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Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools Workshop Facilitator Guide Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium (SAPDC) This workshop facilitator guide is intended to support district curriculum facilitators and district PD leaders in providing learning opportunities for teachers in addressing First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success The goals of the workshop (and the materials in the Workshop Facilitator Guide) are designed to: Support FNMI student success by using literature to help Promote cultural awareness Develop respect for diversity Build pride in the First Nations student Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, May 2010. Acknowledgements Professional Development Materials by Thalia Hartson for Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium (SAPDC) As a result of a grant from Alberta Education to Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium (SAPDC), this workshop package has been developed to facilitate FNMI student success. For further information about these workshop materials, contact Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium (SAPDC), Phone (403) 381-5580 or E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org June, 2010 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 2 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Table of Contents Front Pocket: Quick List of Books in the Book Box Facilitator Resource (white): Before the Workshop .......................................................................................................4 Part 1 - Introductory Material ..........................................................................................8 Part II - Literature Analysis: Red Sash ............................................................................25 Part III – In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories .............................................................27 Part IV - Big Ideas ...........................................................................................................30 Annotated List of Books in the Book Box Numbered Grid Anklet for a Princess: A Cinderella Story from India Venn Diagrams Literature Lists (pink): Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Kindergarten Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 1 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 2 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 3 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 4 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 5 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Grade 6 Activities (green): Analysis of The Rabbits Author Study Bannock in Stories Biography Project – Famous Aboriginal People Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Groups Fur Trader Game Increasing Student Awareness of Aboriginal Issues Inventions and Innovations Make an Alphabet Book Maps and Mapping Multicultural Cinderella Pond Ecology Pourquoi and Creation Tales Quest or Hero Tales Respect for Nature Survival and Adventure Stories Tortoise and Hare Stories Traditional Homes Trickster Tales Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 3 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success Before the Workshop Workshop Structure: The FNMI Student Success workshop is divided into four sections, two that take place in the morning and two in the afternoon. The general instructional plan for each section of the workshop is to introduce examples of children’s literature, developing concepts in context, followed by activities for participants. In some cases a variety of activities is provided, giving the facilitator alternatives to use depending on variables such as the needs and interests of each participant group. The main topics and activities for each of the four sections are: 1. Part I - Introductory Material 2. Part II - Literature Analysis: Red Sash 3. Part III - In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories 4. Part IV - Big Ideas Information for Facilitators: Folding box carts, each containing a selection of 45-50 books key to supporting FNMI Student Success, are provided for workshop participants who are facilitators for their districts as identified by the Regional Learning Consortia. Also included in each box are all the materials in this facilitator guide and all files in electronic format on CD-ROM. It is recommended that the many files of literature lists and activities for specific grades be simply e-mailed to interested participants to avoid excessive photocopying and make it possible for teachers to add to and change the activities to suit their needs. Facilitators are encouraged to supplement the books in the boxes with additional titles from their own school or district libraries in order to enrich the workshop experience for all participants. Additional titles for each list and activity are suggested throughout this document, and, sometimes, supporting Web sites. All suggested titles are found in the various literature lists that are part of this package, along with bibliographic information. The entire workshop can be done with just the books provided in the boxes; but any additional books that the facilitator can provide will further enrich the workshops, especially when doing workshops with large numbers of participants. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 4 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Logistics Questions: Time: How much time will we have? Could any surprises affect the amount of actual presentation time? How long will we have for lunch and for breaks? Set Up: What physical set-ups are required? Can I get into the room 45 minutes before the event? What do I need? (e.g. name tags, room arrangements, snack arrangements, audiovisual equipment, and instructional materials, overhead projector, blank paper) Travel: What travel and transportation details should we check? How do I get to the site and how long will it take me to get there? Facilitators will have to work closely with the school district contact person to develop a workshop plan to suit the needs of the participants. There are more activities than time available, most likely, so facilitators should pick and choose to meet the particular needs of each group. Ideally this workshop should be offered as a full-day learning opportunity. Before the Workshop: Before the workshop, set up all the books on tables and group them roughly according to grade, with small signs that indicate the grades. One of the key strategies to emphasize in this workshop is the reading aloud of books to students, and so reading aloud of important books or portions of them will be modeled least twice during the workshop. Teachers will recognize that literature is a major resource for promoting FNMI student success. From the rich selection of literature that is available, teachers are able to select engaging and powerful books that can "breathe life" into student learning. Storytelling is especially valued by Aboriginal culture and teaching through literature is a main strategy in Aboriginal approaches to education. Many Aboriginal children are familiar already with the use of storytelling as a teaching tool. The workshop will focus on becoming familiar with suitable books and various strategies for using them in the classroom. Most of the time will be spent actually working with books in one way or another. To facilitate useful interactions, the facilitator should arrange participants in groups around tables. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 5 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Activities, suggestions, and strategies provided throughout this workshop are given as samples and are meant to model what might be done with a wide variety of titles in many different grades. During the workshop, encourage participants to share ideas, strategies they have tried, and other titles that fit into the topics. A great many titles are listed in this document and in the activities, often without bibliographical reference. To find the references, with annotations, simply search electronically through the main grade lists. Workshop Materials: signs for book display tables indicating grade levels of the books blank paper for participants overhead projector overhead pens CD player overheads o one first page from one of the literature lists o blank overheads for demonstrating analysis of stories with graphic organizers o selected illustrations from Through Indian Eyes, (any or all of pages 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 187, 191, 196, 200, and 202) handouts o Quick List (Quick List.doc) o Quick List Annotated (Annotated List.doc) o Numbered Grid o Literature Lists, one for each grade that each teacher teaches (get information ahead of time about the grades that each participant teaches) o CD-ROM handout containing facilitator materials, literature lists and all activities Workshop Goals: This workshop-planning guide contains a variety of learning opportunities based on participant needs. There are more activities than can be incorporated into the workshop, so the facilitator should choose activities/processes based on participants’ experience, time available and expressed need. The goals of the workshop (and the materials in the Workshop Facilitator Guide) are designed to support FNMI student success by using literature to help 1. promote cultural awareness 2. develop respect for diversity 3. build pride in the First Nations student Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 6 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. The scope of the materials in this resource goes beyond focusing on First Nations, Métis and Inuit students. If societal attitudes are to change, non-Aboriginal students need also to see such things as Aboriginals portrayed in the literature in the same realistic, respectful and accurate ways as non-Aboriginals. And so this resource is designed for all students in K-6. It is also important to note that Aboriginal content is not something that is done specifically a few times a year as an add-on or special event, but is infused into the regular programs of study as an integral and ongoing element of classroom learning. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 7 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Workshop Outline: Suggested Objective/ Goal Activity Details Time Addressed Part 1 - Introductory Material, 9:00 – 10:30 Professional Resources Background information to FNMI Literature and Publishing support FNMI student success by: Selection Criteria Promoting cultural awareness 1 hr., 30 Introduction The Problem of Stereotypical and Prejudicial Material Developing respect for min. Significant Books Not Recommended diversity Using the Graded Literature Lists Building pride in the First Families of Stories Nations student Part II - Literature Analysis: Red Sash, 10:45 – 12:00 20 min. Review some special books from the Quick List 10 min. Read aloud Red Sash Share ideas, strategies and What can experiences using literature to students learn? 