle
English 10
December 2008

                            In-Class Research topic:
                        Who is Laurie Halse Anderson?











                                - 42 -
                        Lesson Plan Template: Direct Instruction

Teacher ___Janet Boyle_ Class ENG___ __ Date 12/08____ Grade Level ______10______
Room Number __ Period ____Unit_Silence is a Powerful Scream: Can you hear it?
Lesson Number _6 _______ and Topic Writing to Inform but Persuade: The Art of Rhetoric
(Regents Preparation)

Now that students have covered all five ELA areas and received their topics for the culminating
project, they will now learn how to write persuasively and effectively. Students saw and learned
how to write strictly for information. Now, they will implement rhetorical tactics that will grasp
the audience’s attention when they present their topic in the fair “Break the Silence.”

Short-range learning objective:
Students will learn how to write for the purpose of creating an emotional response from the
audience. Students will learn rhetorical strategies for writing by writing about something that they
care deeply about and they will transfer those skills when writing for the regents examination.

Long-range learning objectives:
    Students will use rhetorical strategies when writing for their culminating project
    Students will synthesize their skills of writing for information, with the skills of rhetoric
       to deliver an effective presentation
    Students will be able to make an effective arguments in writing
    Students will use rhetorical strategies when writing a persuasive essay on the Regents

Affective objectives (optional): Students will write for the purpose of persuading an audience.

Students will learn the skills necessary for writing persuasively and effectively. Rhetorical
strategies will improve students’ ability to make an argument more effective and it will help
students to understanding rhetorical strategies when reading, as well. Furthermore, when asked to
write a persuasive essay on the Regents Exam, students will understand how to write effectively.
Students will also be able to understand how the media uses these tactics in order to persuade
consumers: Media Literacy.

In order to properly understand and rhetorical strategies, you must apply those strategies in your
own writing. You must choose a topic that has meaning to you, and write about it for the purpose
of persuading your classmates.

Critical Pedagogues:
To promote lifelong literacy, students must understand that writing can be biased. Or, like
advertisements, writing too can be used a tool for persuasion. One they are able to perform this
type of persuasive writing, they will become more aware of it in the material that they read.

                                               - 43 -
Background Knowledge and Skills

Students must understand what persuasion is. Students must also understand how advertisements
are tools for persuasion.

NYS ELA Standard _1__: Writing for Information and Understanding (REGENTS: August

Grade _10__ Performance Indicator (_Writing __):

Students will create an advertisement script that will inform their classmates about a product.
However, students must write to persuade their classmates to believe that the product is
absolutely vital to have.

Anticipatory set                                                                        Time
Write on the Board:                                                                     (Minutes)
Media Literacy: How Advertisements and the Media can be persuasive.                     3

 Ask students about commercials and advertisements in the media. Discuss the ways
the media uses rhetoric to function as a tool for persuasion. Choose and item in        8
which you will write a brief advertisement for. This is an example of my own
advertisement for college students who are trying to figure out a major at my alma
mater SUNY Cortland:

Slogan: “Educate a person: Educate a Generation”

Ethos: SUNY Cortland is of the largest teacher education schools in the nation”

Pathos: Where do you see yourself in the future? If money is the object, you can sit
in a cubicle all day and crunch numbers for “big bucks.” Or, you can do something
rewarding each day and inspire, educate and positively influence young minds. All
the money in the world could not pay for the amazing feeling that a teacher receives
when they have educated an individual”

Logos: “In our current economic situation, teachers are in high demand. Think about
computers, they can replace numbers. However, a great, charismatic teacher can not
be replaced by lifeless machine”

Guided Practice
Using the handout, choose a topic you will write about. Your audience is your class.
I want for you to appeal to the audience.                                               10

                                               - 44 -
Include a slogan or “an attention grabber”
ETHOS: the credibility > The proof of its validity
PATHOS: the emotion > This is the relationship that the item has to the audience
LOGOS: the logic > The reasons “why”

Independent Practice
Students will work on an advertisement, with their assigned groups, and finish it for   17
homework if they have not done so in class.

How is rhetoric going to be an important part of delivering the information for your    2
assigned topic during our information fair?

Materials and Resources needed
Rhetoric Handout

Accommodations for Students with Special Needs
Make sure she has a clear understanding of the differences between the three rhetorical strategies.
The group work should be beneficial for her understanding of the material.

Assessment of Student Learning
Students will present their advertisements for the following class.

Reflection on or Evaluation of Lesson

                                               - 45 -
Miss. Boyle
English 10

    The Art of Rhetoric: Ethos, Pathos and Logos

RHETORIC: The art of using language effectively and persuasively

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.

Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of
the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The
impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal.

Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or
speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the
way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer's
reputation as it exists independently from the message--his or her expertise in the field,
his or her previous record or integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called
the argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.'

[P]athos (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') is often associated with emotional appeal.
But a better equivalent might be 'appeal to the audience's sympathies and imagination.'
An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify
with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels. In this sense, pathos evokes a
meaning implicit in the verb 'to suffer'--to feel pain imaginatively.... Perhaps the most
common way of conveying a pathetic appeal is through narrative or story, which can turn
the abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. The values, beliefs, and
understandings of the writer are implicit in the story and conveyed imaginatively to the
reader. Pathos thus refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the
message on an audience, the power with which the writer's message moves the audience
to decision or action.



