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					    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit
                  (FNMI) Student Success
                   in Elementary Schools


                              Workshop Facilitator Guide




    Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium
                           (SAPDC)



      This workshop facilitator guide is intended to support district curriculum
 facilitators and district PD leaders in providing learning opportunities for teachers
                                      in addressing
              First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success



The goals of the workshop (and the materials in the Workshop Facilitator Guide)
are designed to:

Support FNMI student success by using literature to help
         Promote cultural awareness
         Develop respect for diversity
         Build pride in the First Nations student



Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, May 2010.
                                           Acknowledgements


                       Professional Development Materials
                                        by
                                 Thalia Hartson
                                        for
         Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium (SAPDC)



As a result of a grant from Alberta Education to Southern Alberta Professional
Development Consortium (SAPDC), this workshop package has been developed to
facilitate FNMI student success.


For further information about these workshop materials, contact Southern Alberta
Professional Development Consortium (SAPDC), Phone (403) 381-5580 or E-
mail: sapdc-info@sapdc.ca


                                                     June, 2010




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   2
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
                                                   Table of Contents

Front Pocket:
   Quick List of Books in the Book Box

Facilitator Resource (white):
   Before the Workshop .......................................................................................................4
   Part 1 - Introductory Material ..........................................................................................8
   Part II - Literature Analysis: Red Sash ............................................................................25
   Part III – In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories .............................................................27
   Part IV - Big Ideas ...........................................................................................................30
   Annotated List of Books in the Book Box
   Numbered Grid
   Anklet for a Princess: A Cinderella Story from India
   Venn Diagrams

Literature Lists (pink):
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Kindergarten
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 1
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 2
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 3
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 4
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 5
    Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 6

Activities (green):
   Analysis of The Rabbits
   Author Study
   Bannock in Stories
   Biography Project – Famous Aboriginal People
   Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Groups
   Fur Trader Game
   Increasing Student Awareness of Aboriginal Issues
   Inventions and Innovations
   Make an Alphabet Book
   Maps and Mapping
   Multicultural Cinderella
   Pond Ecology
   Pourquoi and Creation Tales
   Quest or Hero Tales
   Respect for Nature
   Survival and Adventure Stories
   Tortoise and Hare Stories
   Traditional Homes
   Trickster Tales

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by                        3
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     Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI)
                           Student Success

Before the Workshop
Workshop Structure:

The FNMI Student Success workshop is divided into four sections, two that take place in the
morning and two in the afternoon. The general instructional plan for each section of the
workshop is to introduce examples of children’s literature, developing concepts in context,
followed by activities for participants. In some cases a variety of activities is provided, giving the
facilitator alternatives to use depending on variables such as the needs and interests of each
participant group. The main topics and activities for each of the four sections are:

              1.   Part I - Introductory Material
              2.   Part II - Literature Analysis: Red Sash
              3.   Part III - In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories
              4.   Part IV - Big Ideas


Information for Facilitators:

Folding box carts, each containing a selection of 45-50 books key to supporting FNMI Student
Success, are provided for workshop participants who are facilitators for their districts as
identified by the Regional Learning Consortia. Also included in each box are all the materials in
this facilitator guide and all files in electronic format on CD-ROM. It is recommended that the
many files of literature lists and activities for specific grades be simply e-mailed to interested
participants to avoid excessive photocopying and make it possible for teachers to add to and
change the activities to suit their needs.

Facilitators are encouraged to supplement the books in the boxes with additional titles from their
own school or district libraries in order to enrich the workshop experience for all participants.
Additional titles for each list and activity are suggested throughout this document, and,
sometimes, supporting Web sites. All suggested titles are found in the various literature lists that
are part of this package, along with bibliographic information. The entire workshop can be done
with just the books provided in the boxes; but any additional books that the facilitator can
provide will further enrich the workshops, especially when doing workshops with large numbers
of participants.




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   4
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Logistics Questions:

Time:

How much time will we have?
Could any surprises affect the amount of actual presentation time?
How long will we have for lunch and for breaks?

Set Up:

What physical set-ups are required?
Can I get into the room 45 minutes before the event?
What do I need? (e.g. name tags, room arrangements, snack arrangements, audiovisual
equipment, and instructional materials, overhead projector, blank paper)

Travel:

What travel and transportation details should we check?
How do I get to the site and how long will it take me to get there?

Facilitators will have to work closely with the school district contact person to develop a
workshop plan to suit the needs of the participants. There are more activities than time available,
most likely, so facilitators should pick and choose to meet the particular needs of each group.
Ideally this workshop should be offered as a full-day learning opportunity.


Before the Workshop:

Before the workshop, set up all the books on tables and group them roughly according to grade,
with small signs that indicate the grades.

One of the key strategies to emphasize in this workshop is the reading aloud of books to students,
and so reading aloud of important books or portions of them will be modeled least twice during
the workshop.

Teachers will recognize that literature is a major resource for promoting FNMI student success.
From the rich selection of literature that is available, teachers are able to select engaging and
powerful books that can "breathe life" into student learning. Storytelling is especially valued by
Aboriginal culture and teaching through literature is a main strategy in Aboriginal approaches to
education. Many Aboriginal children are familiar already with the use of storytelling as a
teaching tool.

The workshop will focus on becoming familiar with suitable books and various strategies for
using them in the classroom. Most of the time will be spent actually working with books in one
way or another. To facilitate useful interactions, the facilitator should arrange participants in
groups around tables.

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Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Activities, suggestions, and strategies provided throughout this workshop are given as samples
and are meant to model what might be done with a wide variety of titles in many different
grades. During the workshop, encourage participants to share ideas, strategies they have tried,
and other titles that fit into the topics.

A great many titles are listed in this document and in the activities, often without bibliographical
reference. To find the references, with annotations, simply search electronically through the main
grade lists.


Workshop Materials:

   signs for book display tables indicating grade levels of the books
   blank paper for participants
   overhead projector
   overhead pens
   CD player
   overheads
        o one first page from one of the literature lists
        o blank overheads for demonstrating analysis of stories with graphic organizers
        o selected illustrations from Through Indian Eyes, (any or all of pages 180, 181, 182,
            183, 185, 187, 191, 196, 200, and 202)
   handouts
        o Quick List (Quick List.doc)
        o Quick List Annotated (Annotated List.doc)
        o Numbered Grid
        o Literature Lists, one for each grade that each teacher teaches (get information ahead
            of time about the grades that each participant teaches)
        o CD-ROM handout containing facilitator materials, literature lists and all activities


Workshop Goals:

This workshop-planning guide contains a variety of learning opportunities based on participant
needs. There are more activities than can be incorporated into the workshop, so the facilitator
should choose activities/processes based on participants’ experience, time available and
expressed need.

The goals of the workshop (and the materials in the Workshop Facilitator Guide) are designed to
support FNMI student success by using literature to help
   1. promote cultural awareness
   2. develop respect for diversity
   3. build pride in the First Nations student




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   6
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
The scope of the materials in this resource goes beyond focusing on First Nations, Métis and
Inuit students. If societal attitudes are to change, non-Aboriginal students need also to see such
things as Aboriginals portrayed in the literature in the same realistic, respectful and accurate
ways as non-Aboriginals. And so this resource is designed for all students in K-6.

It is also important to note that Aboriginal content is not something that is done specifically a
few times a year as an add-on or special event, but is infused into the regular programs of study
as an integral and ongoing element of classroom learning.




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   7
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Workshop Outline:

                    Suggested                                                                                                             Objective/ Goal
     Activity                                                Details
                      Time                                                                                                                  Addressed
 Part 1 - Introductory Material, 9:00 – 10:30
                                 Professional Resources                                                                       Background information to
                                 FNMI Literature and Publishing                                                               support FNMI student success by:
                                 Selection Criteria                                                                            Promoting cultural awareness
                    1 hr., 30
Introduction                     The Problem of Stereotypical and Prejudicial Material                                         Developing respect for
                    min.
                                 Significant Books Not Recommended                                                               diversity
                                 Using the Graded Literature Lists                                                             Building pride in the First
                                 Families of Stories                                                                             Nations student
 Part II - Literature Analysis: Red Sash, 10:45 – 12:00
                    20 min.     Review some special books from the Quick List
                    10 min.     Read aloud Red Sash                                                                             Share ideas, strategies and
What can
                                                                                                                                 experiences using literature to
students learn? 10 min.         What can students learn from this story?
                                                                                                                                 support FNMI student success
                    50 min.     Browse through books, read and analyze a selected title, share
Part III – In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories, 1:00 – 2:15
                       10 min.         Read aloud Arrow to the Sun
What are the       15 min.     Characteristics of hero and quest stories: analyze Arrow to the Sun  Share ideas, strategies and
characteristics of
                   20 min.     Read and analyze Little Badger and the Fire Spirit, share             experiences using literature to
some of the story
                   15 min.     Characteristics of trickster stories, read a trickster story aloud    support FNMI student success
groups?
                   15 min.     Select, read and analyze a trickster story
 Part IV - Big Ideas –2:30 – 3:30
                   10 min.     Big Ideas
Where can          5 min.      Activity Groups in the Resource                                      Share ideas, strategies and
literature take    25 min.     Planning Activity                                                     experiences using literature to
us?                10 min.     Novel Study – Finders Keepers                                         support FNMI student success
                   10 min.     General Sharing


Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium,
May 2010.
Part 1 - Introductory Material

Before Participants Start Arriving:

Set up and play the CD from Sasquatch Exterminator as people are arriving. The music is
Aboriginal, fun, has a great beat to it and will help set the stage!