10 min. What can students learn from this story? support FNMI student success 50 min. Browse through books, read and analyze a selected title, share Part III – In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories, 1:00 – 2:15 10 min. Read aloud Arrow to the Sun What are the 15 min. Characteristics of hero and quest stories: analyze Arrow to the Sun Share ideas, strategies and characteristics of 20 min. Read and analyze Little Badger and the Fire Spirit, share experiences using literature to some of the story 15 min. Characteristics of trickster stories, read a trickster story aloud support FNMI student success groups? 15 min. Select, read and analyze a trickster story Part IV - Big Ideas –2:30 – 3:30 10 min. Big Ideas Where can 5 min. Activity Groups in the Resource Share ideas, strategies and literature take 25 min. Planning Activity experiences using literature to us? 10 min. Novel Study – Finders Keepers support FNMI student success 10 min. General Sharing Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, May 2010. Part 1 - Introductory Material Before Participants Start Arriving: Set up and play the CD from Sasquatch Exterminator as people are arriving. The music is Aboriginal, fun, has a great beat to it and will help set the stage! After lunch, as participants reassemble, play the CD from Drum Calls Softly, by David Bouchard. Background Information for Participants: Using the Introductory Material listed below, address these topics and issues in order to provide participants with the necessary background to understanding literature for FNMI students. Have any of the resources (professional and student) listed in this section that are available in your library on hand for participants to examine. Introductory Material: Professional Resources FNMI Literature and Publishing Selection Criteria The Problem of Stereotypical and Prejudicial Material Significant Books Not Recommended Using the Graded Literature Lists Families of Stories Quick List and Review of Special Books in the Book Box Professional Resources: Print: Bastian, Dawn. Handbook of Native American Mythology. 2008, 9780195342321. The mythologies of Native Americans from the US to the Arctic Circle is a rich, complex, and diverse body of lore that offers a unique perspective on Native American history, culture and values. Campbell, Joseph. Hero With a Thousand Faces. 1949, 1968, 1973, 2008, 0691017840. This classic study traces the hero’s journey and transformation through virtually all the mythologies of the world, revealing the one archetypal hero in them all. Campbell's words carry extraordinary weight, not only among scholars but also among a wide range of other people who find his Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 9 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. search down mythological pathways relevant to their lives today. Hero With a Thousand Faces is a brilliant examination, through ancient hero myths, of man's eternal struggle for identity. Fox, L., Lavalee, E., and Poitras, L. Education is Our Buffalo: A Teachers’ Resource for First Nations, Métis and Inuit Education in Alberta. 2006, 1897196105. Any teacher can use this resource to acquire some of the necessary knowledge and understanding for working successfully with Aboriginal learners. It’s full of information regarding Aboriginal history, cultures, traditions, and contemporary issues with a specific focus on education. This is an essential addition to any educator's professional resource shelf. Any member of the ATA can request a free personal copy of this resource by calling the ATA. Others working in education, such as teaching assistants, can purchase a copy of the resource for $7.00. Download .pdf file free from http://www.ldaa.ca/assets/pdfs/freeResources/EducationIsOurBuffalo.pdf Our Words, Our Ways: Teaching First Nations, Métis and Inuit Learners. 2004, 0778543137. This resource leads teachers through 7 key areas necessary for Aboriginal student success, including culture, definition, community of learners, sharing responsibility, learning strategies, assessment elements, and learning disabilities. Here is a very useful resource to help infuse Aboriginal perspectives into Alberta curricula. It also provides a good amount of background information about Aboriginal people in Alberta. A print version of this resource is available for purchase from the Learning Resources Centre or may be downloaded at no cost from http://www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/curriculum/OurWords.asp Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, 978- 1434336637. A Second Look provides a thorough examination of 425 books for parents, teachers, librarians, and administrators interested in books for children. Anyone involved in selecting Native American books will find this guide useful in working through the maze of available materials. Robinson, Gail and Douglas Hill. Coyote the Trickster: Legends of the North American Indians. 1975, 0844809233. Contains twelve trickster stories from North American Aboriginal peoples. Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, 780759107793. Reviews and critically evaluates children's books about Native Americans written between the early 1900s and 2003. Includes also stories, essays and poems from its contributors. Critiques some 600 books by more than 500 authors, arranges titles A to Z, covers pre-school to grade 12, and even evaluates some adult and teacher materials. This is a most valuable resource for school libraries and Native American collections. This is a very thorough and scholarly work. “By calling attention to (the) diversity of Native voices, A Broken Flute points out the failure of mainstream publishers to represent Native work, and the critical role that teachers and librarians must play in questioning non-Native work and seeking authentic criticism.”1 Slapin, Beverly and Doris Seale (editors). Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children. 1998, 0-935626-46-8. A professional resource containing essays, poetry, 1 School Library Journal. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 10 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. critical reviews of 100 children's books, a guide to evaluating children's books, and bibliography, compiled by Native parents, educators, poets and writers who share their different perspectives. This is a very useful resource for teachers, administrators, and librarians to use as a guide for assisting them in the selection and use of children's books about Aboriginal people. Criteria for evaluating children's books are given with examples. Index. Stott, Jon. Native Americans in Children's Literature. 1995, 0897747828. Stott's book will be of special interest to librarians and teachers who want to give kids good books about Native Americans. A Canadian professor of children's literature, Stott writes in a clear, authoritative, jargon-free style, without the self-righteousness that characterizes some of the criticism in the field. He discusses general stereotypes and misrepresentations of Indians, but his focus is on good writers and artists and how to use their books with children. An excellent chapter discusses traditional stories and legends, including the great variety of trickster characters. There are insightful essays on Joseph Bruchac, Paul Goble, Gerald McDermott, Jean Craighead George, Michael Dorris, and others who write about history and the contemporary scene. This resource introduces children's books that are far from popular images of savages and saints. A thorough and very well-researched resource. Stott, Jon and Anita Moss. Family of Stories: An Anthology of Children’s Literature. Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1986, 0039218325. Provides numerous stories with in-depth analysis of story types. Selected Web Sites: Aboriginal Collection Online, Resource Development Services, Edmonton Public Schools. License required. http://rds.epsb.net/aborigonline/root/publiclogin.cfm American Indians in Children's Literature: Critical perspectives of Indigenous People in Children’s Books, the School Curriculum, Popular Culture, and Society-at-large. Find here critical perspectives and discussions of American Indians in children's books, the school curriculum, popular culture and society at large: http://americanindiansinchildrensliterature.blogspot.com/ Four Directions Teaching.com: http://www.fourdirectionsteachings.com/resources.html Gabriel Dumont institute of Natives Studies: http://www.gdins.org/ Little Badger and the Fire Spirit, by Maria Campbell, complete text: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/artsed/g2arts_ed/drama/appendix.html Nature’s Laws: http://www.abheritage.ca/natureslaws/index2.html Oyate - How to tell the difference – a guide: http://www.oyate.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=135&Itemid=107 Wikipedia: Native Americans in Children's Literature: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indians_in_Children%27s_Literature Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 11 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. FNMI Literature and Publishing: There is a reasonably good supply of non-fiction and fiction available about the Inuit, but not as much for other Aboriginal groups across Canada. Much of the literature is about some of the major groups, particularly in British Columbia and Ontario. Few resources manage a map of the traditional territories of the various Native American groups and almost none make any attempt to sort through the various groups and sub-groups. Some produce timelines and glossaries. Many rely on stock photos for their illustrations. These vary a great deal in what they depict. Some stock sources are certainly better than others. Sometimes books will show up each with some of the same stock photos. Stories are at their best when they are folklore. Picture books of contemporary Aboriginal people have a tendency to sometimes seem a little contrived. There is a shortage of good contemporary stories. There are a fair number of good novels, and also some good dated novels, such as those by Farley Mowat and James Houston. These may be used, of course, but teachers need to be sure students understand the time periods depicted. As in any body of literature, there are errors. These errors are particularly problematic when the culture and customs of a group of people are being represented. A list of some books with unacceptable errors is included along with the problems in those books. There are too few books about the Métis. This is an area of real shortage. Governments of British