Published Documents and Archival Sources:
The Aluka website:
Africa Contemporary Record, ed. By Colin Legum
Mokoena, K South Africa and the United States. The Declassified History. A National Security
Archive Documents Reader (New York, 1993)
Baumhoegger, G, The struggle for independence: documents on the recent development of
Zimbabwe (1975-1980) Hamburg (Institut fur Afrika-. Kunde) 1986.
Onslow, S, Introduction, Cold War History 7.2, (May 2007)

National Archives:
The National Archives, Kew

The United States:
FRUS Series
The National Security Archive, George Washington University, Washington DC
The Kennedy Library, Boston
The Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
The Nixon Library. Los Angeles
The Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
The Carter Library, Atlanta
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Website, maintained by the National Archives
The Cold War International History Project Bulletins (especially 8-9), and e-dossiers

South Africa:
South African National Archives, Pretoria
Department of Foreign Affairs, Pretoria
SANDF, Pretoria
Armaments Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR)
Archives of Contemporary History, University of Bloemfontein
University of Stellenbosch

The ESARBICA members:
Details of addresses, and email contact, can be located on
(see also Zimbabwe’s Oral History Unit:
(see also the Political Archives of the United National Independence Party)
(see also SWAPO Party and Archive Research Centre (SPARC)
University of Windhoek
Portuguese National Archives, Lisbon
Arquivo Historico Diplomatico
Arquivo Historico Ultramarino

Anti-Apartheid Movement & opinion:

Borthwick Institute, York University:
                      Patrick Duncan,
                      Joost de Blank, Community of the Resurrection,
                      Lord Fraser of Lonsdale
Warwick University, Modern Records Centre:
                      Trades Union Congress (TUC),
                      Confederation of British Industry (CBI),
 Lambeth Palace Library:
                      Archbishops Fisher and Ramsey, Canon Collins,
                      British Council of Churches
 School of Oriental and African Studies:
                      Missionary Societies,
                      Christian Concern for Southern Africa
 Rhodes House Library:
                      Africa Bureau,
                      Anti Apartheid Movement,
                      Barclays Bank
Manchester University:
                      Methodist Church
Lords and Twickenham:
                      Cricket and Rugby
Birmingham University:
                      Amateur Athletic Association
Churchill College, Cambridge:
                      Fenner Brockway
Institute of Commonwealth Studies:
                      Ruth First
Hull University:
                      Patrick Wall
Bodley Library:
                      General Electric Company (GEC)
                      TUC Library

University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg:
                      Church of the Province of Southern Africa,
                      South African History Archive
University of Fort Hare, Alice
                      ANC archives
See also The Directory of African Archivist Archives
( for American holdings of private papers and
non-governmental organisations supporting the African liberation struggle

The Nordic Afrika Institute, Uppsala

Secondary Sources:

Birmingham, D & Martin, PM, History of Central Africa: the contemporary years
Birmingham, D, Empire in Africa: Angola and its neighbours
Birmingham, D: Portugal & Africa
Cambridge History of Africa
Chabal, P, Engel, U, & Gentili, A (eds) Is Violence inevitable in Africa (2005)
Clarence Smith, G, The third Portuguese empire, 1825-1975 (1985)
Cooper, F, Africa since 1940 (2003)
Darwin, J, Britain and decolonisation; the retreat from Empire in the post-war world. (1988)
Darwin, J, The End of the British Empire: the historical debate (1991)
Davidson, B, Africa in Modern History
Donaldson, R, ed. The Soviet Union in the Third World: Successes and Failures (Boulder, 1981)
Dunigan, P & Gann, L, Colonialism in Africa, (1975)
Ellis, S, 'Africa's wars of liberation: some historiographical reflections', in Piet Konings, van
        Binsbergen, W and Gerti Hessling, Trajectoires de liberation end Afrique contemporaine
        (ASC Karthala, 2000)
Fieldhouse, D, Economics & empire (1973)
Fieldhouse, DK, Black Africa 1945-80
Fieldhouse, DK, The West and the Third World (2004 edn)
Furedi, F, Colonial Wars and the politics of Third World Nationalism (1994)
Gallagher, J, The decline, revival and fall of the British Empire (1982)
Gifford, P & W R Louis, WR (eds) France & Britain in Africa (1971)
Giliomme, H, The Afrikaners: the biography of a people (2003)
Hall, C, (ed) Cultures of Empire: a reader (2000)
Hargreaves, JD, Decolonisation in Africa (Longman 1996)
Holland, R, European Decolonization 1918-1981 (1985)
Hopkins, A, ‘Macmillan’s audit of empire’ in P Clarke et al (ed) Understanding decline (1997)
Howard W French, A continent for the taking: the tragedy and hope of Africa (2004)
Howe, S, Anti-colonialism in British politics: The Left & the end of empire (1993)
Iliffe, J, Africans: the history of a continent (1995)
Iliffe, J, The African poor: a history (1987)
Ilkins, CE, & Pedersen, S (ed) Settler colonialism (2006)
Kahler, K Decolonization in Britain & France: the domestic consequences of international relations
Le Sueur, JD (ed), The Decolonisation Reader (2003)
Louis, WR & Robinson, ‘The imperialism of decolonisation’, JICH, 22 (1994)
Louis, WR, Imperialism at bay. The US and the decolonization of the British empire (1977)
MacQueen, N The Decolonization of Portuguese Africa (1997)
Manning, P, Francophone sub-Saharan Africa, 1800-1995 (2nd ed, 1998)
Marte, F, Political Cycles in International Relations. The Cold War And Africa 1945-1990
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Murphy, P, Alan Lennox Boyd: a biography (2000)
Murphy, Philip. Party Politics and Decolonization: The Conservative Party and British Colonial Policy
      Tropical Africa, 1951-1964. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Newitt, M, Portugal in Africa (1981)
Ovendale, R ‘Macmillan & the Wind of Change in Africa’, Historical Journal, 38, 3 (1995)
Owen, N ‘Decolonisation & post-war consensus’ in Jones & Kandiah (eds) The Myth of Consensus
Owen, R & Sutcliffe, Studies in the Theory of Imperialism
Oxford History of the British Empire
Payne, R, The Non-superpowers and South Africa: Implications for US Policy. (Indiana University
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Porter, AN. European Imperialism (1860-1914)
Richards, P, No peace, no war: an anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts (2005)
Roberts, A (ed) The colonial moment in Africa (1990)
Ross, R Racism & Colonialism
Shephard, R, Iain Macleod (1994)
UNESCO General History of Africa
Whitehead, NL, (ed) Violence (2005)