After lunch, as participants reassemble, play the CD from Drum Calls Softly, by David
Bouchard.


Background Information for Participants:

Using the Introductory Material listed below, address these topics and issues in order to provide
participants with the necessary background to understanding literature for FNMI students. Have
any of the resources (professional and student) listed in this section that are available in your
library on hand for participants to examine.


Introductory Material:

   Professional Resources
   FNMI Literature and Publishing
   Selection Criteria
   The Problem of Stereotypical and Prejudicial Material
   Significant Books Not Recommended
   Using the Graded Literature Lists
   Families of Stories
   Quick List and Review of Special Books in the Book Box


Professional Resources:

Print:

Bastian, Dawn. Handbook of Native American Mythology. 2008, 9780195342321. The
mythologies of Native Americans from the US to the Arctic Circle is a rich, complex, and
diverse body of lore that offers a unique perspective on Native American history, culture and
values.

Campbell, Joseph. Hero With a Thousand Faces. 1949, 1968, 1973, 2008, 0691017840. This
classic study traces the hero’s journey and transformation through virtually all the mythologies
of the world, revealing the one archetypal hero in them all. Campbell's words carry extraordinary
weight, not only among scholars but also among a wide range of other people who find his


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Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
search down mythological pathways relevant to their lives today. Hero With a Thousand Faces
is a brilliant examination, through ancient hero myths, of man's eternal struggle for identity.

Fox, L., Lavalee, E., and Poitras, L. Education is Our Buffalo: A Teachers’ Resource for
First Nations, Métis and Inuit Education in Alberta. 2006, 1897196105. Any teacher can use
this resource to acquire some of the necessary knowledge and understanding for working
successfully with Aboriginal learners. It’s full of information regarding Aboriginal history,
cultures, traditions, and contemporary issues with a specific focus on education. This is an
essential addition to any educator's professional resource shelf. Any member of the ATA can
request a free personal copy of this resource by calling the ATA. Others working in education,
such as teaching assistants, can purchase a copy of the resource for $7.00. Download .pdf file
free from http://www.ldaa.ca/assets/pdfs/freeResources/EducationIsOurBuffalo.pdf

Our Words, Our Ways: Teaching First Nations, Métis and Inuit Learners. 2004,
0778543137. This resource leads teachers through 7 key areas necessary for Aboriginal student
success, including culture, definition, community of learners, sharing responsibility, learning
strategies, assessment elements, and learning disabilities. Here is a very useful resource to help
infuse Aboriginal perspectives into Alberta curricula. It also provides a good amount of
background information about Aboriginal people in Alberta. A print version of this resource is
available for purchase from the Learning Resources Centre or may be downloaded at no cost
from http://www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/curriculum/OurWords.asp

Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, 978-
1434336637. A Second Look provides a thorough examination of 425 books for parents,
teachers, librarians, and administrators interested in books for children. Anyone involved in
selecting Native American books will find this guide useful in working through the maze of
available materials.

Robinson, Gail and Douglas Hill. Coyote the Trickster: Legends of the North American
Indians. 1975, 0844809233. Contains twelve trickster stories from North American Aboriginal
peoples.

Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007,
780759107793. Reviews and critically evaluates children's books about Native Americans
written between the early 1900s and 2003. Includes also stories, essays and poems from its
contributors. Critiques some 600 books by more than 500 authors, arranges titles A to Z, covers
pre-school to grade 12, and even evaluates some adult and teacher materials. This is a most
valuable resource for school libraries and Native American collections. This is a very thorough
and scholarly work. “By calling attention to (the) diversity of Native voices, A Broken Flute
points out the failure of mainstream publishers to represent Native work, and the critical role that
teachers and librarians must play in questioning non-Native work and seeking authentic
criticism.”1

Slapin, Beverly and Doris Seale (editors). Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in
Books for Children. 1998, 0-935626-46-8. A professional resource containing essays, poetry,

1
    School Library Journal.

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critical reviews of 100 children's books, a guide to evaluating children's books, and bibliography,
compiled by Native parents, educators, poets and writers who share their different perspectives.
This is a very useful resource for teachers, administrators, and librarians to use as a guide for
assisting them in the selection and use of children's books about Aboriginal people. Criteria for
evaluating children's books are given with examples. Index.

Stott, Jon. Native Americans in Children's Literature. 1995, 0897747828. Stott's book will be
of special interest to librarians and teachers who want to give kids good books about Native
Americans. A Canadian professor of children's literature, Stott writes in a clear, authoritative,
jargon-free style, without the self-righteousness that characterizes some of the criticism in the
field. He discusses general stereotypes and misrepresentations of Indians, but his focus is on
good writers and artists and how to use their books with children. An excellent chapter discusses
traditional stories and legends, including the great variety of trickster characters. There are
insightful essays on Joseph Bruchac, Paul Goble, Gerald McDermott, Jean Craighead George,
Michael Dorris, and others who write about history and the contemporary scene. This resource
introduces children's books that are far from popular images of savages and saints. A thorough
and very well-researched resource.

Stott, Jon and Anita Moss. Family of Stories: An Anthology of Children’s Literature. Holt,
Rinehart, Winston, 1986, 0039218325. Provides numerous stories with in-depth analysis of story
types.


Selected Web Sites:

Aboriginal Collection Online, Resource Development Services, Edmonton Public Schools.
License required. http://rds.epsb.net/aborigonline/root/publiclogin.cfm

American Indians in Children's Literature: Critical perspectives of Indigenous People in
Children’s Books, the School Curriculum, Popular Culture, and Society-at-large. Find here
critical perspectives and discussions of American Indians in children's books, the school
curriculum, popular culture and society at large:
http://americanindiansinchildrensliterature.blogspot.com/

Four Directions Teaching.com: http://www.fourdirectionsteachings.com/resources.html

Gabriel Dumont institute of Natives Studies: http://www.gdins.org/

Little Badger and the Fire Spirit, by Maria Campbell, complete text:
http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/artsed/g2arts_ed/drama/appendix.html

Nature’s Laws: http://www.abheritage.ca/natureslaws/index2.html

Oyate - How to tell the difference – a guide:
http://www.oyate.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=135&Itemid=107

Wikipedia: Native Americans in Children's Literature:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indians_in_Children%27s_Literature

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   11
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FNMI Literature and Publishing:

There is a reasonably good supply of non-fiction and fiction available about the Inuit, but not as
much for other Aboriginal groups across Canada. Much of the literature is about some of the
major groups, particularly in British Columbia and Ontario. Few resources manage a map of the
traditional territories of the various Native American groups and almost none make any attempt
to sort through the various groups and sub-groups. Some produce timelines and glossaries. Many
rely on stock photos for their illustrations. These vary a great deal in what they depict. Some
stock sources are certainly better than others. Sometimes books will show up each with some of
the same stock photos.

Stories are at their best when they are folklore. Picture books of contemporary Aboriginal people
have a tendency to sometimes seem a little contrived. There is a shortage of good contemporary
stories.

There are a fair number of good novels, and also some good dated novels, such as those by
Farley Mowat and James Houston. These may be used, of course, but teachers need to be sure
students understand the time periods depicted.

As in any body of literature, there are errors. These errors are particularly problematic when the
culture and customs of a group of people are being represented. A list of some books with
unacceptable errors is included along with the problems in those books.

There are too few books about the Métis. This is an area of real shortage. Governments of British
Columbia and Ontario support the production of literature about local groups, but all too seldom
do books about Aboriginal people show up that have been supported by the Alberta government.

There is a serious shortage of good books of any type about Alberta Aboriginal people. There are
a very few good ones available as well as some that are not so good, for various reasons. But
there is nevertheless a severe shortage of good material.

Aboriginal authors and illustrators are becoming more and more common all the time. They are
ideal producers since they know their own cultures the best. They tend to produce wonderful,
artistic works, but rarely do they produce elementary-level non-fiction material.