Columbia and Ontario support the production of literature about local groups, but all too seldom do books about Aboriginal people show up that have been supported by the Alberta government. There is a serious shortage of good books of any type about Alberta Aboriginal people. There are a very few good ones available as well as some that are not so good, for various reasons. But there is nevertheless a severe shortage of good material. Aboriginal authors and illustrators are becoming more and more common all the time. They are ideal producers since they know their own cultures the best. They tend to produce wonderful, artistic works, but rarely do they produce elementary-level non-fiction material. Books by major publishers and authors (e.g. Bruchac, McDermott, Bouchard, Munsch, Trottier) lend legitimacy, currency, and significance to native stories. Generally, mainstream publishers have failed to systematically produce work by and about Aboriginals, particularly in Canada. This is a very serious defect in Canadian publishing. The only Canadian publishers that regularly produce Aboriginal material are small regional shops such as Theytus Books (Penticton), Coteau Books (Regina) and Pemmican Books (Métis publisher, Winnipeg) and sometimes others such as Orca and Red Deer Press. These are not large, mainstream publishers, but small, dedicated regional shops. Often, the publication of these books is supported by the Ontario government, the government of British Columbia, or the Federal government. Too rare are the books that have been supported by Alberta government agencies. Red Deer Press has produced just about the only current mainstream folktale about the Cree: Hidden Buffalo. Its publication was supported Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 12 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. by Alberta funding agencies. Little other high quality Cree folklore can be found, except Little Badger and the Fire Spirit, which has been out of print for decades. The situation with Aboriginal material for southern Alberta is even worse. One very good novel can be found: Finders Keepers, folklore only in collections, and two good non-fiction books, Story of the Blackfoot People and Blackfoot, from the series Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture. There is also Cree in this series. There are a few books about Métis, but only a few, and varying in quality. Generally, books by mainstream publishers have better binding, usually hardcover rather than paperback, better quality paper, superior illustrations and colour, better story editing and better format. It’s important for teachers to be able to use books that show Aboriginal children to be as well represented in quality publications as non-Aboriginal children, but this is not yet the case in Canadian publishing, but is at least partially true in American publishing. Books that do not identify a specific cultural group are sometimes suspect as they may offer too many generalizations or present a story that has components of several cultural groups amalgamated into a single story. Sources of Books for Review for this Resource: United Library Services, Calgary Kitaskinaw School Library, Enoch Reserve Greenwood’s Bookstore, Edmonton Personal Collection Gabriel Dumont Institute, online and catalogue Glenbow Museum, Calgary Audrey’s Bookstore, Edmonton Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton Professional Resources (see list above) Selected Web sites (see list above) Book display at “Success for First Nations, Métis & Inuit Students” Conference, March 18-20, 2010, Edmonton Selection Criteria: There are a number of different types of resources to be considered and included in collections of teaching materials: Folklore Picture books, contemporary or traditional setting, characters acknowledged and celebrated as Aboriginal Picture books, contemporary or traditional setting, characters not acknowledged as Aboriginal, simply accepted Non-fiction and reference Novels Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 13 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Biography Alphabet books Other, such as music, poetry Criteria Used to Select Resources Included in These Lists: Books have been selected because they: Help instill cultural pride in Aboriginal communities, especially among Aboriginal youth Promote academic excellence, first in Aboriginal communities, and then in the broader provincial community, through learning that relates to Indigenous content and philosophies Raise awareness and acknowledge the value of Aboriginal nations and their rich cultural traditions, and thus contribute to the broader retention of these cultural ways Have beauty and appeal (mainly illustrations) Have quality colour rather than monochromatic or black and white illustrations Have good format with lots of illustrations mixed in with text, clear text, and pleasing arrangements Are high quality writing, with high quality editing Provide useful teaching opportunities even if the book is less than satisfactory (e.g. black and white illustrations), in which case the deficiencies are noted Are available, either New, or Commonly found in many libraries (Many sources list books that are no longer available) Contain Canadian and Alberta content where possible Accurately present Aboriginal information, perspective and culture Will assist in building pride, cultural understanding and acceptance Avoid stereotypes, hurtful images, and damaging text and illustrations In addition, the following considerations apply: Stories with photos rather than artwork are usually less effective, non-fiction with photos rather than artwork are usually more effective Readers or reading series are rarely included because artistic and writing quality is usually much better in literary works Preference is given to Aboriginal authors, such as Bruchac, Bouchard, Cameron, Loyie, McLellan and Kusugak, where possible Preference is given to well-respected culturally-sensitive, non-Aboriginal authors, such as Toye, McDermott, Goble, Trottier Preference is given to Canadian rather than American (or even British) publications Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 14 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Selections for libraries as well as for teaching strategies need to be balanced in content and type There should be literature from and about Inuit, First Nations and Métis Material should reflect traditional lifestyles and values and also show contemporary lifestyles and values. Good contemporary literature shows people living comfortably and successfully in two worlds – that of contemporary reality and that of traditional values. Every book recommended has been reviewed by the author of this resource, except a very few, but those have been seen by other professionals in the field. Any books that are widely present in libraries and used in schools and that are inferior or problematic are listed separately. These should be considered for removal or restricted use by the teacher, librarian or administration. The Problem of Stereotypical and Prejudicial Material: Stereotyping and prejudicial material is still very real in the literature. It ranges from outright stereotypical statements to errors in information about Aboriginal cultures and peoples. It is often difficult to identify and even Aboriginal people may differ in their perceptions of whether or how any given material may be prejudicial. Andie Peterson in Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books writes about books filled with stereotypes, hurtful images, and damaging text and illustrations. She provides eloquent, glowing reviews of the books that "are real treasures.” She also writes: "On a daily basis, children must face the hidden curriculum that lets them know where they fit in, whether they can achieve their goals, whether they even dare to dream. An overwhelming part of that hidden curriculum begins with books that are more (than) narrative and illustrations; they are books that carry a message of politics and values…. Hurtful books set in motion attitudes of prejudice that persist for years."2 A critical resource in helping to evaluate Aboriginal materials is the Aboriginal Content Validation: Guidelines for Evaluating Learning Resources for and about Aboriginal People, from Alberta Education, which can be downloaded at http://education.alberta.ca/media/646281/content.pdf Detailed criteria are listed under each of the following headings: 1. Validation and/or Involvement by Aboriginal People 2. Historical Accuracy 3. The Origins of Aboriginal People 4. Cultural Authenticity 5. Cultural Diversity 6. Negative Images 7. Presentation of Aboriginal Woman 8. Language/Terminology 2 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books, pp. ix-x. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 15 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. 9. Photos/Illustrations 10. Aboriginal Viewpoint Further elaboration on these criteria can be found in the document Guidelines for Recognizing Diversity and Promoting Respect, also from Alberta Education, found at http://education.alberta.ca/media/646277/rdpr.pdf Both of these sets of criteria are printable and downloadable. The Reality in Alberta today: Aboriginal people may often be depicted in books in stereotyped ways, both in the illustrations and in the text. Materials written by non-Aboriginal people are often found to be lacking in adequate research and understanding of Aboriginal people. Such deficiencies are sometimes difficult for non-Aboriginals to identify. Aboriginal people are often lumped together into one category where they are all assigned similar characteristics, regardless of their particular nation of origin - a little like characterizing Europeans as all wearing wooden clogs, painting Easter eggs, and eating steak and kidney pie. Aboriginal people are often not treated with respect in the literature, for instance Inuit people may be referred to as Eskimo, a term that is considered derogatory. And women may be referred to as squaws, also a derogatory term. There is often a problem with terminology to describe Aboriginal people, who can’t themselves always agree on appropriate terminology. A common complaint is that they are referred to as Indians because Columbus didn’t know where he was when he discovered America. The term Native is usually acceptable, but there are other terms in use as well: Treaty, non-Treaty, First Nations, First Peoples, Métis, and Aboriginal. Aboriginal people are often referred to in the past tense as if there were none around today. There are many Aboriginal people today, but they are children of two cultures, living in both an Aboriginal culture and a European culture. Many people manage living in the two worlds with ease, others do not. Literature that reflects the dual culture of Aboriginal people helps Aboriginal children integrate their own reality. Aboriginal people may not communicate that they are in fact Aboriginal in origin. There are many students in schools who are Aboriginal but have not identified themselves as such with the administration. For more extensive and detailed discussion and lists of criteria for literature for children, with examples, refer to such resource as: Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books, pp. xix-xxix Slapin, Beverly and Doris Seale (editors). Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 16 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Oyate - How to tell the difference – a guide: http://www.oyate.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=135&Itemid=107 Reese, Debbie. Authenticity and Sensitivity: Goals for writing and reviewing books with Native American themes. http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA153126.html Significant Books Not Recommended: It is most instructive to look at the samples in the back of Through Indian Eyes, pages 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 187, 191, 196, 200, and 202. These pages provide very obvious examples of various types of unacceptable materials. Selections from these may be shown as overheads. Discussion of these overheads should follow. None of the following books appear on the lists. It is recommended that these books be considered carefully if they are to be used. While they should be removed from library shelves, some may be reserved for use in illustrating lack of authenticity or sensitivity, or to illustrate how attitudes have changed. It is most instructive to have a few of these titles on hand for workshop participants to peruse. Commonly found in libraries and useful to examine are Brother Eagle, Sister Sky and Ten Little Rabbits. These two books look completely like they should be fine, but a more in-depth examination reveals serious problems. Brother Eagle, Sister Sky is in almost every school library in Alberta, and Ten Little Rabbits is almost as common. Every library also has Indian in the Cupboard, Return of the Indian, Sign of the Beaver, Knots on a Counting Rope and Little House on the Prairie. Sign of the Beaver will also likely be in a novel study set. Other problematic books do appear on the main lists because of redeeming features, but notes about the deficiencies are always included, such as black and white illustrations, no illustrations, poor illustrations, poor format or questionable material (such as the use of the term “Eskimo”). The Not Recommended Books (there are many others, but these are significant and illustrative): Banks, Lyn Reid. Indian in the Cupboard. 1980. This book is so popular that it has even been used in at least one Aboriginal school as a novel study! And it is a wonderfully enchanting and well-written story that many children – and adults - love. But it is severely problematic. Even though Little Bear, the “Indian in the cupboard” shows maturity and wisdom, the fact that he is found in a cupboard, is a toy that comes to life, and speaks only broken English are some of the examples of the negative stereotypes and clichés that are found so often in the book.3 See the activity Increasing Student Awareness of Aboriginal Issues. Banks, Lyn Reid. Return of the Indian. 1986, 978-0375855238. Exciting sequel to Indian in the Cupboard, but with very problematic descriptions of Aboriginal people in the war scenes. 3 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 14. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 17 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Brink, Carol Ryrie. Caddie Woodlawn. 1935, latest reprint 2006. The pranks and adventures of redheaded Caddie captivate children everywhere. The book takes place on the Wisconsin frontier in the 1860s when Caddie is eleven years old. An “Indian” village is near Caddie’s home. The settlers worry about an Indian massacre, patronize the Indians and don’t trust them. Throughout the narrative there is a lot of talk about massacres; in fact, one chapter is entitles “Massacree!.” Another chapter calle3d “Scalp Belt” uses the word “scalp” or “scalp belt” nineteen times. The ten pages of this chapter are references to how the Indians obtained scalps. There’s talk about the Indians (sic) “Bright black eyes” and “tangled hair”…. Mrs. Woodlawn says “those frightful savages will eat us out of house and home”… “the way they look at the children’s hair frightens me. They might want a red scalp to hang on their belts.” Page after page of this type of dialogue and narrative flows through the text.4 Winner of the Newbery Medal. Burgan, Michael. Inuit. (Native American Peoples). 2004, 0836842197. Describes the “Eskimo Scouts” without putting the term “Eskimo” in historical context and explaining the reasons for avoiding the term today. The book is about Canadian Inuit, but published in United States, where the term “Eskimo” is frequently used. Canadian Inuit people prefer that the term not be used. Dalgliesh, Alice. The Courage of Sarah Noble. 1953, 978-0689715402. There is a long discussion of this book in A Broken Flute. It concludes: “The subtext… is the same story that we have heard for 500 years. Indians were/are primitive – wild. When not outright savage, Native peoples still have more in common with the creatures of the Earth and the birds of the air, than with the culturally and technologically superior Europeans. They are “civilized.” And therefore no obstacle. This message is one underlying everything children have been taught about indigenous peoples…and it comes through in this book, loud and clear.”5 Disney’s Pocahontas – New York, Disney Press, 1995. Many versions of the Pocahontas story are incorrect, exaggerated and romanticized. Actually, many of the details that are thought to be fairly accurate are difficult to verify. One reasonably accurate story has been included on the lists. Edmonds, Walter. Matchlock Gun. 1941, latest reprint 1998, 978-0698116801. Winner of the Newbery Medal, this tale of a small boy, his mother and younger sister, and an antique matchlock gun, is based on a true story. Because it is a Newbery winner, it appears in many libraries. Constantly reprinted, the book is vivid and richly evocative, but the story is ominous, filled with fear of Indians, who, we know, are going to come. The illustrations…show Indians, one behind the other, hunched over, menace on two feet: dancing around the leaping flames of burning cabins, always in darkness, always terrifying. Hudson, Jan. Sweetgrass. 1985. Popular because it takes place in Alberta and is about the people of the Blackfoot Nation, this book has often been used for a grade 4 read aloud or novel study. Besides being for much more mature readers, it’s Aboriginal content is problematic. Sweetgrass, the heroine, is 15 and obsessed with men and marriage, which is extremely unlikely in an Aboriginal teenager in the time period represented. The smallpox scenes are inaccurate, and 4 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 51-52. 5 Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, p. 260. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 18 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. there are many demeaning statements about women. “Native people take the brunt of negative stereotypes.”6 Jeffers, Susan. Brother Eagle, Sister Sky. 1991, 0-8037-0963-3. Jeffers' book has been admired for her beautiful illustrations. But there have been many objections to this book, since Seeathl was not presenting an environmental statement as shown by Jeffers, but an elegy. It’s not even well established that he did indeed say those words. But even more importantly, the illustrations depict images of Lakota Sioux and their culture rather than the Northwest Coast life of the chief who gave his name to the city of Seattle. Although Chief Seattle was a Northwest Coast Aboriginal, Jeffers had Sioux sitting for portraits. There are other errors and omissions in the book as well. “…this book is an insult.”7 For an excellent in-depth analysis of this book, see Jon Stott’s Native Americans in Children's Literature, pages 18-22. Jenner, Caryn. Pocahontas. 2000, 2009, 978-0756656119. Publishers often put different cover pictures and even different titles on books destined for different countries. This publication has a cover sold in Canada that is unacceptable since the homes (tipis) and clothing shown are historically inaccurate. Pocahontas herself is even wearing a headband with three feathers in it! The version released in the US has a much more accurate depiction on the cover. The contents of the book seem to be largely historically accurate as far as the known facts are concerned. This title is a DK Reader and published as part of the Beginning to Read Alone series, with large print for beginning readers and so will be an attractive and common purchase. It would be best to order this from US sources, such as Amazon, rather than purchasing it in Canada because of the Canadian cover. Martin Jr., Bill. Knots on a Counting Rope. 1987, 0-8050-0571-4. What is made clear to the reader is that this story is about love, hope and courage. The rope is a metaphor for the passage of time, and for the boy's emerging confidence in facing his own blindness. The portrayal of the relationship between the two males illustrates the importance of bonding in Aboriginal culture. However, there are problems. The boy constantly interrupts an Elder, and the boy is wearing an eagle feather (a right that must be earned). Also, there is no mention of the native group that is supposed to be represented and “the spiritual aspect of the ‘Blue Horses’ is inappropriately dealt with.”8 There are other problems as well. Newman, Shirlee P. Inuits. 1993, 0-531-20073-6. The title is incorrect. The term Inuit is already plural. This lack of knowledge of terminology makes the entire contents of the book suspect as possibly lacking in thorough research. Rivera, Raquel, Tuk and the Whale. 2008, 9780888998910. This starts out as a nice little story, short and easy, told with good knowledge and sensitivity to the values of the Inuit people. But the story is weak. Tuk’s people are worried about the strangers with beards in their big boat, but do go whaling with them. They don’t catch anything, but come back happy. Here the story ends without dealing in any way with the motives of the strangers and the fears of the Inuit about them. 6 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 169-171. 7 Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, pp. 313. 8 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 215. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 19 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. San Souci, Robert. Song of Sedna. 