The Cold War and Southern Africa 1945-1990:
Albright, D, Africa and International Communism (London 1980)
Baker, C, State of Emergency: Crisis in Central Africa, Nyasaland (1997)
Coker, C, The United States and South Africa 1968-1985. Constructive Engagement and Its Critics
      (North Carolina 1986).
Evans, G, ‘The Great Simplifier: the Cold War and South Africa’, in A Dodson, ed. Deconstructing
      and Reconstructing the Cold War (Aldershot, 1999)
Kempton, D, Soviet Strategy Towards Southern Africa (Praeger, 1989)
Laidi, Z, The Superpowers and Africa: The Constraints of a Rivalry, 1960-1990 (1990)
Larkin, B, China and Africa 1949-1970 (University of California Press, 1971)
Moorcroft, P, African Nemesis – War and Revolution in Southern Africa, 1945-2010 (Brasseys,
Shubin, Vladimir, ‘Unsung Heroes: The Soviet Military and Liberation in Southern Africa’, Cold War
      History 7.2 May 2007.
Somerville, ‘The USSR and Southern Africa since 1976’, The Journal of Modern African Studies,
      Vol. 22, No. 1 (Mar. 1984) pp.73-108
Spence, Jack, ‘Southern Africa in the Cold War’, History Today, February 1999.
Spence, Jack, ‘The Soviet Union, the Third World and Southern Africa’, Bradlow Series, No. 5,
      The South African Institute of International Affairs, November 1988.

The Congo Crisis 1960-1965:
(See also general texts above)
Austin, ‘Remembrance of Sins Past: unravelling the murder of Patrice Lumumba, ROAPE, 93/94
Ball, S.J. “Banquo’s Ghost: Lord Salisbury, Harold Macmillan, and the High Politics of
      Decolonization, 1957-1963. Twentieth Century British History 16:1 (March, 2005).
Bayart, JF, The Criminalisation of the state in Africa (1999)
Birmingham, D & P Martin (eds) History of Central Africa since 1960 (1998)
Cambridge History of Africa, vol 6 (1985)
Chabal, P et al Is Violence in African Inevitable? (2005)
de Witte, L, The Assassination of Lumumba (2001)
Depelchin, J, From the Congo Free State to Zaire: how Belgium privatised the economy (1992)
Devlin, Lawrence, Chief of Station – Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone (2007)
Dunn, K, Imagining the Congo: the International Relations of Identity (2003)
Everwyn, Gerhard. “Which way Katanga?” African Affairs 16:243 (April, 1962).
Fafowora, Oladapo Olusola. Pressure groups and foreign policy: a comparative study of British
      attitudes and policy towards secessionist moves in the Congo (1960-63) and in Nigeria (1966-
      69). Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Ltd, 1990.
Gérard-Libois, Jules. Katanga Secession. Madison, Milwaukee: The University of Wisconsin Press,
Hempstone, Smith. Katanga report. London: Faber and Faber, 1962.
Hochschild, A, King Leopold's Ghost: a story of greed, terror, and heroism in Colonial Africa (2000)
Holt, Andrew. “Lord Home and Anglo-American Relations, 1961-1963.” Diplomacy and Statecraft
      16 (2005).
Horowitz, Dan. “Attitudes of British Conservatives toward Decolonization in Africa” African
      Affairs 69:274 (January 1970).
James, Alan. Britain and the Congo Crisis, 1960-1963. London: Macmillan Press, 1996.
Macmillan, Harold. At the End of the Day, 1961-1963. London: Macmillan Press, 1973.
Mamdani, M, ‘African States, Citizenship and War’, International Affairs 78, 3 (2002) 493-506
Murphy, Philip. Party Politics and Decolonization: The Conservative Party and British Colonial
      Policy Tropical Africa, 1951-1964. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Ngolet, F ‘African and American Connivance in Congo-Zaire’, Africa Today 47, 1 (2000)
O’Brien, Conor Cruise. To Katanga and Back: a UN Case Study. London: Hutchinson and Co. Ltd.,
Okumu, Washington. Lumumba’s Congo: Roots of Conflict. New York: Ivan Obolensky, Inc.,
Rowe, JA, Lugard at Kampala
State Failure in the Congo: Perceptions and Realities, ROAPE Special Issue 29 Number 93/94
      (Sep/Dec 2002)
Stefan, T, 'War in the Congo' chapter 6 in P Chabal et al Is Violence inevitable in Africa (2005)
Young, C, Politics in the Congo (1965)