Books by major publishers and authors (e.g. Bruchac, McDermott, Bouchard, Munsch, Trottier)
lend legitimacy, currency, and significance to native stories. Generally, mainstream publishers
have failed to systematically produce work by and about Aboriginals, particularly in Canada.
This is a very serious defect in Canadian publishing. The only Canadian publishers that regularly
produce Aboriginal material are small regional shops such as Theytus Books (Penticton), Coteau
Books (Regina) and Pemmican Books (Métis publisher, Winnipeg) and sometimes others such as
Orca and Red Deer Press. These are not large, mainstream publishers, but small, dedicated
regional shops. Often, the publication of these books is supported by the Ontario government, the
government of British Columbia, or the Federal government. Too rare are the books that have
been supported by Alberta government agencies. Red Deer Press has produced just about the
only current mainstream folktale about the Cree: Hidden Buffalo. Its publication was supported


Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   12
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
by Alberta funding agencies. Little other high quality Cree folklore can be found, except Little
Badger and the Fire Spirit, which has been out of print for decades. The situation with
Aboriginal material for southern Alberta is even worse. One very good novel can be found:
Finders Keepers, folklore only in collections, and two good non-fiction books, Story of the
Blackfoot People and Blackfoot, from the series Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture. There is
also Cree in this series. There are a few books about Métis, but only a few, and varying in
quality.

Generally, books by mainstream publishers have better binding, usually hardcover rather than
paperback, better quality paper, superior illustrations and colour, better story editing and better
format. It’s important for teachers to be able to use books that show Aboriginal children to be as
well represented in quality publications as non-Aboriginal children, but this is not yet the case in
Canadian publishing, but is at least partially true in American publishing.

Books that do not identify a specific cultural group are sometimes suspect as they may offer too
many generalizations or present a story that has components of several cultural groups
amalgamated into a single story.


Sources of Books for Review for this Resource:

United Library Services, Calgary
Kitaskinaw School Library, Enoch Reserve
Greenwood’s Bookstore, Edmonton
Personal Collection
Gabriel Dumont Institute, online and catalogue
Glenbow Museum, Calgary
Audrey’s Bookstore, Edmonton
Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton
Professional Resources (see list above)
Selected Web sites (see list above)
Book display at “Success for First Nations, Métis & Inuit Students” Conference, March 18-20,
    2010, Edmonton


Selection Criteria:

There are a number of different types of resources to be considered and included in collections of
teaching materials:
            Folklore
            Picture books, contemporary or traditional setting, characters acknowledged and
                  celebrated as Aboriginal
            Picture books, contemporary or traditional setting, characters not acknowledged as
                  Aboriginal, simply accepted
            Non-fiction and reference
            Novels


Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   13
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               Biography
               Alphabet books
               Other, such as music, poetry


Criteria Used to Select Resources Included in These Lists:

Books have been selected because they:

               Help instill cultural pride in Aboriginal communities, especially among Aboriginal
                    youth
               Promote academic excellence, first in Aboriginal communities, and then in the
                    broader provincial community, through learning that relates to Indigenous
                    content and philosophies
               Raise awareness and acknowledge the value of Aboriginal nations and their rich
                    cultural traditions, and thus contribute to the broader retention of these cultural
                    ways
               Have beauty and appeal (mainly illustrations)
               Have quality colour rather than monochromatic or black and white illustrations
               Have good format with lots of illustrations mixed in with text, clear text, and
                    pleasing arrangements
               Are high quality writing, with high quality editing
               Provide useful teaching opportunities even if the book is less than satisfactory (e.g.
                    black and white illustrations), in which case the deficiencies are noted
               Are available, either
                      New, or
                      Commonly found in many libraries
                (Many sources list books that are no longer available)
               Contain Canadian and Alberta content where possible
               Accurately present Aboriginal information, perspective and culture
               Will assist in building pride, cultural understanding and acceptance
               Avoid stereotypes, hurtful images, and damaging text and illustrations

In addition, the following considerations apply:

               Stories with photos rather than artwork are usually less effective, non-fiction with
                    photos rather than artwork are usually more effective
               Readers or reading series are rarely included because artistic and writing quality is
                    usually much better in literary works
               Preference is given to Aboriginal authors, such as Bruchac, Bouchard, Cameron,
                    Loyie, McLellan and Kusugak, where possible
               Preference is given to well-respected culturally-sensitive, non-Aboriginal authors,
                    such as Toye, McDermott, Goble, Trottier
               Preference is given to Canadian rather than American (or even British) publications



Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   14
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
                Selections for libraries as well as for teaching strategies need to be balanced in
                     content and type
                There should be literature from and about Inuit, First Nations and Métis
                Material should reflect traditional lifestyles and values and also show contemporary
                     lifestyles and values. Good contemporary literature shows people living
                     comfortably and successfully in two worlds – that of contemporary reality and
                     that of traditional values.
                Every book recommended has been reviewed by the author of this resource, except
                     a very few, but those have been seen by other professionals in the field.
                Any books that are widely present in libraries and used in schools and that are
                     inferior or problematic are listed separately. These should be considered for
                     removal or restricted use by the teacher, librarian or administration.


The Problem of Stereotypical and Prejudicial Material:

Stereotyping and prejudicial material is still very real in the literature. It ranges from outright
stereotypical statements to errors in information about Aboriginal cultures and peoples. It is often
difficult to identify and even Aboriginal people may differ in their perceptions of whether or how
any given material may be prejudicial.

Andie Peterson in Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books writes about books
filled with stereotypes, hurtful images, and damaging text and illustrations. She provides
eloquent, glowing reviews of the books that "are real treasures.” She also writes: "On a daily
basis, children must face the hidden curriculum that lets them know where they fit in, whether
they can achieve their goals, whether they even dare to dream. An overwhelming part of that
hidden curriculum begins with books that are more (than) narrative and illustrations; they are
books that carry a message of politics and values…. Hurtful books set in motion attitudes of
prejudice that persist for years."2

A critical resource in helping to evaluate Aboriginal materials is the Aboriginal Content
Validation: Guidelines for Evaluating Learning Resources for and about Aboriginal
People, from Alberta Education, which can be downloaded at
http://education.alberta.ca/media/646281/content.pdf
Detailed criteria are listed under each of the following headings:

           1.   Validation and/or Involvement by Aboriginal People
           2.   Historical Accuracy
           3.   The Origins of Aboriginal People
           4.   Cultural Authenticity
           5.   Cultural Diversity
           6.   Negative Images
           7.   Presentation of Aboriginal Woman
           8.   Language/Terminology

2
    Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books, pp. ix-x.

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   15
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
          9. Photos/Illustrations
          10. Aboriginal Viewpoint

Further elaboration on these criteria can be found in the document Guidelines for Recognizing
Diversity and Promoting Respect, also from Alberta Education, found at
http://education.alberta.ca/media/646277/rdpr.pdf

Both of these sets of criteria are printable and downloadable.


The Reality in Alberta today:

        Aboriginal people may often be depicted in books in stereotyped ways, both in the
         illustrations and in the text.
        Materials written by non-Aboriginal people are often found to be lacking in adequate
         research and understanding of Aboriginal people. Such deficiencies are sometimes
         difficult for non-Aboriginals to identify.
        Aboriginal people are often lumped together into one category where they are all
         assigned similar characteristics, regardless of their particular nation of origin - a little like
         characterizing Europeans as all wearing wooden clogs, painting Easter eggs, and eating
         steak and kidney pie.
        Aboriginal people are often not treated with respect in the literature, for instance Inuit
         people may be referred to as Eskimo, a term that is considered derogatory. And women
         may be referred to as squaws, also a derogatory term.
        There is often a problem with terminology to describe Aboriginal people, who can’t
         themselves always agree on appropriate terminology. A common complaint is that they
         are referred to as Indians because Columbus didn’t know where he was when he
         discovered America. The term Native is usually acceptable, but there are other terms in
         use as well: Treaty, non-Treaty, First Nations, First Peoples, Métis, and Aboriginal.
        Aboriginal people are often referred to in the past tense as if there were none around
         today. There are many Aboriginal people today, but they are children of two cultures,
         living in both an Aboriginal culture and a European culture. Many people manage living
         in the two worlds with ease, others do not. Literature that reflects the dual culture of
         Aboriginal people helps Aboriginal children integrate their own reality.
        Aboriginal people may not communicate that they are in fact Aboriginal in origin. There
         are many students in schools who are Aboriginal but have not identified themselves as
         such with the administration.

For more extensive and detailed discussion and lists of criteria for literature for children, with
examples, refer to such resource as:

Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books, pp. xix-xxix
Slapin, Beverly and Doris Seale (editors). Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in
Books for Children.



Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   16
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Oyate - How to tell the difference – a guide:
http://www.oyate.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=135&Itemid=107
Reese, Debbie. Authenticity and Sensitivity: Goals for writing and reviewing books with
Native American themes. http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA153126.html


Significant Books Not Recommended:

It is most instructive to look at the samples in the back of Through Indian Eyes, pages 180,
181, 182, 183, 185, 187, 191, 196, 200, and 202. These pages provide very obvious examples of
various types of unacceptable materials. Selections from these may be shown as overheads.
Discussion of these overheads should follow.

None of the following books appear on the lists. It is recommended that these books be
considered carefully if they are to be used. While they should be removed from library shelves,
some may be reserved for use in illustrating lack of authenticity or sensitivity, or to illustrate
how attitudes have changed.

It is most instructive to have a few of these titles on hand for workshop participants to peruse.
Commonly found in libraries and useful to examine are Brother Eagle, Sister Sky and Ten
Little Rabbits. These two books look completely like they should be fine, but a more in-depth
examination reveals serious problems. Brother Eagle, Sister Sky is in almost every school
library in Alberta, and Ten Little Rabbits is almost as common. Every library also has Indian
in the Cupboard, Return of the Indian, Sign of the Beaver, Knots on a Counting Rope and
Little House on the Prairie. Sign of the Beaver will also likely be in a novel study set.

Other problematic books do appear on the main lists because of redeeming features, but notes
about the deficiencies are always included, such as black and white illustrations, no illustrations,
poor illustrations, poor format or questionable material (such as the use of the term “Eskimo”).


The Not Recommended Books (there are many others, but these are significant and illustrative):

Banks, Lyn Reid. Indian in the Cupboard. 1980. This book is so popular that it has even been
used in at least one Aboriginal school as a novel study! And it is a wonderfully enchanting and
well-written story that many children – and adults - love. But it is severely problematic. Even
though Little Bear, the “Indian in the cupboard” shows maturity and wisdom, the fact that he is
found in a cupboard, is a toy that comes to life, and speaks only broken English are some of the
examples of the negative stereotypes and clichés that are found so often in the book.3 See the
activity Increasing Student Awareness of Aboriginal Issues.

Banks, Lyn Reid. Return of the Indian. 1986, 978-0375855238. Exciting sequel to Indian in
the Cupboard, but with very problematic descriptions of Aboriginal people in the war scenes.



3
    Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 14.

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   17
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Brink, Carol Ryrie. Caddie Woodlawn. 1935, latest reprint 2006. The pranks and adventures of
redheaded Caddie captivate children everywhere. The book takes place on the Wisconsin frontier
in the 1860s when Caddie is eleven years old. An “Indian” village is near Caddie’s home. The
settlers worry about an Indian massacre, patronize the Indians and don’t trust them. Throughout
the narrative there is a lot of talk about massacres; in fact, one chapter is entitles “Massacree!.”
Another chapter calle3d “Scalp Belt” uses the word “scalp” or “scalp belt” nineteen times. The
ten pages of this chapter are references to how the Indians obtained scalps. There’s talk about the
Indians (sic) “Bright black eyes” and “tangled hair”…. Mrs. Woodlawn says “those frightful
savages will eat us out of house and home”… “the way they look at the children’s hair frightens
me. They might want a red scalp to hang on their belts.” Page after page of this type of dialogue
and narrative flows through the text.4 Winner of the Newbery Medal.

Burgan, Michael. Inuit. (Native American Peoples). 2004, 0836842197. Describes the “Eskimo
Scouts” without putting the term “Eskimo” in historical context and explaining the reasons for
avoiding the term today. The book is about Canadian Inuit, but published in United States, where
the term “Eskimo” is frequently used. Canadian Inuit people prefer that the term not be used.

Dalgliesh, Alice. The Courage of Sarah Noble. 1953, 978-0689715402. There is a long
discussion of this book in A Broken Flute. It concludes: “The subtext… is the same story that
we have heard for 500 years. Indians were/are primitive – wild. When not outright savage,
Native peoples still have more in common with the creatures of the Earth and the birds of the air,
than with the culturally and technologically superior Europeans. They are “civilized.” And
therefore no obstacle. This message is one underlying everything children have been taught
about indigenous peoples…and it comes through in this book, loud and clear.”5

Disney’s Pocahontas – New York, Disney Press, 1995. Many versions of the Pocahontas story
are incorrect, exaggerated and romanticized. Actually, many of the details that are thought to be
fairly accurate are difficult to verify. One reasonably accurate story has been included on the
lists.

Edmonds, Walter. Matchlock Gun. 1941, latest reprint 1998, 978-0698116801. Winner of the
Newbery Medal, this tale of a small boy, his mother and younger sister, and an antique
matchlock gun, is based on a true story. Because it is a Newbery winner, it appears in many
libraries. Constantly reprinted, the book is vivid and richly evocative, but the story is ominous,
filled with fear of Indians, who, we know, are going to come. The illustrations…show Indians,
one behind the other, hunched over, menace on two feet: dancing around the leaping flames of
burning cabins, always in darkness, always terrifying.

Hudson, Jan. Sweetgrass. 1985. Popular because it takes place in Alberta and is about the people
of the Blackfoot Nation, this book has often been used for a grade 4 read aloud or novel study.
Besides being for much more mature readers, it’s Aboriginal content is problematic. Sweetgrass,
the heroine, is 15 and obsessed with men and marriage, which is extremely unlikely in an
Aboriginal teenager in the time period represented. The smallpox scenes are inaccurate, and


4
    Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 51-52.
5
    Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, p. 260.

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   18
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
there are many demeaning statements about women. “Native people take the brunt of negative
stereotypes.”6

Jeffers, Susan. Brother Eagle, Sister Sky. 1991, 0-8037-0963-3. Jeffers' book has been admired
for her beautiful illustrations. But there have been many objections to this book, since Seeathl
was not presenting an environmental statement as shown by Jeffers, but an elegy. It’s not even
well established that he did indeed say those words. But even more importantly, the illustrations
depict images of Lakota Sioux and their culture rather than the Northwest Coast life of the chief
who gave his name to the city of Seattle. Although Chief Seattle was a Northwest Coast
Aboriginal, Jeffers had Sioux sitting for portraits. There are other errors and omissions in the
book as well. “…this book is an insult.”7 For an excellent in-depth analysis of this book, see Jon
Stott’s Native Americans in Children's Literature, pages 18-22.

Jenner, Caryn. Pocahontas. 2000, 2009, 978-0756656119. Publishers often put different cover
pictures and even different titles on books destined for different countries. This publication has a
cover sold in Canada that is unacceptable since the homes (tipis) and clothing shown are
historically inaccurate. Pocahontas herself is even wearing a headband with three feathers in it!
The version released in the US has a much more accurate depiction on the cover. The contents of
the book seem to be largely historically accurate as far as the known facts are concerned. This
title is a DK Reader and published as part of the Beginning to Read Alone series, with large print
for beginning readers and so will be an attractive and common purchase. It would be best to
order this from US sources, such as Amazon, rather than purchasing it in Canada because of the
Canadian cover.

Martin Jr., Bill. Knots on a Counting Rope. 1987, 0-8050-0571-4. What is made clear to the
reader is that this story is about love, hope and courage. The rope is a metaphor for the passage
of time, and for the boy's emerging confidence in facing his own blindness. The portrayal of the
relationship between the two males illustrates the importance of bonding in Aboriginal culture.
However, there are problems. The boy constantly interrupts an Elder, and the boy is wearing an
eagle feather (a right that must be earned). Also, there is no mention of the native group that is
supposed to be represented and “the spiritual aspect of the ‘Blue Horses’ is inappropriately dealt
with.”8 There are other problems as well.

Newman, Shirlee P. Inuits. 1993, 0-531-20073-6. The title is incorrect. The term Inuit is already
plural. This lack of knowledge of terminology makes the entire contents of the book suspect as
possibly lacking in thorough research.

Rivera, Raquel, Tuk and the Whale. 2008, 9780888998910. This starts out as a nice little story,
short and easy, told with good knowledge and sensitivity to the values of the Inuit people. But
the story is weak. Tuk’s people are worried about the strangers with beards in their big boat, but
do go whaling with them. They don’t catch anything, but come back happy. Here the story ends
without dealing in any way with the motives of the strangers and the fears of the Inuit about
them.

6
  Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 169-171.
7
  Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, pp. 313.
8
  Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 215.

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   19
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
San Souci, Robert. Song of Sedna. 1989, 0385248237. Both the text and the illustrations
inaccurately present the meaning and values of the mythology surrounding Sedna.

Schneider, Antonie. Birthday Bear. 1998, 9781558589940. David and Sally go to the mountains
to visit their grandparents. The children wear feathers, war-whoop and ambush their grandpa,
who says that all the land around used to belong to the “Blackfoot Indians.” They all proceed to
dress similarly. Grandma gives David a “real Blackfoot Indian birthday present,” – a salmon,
which they roast and eat. There’s more.