                                                   - 46 -


    Organize a wellness fair that educates the school community about teen issues

        A teacher/advocate

      School Community

        Students will research real-life topics and issues that teenagers encounter

        Students will occupy one of the hallways in the school with tables that display
their research.

        Speech: Performance

SUMMARY: Students will organize a wellness fair titled “Break the Silence.” In groups
of three or four, students will conduct research on topics that affect teens due to the “veil
of silence” that deems issues as conversationally taboo. Their research will include facts,
art work, and the tactics of rhetoric in order to draw in the audience. Topics covered will
be: Underage Drinking, Drugs, Sexual Assault, Depression and Oppression. This fair is
intended to inform and empower students with the knowledge. Furthermore, it will make
students aware that these issues really do exist, and they are harmful. As a result of
everything the students will learn over the course of the unit, students will have poetry,
artwork and the skills to conduct factual information which they will use in their final

   o Students will be assessed on the creativity of each of their booths
   o Students will be assessed on their use of the rhetorical elements of persuasion for
      the audience
   o Students will be assessed on their incorporation of the five different ELA topics,
      into their project booths.
   o Students will be assessed on how they discuss each topic to their peers
   o Students will be assessed on the reflection piece that they will write at the end of
      the unit, which will synthesize their ability to “speak” and how it empowered

                                            - 47 -

1) Students will use the knowledge they have acquired from each one of their lessons and
contribute that information at the wellness fair. The experience of conducting research for
a presentation will teach students that the issues they have read about exist in their

2) This project will give students the opportunity to see what it feels like to be informed,
or to empower others with information that may seriously affect their lives. They will
read about Melinda’s experience of not being able to speak, and see how liberating
expression can be. Furthermore, they will have also informed themselves about serious
issues that teens face, and become aware.

3) Bloom’s Taxonomy represents that creation is the highest level of cognitive behavior
in learning. During the culminating project, students will work to create their own forms
of expressing and presenting information to a public audience. I have taught them
everything they will need to know in order to create an effective presentation. Therefore,
the project itself is completely student-centered because their creations will reflect how
much knowledge they have learned.



                            Break the Silence!

Now that you have all read the novel Speak, you have seen the
detrimental effects of silence when placed on an individual. As the
reader we saw Melinda transform within the moments she begins
to “speak.” Therefore, as a class we will extend her pivotal
moment into an informative opus for the school community. You
will participate in the school’s SADD week, and work with your

                                           - 48 -
group to gather information on your assigned topic; so that you can
decorate the assigned tables our class will receive for the wellness

Each group will need to contribute the following materials:
   Research information on a poster board
   Images that represent their topic
   One literary piece from each group member (i.e. poem, short
   Rhetorical strategies that persuade or influence the future
     actions of your school community
            -Slogan, Ethos, Pathos, Logos

*At the end of the presentations, you will hand-in a typed journal
entry that reflects on your experience of contributing the wellness
fair. Furthermore, I would like you to include, in these entries,
how you would imagine Melinda has felt never being able
to discuss these issues among her peers.
  (** Keep in mind that you will be “breaking the silence,” which means
  you are intensely delivering the knowledge that is typically “taboo” in
  conversation. Make it effective!)

                                   - 49 -
                        Rubric for Performance Task
*Each group will be assessed as a whole

Directions: Circle the one (1) appropriate description of the student’s performance
for each criterion.
    Criteria            A             B             C               D            F
Presentation      Has           Has used 4    Has used 3      Has used 2    Did not
covers topics     accurately    of 5 ELA      of 5 ELA        of 5 ELA      properly
from ALL 5        used          topics        topics          topics        include
ELA lessons       material                                                  ELA
                  from each of                                              materials
                  the 5 ELA

Students must    Entire group   Moderately       Minimally One person       Do not
be advocating    Actively       Draws the        draws     works as the     fulfill this
their cause to   draws in the   attention to               advocate to
                                                 attention to               step
the school       audience to    the audience               draw
                                                 the audience
community        be aware of                     about the audience in
                 the cause                       cause     about the
Attractiveness/ Group has     Group has      Group is      Group is         Group has
Appearance      included all included all missing one missing               not created
                artwork and artwork and item and the more than              an affective
                literature to literature but appearance    one item         and
                create a      Is lacking     is lacking    required and     pleasing
                pleasing      appearance                   has not          presentation
                appearance                                 focused on
Teamwork        Group has     Group has      Group has     Group has        Group
                made          made good      made          made             could not
                excellent     products by moderate         minimal          maintain
                products by collaborating products by products by           itself
                collaborating ideas and      collaborating collaborating
                ideas and     work           ideas and     ideas and
                work                         work          work

Average of the four grades above = ________ = Presentation Grade

                                        - 50 -
NYS ELA Standards

Bloom’s Taxonomy Pyramid

Article on “The Harlem Renaissance”

“How can Speaking Engage Others in My Cause?” Lesson 3

Lesson 5: Informative Writing

“The Art of Rhetoric: Ethos, Pathos and Logos”

Excerpt from “Learning To Teach for Social Justice”
Darling-Hammond, Linda, French, and Garcia-Lopez. Learning to Teach for Social
Justice. 1st ed. New York: Teachers College: Columbia University, 2001.

                                        - 51 -

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