The Angola Conflict 1975-1976:
Barnet, D & R Harvey, The revolution in Angola: MPLA, life histories & documents (Indianapolis
     & NY 1972)
Bergerol, J, Angola in the Front Line (London, Zen Books, 1983)
Birmingham, D, Empire in Africa: Angola and its neighbours
Birmingham, D, Portugal & Africa
Bridgland, F, Jonas Savimbi: A Key to Africa (London, Coronet Books, 1988)
Brinkman, I, ‘War, witches & traitors: cases from the MPLA’s Eastern Front in Angola, 1966-1975’
     JAH, 44 (2003)
Clarence-Smith, G, The Third Portuguese Empire 1825-1975: A study in Economic Imperialism
     (Manchester UP) 1985
CNN Documentary, ‘The Cold War’
Cramer, C, ‘Angola’ in P Chabal et al, Is Violence in African inevitable (2005)
Crowder, M (ed): The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. VIII (1940-1975) (Cambridge 1974)
Davidson, B, The Eye of the Storm (1972)
Ekwe-Ekwe, H, Conflict and Intervention in Africa: Nigeria, Angola and Zaire ((New York, St
     Martin’s 1990)
Erlang, S, And still they danced
Heimer, FW, The decolonisation conflict in Angola
Heimer, FW, The Decolonisation Conflict in Angola 1974-1976: An Essay in Political Sociology
      (Geneva, Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales 1979)
Kahler, M, Decolonisation in Britain and France: the domestic consequences of International
Kapuscinski, R, Another day of life
Kent, J, The Internationalisation of Colonialism (Oxford 1992)
Laidi, Z, The Superpowers and Africa: The Constraints of a Rivalry, 1960-1990 (Chicago
      University Press, 1990)
Mabeko-Tali, J-M, Dissidencia e poder de estado – O MPLA perante si proprio (1962-1977) (2
      volumes, Nzila 2001)
Macqueen, N, Belated Decolonisation and UN Politics against the Backdrop of the Cold War:
      Portugal, Britain and Guinea-Bissau’s Proclamation of Independence 1973-1974
Maier, K, Angola: promises & lies
Marcum, J, The Angolan Revolution, vol II Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare 1962-1976
      (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press 1978)
Minter, W, Apartheid’s Contras
Newitt, M, Portugal in Africa – the last 100 years (1981)
Pereira, AW, ‘The return to war in Angola, 1992-3’ JMAS, 32 (1994)
Robinson, RAH, Contemporary Portugal: A History (1979)
Russell, A, Big men, little people
Sykes, J, Portugal and Africa: The People and War
Westad, A, The Global Cold War (Cambridge 2005)
Windrich, E, ‘Savimbi’s War’ in Vale, P and Baines, G ed. Beyond the Border War, (UNISA press,
Windrich, E, ‘Der Kalte Krieg in Südafrika’ in: Heiße Kriege im Kalten Krieg (Hamburger Edition,
      HIS Verlag, 2006

Wolfers & Bergerol, Angola in the Front Line

Brzezinski, Z, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser (New York, Fanar,
      Straus, Giroux 1983)
Ford, G, Time To Heal. The Autobiography of Gerald Ford (1979)
Gartoff, R, Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan
      (Brookings Institute, 1994)
Gates, R, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider’s Story of Five Presidents and how they Won the
      Cold War (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996)
Hanhimaki, J, Flawed Architect (2004)
Kissinger, H, Years of Renewal
Lemarchand, American Policy in Southern Africa
Stockwell, J, In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story (London, Andre Deutsch 1978)
Wright, G, US Policy towards Angola: The Kissinger Years 1974-1976 (Leeds 1990)

Golan, G, The Soviet Union and National Liberation Movements in the Third World (New York,
     Unwin Hyman, 1988)
Katz, M, The Third World in Soviet Military Thought (Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press
Klinghoffer, AJ, The Angolan War: A Study in Soviet Policy in the Third World (Boulder,
     Westview Press, 1980)
Matheson, N, The ‘Rules of the Game’ of Superpower Military Intervention in the Third World,
     1975-1980 (Washington, University Press of America, 1982)
The System: An Insider’s Life in Soviet Politics (New York, Times Books, 1992)
Westad, A, ‘Moscow and the Angolan Crisis 1974-1976: A New Pattern of Intervention, Cold War
     International History Project (CWIHP) Bulletin, 8-9

Adams, Race and the Cuban Revolution
Dominguez, J, To Make a World Safe for Revolution: Cuba’s Foreign Policy (Cambridge, Harvard
      University Press 1989)
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, “Operation Carlota: Cuba’s role in Angolan Victory’, Venceremos, 4.5
      (February 1977)
Edwards, G, The Cuban Intervention in Angola 1965-1991 (London, 1991)
Gleijeses, P, ‘Moscow’s Proxy? Cuba and Africa 1975-1988’ in Journal of Cold War Studies
      Volume 8, 2006.
Gleijeses, P, Conflicting Missions. Washington, Havana and Africa. 1950-1976
Gonzalez, E, “Cuba, the Soviet Union, and Africa” in David E Albright: Communism in Africa
      (Bloomington, Indiana University Press 1980)
Gott, R, Cuba: A New History (Yale University Press 2004)
LeoGrande, WM ‘Cuban-Soviet Relations and Cuban Policy in Africa (Cuban Studies, 10.1 January
Martinez, Cuban Military in Angola
Risquet Valdes, J, ‘The Deep Roots of Cuba’s Internationalism’
See also: Cuba: An African Odyssey (BBC 4 documentary), directed by Jihan El Tahri.

Jackson, SF, ‘China’s Third World Foreign Policy: The Case of Angola and Mozambique, 1961-
     1993, China Quarterly, 142( 1995)
Taylor, I, ‘Mainland China and Southern Africa since 1976’, Journal of Modern African Studies,

South Africa:
Barber, J and Barratt, J, South African Foreign Policy
Davenport, TRH and C Saunders: South Africa: A Modern History (5th edition, Palgrave 2005)
Geldenhuys, D, The Diplomacy of Isolation
Hamman, H, The Days of the Generals: The Untold Story of South Africa’s Apartheid-Era Military
       Generals (Cape Town: Zebra Press 2001)
Steenkamp, W, Borderstrike! South Africa Into Angola (Durban, Butterworths 1983)
Stiff, P, The Silent War: South African Recce Operations 1969-1994 (Cape Town Galago 1999)