Shetterly, Susan Hand. Raven’s Light: A Myth from the People of the Northwest Coast.
1991. This story reflects non-Aboriginal conservationist values and interests rather than the
cosmology from which the story originates. Illustrations are colourful but crude. Placing a figure
upside down for punishment is totally inappropriate and does not reflect any Aboriginal value or
practice.

Yacowitz. Inuit Indians, 2003, 1403408637. The title uses an incorrect term. This lack of
knowledge of terminology makes the entire contents of the book suspect as possibly lacking in
thorough research.

Grossman, Virginia. Ten Little Rabbits. 1991. This counting book, which is popular and has
received several awards, shows rabbits dressed in blankets that are supposed represent the
clothing of different Native groups. It piggybacks on the old “Ten Little Indians” counting song,
with which everyone is familiar. Although it’s supposed to be “cute,” the book is “superficial,
insulting, dehumanizing, and demeaning…”9 The book is “neither authentic nor accurate….it
shouldn’t be necessary to tell people that counting rabbits dressed as Indians is no different from
counting Indians.”10 Publishers would never allow such a book to be published if the ten little
rabbits were Jews or African Americans.

Speare, Elizabeth George. Sign of the Beaver. 1983. Often used as a novel study, and a
Newbery Honor book, this is a very popular but problematic book. In many ways it provides a
sympathetic and balanced look at Aboriginal people. Some examples of problems: Matt and
Attean, an “Indian boy,” become friends, but Attean never speaks in anything more than broken
English. Women do most of the work – and are referred to as “squaws.” Both Attean and Matt
agree that there would be no point in Matt teaching Attean how to read.11 The book is no doubt
in every elementary school and will likely be in a novel study set as well. If used, the above
examples as well as others from the book should be used as teaching points. A Newbery Honor
book.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House on the Prairie. 1935. This classic book is from the Little
House series, has been read by millions, and is loved as warm-hearted family adventure. But the
book perpetuates the image of Aboriginals as fierce, wild, smelly, dirty and hungry. It


9
  Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 140-141.
10
   Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, pp. 295.
11
   Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 303

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   20
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
“perpetuates negative images and stereotypes.”12 This is true of other titles in the series, such as
Little House in the Big Woods, but this one is most notable and representative.


Using the Graded Literature Lists:

Some of the advantages of using children’s literature in the classroom:
    Widespread availability
    Easy integration into thematic curricula
    Generally less dated than non-fiction
    More focused and provide an in-depth look at concepts
    More interesting and less confusing for students than textbooks
    Story lines help students remember concepts better
    Contain colourful pictures and graphics
    Present a more human side of social studies and science than do textbooks
    Evoke both efferent (factual) and aesthetic response (emotional)
    Can be very funny
    Support Inquiry and Research Processes

These advantages are listed at the end of each of the grade lists.

Many picture books have been included on the lists and in the book box. Picture books have
become the new industry standard for books for all levels of readers, mostly because of their
artistry and appeal. Today’s picture books are amazing – take a look at Arrow to the Sun and
the analysis of the illustrations in the activity Hero or Quest Stories for an example!

Picture books are easy to use in the classroom, help establish points quickly, and are enjoyed by
all students. Read one (or portions of longer ones) aloud to your students every day and watch
them develop a love for books and story! Use picture books to establish understanding quickly
and build background knowledge.

Students should gather information from both the story and the pictures. Analyzing the pictures
in picture books can be a very fruitful activity – so much can be gathered from the pictures,
whether they are drawings or photos. In the process of analyzing the illustrations, a blank grid
placed over each page helps students to isolate ideas and assists in the development of
geographical thinking. For this, use the blank grid provided to make an overhead for each
student. (file name Numbered Grid.doc) Students will use these blank grids many times in the
process of analyzing pictures and conducting inquiry projects. Try this yourself with a book such
as Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish, and see how much additional information you
notice!

Remember, our students today are “digital kids” and they flourish with lots of high quality
graphics – hence the appeal and usability of picture books.


12
     Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 332-334.

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   21
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Literature lists for each grade have been developed. One copy for each teacher of the grade or
grades he or she is teaching may be handed out. All lists may be provided electronically for
teachers and librarians. There is one list for each grade, K-6. The lists are Word tables and are on
the accompanying CD-ROM and are named as follows:


               FNMI List K.doc
               FNMI List 1.doc
               FNMI List 2.doc
               FNMI List 3.doc
               FNMI List 4.doc
               FNMI List 5.doc
               FNMI List 6.doc

These literature lists are set up to provide title, annotation, indicator of book type (e.g. novel,
non-fiction, picture book, poetry, biography, alphabet book, folktale, music, reference, etc.),
origin (Aboriginal group), suggested uses or activities, and the curriculum links. Titles are
grouped into specific types, such as quest stories. There is an emphasis throughout on Canadian
books and Canadian content. An overhead from one of the lists is useful for highlighting the
characteristics and setup of the lists. These lists are very comprehensive.

The following considerations apply about acquiring and using literature:

        These lists provide many book suggestions, but there are certainly many other books that
         would also be very useful.
        Many other books that are suitable will already be in school libraries, and so they should
         be examined for suitability.
        Caution should be exercised before using older library books as they may have
         stereotypical or prejudicial content, which is sometimes difficult to recognize.
        A number of older but very good titles have been included in the lists since many
         libraries already have these.
        The school library staff should be asked to check to see which titles on the lists are in the
         school library. This provides a quick check on books immediately available and a quick
         overview of what is needed.
        The ISBNs for the books on the lists are provided for ordering, although it’s wise to keep
         in mind that ISBNs change when editions, binding, or publishers change. A book jobber,
         such a ULS (United Library Services) will be able to follow these.
        Trainers and participants need to keep in mind that books are constantly being published,
         and so that new titles are continuously appearing.
        Books are also continuously going in and out of print, and so a book that is O/P (out of
         print) may be so only for a short time before it reappears. Also, a book that has gone out
         of print in paperback is by no means finished. A great many of these will reappear again
         in hardcover or in paperback. So always encourage teachers to order books even if they
         seem to be O/P. They may already be back in print, and also such orders may help
         publishers to decide when and if they will republish a title.


Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   22
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
          Teachers and schools are well advised to purchase ideal books immediately as they
           become available, because it is by no means certain that any particular title will come
           back into print, or when it will. Sometimes, of course, books go out of print and are never
           reprinted, as in the case of Little Badger and the Fire Spirit. Books that are out of print
           are often available from Amazon.com or, especially, AbeBooks.com at quite reasonable
           prices.
          The best source to purchase books in Alberta is through United Library Services in
           Calgary. Their selection is the best and their discounts deep. Keep in mind that their
           selection, as in bookstores, will be new and very recent titles. Older titles may not be
           shown but they will still be available even though booksellers are after all in the business
           of selling NEW books. Order any and all titles through United Library Services as they
           are a “jobber” and get books from all sources. They also provide cataloguing and
           processing for low prices, an option that should always be taken.


Aboriginal Authors and Illustrators in the Literature Lists:

Often it isn’t indicated whether or not an author or illustrator is Aboriginal, but where possible,
this has often been indicated in the lists by:
AA – Aboriginal author
CAA – Aboriginal author
AI – Aboriginal illustrator


                          13
Families of Stories:

Experience in analyzing, defining and comparing story elements in diverse formats provides
students with strategies for recognizing the overall themes and purposes of the material.
Comprehension is given a big boost, and students become more eager and critical readers of
literature and media.14

In children’s literature, stories usually revolve around a character. There is something special
about the character. He is meeting a challenge, taking a journey, going on a quest or answering a
calling. He may be a helper, a clever character, a trickster, or one who needs to call on great
inner resources of courage and resourcefulness. He may lack emotional support of others in the
story. During the story, the character’s sensitivities and strength of character develop and grow.

Folktales embody many themes and motifs that remain universal in literature today, particularly
in hero tales and quest stories. Students will come to realize that the world body of folklore is
rich and varied, and that the Aboriginal contribution to this world heritage is vital and important.




13
     Title taken from: Stott, Jon and Anita Moss. Family of Stories: An Anthology of Children’s Literature
14
     Stott, Jon. “Spiralled Sequence Story Curriculum”, Workshop Handout, 1988.


Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   23
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
True folktales have no author; no single person thought up the story. They are oral stories, passed
down from generation to generation. What authors such as Gerald McDermott, Joseph Bruchac,
Anne Cameron, and many others, have done is listen to the telling of the story, or studied records
of these stories taken down by others, then adapted the words, reworked them to be effective in
print, and written them down, thus giving a permanence to what had previously been a spoken
(and changeable) tale. Clues to identifying folktales in print are in the words “adapted by” or
“retold by.”