1989, 0385248237. Both the text and the illustrations inaccurately present the meaning and values of the mythology surrounding Sedna. Schneider, Antonie. Birthday Bear. 1998, 9781558589940. David and Sally go to the mountains to visit their grandparents. The children wear feathers, war-whoop and ambush their grandpa, who says that all the land around used to belong to the “Blackfoot Indians.” They all proceed to dress similarly. Grandma gives David a “real Blackfoot Indian birthday present,” – a salmon, which they roast and eat. There’s more. Shetterly, Susan Hand. Raven’s Light: A Myth from the People of the Northwest Coast. 1991. This story reflects non-Aboriginal conservationist values and interests rather than the cosmology from which the story originates. Illustrations are colourful but crude. Placing a figure upside down for punishment is totally inappropriate and does not reflect any Aboriginal value or practice. Yacowitz. Inuit Indians, 2003, 1403408637. The title uses an incorrect term. This lack of knowledge of terminology makes the entire contents of the book suspect as possibly lacking in thorough research. Grossman, Virginia. Ten Little Rabbits. 1991. This counting book, which is popular and has received several awards, shows rabbits dressed in blankets that are supposed represent the clothing of different Native groups. It piggybacks on the old “Ten Little Indians” counting song, with which everyone is familiar. Although it’s supposed to be “cute,” the book is “superficial, insulting, dehumanizing, and demeaning…”9 The book is “neither authentic nor accurate….it shouldn’t be necessary to tell people that counting rabbits dressed as Indians is no different from counting Indians.”10 Publishers would never allow such a book to be published if the ten little rabbits were Jews or African Americans. Speare, Elizabeth George. Sign of the Beaver. 1983. Often used as a novel study, and a Newbery Honor book, this is a very popular but problematic book. In many ways it provides a sympathetic and balanced look at Aboriginal people. Some examples of problems: Matt and Attean, an “Indian boy,” become friends, but Attean never speaks in anything more than broken English. Women do most of the work – and are referred to as “squaws.” Both Attean and Matt agree that there would be no point in Matt teaching Attean how to read.11 The book is no doubt in every elementary school and will likely be in a novel study set as well. If used, the above examples as well as others from the book should be used as teaching points. A Newbery Honor book. Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House on the Prairie. 1935. This classic book is from the Little House series, has been read by millions, and is loved as warm-hearted family adventure. But the book perpetuates the image of Aboriginals as fierce, wild, smelly, dirty and hungry. It 9 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 140-141. 10 Seale, Doris. A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 2007, pp. 295. 11 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 303 Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 20 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. “perpetuates negative images and stereotypes.”12 This is true of other titles in the series, such as Little House in the Big Woods, but this one is most notable and representative. Using the Graded Literature Lists: Some of the advantages of using children’s literature in the classroom: Widespread availability Easy integration into thematic curricula Generally less dated than non-fiction More focused and provide an in-depth look at concepts More interesting and less confusing for students than textbooks Story lines help students remember concepts better Contain colourful pictures and graphics Present a more human side of social studies and science than do textbooks Evoke both efferent (factual) and aesthetic response (emotional) Can be very funny Support Inquiry and Research Processes These advantages are listed at the end of each of the grade lists. Many picture books have been included on the lists and in the book box. Picture books have become the new industry standard for books for all levels of readers, mostly because of their artistry and appeal. Today’s picture books are amazing – take a look at Arrow to the Sun and the analysis of the illustrations in the activity Hero or Quest Stories for an example! Picture books are easy to use in the classroom, help establish points quickly, and are enjoyed by all students. Read one (or portions of longer ones) aloud to your students every day and watch them develop a love for books and story! Use picture books to establish understanding quickly and build background knowledge. Students should gather information from both the story and the pictures. Analyzing the pictures in picture books can be a very fruitful activity – so much can be gathered from the pictures, whether they are drawings or photos. In the process of analyzing the illustrations, a blank grid placed over each page helps students to isolate ideas and assists in the development of geographical thinking. For this, use the blank grid provided to make an overhead for each student. (file name Numbered Grid.doc) Students will use these blank grids many times in the process of analyzing pictures and conducting inquiry projects. Try this yourself with a book such as Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish, and see how much additional information you notice! Remember, our students today are “digital kids” and they flourish with lots of high quality graphics – hence the appeal and usability of picture books. 12 Peterson, Andrea. Second Look: Native Americans in Children's Books. 2007, pp. 332-334. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 21 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Literature lists for each grade have been developed. One copy for each teacher of the grade or grades he or she is teaching may be handed out. All lists may be provided electronically for teachers and librarians. There is one list for each grade, K-6. The lists are Word tables and are on the accompanying CD-ROM and are named as follows: FNMI List K.doc FNMI List 1.doc FNMI List 2.doc FNMI List 3.doc FNMI List 4.doc FNMI List 5.doc FNMI List 6.doc These literature lists are set up to provide title, annotation, indicator of book type (e.g. novel, non-fiction, picture book, poetry, biography, alphabet book, folktale, music, reference, etc.), origin (Aboriginal group), suggested uses or activities, and the curriculum links. Titles are grouped into specific types, such as quest stories. There is an emphasis throughout on Canadian books and Canadian content. An overhead from one of the lists is useful for highlighting the characteristics and setup of the lists. These lists are very comprehensive. The following considerations apply about acquiring and using literature: These lists provide many book suggestions, but there are certainly many other books that would also be very useful. Many other books that are suitable will already be in school libraries, and so they should be examined for suitability. Caution should be exercised before using older library books as they may have stereotypical or prejudicial content, which is sometimes difficult to recognize. A number of older but very good titles have been included in the lists since many libraries already have these. The school library staff should be asked to check to see which titles on the lists are in the school library. This provides a quick check on books immediately available and a quick overview of what is needed. The ISBNs for the books on the lists are provided for ordering, although it’s wise to keep in mind that ISBNs change when editions, binding, or publishers change. A book jobber, such a ULS (United Library Services) will be able to follow these. Trainers and participants need to keep in mind that books are constantly being published, and so that new titles are continuously appearing. Books are also continuously going in and out of print, and so a book that is O/P (out of print) may be so only for a short time before it reappears. Also, a book that has gone out of print in paperback is by no means finished. A great many of these will reappear again in hardcover or in paperback. So always encourage teachers to order books even if they seem to be O/P. They may already be back in print, and also such orders may help publishers to decide when and if they will republish a title. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 22 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Teachers and schools are well advised to purchase ideal books immediately as they become available, because it is by no means certain that any particular title will come back into print, or when it will. Sometimes, of course, books go out of print and are never reprinted, as in the case of Little Badger and the Fire Spirit. Books that are out of print are often available from Amazon.com or, especially, AbeBooks.com at quite reasonable prices. The best source to purchase books in Alberta is through United Library Services in Calgary. Their selection is the best and their discounts deep. Keep in mind that their selection, as in bookstores, will be new and very recent titles. Older titles may not be shown but they will still be available even though booksellers are after all in the business of selling NEW books. Order any and all titles through United Library Services as they are a “jobber” and get books from all sources. They also provide cataloguing and processing for low prices, an option that should always be taken. Aboriginal Authors and Illustrators in the Literature Lists: Often it isn’t indicated whether or not an author or illustrator is Aboriginal, but where possible, this has often been indicated in the lists by: AA – Aboriginal author CAA – Aboriginal author AI – Aboriginal illustrator 13 Families of Stories: Experience in analyzing, defining and comparing story elements in diverse formats provides students with strategies for recognizing the overall themes and purposes of the material. Comprehension is given a big boost, and students become more eager and critical readers of literature and media.14 In children’s literature, stories usually revolve around a character. There is something special about the character. He is meeting a challenge, taking a journey, going on a quest or answering a calling. He may be a helper, a clever character, a trickster, or one who needs to call on great inner resources of courage and resourcefulness. He may lack emotional support of others in the story. During the story, the character’s sensitivities and strength of character develop and grow. Folktales embody many themes and motifs that remain universal in literature today, particularly in hero tales and quest stories. Students will come to realize that the world body of folklore is rich and varied, and that the Aboriginal contribution to this world heritage is vital and important. 