Birmingham, D, Frontline nationalism in Angola & Mozambique (1992)
Chabal, P, Amilcar Cabral: revolutionary leadership & people’s war (1983)
Davidson, B, ‘Questions about nationalism’, AA, 76, 302 (1977)
Finnegan, W, The harrowing of Mozambique
Geffray, C, La cause des armes au Mozambique
Honwana, R, We killed mangy-dog
Newitt, M, A history of Mozambique
Raikes, P, ‘Food policy in Mozambique, ROAPE, 29 (1984)
Roesch, O, ‘Renamo & peasantry in S Mozambique’, CJAS 26 (1992)
Wilson, K, ‘Cults of violence in Mozambique’, JSAS, 18, 3 (1992)

Southern Rhodesia:
Alexander, J, J McGregor, & T Ranger, Violence & Memory..(2000)
Alexander, J, The Unsettled Land: State-making and the Politics of Land in Zimbabwe 1893-2003
Barber, J, Rhodesia: The Road to Rebellion (1967)
Birmingham, D & P. Martin, History of Central Africa Day, J, International Nationalism: The Extra-
      Territorial Relations of Southern Rhodesian African Nationalists, (1968)
C. Watts, 'Dilemmas of Intra-Commonwealth Representation During the Rhodesian Problem, 1964-
65', Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, Vol. 45, No. 3 (July 2007), pp. 323-44.
Chung,F, Re-Living the Second Chimurenga (Harare, 2006)
Elkins, C & S Pederson (eds) Settler colonialism in the twentieth century (NY: 2005)
Flower, K, Serving Secretly: An Intelligence Chief on Record: Rhodesia into Zimbabwe, 1964 to 1981,
Godwin, P, & I Hancock, Rhodesians never die (1993)
Hall, C (ed) Cultures of Empire: a reader (2000)
Hancock, I, White Liberals, Moderates and Radicals in Rhodesia, 1953-1980 (1984)
Krautwurst, U, ‘What is settler colonialism? An anthropological meditation on Frantz Fanon’s
      Concerning Violence’, History & Anthropology, 14, 1 (2003)
Lester, A, British Settler Discourse and the circuits of empire’, History Workshop Journal 54, (2002)
Lowry, D, ‘The impact of Anti-communism on White Rhodesian Political Culture, c.1920-1980’, in
      Cold War History 7.2 May 2007.
M. Facchini, 'The "Evil Genius": Sir Hugh Beadle and the Rhodesian Crisis', Journal of Southern
African Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Sept. 2007), pp. 673-89.
Melson, ‘Top Secret War: Rhodesia’s special operations’, Small Wars and Insurgencies 16, 1 (2005)
Meredith, Martin The Past is Another Country: Rhodesia, 1890-1979 (London: André Deutsch,
Mosley, P, ‘Agricultural Development & Settler Economies: Rhodesia 1900-60’, Economic
      History Review (1982)
Murray, DJ, The Governmental System in Southern Rhodesia (1970)
Nkomo, J, The Story of My Life (1984)
Phimster, I, Economic & social history of Zimbabwe (1988)
Preston, M, ‘Stalemate and the termination of war, Rhodesia reassessed’ 16,1 (2005) Journal of
      Peace Research, 41 (2005)
Preston, Matthew, Ending Civil War. Rhodesia and Lebanon in Perspective (Tauris Academic Studies,
      London 2004)
Smith, I, The Great Betrayal: The Memoirs of Ian Douglas Smith, (1997)
Taylor, S, Livingstone’s tribe (1999)
Verrier, A, The Road to Zimbabwe, 1890-1980 (1986)


Carrington, Lord, Reflect on Things Past
Charlton, Ian, The Last Colony in Africa
Crosland, Susan, Tony Crosland (London: Jonathan Cape, 1982)
Foot, P, The Politics of Harold Wilson (1968)
Murdoch, NH, ‘Martyrdom and resistance to colonialism in Rhodesia’ Journal of the third world
     studies 21, 1 (2004)
Owen, David, Time to Declare (London and New York: Penguin, 1991)
Pimlott, Ben, Harold Wilson, (1992)
Sanger, Clyde, Malcolm MacDonald: Bringing an End to Empire, (1995)
Thatcher, Margaret, The Downing Street Years
Watts, C, ‘“Moments of tension and drama”: the Rhodesian Problem at the Commonwealth Prime
     Ministers’ Meetings, 1964-65’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Vol. 8, No. 1
Watts, C, ‘G. Mennen Williams and Rhodesian Independence: A Case Study in Bureaucratic Politics’,
Michigan Academician, Vol. 36, No. 3 (2004), pp. 225-46.
Watts, Carl. “The United States, Britain, and the Problem of Rhodesian Independence, 1964-1965.”
     Diplomatic History 30, no. 3 (2006): 439-470.
Watts,C, ‘Killing Kith and Kin: The Viability of British Military Intervention in Rhodesia, 1964- 65’,
Twentieth Century British History, Vol. 16, No. 4 (2005), pp. 382-415.
Wetherell, ‘Britain and Rhodesian Expansionism.’ Rhodesian History, 1977.
Wilson, Harold, The Labour Government 1964-1970: A Personal Record (1971)
Windrich, Elaine, Britain and the Politics of Rhodesian Independence (1978)

South Africa:
(See general texts on South African foreign policy)
Onslow, Sue: ‘A Question of Timing: South Africa and Rhodesian UDI 1964 -1965 (Cold War
      History, Volume 5, 2 2005), pp129-160.
Onslow, Sue: ‘We must gain Time.’ South Africa, Rhodesia and the Kissinger Initiative . South
      African Historical Journal. 56, 2006)
Onslow, Sue, "South Africa and the Owen/Vance Plan of 1977," South African Historical Journal
      51 (2004)
Onslow, Sue, ‘Documents: South Africa and Rhodesia 1979-1980’, Cold War History 7.2, May
Onslow, Sue, ‘Noises Off: South Africa and the Lancaster House Settlement 1979-1980,
      forthcoming Journal of Southern African Studies