Folktales are part of the oral history of people everywhere, and many of the story themes and
motifs are universal. A story that appears in one culture will often appear in a similar version in
another culture. Recognizing the different universal stories and analyzing their elements assists
students in story comprehension. And so this resource has activities for several different types of
universal stories, which are found in many rich variants in the folktales of Aboriginal people,
including:

               Trickster Tales
               Tortoise and Hare Stories
               Quest or Hero Tales
               Pourquoi and Creation Tales
               Cinderella Stories
               Survival and Adventure Stories

Recognizing that the stories of Aboriginal people belong to a worldwide collection of rich and
priceless folklore helps both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students understand the importance
of Aboriginal origins and heritage. Aboriginal students come to understand that they and their
stories are part of the world community of people and their stories. Many of the suggested
activities in this resource encourage the comparing of folktales to help students recognize the
universality of the stories, themes and lessons.

For this resource and the related activities, stories have been chosen from many places in the
world, but mostly from Canada and Alberta, where available. Stories have been chosen for their
quality, appeal and usefulness in helping our students deepen their understanding of the
Aboriginal heritage.

Other useful stories that do not have their origins directly from Aboriginal people are listed as
“Other… Stories.”




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   24
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Activities in this Resource:

Many activities are suggested in the literature lists, but there are a number of more fully-
developed activities, based both on folktales and other literary (known author) stories as well as
on non-fiction resources. Titles listed in the activities are also listed in the literature lists. These
activities have all been created in Word and are on the CD-ROM so that teachers may copy them
and modify as they see fit in order to make the activities more suitable for their particular
classrooms. Activities are printed in the binder in the green section in the order given below.
Grade levels are suggestive only. Activities include:

                     Grades                                     Activity
         1.    5, 6                     Analysis of The Rabbits
         2.    2, 3, 4                  Author Study
         3.    1, 2, 3, 4               Bannock in Stories
         4.    6                        Biography Project – Famous Aboriginal People
         5.    5                        Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Groups
         6.    4, 5, 6                  Fur Trader Game
         7.    5, 6                     Increasing Student Awareness of Aboriginal Issues
         8.    4, 5, 6                  Inventions and Innovations
         9.    K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5         Make an Alphabet Book
         10.   5, 6                     Maps and Mapping
         11.   2, 3                     Multicultural Cinderella
         12.   5                        Pond Ecology
         13.   1, 2                     Pourquoi and Creation Tales
         14.   4, 5, 6                  Quest or Hero Tales
         15.   4, 5, 6                  Respect for Nature
         16.   5, 6                     Survival and Adventure Stories
         17.   K, 1                     Tortoise and Hare Stories
         18.   3, 4, 5                  Traditional Homes
         19.   3, 4                     Trickster Tales


Quick List and Review of Special Books in the Book Box:

Following is a quick list (Quick List.doc) of the authors and titles of the books that may be
provided in the workshop boxes, along with grades and themes. Refer to Annotated List.doc for
an annotated list of these books, which is also printed in this resource. Not all of these books may
appear in the boxes – books go in and out of print and there are always some titles not available
at any given time.




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   25
Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
Quick List of Books in the Book Box:

Books for the book boxes are selected from the following list, depending mostly upon
availability.

1.    Aboriginal AlphaBet for Children (alphabet)
2.    Aboriginal Cultures in Alberta: Five Hundred Generations (research, non-fiction)
3.    Arrow to the Sun (hero)
4.    As Long as the Rivers Flow (Cree, residential schools)
5.    Blackfoot (series: Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture, non-fiction)
6.    Bulrush Helps the Pond (non-fiction)
7.    Canada’s First Peoples (research, non-fiction)
8.    Celebrating the Powwow (non-fiction)
9.    Come and Learn With Me (non-fiction)
10.   Cree (series: Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture, non-fiction)
11.   Daily Life in a Plains Indian Village 1868 (non-fiction)
12.   Discovering First Peoples and First Contacts (non-fiction)
13.   Finders Keepers (novel study, contemporary Blackfoot)
14.   Girl Who Helped Thunder and other Native American Folktales (includes Blackfoot &
      Inuit - folktales)
15.   Goose Girl (contemporary)
16.   Granny’s Giant Bannock (Cree)
17.   Gray Wolf’s Search (quest)
18.   How Chipmunk Got His Stripes (pourquoi)
19.   How Coyote Stole Summer (folktale – trickster, early reader)
20.   How We Saw the World (pourquoi, creation)
21.   Jingle Dancer (contemporary)
22.   Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples (research, non-fiction)
23.   Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish (survival, Inuit)
24.   Lessons from Mother Earth (contemporary, environment)
25.   Life in a Plains Camp, (non-fiction)
26.   Little Duck – Sikihpsis (Cree contemporary story)
27.   Lord of the Sky (hero)
28.   Lost Children: The Boys Who Were Neglected (pourquoi, Blackfoot)
29.   Love and Roast Chicken (folktale – Peru)
30.   Many Nations: An Alphabet of Native America (alphabet)
31.   Moccasins (contemporary story)
32.   Nanabosho: How the Turtle Got its Shell (pourquoi, Ojibwa)
33.   Native American Thought of It: Amazing Inventions and Innovations (non-fiction)
34.   Native Homes (non-fiction)
35.   Polar Bear Son (Inuit, contemporary)
36.   Promise is a Promise (folktale - trickster)
37.   Qu'Appelle (folktale)
38.   Raccoon’s Last Race (pourquoi, tortoise and hare, trickster)
39.   Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest (trickster and hero)
40.   Red Sash (Métis, historical)


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41.   Rough-Face Girl (Cinderella story)
42.   Sasquatch Exterminator (music)
43.   Secret of the Dance (restriction of rights)
44.   Shin-chi’s Canoe (residential schools)
45.   Sled Dog for Moshi (contemporary, survival)
46.   Spirit of Canada: Canada’s Story in Legends, Fiction, Poems, and Songs (story
      collection)
47.   Star Boy (quest, Blackfoot)
48.   Storm at Batoche (Métis – Louis Riel)
49.   Trickster: Native American Tales: A Graphic Collection (graphic novel format)
50.   Turtle’s Race with Beaver: a Traditional Seneca Story (tortoise and hare, trickster)



Known to be currently out of print (as of Nov. 2010) and would have been included if
available:

Story of the Blackfoot People (Glenbow Museum, non-fiction)
Iktomi titles, eg. Iktomi and the Ducks (trickster)
Little Badger and the Fire Spirit (hero)
The Rabbits (allegory)
Hidden Buffalo (survival, Cree, Alberta)
Frog Girl (hero)




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Part II - Literature Analysis Activity: Red Sash
Reading a Story

Red Sash has been selected as a model book because it is well written, is a very good story, is a
Canadian story and also has several curricular uses. Really rich books have many uses.

Read the story aloud. It would be a good idea to practice ahead of time, to help get maximum
fluency and expression. Meaningful reading does very much improve with practice.

After the reading, ask participants what students can learn from this story. List on an overhead.
Whenever possible, the oral reading of a story should be accompanied by some form of graphic
organizer, e.g. Venn diagram, flow chart, T-table to help students organize and categorize the
new ideas. Red Sash lends itself well to a T-table such as the following:

              Aboriginal Customs                                             European Customs
Live in a wigwam                                              Build walls around fort and put in sentry posts
Put baby to sleep on a warm bear hide and                     Build fort in square European-style buildings
  carry in a back pack called a tikinaagan                    Make bread, butter, and gather eggs
Use snowshoes                                                 Learn trades such as blacksmith and carpenter
Cook breakfast outside over an open fire                      Wear a mix of Aboriginal and European
Use birch bark canoes                                          clothing
Snare a hare for supper
Wear a mix of Aboriginal and European
  clothing


Sample questions to ask students:

What can students learn about the voyageurs from this story?
           Voyageurs went northwest into the interior of Canada to trade for furs.
           Traders brought supplies from Montreal.
           At rendezvous, the traders and voyageurs meet to trade furs and goods.
           They use canvas tents.

What can students learn about the Métis people from this story?
           They were voyageurs.
           They were usually European with Aboriginal wives.
           The Red Sash is a symbol of the Métis people working as voyageurs.


What Students Can Learn From a Story:




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   28
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Arrange participants into grade groupings and have each group or pair of teachers select a book
or books to read from the ones on display. Encourage them to read stories that fit with curricula
they are teaching.

Ask participants as they read to identify and list things from the story, such as lifestyle,
traditions, culture, customs, government, people, landform, climate and science concepts that can
students can identify from the story, the illustrations, and even in any of the accompanying
material, such as notes at the end of the story.

Any of the book box collection stories may be used in this activity as well as others that may be
obtained from school libraries.

Show a sample of this activity done for a book such as Anklet for a Princess. This may be
placed on the overhead for easy reference during the activity.

Have participants share findings.