13 Title taken from: Stott, Jon and Anita Moss. Family of Stories: An Anthology of Children’s Literature 14 Stott, Jon. “Spiralled Sequence Story Curriculum”, Workshop Handout, 1988. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 23 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. True folktales have no author; no single person thought up the story. They are oral stories, passed down from generation to generation. What authors such as Gerald McDermott, Joseph Bruchac, Anne Cameron, and many others, have done is listen to the telling of the story, or studied records of these stories taken down by others, then adapted the words, reworked them to be effective in print, and written them down, thus giving a permanence to what had previously been a spoken (and changeable) tale. Clues to identifying folktales in print are in the words “adapted by” or “retold by.” Folktales are part of the oral history of people everywhere, and many of the story themes and motifs are universal. A story that appears in one culture will often appear in a similar version in another culture. Recognizing the different universal stories and analyzing their elements assists students in story comprehension. And so this resource has activities for several different types of universal stories, which are found in many rich variants in the folktales of Aboriginal people, including: Trickster Tales Tortoise and Hare Stories Quest or Hero Tales Pourquoi and Creation Tales Cinderella Stories Survival and Adventure Stories Recognizing that the stories of Aboriginal people belong to a worldwide collection of rich and priceless folklore helps both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students understand the importance of Aboriginal origins and heritage. Aboriginal students come to understand that they and their stories are part of the world community of people and their stories. Many of the suggested activities in this resource encourage the comparing of folktales to help students recognize the universality of the stories, themes and lessons. For this resource and the related activities, stories have been chosen from many places in the world, but mostly from Canada and Alberta, where available. Stories have been chosen for their quality, appeal and usefulness in helping our students deepen their understanding of the Aboriginal heritage. Other useful stories that do not have their origins directly from Aboriginal people are listed as “Other… Stories.” Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 24 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Activities in this Resource: Many activities are suggested in the literature lists, but there are a number of more fully- developed activities, based both on folktales and other literary (known author) stories as well as on non-fiction resources. Titles listed in the activities are also listed in the literature lists. These activities have all been created in Word and are on the CD-ROM so that teachers may copy them and modify as they see fit in order to make the activities more suitable for their particular classrooms. Activities are printed in the binder in the green section in the order given below. Grade levels are suggestive only. Activities include: Grades Activity 1. 5, 6 Analysis of The Rabbits 2. 2, 3, 4 Author Study 3. 1, 2, 3, 4 Bannock in Stories 4. 6 Biography Project – Famous Aboriginal People 5. 5 Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Groups 6. 4, 5, 6 Fur Trader Game 7. 5, 6 Increasing Student Awareness of Aboriginal Issues 8. 4, 5, 6 Inventions and Innovations 9. K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Make an Alphabet Book 10. 5, 6 Maps and Mapping 11. 2, 3 Multicultural Cinderella 12. 5 Pond Ecology 13. 1, 2 Pourquoi and Creation Tales 14. 4, 5, 6 Quest or Hero Tales 15. 4, 5, 6 Respect for Nature 16. 5, 6 Survival and Adventure Stories 17. K, 1 Tortoise and Hare Stories 18. 3, 4, 5 Traditional Homes 19. 3, 4 Trickster Tales Quick List and Review of Special Books in the Book Box: Following is a quick list (Quick List.doc) of the authors and titles of the books that may be provided in the workshop boxes, along with grades and themes. Refer to Annotated List.doc for an annotated list of these books, which is also printed in this resource. Not all of these books may appear in the boxes – books go in and out of print and there are always some titles not available at any given time. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 25 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Quick List of Books in the Book Box: Books for the book boxes are selected from the following list, depending mostly upon availability. 1. Aboriginal AlphaBet for Children (alphabet) 2. Aboriginal Cultures in Alberta: Five Hundred Generations (research, non-fiction) 3. Arrow to the Sun (hero) 4. As Long as the Rivers Flow (Cree, residential schools) 5. Blackfoot (series: Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture, non-fiction) 6. Bulrush Helps the Pond (non-fiction) 7. Canada’s First Peoples (research, non-fiction) 8. Celebrating the Powwow (non-fiction) 9. Come and Learn With Me (non-fiction) 10. Cree (series: Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture, non-fiction) 11. Daily Life in a Plains Indian Village 1868 (non-fiction) 12. Discovering First Peoples and First Contacts (non-fiction) 13. Finders Keepers (novel study, contemporary Blackfoot) 14. Girl Who Helped Thunder and other Native American Folktales (includes Blackfoot & Inuit - folktales) 15. Goose Girl (contemporary) 16. Granny’s Giant Bannock (Cree) 17. Gray Wolf’s Search (quest) 18. How Chipmunk Got His Stripes (pourquoi) 19. How Coyote Stole Summer (folktale – trickster, early reader) 20. How We Saw the World (pourquoi, creation) 21. Jingle Dancer (contemporary) 22. Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples (research, non-fiction) 23. Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish (survival, Inuit) 24. Lessons from Mother Earth (contemporary, environment) 25. Life in a Plains Camp, (non-fiction) 26. Little Duck – Sikihpsis (Cree contemporary story) 27. Lord of the Sky (hero) 28. Lost Children: The Boys Who Were Neglected (pourquoi, Blackfoot) 29. Love and Roast Chicken (folktale – Peru) 30. Many Nations: An Alphabet of Native America (alphabet) 31. Moccasins (contemporary story) 32. Nanabosho: How the Turtle Got its Shell (pourquoi, Ojibwa) 33. Native American Thought of It: Amazing Inventions and Innovations (non-fiction) 34. Native Homes (non-fiction) 35. Polar Bear Son (Inuit, contemporary) 36. Promise is a Promise (folktale - trickster) 37. Qu'Appelle (folktale) 38. Raccoon’s Last Race (pourquoi, tortoise and hare, trickster) 39. Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest (trickster and hero) 40. Red Sash (Métis, historical) Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 26 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. 41. Rough-Face Girl (Cinderella story) 42. Sasquatch Exterminator (music) 43. Secret of the Dance (restriction of rights) 44. Shin-chi’s Canoe (residential schools) 45. Sled Dog for Moshi (contemporary, survival) 46. Spirit of Canada: Canada’s Story in Legends, Fiction, Poems, and Songs (story collection) 47. Star Boy (quest, Blackfoot) 48. Storm at Batoche (Métis – Louis Riel) 49. Trickster: Native American Tales: A Graphic Collection (graphic novel format) 50. Turtle’s Race with Beaver: a Traditional Seneca Story (tortoise and hare, trickster) Known to be currently out of print (as of Nov. 2010) and would have been included if available: Story of the Blackfoot People (Glenbow Museum, non-fiction) Iktomi titles, eg. Iktomi and the Ducks (trickster) Little Badger and the Fire Spirit (hero) The Rabbits (allegory) Hidden Buffalo (survival, Cree, Alberta) Frog Girl (hero) Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 27 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Part II - Literature Analysis Activity: Red Sash Reading a Story Red Sash has been selected as a model book because it is well written, is a very good story, is a Canadian story and also has several curricular uses. Really rich books have many uses. Read the story aloud. It would be a good idea to practice ahead of time, to help get maximum fluency and expression. Meaningful reading does very much improve with practice. After the reading, ask participants what students can learn from this story. List on an overhead. Whenever possible, the oral reading of a story should be accompanied by some form of graphic organizer, e.g. Venn diagram, flow chart, T-table to help students organize and categorize the new ideas. Red Sash lends itself well to a T-table such as the following: Aboriginal Customs European Customs Live in a wigwam Build walls around fort and put in sentry posts Put baby to sleep on a warm bear hide and Build fort in square European-style buildings carry in a back pack called a tikinaagan Make bread, butter, and gather eggs Use snowshoes Learn trades such as blacksmith and carpenter Cook breakfast outside over an open fire Wear a mix of Aboriginal and European Use birch bark canoes clothing Snare a hare for supper Wear a mix of Aboriginal and European clothing Sample questions to ask students: What can students learn about the voyageurs from this story? Voyageurs went northwest into the interior of Canada to trade for furs. Traders brought supplies from Montreal. At rendezvous, the traders and voyageurs meet to trade furs and goods. They use canvas tents. What can students learn about the Métis people from this story? They were voyageurs. They were usually European with Aboriginal wives. The Red Sash is a symbol of the Métis people working as voyageurs. What Students Can Learn From a Story: Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 28 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Arrange participants into grade groupings and have each group or pair of teachers select a book or books to read from the ones on display. Encourage them to read stories that fit with curricula they are teaching. Ask participants as they read to identify and list things from the story, such as lifestyle, traditions, culture, customs, government, people, landform, climate and science concepts that can students can identify from the story, the illustrations, and even in any of the accompanying material, such as notes at the end of the story. Any of the book box collection stories may be used in this activity as well as others that may be obtained from school libraries. Show a sample of this activity done for a book such as Anklet for a Princess. This may be placed on the overhead for easy reference during the activity. Have participants share findings. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 29 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Part III – In-depth Analysis: Families of Stories The oral tradition of stories is one that is common to all cultures. Many of the classics of literature as well as more modern texts have their origins in the folklore of various groups. Oral traditions contain the beliefs and values that the culture considers important were used to teach and entertain the young show worldviews and elements unique to the cultures reveal perspectives that are reflected in contemporary literature and media have many elements in common with other cultures, but also many elements unique to that particular culture come in differing forms: myths (having to do with sacred beliefs), legends (usually about people who may or may not have existed), fables (stories that teach lessons), and folktales (which include pourquoi or why stories, trickster stories, and hero or quest stories). By experiencing the oral traditions of Aboriginal peoples, all students may gain understandings about the stories of Aboriginal people and their importance as part of a world heritage of folklore. They also learn to recognize the universality of certain themes in literature, regardless of cultural origin. Quest or Hero Stories: Provide some background information about Arrow to the Sun: Pueblo in origin By Gerald McDermott Published in 1975 Superb for its power and abstract beauty Has become a modern classic Probably one of the top 5 best children’s books of all time 1975 Caldecott Medal Winner (Caldecott Awards are for illustrations) An exemplar for hero and quest stories Describe characteristics of the archetypal hero and hero stories. Refer to the in-depth analysis in the activity Quest or Hero Tales for details. Read Arrow to the Sun aloud, showing pictures. Two old paperback copies from the library can be taken apart and mounted on manila tag and posted in story order so that the progression of characteristics in the illustrations can be seen. Ask the questions about the story from the Quest or Hero Tales activity. Using the illustrations, analyze Arrow to the Sun. Notice the introduction of colour at the entrance into the spiritual realm – the realm of the Sun. The Wizard of Oz is filmed in black and Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 30 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. white when Dorothy is in the real world. Only when she enters the magical kingdom of Oz does the movie change to colour. This device can be seen in many other stories, such as some of the Nanabosho stories and the old print copy of Little Badger and the Fire Spirit. In Arrow to the Sun, it is the same idea - the addition of brilliant pinks and purples to the previously earthy colour scheme signifies the Boy’s entrance into the spiritual world. Notice how the Boy changes shape when he becomes an Arrow. Notice how he has two eyes when he finally is recognized as his father’s son. (A detailed analysis of the illustrations in Arrow to the Sun is provided at the end of the Quest or Hero Tales activity.) Ask the questions given for Arrow to the Sun in the Quest or Hero Tales activity. Reading and discussion of a story should be followed by a having listeners consolidate their understanding of the story in some form or other. Quest stories, like any other stories, are very susceptible to representation through the use of graphic organizers. For example Arrow to the Sun could be represented using a Circular Flow Chart or a Linear Flow Chart to show the elements of the story, or a Venn Diagram to compare boy before and after his journey. A Circular Flow Chart (Circular Journey) would be very appropriate because it shows the circular nature of the story – the Boy leaves home because he is not happy and has a need for leaving. He meets adventures and signposts along the way, but eventually returns home (completes the circle), returning as a better person and, moreover, bringing gifts for his people. On an overhead, have participants help to create a Circular Journey for Arrow to the Sun (use the sample provided.) Provide print copies of the text of Little Badger and the Fire Spirit (in the Quest or Hero Tales activity). Groups or pairs may read and analyze the story and then share their analysis with the whole group. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 31 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Trickster Stories: Review some of the characteristics of trickster stories: Coyote, and often, Fox, are trickster heroes of many Aboriginal folktales. Other tricksters include Raven, Old Man (Siksika), Turtle, Rabbit, Nanabush, and Iktomi (spider). Tricksters are full of mischief, causing discomfort to others in their own selfish quests. Very often, their plans go wrong and they become the victim of their own tricks. They usually richly deserve to get outsmarted! Students soon begin to recognize that a story with a coyote or fox in it is often a trickster story as are stories with ravens as the main character. Students will enjoy such stories in which the tricksters are outsmarted by the intended victims of their tricks. For more details about trickster stories, refer to the Trickster Tales activity. Read a trickster story aloud. Choose from: Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest Raven Goes Berrypicking Turtle’s Race with Beaver Any one from Trickster: Native American Tales: A Graphic Collection, e.g. Rabbit’s Choctaw Tail Tale, which is very funny. Graphic Organizers: Analyze the story and develop a graphic organizer to express the key ideas in the story. Most useful might be a simple matrix as it demonstrates that subsequent stories can be subject to the same analysis and therefore all the stories are easy to compare. Title Trickster Who is Tricked Strategy Turtle’s Race with Beaver Raven Goes Berrypicking etc. Members of the group should select, read and analyze a trickster story, and then represent the story to the whole group, with a graphic organizer. Types of graphic organizers that work well for stories: Matrix or Table - useful for repeating events or characteristics or to compare stories of similar or different story types Circular Flow Chart - useful for showing circular journeys, hero or quest stories Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 32 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Linear Flow Chart - useful for representing linear journeys or sequences of events Concept Frame Showing Examples and Non-examples - useful for defining types of stories T-table - useful for showing character traits and providing evidence from the story Story Chart - useful for showing the problem, the escalating events and the ending Story Board - useful for showing sequence of events Plot Diagram - useful for showing the beginning, rising action, crisis point, and conclusion of the story Pictograph - useful for representing accumulated events or characteristics Map - useful for showing location of events and their relationships in time and space Venn Diagram - useful for comparing similar stories Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 33 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Part IV - Big Ideas Explain the “Big Ideas” concept as outlined below and suggest appropriate titles. Elicit Big Idea and book suggestions from participants. Ideas about the human condition, such as those suggested below, may function as “Big Ideas” around which many learning outcomes can be developed. Books that serve as centrepieces for Big Ideas need to be carefully selected for their quality and universal appeal. Do the stories inform and enrich? Do their themes touch the human imagination and spirit? Do they illuminate the diversity and richness of Aboriginal cultures? Truly powerful books are rich in ideas and multi-layered in thematic content. They can lead to memorable classroom experiences for both students and teacher. They also offer multiple opportunities to link to other ideas, and various subjects, such as Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. A perfect example of a Big Idea book is River Ran Wild. Briefly explain, as you show the pages, what happens in River Ran Wild, as an example of a “Big Idea” book. River Ran Wild is extremely useful for environmental issues, the development of historical thinking, and understanding Aboriginal perspectives. (Really good books nearly always have many layers and therefore have many uses!). Show the pictures and briefly tell the story of the book. Some of the activities developed for this resource may be useful in a “Big Ideas” mini-unit: Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Groups Aboriginal People Biography Project Analysis of The Rabbits Inventions and Innovations Pond Ecology Quest or Hero Tales Respect for Nature Students and Aboriginal Issues Survival and Adventure Stories Some “Big Ideas” and books that can be used in a Big Idea mini-unit: Change over Time o River Ran Wild o Encounter o Rabbits o Moccasins o Missing Sun o House on Maple Street o Spring Celebration Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 34 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Cycles or Life Cycles o River Ran Wild o Moccasins o Dancing With the Cranes o An Algonquian Year: A Year According to the Full Moon Journeys o Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish o Sister to the Wolf o Arrow to the Sun o Crow and Weasel o Lost in the Barrens o Little Badger and the Fire Spirit o Idaa Trail: In the Steps of Our Ancestors o Gray Wolf's Search o Goose Girl o Rainbow Crow o Legend of Mexicatl o Adventures of Rabbit and Bear Paws: Voyageurs o Broken Blade Environment o River Ran Wild o Jen and the Great One o Rabbits o Elders are Watching o Come and Learn With Me o Lessons from Mother Earth o Bulrush Helps the Pond o Pipaluk And The Whales Goals o Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish o River Ran Wild o Gray Wolf’s Search o Arrow to the Sun o Little Badger and the Fire Spirit o Finders Keepers o Little Duck – Sikihpsis o Lord of the Sky Global Citizenship o Elders are Watching o River Ran Wild o Finders Keepers o Lessons from Mother Earth Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 35 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Technology and Change o River Ran Wild o Rabbits Inventions and Innovations o A Native American Thought of It: Amazing Inventions and Innovations o Inuit Thought of It: Amazing Inventions and Innovations o Life in a Plains Camp Freedom o As Long As The Rivers Flow o Secret of the Dance o Storm at Batoche o Sister to the Wolf o Shin-chi’s Canoe o Polar Bear Son Coming of Age o Red Sash o Goose Girl o Arrow to the Sun o Little Duck – Sikihpsis Survival o Hidden Buffalo o Lamp, the Ice, and the Boat Called Fish o Lost in the Barrens o Tiktaliktak o Polar Bear Son o Sled Dog for Moshi Planning Activity: Have participants select and read in grade groups at least one Big Ideas book. If there are more than three participants in a group, have one person read aloud to the others. In grade groups, building around the Big Ideas book(s), and using both the available books, the book lists, and other familiar titles, ask participants to outline a series of lessons or a mini-unit. Encourage participants to refer to the literature lists for more related titles. Have each group appoint a spokesperson to share their ideas with the whole group. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 36 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Novel Study: Finders Keepers Although there is very little attention paid to novel studies in this workshop, it’s only because of the difficulty in sharing longer texts in a workshop setting. There are in fact a number of very good novels available to support FNMI student success, many of which are in the literature lists for each grade. Novels provide students with an in-depth experience of different times, places and peoples, and are invaluable in helping to develop background knowledge and concepts. Novels also provide students with insight into their own lives and conditions. Recognize that a read-aloud novel study (that is, where the teacher reads the novel aloud) is as good as and often better than a novel study in which the students each read the novel for themselves. Some students do not read well enough to fully experience a novel or to be able to participate fully in the activities developed to accompany the novel. The teacher’s reading can impart both a love of literature and an enthusiasm for the book and the topic that is infectious, making the whole experience very positive for students. A read-aloud novel study has the additional advantage of requiring only one copy of the novel rather than a class set. (The worst reason for doing a novel study is that there are 25 copies of it in the back room!) An example of an excellent novel suitable for either a read-aloud or independent novel study is Finders Keepers, by Andrea Spalding, a Canadian author. In this novel Danny, a non- Aboriginal boy, is the main character. While walking through a neighbourhood field in southern Alberta, Danny finds an 8,000-year-old arrowhead. His friend Joshua, who lives on the Piegan reserve at Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, joins him on buffalo hunts, powwows, archaeological digs, and a break-in at the local museum. In the process Danny learns many things about Aboriginal history and Aboriginals sensitivities and values, and also begins to overcome his problem with dyslexia. Danny shows sensitivity to and respect for his friend’s culture. Here’s a very sensitive portrayal of the Piegan (Blackfoot) people of southern Alberta in a novel that is fairly easy reading with strong boy appeal. It is a very well done novel, a real page-turner, and a fine read aloud for fun or novel study. It also fits very well with grade 4 and 5 social studies. Another excellent novel suitable for a novel study is Children of the Longhouse, By Joseph Bruchac. This is a novel that is fairly easy reading with strong boy appeal. It’s a very well done novel, and a fine read aloud for fun or novel study. In the story, themes of justice, democracy, respect and underlying Aboriginal spirituality are conveyed. Many aspects of the novel lend themselves well to novel study activities. It’s a perfect novel to tie in with grade 6 social studies. For example, as students read the novel, they might Briefly summarize the short stories that are told by Aboriginal elders and then tell what lesson each story was designed to teach. Describe the longhouse and draw an illustration of it. Explain the annual cycle of the people’s lives. What foods did they eat? Keep a record of some of the plants that were used for medicinal or food purposes. List all the ways the people depend upon and use nature around them for their daily needs. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 37 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. On a wall map of North America that shows the rivers, locate where Ohkwa’ri’s village would have been located. Use the rivers in the description of the clan’s trek as a guide. Explain how the people show respect and for what things and what people. Keep a record of the wise sayings of their parents and other older people. Draw a picture of the lodge that Ohkwa’ri built. Keep a running list of elements of the democracy that the people live by. Outline the style of democracy that the people live by. Compare the democracy of the People of the Longhouse with that of Canada and with that of Ancient Athens. Creating a Novel Study: The goals of FNMI student success provide many questions, issues, and topics that could be addressed in novel studies. Refer to the literature lists for suitable novels. They are indicated by “novel” or “novel study” in the activities column. Easy or difficult reading titles for the grade are indicated. Types of Activities to Include in a Novel Study: Read about the author. Provide sources of information about the author. Other books by the author. Have available for students to investigate. Background knowledge development to support the reading. Use picture books, non- fiction, photos and posters, films if available. Biography research and report or interview if the novel is historical. Provide names to choose from and references for students to use (print and web). Use a Research Web to record and organize information. Retrieval Chart (grid). Compare characteristics of different things, such as Aboriginal groups, story characters, different attitudes and values. Sequencing of events. Graphic organizers to chart the story or isolate key features. Vocabulary study. Research. Select or develop an inquiry question or topic arising from the novel, e.g. slavery (of Aboriginals in Canada), survival strategies, Aboriginal values, materials that should or should not be displayed in museums, etc. Topic-related information-gathering activities, such as Survival Tips. Timeline. Make a timeline of events in the book or surrounding events (before and after the story in the novel). Create a map of places and events. Debate of issues, e.g. attitudes or conflicting perspectives portrayed in the novel Related picture books: read aloud. Related novels, non-fiction resources, and picture books. Have available for students to investigate. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 38 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. Chapter questions. Develop one or two key questions for each chapter. Avoid overkill. Chapter discussions. Bring up issues or questions arising from the chapter. Response journal. Students may respond to questions, record their own questions, record thoughts, prepare explanations, etc. Concluding or follow-up activity. This should be an activity or project that helps to enhance, summarize or consolidate the learning. Elicit other suggestions from the workshop participants as to suitable activities for possible novel studies for specific novels to promote FNMI student success. Also ask for suggestions as to book titles that they may have used successfully. Sister to the Wolf: A novel study for Sister to the Wolf, by Maxine Trottier, has been created as part of the Weaving Literature into Social Studies 6-9 resource. It is suitable for grades 5 and 6 and is available in print and electronically. Contact your Regional Professional Development Consortium to get a copy – either electronic or print. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 39 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. A Note About Selecting Non-fiction Provide a quick overview about selecting non-fiction resources. Review the following information about non-fiction. Care should be taken in selecting non-fiction resources. No book should ever be selected without having been evaluated by a professional – such as teacher, teacher-librarian, or Aboriginal resource specialist. Books should never be selected from a catalogue unless from a series for which you already have some examples and know them to be appropriate. Too many titles in the non-fiction area of libraries have dense text and black and white pictures. Others do not have a table of contents or an index. Others may have a too-difficult reading level for the grade for which it is intended. Following are some of the criteria to use when selecting non-fiction titles. Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples illustrates these points well. This list of criteria for selecting non-fiction titles is at the end of each grade list. Large, clear, high-quality colour illustrations, including both photos and drawings Drawings should include graphs, diagrams, tables and other structures that plot information, show relationships and generally help students understand Illustrations should match and support the text Captions should support the material Index Table of Contents Glossary Authority and currency evident in sources used in content development (e.g., sources and authorities listed) Text appropriate as to size, font type, placement, amount per page Headings and sub-headings used frequently throughout the text Content suitable for age of student Content appropriate for the intended unit of study Content organized in “chunks” of related material Print broken up by illustrations, boxes, sidebars, etc., so as to avoid long, intimidating sections of text. Appealing format Canadian or Albertan content where appropriate It is important for libraries have a good supply of quality non-fiction titles to support FNMI student success. Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples is a prime example of the kind of non-fiction books that should be in our libraries. Non-fiction titles that meet the above quality standards as much as possible are listed in the grade lists. Quality format in Aboriginal materials is actually easier to get in non-fiction than it is in fiction. Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 40 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010. General Sharing: The remainder of this last section is a time for general sharing by all of book titles, ideas, and teaching strategies. Start off by sharing one or two of the books or activities not yet addressed. Invite participants to share children’s literature titles and/or teaching strategies that they have used that they have found to be successful. A Note About the Accompanying CD-ROM: The CD-ROM contains three folders, as follows, and includes all the materials in the Facilitator’s binder. These may be shared freely with the teachers in your district. Files are all in Word so that they may be modified to suit individual teachers. Facilitator Literature Lists Activities Literature to Support First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) Student Success in Elementary Schools. Developed by 41 Southern Alberta Professional Development Consortium, June 2010.
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