Borstelmann, Thomas The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global
      Arena (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001)
Brzezinski, Zbigniew Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977-1981
      (New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux, 1983)
Carter, Jimmy An Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood (New York, Simon &
      Schuster, 2001).
Davidow, Jeffrey, A Peace in Southern Africa: The Lancaster House Conference on Rhodesia, 1979
      (Boulder: Westview, 1984)
DeRoche, Andrew, "Standing Firm for Principles: Jimmy Carter and Zimbabwe," Diplomatic
      History (Fall 1999)
DeRoche, Andrew, Black, White and Chrome. The US and Zimbabwe 1953-1980
Dumbrell, John, The Carter Presidency: A re-evaluation, 2nd edition (Manchester and New York:
      Manchester University Press,1995)
Gleijeses, Piero, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 (Chapel Hill:
      University of North Carolina Press, 2001).
Horne, G, From the Barrel of a Gun. The United States and the War Against Zimbabwe. 1965-1980
      (Harare, 2001)
Mitchell, Nancy, ‘Tropes of the Cold War. Jimmy Carter and Rhodesia’, Cold War History 7.2 May
Mitchell, N, (forthcoming book) "Race and Realpolitik: Jimmy Carter and Africa."
Vance, Cyrus, Hard Choices: Critical Years in America's Foreign Policy (New York: Simon &
     Schuster, 1983)
Waters, Ronald, Black Presidential Politics in America: A Strategic Approach (Albany: SUNY,

Zimbabwe 1980-1994:
Alexander, J, ‘Dissident perspectives on Zimbabwe’s post-independent war’ Africa, 68:2 (1998)
Alexander, J, J McGregor & T Ranger, Violence and Memory: one hundred years in the ‘dark forests’
      of Matebeleland (2000)
Andrew, N, Robert Mugabe and the betrayal of Zimbabwe (2005)
Bennett, M, P Latawski (eds) Exile Armies (2005)
Bhebe, N, & T Ranger (eds) Society in Zimbabwe’s liberation war (1996)
Blair, D, Degrees in violence: Robert Mugabe & the struggle for power in Zimbabwe (2002)
Campbell, H, Reclaiming Zimbabwe: :The exhaustion of the patriarchal model of liberation (Cape
      Town 2003)
Chan, S, Robert Mugabe: a life of power and violence (2003)
Chan, S, ‘Zimbabwe: 4 years of independence’, Contemporary Review, 245: 1422 (1984)
Chan, S, review article ‘Mugabe right and wrong’, African Affairs, 102 (2003) 343-347
Dorman, SR, ‘Politics of elections and election observers in Zimbabwe’, Commonwealth and
      Comparative Politics, 43,2 (2005)
Engel, U, The Foreign Policy of Zimbabwe (Hamburg, 1994)
Herbst, J, State politics in Zimbabwe (1990)
Hodder Williams, , R, Conflict in Zimbabwe: The Matabeleland Problem (1983)
Jenkins, C, J Knight The Economic Decline of Zimbabwe (2002)
Kriger, N, ‘ZANU (PF) strategies in general elections, 1980-2000: discourse & coercion’ African
      Affairs, 104, 414 (2005)
Kriger, N, Zimbabwe’s guerrilla war: peasant voices (1992)
Lan, D, Guns & Rain (1985)
Maxwell, DJ, ‘Local politics & war in Zimbabwe’, JSAS 19 (1993)
Meredith, M, Mugabe: power and plunder in Zimbabwe (2002)
Moore, D, ‘Democracy, violence & identity in the Zimbabwean war of national liberation’, CJAS, 29 3
      (1995) 375-402
Moyo, J, Voting for democracy (1992)
Moyo, S, The land question in Zimbabwe (Harare, 1995)
Palmer, R, & N Parsons (eds) Roots of rural poverty
Phimster, I and Raftopoulos, B, ‘Mugabe, Mbeki & the politics of anti-imperialism’ ROAPE, 101, 31
Raftopoulos, B, & L Sachikonye (eds) Striking Back: The Labour Movement and post colonial state in
      Zimbabwe 1980-2000 (Harare, 2001)
Raftopoulos, B, The struggle for democratic dev in Zimbabwe (Harare, Zimbabwe Institute of
      Development Studies working paper 17, 1991, SOAS)
Ranger, T, & N Bhebe, (eds) Soldiers in Zimbabwe’s Liberation War, vol 1 (1995) and vol 2
Ranger, T, (ed) The History of Human Rights in Zimbabwe. 2 vols (2004)
Ranger, T, Are we not also men? The Samkange family & African politics in Zimbabwe 1920-64 (1995)
Ranger, T, Peasant consciousness & guerrilla war… (1985)
Rutherford, B, ‘Settlers and Zimbabwe: politics, memory and the anthropology of commercial farming
      in a time of crisis’ Identities,1,4 (2004)
Sachikonye, L, ‘Whither Zimbabwe? Crisis & democ’ ROAPE, 91 (2002) & editorial
Shaw, W, ‘Towards the one party state in Zimbabwe, Journal of Modern African Studies , 24, 3 (1986)
Webner, R, ’ ‘A heritage of war in south western Zimbabwe’ in N Behebe & T Ranger (eds) Society in
      Zimbabwe’s Liberation war , Volume (1995)
Weitzer, R, Transforming settler states (1990)
Women of resilience: The voices of women ex-combatants (Harare: Zimbabwean women writers, 2000)