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Part III – In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories
The oral tradition of stories is one that is common to all cultures. Many of the classics of
literature as well as more modern texts have their origins in the folklore of various groups. Oral
traditions

               contain the beliefs and values that the culture considers important
               were used to teach and entertain the young
               show worldviews and elements unique to the cultures
               reveal perspectives that are reflected in contemporary literature and media
               have many elements in common with other cultures, but also many elements unique
                    to that particular culture
               come in differing forms: myths (having to do with sacred beliefs), legends (usually
                    about people who may or may not have existed), fables (stories that teach
                    lessons), and folktales (which include pourquoi or why stories, trickster stories,
                    and hero or quest stories).

By experiencing the oral traditions of Aboriginal peoples, all students may gain understandings
about the stories of Aboriginal people and their importance as part of a world heritage of
folklore. They also learn to recognize the universality of certain themes in literature, regardless
of cultural origin.


Quest or Hero Stories:

Provide some background information about Arrow to the Sun:

               Pueblo in origin
               By Gerald McDermott
               Published in 1975
               Superb for its power and abstract beauty
               Has become a modern classic
               Probably one of the top 5 best children’s books of all time
               1975 Caldecott Medal Winner (Caldecott Awards are for illustrations)
               An exemplar for hero and quest stories

Describe characteristics of the archetypal hero and hero stories. Refer to the in-depth analysis in
the activity Quest or Hero Tales for details.

Read Arrow to the Sun aloud, showing pictures. Two old paperback copies from the library can
be taken apart and mounted on manila tag and posted in story order so that the progression of
characteristics in the illustrations can be seen. Ask the questions about the story from the Quest
or Hero Tales activity.

Using the illustrations, analyze Arrow to the Sun. Notice the introduction of colour at the
entrance into the spiritual realm – the realm of the Sun. The Wizard of Oz is filmed in black and

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white when Dorothy is in the real world. Only when she enters the magical kingdom of Oz does
the movie change to colour. This device can be seen in many other stories, such as some of the
Nanabosho stories and the old print copy of Little Badger and the Fire Spirit. In Arrow to the
Sun, it is the same idea - the addition of brilliant pinks and purples to the previously earthy
colour scheme signifies the Boy’s entrance into the spiritual world. Notice how the Boy changes
shape when he becomes an Arrow. Notice how he has two eyes when he finally is recognized as
his father’s son. (A detailed analysis of the illustrations in Arrow to the Sun is provided at the
end of the Quest or Hero Tales activity.)

Ask the questions given for Arrow to the Sun in the Quest or Hero Tales activity.

Reading and discussion of a story should be followed by a having listeners consolidate their
understanding of the story in some form or other. Quest stories, like any other stories, are very
susceptible to representation through the use of graphic organizers. For example Arrow to the
Sun could be represented using a Circular Flow Chart or a Linear Flow Chart to show the
elements of the story, or a Venn Diagram to compare boy before and after his journey. A
Circular Flow Chart (Circular Journey) would be very appropriate because it shows the circular
nature of the story – the Boy leaves home because he is not happy and has a need for leaving. He
meets adventures and signposts along the way, but eventually returns home (completes the
circle), returning as a better person and, moreover, bringing gifts for his people.

On an overhead, have participants help to create a Circular Journey for Arrow to the Sun (use
the sample provided.)

Provide print copies of the text of Little Badger and the Fire Spirit (in the Quest or Hero
Tales activity). Groups or pairs may read and analyze the story and then share their analysis with
the whole group.




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Trickster Stories:

Review some of the characteristics of trickster stories:

Coyote, and often, Fox, are trickster heroes of many Aboriginal folktales. Other tricksters
include Raven, Old Man (Siksika), Turtle, Rabbit, Nanabush, and Iktomi (spider). Tricksters are
full of mischief, causing discomfort to others in their own selfish quests. Very often, their plans
go wrong and they become the victim of their own tricks. They usually richly deserve to get
outsmarted! Students soon begin to recognize that a story with a coyote or fox in it is often a
trickster story as are stories with ravens as the main character. Students will enjoy such stories in
which the tricksters are outsmarted by the intended victims of their tricks. For more details about
trickster stories, refer to the Trickster Tales activity.

Read a trickster story aloud. Choose from:

               Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest
               Raven Goes Berrypicking
               Turtle’s Race with Beaver
               Any one from Trickster: Native American Tales: A Graphic Collection, e.g.
                   Rabbit’s Choctaw Tail Tale, which is very funny.


Graphic Organizers:

Analyze the story and develop a graphic organizer to express the key ideas in the story. Most
useful might be a simple matrix as it demonstrates that subsequent stories can be subject to the
same analysis and therefore all the stories are easy to compare.

     Title                    Trickster                     Who is Tricked                          Strategy
Turtle’s
Race with
Beaver
Raven Goes
Berrypicking
etc.



Members of the group should select, read and analyze a trickster story, and then represent the
story to the whole group, with a graphic organizer.

Types of graphic organizers that work well for stories:

Matrix or Table - useful for repeating events or characteristics or to compare stories of similar
   or different story types
Circular Flow Chart - useful for showing circular journeys, hero or quest stories

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Linear Flow Chart - useful for representing linear journeys or sequences of events
Concept Frame Showing Examples and Non-examples - useful for defining types of stories
T-table - useful for showing character traits and providing evidence from the story
Story Chart - useful for showing the problem, the escalating events and the ending
Story Board - useful for showing sequence of events
Plot Diagram - useful for showing the beginning, rising action, crisis point, and conclusion of
   the story
Pictograph - useful for representing accumulated events or characteristics
Map - useful for showing location of events and their relationships in time and space
Venn Diagram - useful for comparing similar stories




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Part IV - Big Ideas
Explain the “Big Ideas” concept as outlined below and suggest appropriate titles. Elicit Big Idea
and book suggestions from participants.

Ideas about the human condition, such as those suggested below, may function as “Big Ideas”
around which many learning outcomes can be developed. Books that serve as centrepieces for
Big Ideas need to be carefully selected for their quality and universal appeal. Do the stories
inform and enrich? Do their themes touch the human imagination and spirit? Do they illuminate
the diversity and richness of Aboriginal cultures? Truly powerful books are rich in ideas and
multi-layered in thematic content. They can lead to memorable classroom experiences for both
students and teacher. They also offer multiple opportunities to link to other ideas, and various
subjects, such as Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. A perfect example of a Big Idea
book is River Ran Wild. Briefly explain, as you show the pages, what happens in River Ran
Wild, as an example of a “Big Idea” book.

River Ran Wild is extremely useful for environmental issues, the development of historical
thinking, and understanding Aboriginal perspectives. (Really good books nearly always have
many layers and therefore have many uses!). Show the pictures and briefly tell the story of the
book.

Some of the activities developed for this resource may be useful in a “Big Ideas” mini-unit:

               Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Groups
               Aboriginal People Biography Project
               Analysis of The Rabbits
               Inventions and Innovations
               Pond Ecology
               Quest or Hero Tales
               Respect for Nature
               Students and Aboriginal Issues
               Survival and Adventure Stories


Some “Big Ideas” and books that can be used in a Big Idea mini-unit:

        Change over Time
           o River Ran Wild
           o Encounter
           o Rabbits
           o Moccasins
           o Missing Sun
           o House on Maple Street
           o Spring Celebration



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        Cycles or Life Cycles
            o River Ran Wild
            o Moccasins
            o Dancing With the Cranes
            o An Algonquian Year: A Year According to the Full Moon

        Journeys
            o Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish
            o Sister to the Wolf
            o Arrow to the Sun
            o Crow and Weasel
            o Lost in the Barrens
            o Little Badger and the Fire Spirit
            o Idaa Trail: In the Steps of Our Ancestors
            o Gray Wolf's Search
            o Goose Girl
            o Rainbow Crow
            o Legend of Mexicatl
            o Adventures of Rabbit and Bear Paws: Voyageurs
            o Broken Blade

        Environment
            o River Ran Wild
            o Jen and the Great One
            o Rabbits
            o Elders are Watching
            o Come and Learn With Me
            o Lessons from Mother Earth
            o Bulrush Helps the Pond
            o Pipaluk And The Whales

        Goals
           o      Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish
           o      River Ran Wild
           o      Gray Wolf’s Search
           o      Arrow to the Sun
           o      Little Badger and the Fire Spirit
           o      Finders Keepers
           o      Little Duck – Sikihpsis
           o      Lord of the Sky

        Global Citizenship
            o Elders are Watching
            o River Ran Wild
            o Finders Keepers
            o Lessons from Mother Earth


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        Technology and Change
            o River Ran Wild
            o Rabbits

        Inventions and Innovations
            o A Native American Thought of It: Amazing Inventions and Innovations
            o Inuit Thought of It: Amazing Inventions and Innovations
            o Life in a Plains Camp

        Freedom
            o As Long As The Rivers Flow
            o Secret of the Dance
            o Storm at Batoche
            o Sister to the Wolf
            o Shin-chi’s Canoe
            o Polar Bear Son

        Coming of Age
           o Red Sash
           o Goose Girl
           o Arrow to the Sun
           o Little Duck – Sikihpsis

        Survival
            o Hidden Buffalo
            o Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish
            o Lost in the Barrens
            o Tiktaliktak
            o Polar Bear Son
            o Sled Dog for Moshi


Planning Activity:

Have participants select and read in grade groups at least one Big Ideas book. If there are more
than three participants in a group, have one person read aloud to the others.