South West Africa/Namibia:
Brenke, G, Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Namibia-Konflikt, Munich: Oldenbourg
       Verlag, 1989
Breytenbach, J, Buffalo Soldiers: The Story of South Africa’s 32 Battalion 1975 - 1993, Alberton,
       SA: Galago, 2002,
Bridgland, F, The War for Africa, Gibraltar: Ashanti, 1990.
Crocker, C, High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighborhood, New York:
       Norton, 1992
Dreyer, R, Namibia and Southern Africa: Regional Dynamics of Decolonization 1945-90, London:
       Kegan Paul International, 1994, pp. 105-44
Engel, U, Die Afrikapolitik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1949-1999: Rollen und Identitäten,
       Hamburg: LIT Verlag, 2000
Geldenhuys, J, A General’s Story: From an Era of War and Peace, Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball
       Publishers, 1995
George, E, The Cuban Intervention in Angola, 1965-1991: From Che Guevara to Cuito Cuanavale,
       London: Frank Cass, 2005
Gleijeses, “The View from Havana,” in Gilbert Joseph and Daniela Spenser, eds., In From the
       Cold: Latin America's New Encounter with Cold War Studies, Durham: Duke University
       Press, forthcoming, 2007.)
Gómez Chacón, C, Cuito Cuanavale: viaje al centro de los héroes, Havana: Editorial Letras
       Cubanas, 1989
Goulding, M, Peacemonger. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002
Greeff, J, A Greater Share of Honour, Ellisras, SA: Ntomeni Publishers, 2001
Heitman, HR, War in Angola: The Final South African Phase, Gibraltar: Ashanti, 1990;
Jiménez Gómez, R, Al sur de Angola, Havana: Verde Olivo, 2002
Jaster, R, South Africa in Namibia: The Botha Strategy (Washington, 1985)
Karns, M, “Ad Hoc Multilateral Diplomacy: The United States, the Contact Group, and Namibia,”
       International Organization, Winter 1987, pp. 93-123.
Malan, Magnus, My Life with the South African Defence Force (Pretoria, 2006)
Mitchell, N, (forthcoming) Race and Realpolitik: Jimmy Carter and Africa,
Nortje, P, 32 Battalion: The Inside Story of South Africa’s Elite Fighting Unit, Cape Town: Zebra
       Press, 2003
Paul, M, Parabat, Gauteng, South Africa: Covos Day Books, 2001
Rodman, PW, More Precious than Peace (New York, 1994)
Ricardo Luis, R, Prepárense a vivir: crónicas de Cuito Cuanavale, Havana: Editora Política, 1989
Steenkamp, W, South Africa’s Border War, 1966-1989, Gibraltar: Ashanti, 1989
Stiff, P, The Silent War: South African Recce Operations 1969-1994, Alberton, SA: Galago, 1999
Stiff, P, Warfare by Other Means: South Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, Alberton, SA: Galago,
Westad, A, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of our Times, New
       York: Cambridge University Press, 2006

Deutschmann, D, Changing the History of Africa (Melbourne, 1989)
Castro, F, How Far We Slaves Have Come (New York, 1991)
Gleijeses, P, ‘Cuba and the Independence of Namibia’, Cold War History 2.7 (May 2007)
Gleijeses, P, ”Conflicting Versions: Cuba, the United States and Angola,” in Manuela Franco, ed.,
      Portugal, os Estados Unidos e a África Austral, Lisbon: Instituto Portugués das Relações
      Internacionais, 2006, pp. 119-35.
Gleijeses, P, "Moscow’s Proxy? Cuba and Africa 1975-1988," Journal of Cold War Studies, Fall
      2006, pp. 98-146;
Gleijeses, P, “Kuba in Afrika 1975-1991,” in Bernd Greibner, Christian Müller and Dierk Walter,
      eds., Heisse Kriege im Kalten Krieg, Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2006, pp. 469-510
Risquet, Jorge, ‘Two Centuries of Solidarity’ (see above)

South Africa: The Apartheid state 1948-1994

Hyam, R & P Henshaw, The Lion & the Springbok (2003)
Jones, Muller, The South African Economy 1910-1990
Journal of Contemporary African Studies volume 14.1 1996.
Mills, G, From Pariah to Participant: South Africa’s Evolving Foreign Relations
Oliver, R & G Sanderson (eds) Cambridge History of Africa (1985)
Pfister, R, Apartheid South Africa and African States (International Library of African Studies, 2005)
Rotberg and Barratt, Conflict and Compromise in South Africa
Seegers, The Military and the Making of Modern South Africa
Spence, J, The Strategic Significance of Southern Africa

The Origins of Apartheid:

Anglin, DG, ‘Southern Africa Responses to Eastern European Developments’, Journal of Modern
      African Studies, Vol. 28, No.3 (Sept. 1990), pp.431-455.
Banton, M, Racial theories (2nd edn 1998)
Beinart, WTwentieth-century South Africa (1994)
Beinart, W & Colin Bundy, Hidden struggles in rural South Africa (1987)
Beinart, W & Dubow, Segregation and Apartheid in 20th Century South Africa
Beinart, W, et al (eds) Putting a plough to the ground… (1987)
Bonner, P, et al, Apartheid’s genesis (1997)
Brewer, J, Black & blue: policing in South Africa (1994)
Bundy, C ‘Rise & decline of a South African peasantry’, AA 71 (1972) 369-88
Cell, JW, The Highest Stage of White Supremacy (1982) 1-3, 8
Clark, N and W. Worger, The rise and fall of Apartheid (2004)
Davenport, TRH, South Africa: a modern History (1995)
Davenport, TRH, South Africa: a modern history (5th edn)
Davis, G, Apartheid and beyond in South African Literature (2003)
Dubow, Saul, ‘Afrikaner nationalism, Apartheid, and race’ JAH, 33 (1992) 209-37
Dubow, Saul, Racial Segregation & the origins of apartheid 1919-1936 (1989)
Dubow, Saul, Scientific racism in modern South Africa (1995)
Feinstein, C, Economic History of South Africa (2005)
Gelb, S, South Africa’s Economic Crisis
Giliomee, H, The Afrikaners (2003)
Giliomee, H, The Afrikaners (2003)
Greenberg, SB, Legitimating the illegitimate (1987)
Guelke, A, Rethinking the rise and fall of apartheid, (2004)
Guelke, Adrian, The Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Palgrave, 2006)
Herbst, J, ‘Analysing apartheid: how accurate were US intelligence statements’ , African Affairs, 102,
      406 (2003)
Jeeves, AH, & J Crush, White farms, black labour
Keegan, T, Colonial South Africa and the origins of the racial order (1996)
Marx, A, Lessons of Struggle: South African Internal Opposition, 1960-1990 (OUP, 1992)
Maylam, P, ‘The rise & decline of urban Apartheid’, AA, 89 (1990) 57-84
Maylam, Paul, The rise & decline of urban Apartheid’ AA, 89 (1990)
Moll, T, ‘Did the apartheid economy fail? , JSAS, (1991) 271-91
Parnell, B ‘Creating racial privilege: the origins of the South Africa public health town planning
      legislation’, JSAS, 19 3 (1993)
Plaatje, S Native life in South Africa (1916, repr 1987)
Price, R, The apartheid state in crisis (1991)
Sanson, MW, ‘Sanitation syndrome, the Cape 1900-1909’, JAH, 18 (1977)
Saunders, Chris, et al, ‘Southern Africa, 1795-1910’ OXBE 3 (1999)
Seekings, J, The UDF: a history..1983-1991 (2000)
Sparks, Alastair, Tomorrow is another country
Trapido, Stanley, ‘South Africa in a comparative study of industrialization’, JDS, (1970-1) 309-22
Van Onselen, C, The seed is mine (1996)
Walshe, P, The rise of African nationalism in South Africa (1971)
Willan, B, ‘The Anti-Slavery and Aborigines’ Protection Society & the South African Natives’ Land
      Act of 1913’ JAH, 20, (1979)
Willan, B, Sol Plaatje, South African nationalist (1984).
Worden, N, Making of modern South Africa (5th edn 2001)
Worden, NA, The Making of Modern South Africa (1995)