In grade groups, building around the Big Ideas book(s), and using both the available books, the
book lists, and other familiar titles, ask participants to outline a series of lessons or a mini-unit.
Encourage participants to refer to the literature lists for more related titles.

Have each group appoint a spokesperson to share their ideas with the whole group.




Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   36
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Novel Study: Finders Keepers

Although there is very little attention paid to novel studies in this workshop, it’s only because of
the difficulty in sharing longer texts in a workshop setting. There are in fact a number of very
good novels available to support FNMI student success, many of which are in the literature lists
for each grade. Novels provide students with an in-depth experience of different times, places
and peoples, and are invaluable in helping to develop background knowledge and concepts.
Novels also provide students with insight into their own lives and conditions.

Recognize that a read-aloud novel study (that is, where the teacher reads the novel aloud) is as
good as and often better than a novel study in which the students each read the novel for
themselves. Some students do not read well enough to fully experience a novel or to be able to
participate fully in the activities developed to accompany the novel. The teacher’s reading can
impart both a love of literature and an enthusiasm for the book and the topic that is infectious,
making the whole experience very positive for students. A read-aloud novel study has the
additional advantage of requiring only one copy of the novel rather than a class set. (The worst
reason for doing a novel study is that there are 25 copies of it in the back room!)

An example of an excellent novel suitable for either a read-aloud or independent novel study is
Finders Keepers, by Andrea Spalding, a Canadian author. In this novel Danny, a non-
Aboriginal boy, is the main character. While walking through a neighbourhood field in southern
Alberta, Danny finds an 8,000-year-old arrowhead. His friend Joshua, who lives on the Piegan
reserve at Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, joins him on buffalo hunts, powwows, archaeological
digs, and a break-in at the local museum. In the process Danny learns many things about
Aboriginal history and Aboriginals sensitivities and values, and also begins to overcome his
problem with dyslexia. Danny shows sensitivity to and respect for his friend’s culture. Here’s a
very sensitive portrayal of the Piegan (Blackfoot) people of southern Alberta in a novel that is
fairly easy reading with strong boy appeal. It is a very well done novel, a real page-turner, and a
fine read aloud for fun or novel study. It also fits very well with grade 4 and 5 social studies.

Another excellent novel suitable for a novel study is Children of the Longhouse, By Joseph
Bruchac. This is a novel that is fairly easy reading with strong boy appeal. It’s a very well done
novel, and a fine read aloud for fun or novel study. In the story, themes of justice, democracy,
respect and underlying Aboriginal spirituality are conveyed. Many aspects of the novel lend
themselves well to novel study activities. It’s a perfect novel to tie in with grade 6 social studies.
For example, as students read the novel, they might

               Briefly summarize the short stories that are told by Aboriginal elders and then tell
                     what lesson each story was designed to teach.
               Describe the longhouse and draw an illustration of it.
               Explain the annual cycle of the people’s lives.
               What foods did they eat? Keep a record of some of the plants that were used for
                     medicinal or food purposes.
               List all the ways the people depend upon and use nature around them for their daily
                     needs.



Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   37
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               On a wall map of North America that shows the rivers, locate where Ohkwa’ri’s
                    village would have been located. Use the rivers in the description of the clan’s
                    trek as a guide.
               Explain how the people show respect and for what things and what people.
               Keep a record of the wise sayings of their parents and other older people.
               Draw a picture of the lodge that Ohkwa’ri built.
               Keep a running list of elements of the democracy that the people live by.
               Outline the style of democracy that the people live by.
               Compare the democracy of the People of the Longhouse with that of Canada and
                    with that of Ancient Athens.


Creating a Novel Study:

The goals of FNMI student success provide many questions, issues, and topics that could be
addressed in novel studies. Refer to the literature lists for suitable novels. They are indicated by
“novel” or “novel study” in the activities column. Easy or difficult reading titles for the grade are
indicated.


Types of Activities to Include in a Novel Study:

        Read about the author. Provide sources of information about the author.
        Other books by the author. Have available for students to investigate.
        Background knowledge development to support the reading. Use picture books, non-
         fiction, photos and posters, films if available.
        Biography research and report or interview if the novel is historical. Provide names to
         choose from and references for students to use (print and web). Use a Research Web to
         record and organize information.
        Retrieval Chart (grid). Compare characteristics of different things, such as Aboriginal
         groups, story characters, different attitudes and values.
        Sequencing of events.
        Graphic organizers to chart the story or isolate key features.
        Vocabulary study.
        Research. Select or develop an inquiry question or topic arising from the novel, e.g.
         slavery (of Aboriginals in Canada), survival strategies, Aboriginal values, materials that
         should or should not be displayed in museums, etc.
        Topic-related information-gathering activities, such as Survival Tips.
        Timeline. Make a timeline of events in the book or surrounding events (before and after
         the story in the novel).
        Create a map of places and events.
        Debate of issues, e.g. attitudes or conflicting perspectives portrayed in the novel
        Related picture books: read aloud.
        Related novels, non-fiction resources, and picture books. Have available for students to
         investigate.

Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by   38
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        Chapter questions. Develop one or two key questions for each chapter. Avoid overkill.
        Chapter discussions. Bring up issues or questions arising from the chapter.
        Response journal. Students may respond to questions, record their own questions, record
         thoughts, prepare explanations, etc.
        Concluding or follow-up activity. This should be an activity or project that helps to
         enhance, summarize or consolidate the learning.

Elicit other suggestions from the workshop participants as to suitable activities for possible novel
studies for specific novels to promote FNMI student success. Also ask for suggestions as to book
titles that they may have used successfully.


Sister to the Wolf:

A novel study for Sister to the Wolf, by Maxine Trottier, has been created as part of the
Weaving Literature into Social Studies 6-9 resource. It is suitable for grades 5 and 6 and is
available in print and electronically. Contact your Regional Professional Development
Consortium to get a copy – either electronic or print.




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A Note About Selecting Non-fiction

Provide a quick overview about selecting non-fiction resources. Review the following
information about non-fiction.

Care should be taken in selecting non-fiction resources. No book should ever be selected without
having been evaluated by a professional – such as teacher, teacher-librarian, or Aboriginal
resource specialist. Books should never be selected from a catalogue unless from a series for
which you already have some examples and know them to be appropriate. Too many titles in the
non-fiction area of libraries have dense text and black and white pictures. Others do not have a
table of contents or an index. Others may have a too-difficult reading level for the grade for
which it is intended. Following are some of the criteria to use when selecting non-fiction titles.
Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples illustrates these points well. This list of criteria for selecting
non-fiction titles is at the end of each grade list.

        Large, clear, high-quality colour illustrations, including both photos and drawings
        Drawings should include graphs, diagrams, tables and other structures that plot
         information, show relationships and generally help students understand
        Illustrations should match and support the text
        Captions should support the material
        Index
        Table of Contents
        Glossary
        Authority and currency evident in sources used in content development (e.g., sources and
         authorities listed)
        Text appropriate as to size, font type, placement, amount per page
        Headings and sub-headings used frequently throughout the text
        Content suitable for age of student
        Content appropriate for the intended unit of study
        Content organized in “chunks” of related material
        Print broken up by illustrations, boxes, sidebars, etc., so as to avoid long, intimidating
         sections of text.
        Appealing format
        Canadian or Albertan content where appropriate

It is important for libraries have a good supply of quality non-fiction titles to support FNMI
student success. Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples is a prime example of the kind of non-fiction
books that should be in our libraries. Non-fiction titles that meet the above quality standards as
much as possible are listed in the grade lists. Quality format in Aboriginal materials is actually
easier to get in non-fiction than it is in fiction.




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General Sharing:

The remainder of this last section is a time for general sharing by all of book titles, ideas, and
teaching strategies. Start off by sharing one or two of the books or activities not yet addressed.

Invite participants to share children’s literature titles and/or teaching strategies that they have
used that they have found to be successful.


A Note About the Accompanying CD-ROM:

The CD-ROM contains three folders, as follows, and includes all the materials in the Facilitator’s
binder. These may be shared freely with the teachers in your district. Files are all in Word so that
they may be modified to suit individual teachers.

        Facilitator
        Literature Lists
        Activities




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