The Liberation Struggle:
Adams, S, Comrad Minister: The South African Communist Party and the Transition from Apartheid to
       Democracy (New York 2001)
Biko, Steve: I write what I like (1978)
de Klerk, FWThe last trek: a new beginning (1998)
Ellis, S & Sechaba, T, Comrades Against Apartheid: The ANC and the South African Communist Party
       in Exile (1992)
Holland, H, The Struggle: A History of the African National Congress (Grafton Press, 1989)
Jones, S, Mandela, Tambo and the African National Congress (OUP, 1991)
Karis, TG & Gerhart, GM(eds) From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in
       South Africa, vol 5 Nadir & Resurgence 1964-79 (1997)
Kasrils, R Armed and Dangerous: My Undercover Struggle Against Apartheid (Heinemann, 1993)
Legassick, M, ‘Armed Struggle in South Africa: Consequences of a Strategy Debate’, Journal of
       Contemporary African Studies, 21, 2, 2003.
Lodge, T, Black politics in South Africa since 1945 (1983)
Luthuli, Albert, Let my people go
Mandela, N, Long walk to freedom (1994)
Maylan, R, My Traitor’s Heart
McKinley, DT, The ANC and the Liberation Struggle: A Critical Political Biography (1997)
Meli, F, South Africa Belongs to Us; A History of the ANC (Zimbabwe Publishing House, 1988)
Ndebele, Njabulo, The Cry of Winnie (2003)
Nel, P, ‘The ANC and ‘Communism’, in Esterhuyse, W, and Nel, P (eds) The ANC and Its Leaders.
       (Cape Town.)
Pike, H, A History of Communism in South Africa (CMISA, 1988)
Radu, M’ The African National Congress: Cadres and Credo’, Problems with Communism, July-August
Sampson, A, Mandela (1999)
Shubin, V, ANC. A View From Moscow (Cape Town, 1999)
Thomas, S The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the ANC since 1960 (Tauris, 1996)

See General Texts above
Van Wyk, A-M, ‘Ally or Critic? The United States’ Response to South African Nuclear Development,
     1949-1980’, Cold War History 7.2 May 2007.

See General Texts above
Costea, P, ‘Eastern Europe’s Relations with the Insurgencies of South Africa. SWAPO and the ANC,
1972-1988’ East European Quarterly, 24.3
Shubin, V and Olayiwola Abegunrin, in Matusevich, M, ed. Africa in Russia. Russia in Africa. Three
Centuries of Encounters (Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, 2007)

Hyam, R & Henshaw, P, The Lion and the Springbok
Barber, J, ‘A Historical and Persistent Interest: Britain and South Africa 1991’
Berridge, Economic Power in Anglo-South African Diplomacy: Simonstown, Sharpville and After
Howe, S, Anticolonialism in British Politics: The Left and the End of Empire
Rich, Race and Empire in British Politics
Major, JS 'The Trades Union Congress and Apartheid, 1948-1970', Journal of Southern African
      Studies 31/3 (2005), 477-93
Major, JS 'Patrick Wall and South Africa', South African Historical Journal
52 (2005), 102-118

Gittings, R, China Changes Face: The Road from Revolution 1949-1989 (Oxford University Press
Hutchison, A, China’s Africa Revolution (Hutchinson, 1975)
Ogunsanwo, A, China’s Policy in Africa, 1958-1971, (Cambridge University Press, 1974)
Payne, R & Veney, C, ‘China’s Post-Cold War Africa Policy’, Asian Survey, Vo.38, No.9. (September,
      1998), Pp.867-879.
Pfeifenberger, W ‘The South African Policy of the People’s Republic of China’, Journal of
      Contemporary History, 6,1, (1981)
Snow, P, The Star Raft: China’s Encounter with Africa (Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1988)
Taylor, I, ‘Beijing or Taipei? The Transformation of South Africa’s Relations with the People’s
      Republic of China and the Debate on the ‘Two China’s’ Issue’, Journal of Humanities and Social
      Science, 8.2.
Taylor, I, ‘China’s Foreign Policy Towards Africa in the 1990s’, Journal of Modern African Studies,
Taylor, I, ‘The Ambiguous Commitment: The People’s Republic of China and the Anti-Apartheid
      Struggle in South Africa’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 187,1, 2000
Weil, R, Red Cat, White Cat: China and the Contradictions of ‘Market Socialism’, (New York, Monthly
      Review Press, 1996)
Yap, M and Man, D, Colour Confusion and Class: The History of the Chinese in South Africa
      (University of Hong Kong 1996)
The Front Line States

Background: African nationalism before 1945:

Geiss, I, The Pan-African movement (1974).
Hodgkin, T, Nationalism in colonial Africa (l956)
Iliffe, J, A modern history of Tanganyika (1979)
Iliffe, J, Modern history of Tanganyika (l979).
Killingray, D & R Rathbone (eds.), Africa and the Second World War, intro.
Langley, J, Pan-Africanism and nationalism in West Africa (1973)
Ranger, T, Are we not also men? The Samkange family
Roberts, A, ‘African cross-currents’ in CHA vol.7
Walshe, P, The rise of African nationalism in South
Willan, B, Sol Plaatje, South African nationalist (1984).

Anglin, Douglas. Zambian Crisis Behavior: Confronting Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of
      Independence, 1965-1966. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994.
Borstelmann, Thomas. The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global
      Arena. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Brands, Hal. “Progress Unseen: U.S. Arms Control Policy and the Origins of Détente, 1963-1968.”
      Diplomatic History 30, no. 2 (2006): 253-285.
Chan, Stephen. Kaunda and Southern Africa: Image and Reality in Foreign Policy. London: British
      Academic Press, 1992.
Dallek, Robert. Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1973. New York: Oxford
      University Press, 1998.
DeRoche, Andrew. Black, White, and Chrome: The United States and Zimbabwe, 1953-1998.
      Trenton: Africa World Press, 2001.
DeRoche, A, ‘Non-alignment on the Racial Frontier. Zambia and the USA, 1964-1968’ Cold War
      History 7.2 May 2007.
Good, Robert. U.D.I: The International Politics of the Rhodesian Rebellion. Princeton: Princeton
      University Press.
Howland, Nina, ed. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968 Volume XXIV Africa.
      Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1999.
Hoyt, Michael. Captive in the Congo: A Consul’s Return to the Heart of Darkness. Annapolis:
      Naval Institute Press, 2000.
Kaunda, Kenneth. Kaunda on Violence. London: Collins, 1980.
Krenn, Michael. Black Diplomacy: African Americans and the State Department, 1945-1969.
      Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1999.
Lewis, John. Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster,
Lyons, Terrence. “Keeping Africa Off the Agenda.” In Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World:
      American Foreign Policy, 1963-1968, edited by Warren Cohen and Nancy Tucker.
      Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, 245-278.
McMahon, Robert. “Toward a Pluralist Vision: The Study of American Foreign Relations as
      International History and National History.” In Explaining the History of American Foreign
      Relations, edited byMichael Hogan and Thomas Paterson. Cambridge: Cambridge University
      Press, 2004, 35-50.
Mudenda, Elijah. Zambia: A Generation of Struggle. Harare: SAPES Books, 1999.
Mwaanga, Vernon. An Extraordinary Life. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1982.
Mwanakatwe, John. End of Kaunda Era. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1994.
Mwangilwa, Goodwin, ed. The Kapwepwe Diaries. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1986.
Noer, Thomas. Cold War and Black Liberation: The United States and White Rule in Africa, 1948-
     1968. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985.
Noer, Thomas. Soapy: A Biography of G. Mennen Williams. Ann Arbor: The University of
     Michigan Press, 2005.
Nyerere, Julius. Freedom and Development: A Selection from Writings and Speeches, 1968-1973.
     London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Osei-Hwedie, Bertha Zimba, and Osei-Hwedie, Kwaku. Tanzania-Zambia Railroad (TAZARA): An
     Analysis of Zambia’s Decision-Making in Transportation. Lawrenceville: Brunswick
     Publishing, 1990.
Schulzinger, Robert. A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975. New York:
     Oxford University Press, 1997.
White, George. Holding the Line: Race, Racism, and American Foreign Policy toward Africa,
     1953-1961. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
Wina, Sikota. The Night Without A President. Lusaka: Multimedia Publications, 1985.
Zambia Hansard Official Verbatim Report of the Debates Lusaka: Government Printer

Dale, Richard, ‘The Nordic States and Liberation in Southern Africa’, African Studies Review,
       Vol.44, No. 1 (Apr.2001), pp.79-82.
Ilina Sori and Pekka Pertola, Finland and National Liberation in Southern Africa, (Uppsala,
       Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1999)
Tore Linne Eriksen ed, Norway and National Liberation in Southern Africa (Uppsala, Nordiska
       Afrikainstitutet, 2000)
Tor Sellstrom ed. Liberation in Southern Africa – Regional and Swedish Voices: Interviews from
       Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, the Front line and Sweden (Uppsala
       Nordiska Afrikainstitutet 1999)
Tor Sellstrom, Sweden and National Liberation in Southern Africa, 2 volumes (Uppsala, Nordiska
       Afrikainstitutet 1999 and 2002)
Christopher Munthe Morgenstierne, Denmark and National Liberation in Southern Africa,
       (Uppsala, Nordika Afrikainstitutet, 2003)
Piero Gleijeses, ‘Scandinavia and the Liberation of Southern Africa’, International History Review,
       June 2005, pp.324-31.

Foreign Texts:


Voyages en Afrique: Gallica

This digital library has been created by the Bibliotheque Nationale. It provides free access to a
collection of online books, letters, primary source documents and images relating to the history of
exploration and colonisation of Africa, from earliest times to the post-colonial period. The main
emphasis is upon French activities and attitudes towards Africa. The site includes chronologies of
events, maps, and texts. The latter include important primary source materials written by early
anthropologists, missionaries and explorers. The material is indexed by geographical region and
theme. Key themes include: African cultures; the European 'discovery' and colonisation of Africa;
French colonial history. All information is offered in French only.

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