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The Indiana State Seal.doc


									The Indiana State Seal


Slide No. 1    Embroidered State Seal

The seal of the State of Indiana is a device to mark documents as authentic. Both the 1816 and
1851 state constitutions provide for a seal to “be kept by the Governor for official purposes.” No
legal description of the seal existed until 1963, when the General Assembly finally documented
its specifics as the “Seal of the State of Indiana.”

Various versions of the scene on the seal have been found on territorial papers of William Henry
Harrison as early as 1801. The origin of the scene has not been determined. There is also no
agreement about the symbolism of the design, although both serious and comic attempts at
interpretation have been made.

Thomas Marshall, governor from 1909 to 1913 and well known for his wit, reportedly said that
the seal meant to him that one had to get up very early to see a buffalo in Indiana.

From a more serious perspective, Jacob Piatt Dunn in Indiana and Indianans (1919) describes “a
sun rising on a new commonwealth, west of the mountains, by which, at that time, was always
meant the Allegheny Mountains. The woodman represented civilization subduing the wilderness;
and the buffalo, which in the original was headed away from the sun, with tail down, going west,
and not east, represented the primitive life retiring in that direction before the advance of
civilization” (I, 379).

It is important to remember that the seal is a utilitarian device. While its scene contains many
symbolic items, there is no exact interpretation of their meaning. In addition, there is no color
scheme established in the official description because the seal is embossed on paper. The design
typically is seen only in outline when used on publications or stationery. The official size of the
seal is “a perfect circle” 2 5/8 inches in diameter.

Over the years various artistic renderings of the seal have been made in color. Compare the seal
depicted on the 1916 medallion in to the color and texture of the needlepoint version of the seal.

Embroidered State Seal
1976, fiber, 4 feet in diameter
Indiana State Museum

The Indianapolis Chapter of the Embroiderers’ Guild of America designed and executed this
version of the seal as a project for the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. It was presented
to the Indiana State Museum in 1976.
Twenty-five to thirty people worked on the piece using twelve to fifteen types of stitches. Notice
that the use of different stitches creates varied textures on the surface: there are very flat, even
areas and areas that are enhanced visually by a stitch that creates a contrasting texture.

                                                                                           Page 1 of 75
Slide No. 2

Detail of the Buffalo in No. 1

The body of the buffalo has been done in a traditional needlework stitch called a tent stitch. The
mane of the buffalo is given a different texture by use of a plied loop, the turkey knot stitch. The
grass is given another texture, more appropriate to its appearance, by an elongated stitch.

Slide No. 3

Detail of the Woodman in No. 1

The woodman is done in forty count stitches (forty stitches to the inch!) with silk gauze. The
figure was appliquéd onto the background. A magnifying glass was used to do the stitching.

Some Points to Consider

      How does the State Seal represent the geography and characteristics of Indiana (Art
      Find symbols or icons in other works of art. Compare to the State Seal (Art 4.1.3)
      How might you use symbols and subject matter to design a seal for Indiana? What
       changes would you make?(Art 4.7.3)

Charles Alexander Lesueur
Slide No. 5 Family of Mice
Slide No. 6 Four Sketches

A native of Le Havre, France, Charles Lesueur was an artist and scientist whose interests were
drawing and scientific investigation. He was well-known in Europe for his natural history
drawings made in Australia and surrounding islands. He came to New York in 1816 and later
taught in Philadelphia.
In 1826 Lesueur arrived at New Harmony, Indiana, on the Philanthropist, Robert Owen’s
famous “Boatload of Knowledge.” Lesueur taught art and sketched scientific, natural history,
and archaeological subjects. He also sketched towns along the Ohio River. He was one of the
earliest professional painters in Indiana and his works are the first sketches of western Indiana.
Lesueur returned to France in 1837 to become curator of the Museum of Natural History at

Slide No. 5

Family of Mice
                                                                                            Page 2 of 75
1830, watercolor and pencil, 5 7/8" x 8 3/4"
Purdue University Special Collections and Archives

This is one of Lesueur’s scientific sketches. He probably drew this in pencil first and then laid in
the watercolor. Although this work is for scientific documentation, it has a lovely artistic quality.

Some Points to ConsiderS
    Describe how the technical skills of Lesueur inform us about mice. Describe
      Lasueur’s use of texture, proporation, line and shape(Art 4.3.1)
    Why is it important to have accurate drawings of wildlife of early Indiana? (Art

Slide No. 6

Four Sketches
N.D., sepia, 11 3/16" x 17 13/16"
Purdue University Special Collections and Archives

The following comments are written on the back of the sketch: “The lower left appears to have
been done in the mountains (hills) probably on the way to New Harmony. The upper left may be
an Indiana farm scene. The lower right, according to tradition, is the Mount Vernon-New
Harmony Road. The last drawing is probably a drawing room in Philadelphia.”
These are probably preliminary sketches intended for use later in painting. It is hard to document
Lesueur’s work since most of it was taken with him when he returned to France.

Some Points to Consider
    What is the function of these sketches and how do they connect us to the culture of
      early Hoosiers? (Art 4.1.2)
    Use the remarks found on the back of the sketch to help construct meaning for the
      work. (Art 4.3.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

Lewis (Louis) Peckham


Slide No. 7       Paul Peckham

Lewis Peckham, born in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1788 was the first professional artist to settle
in Indiana. He saw Vincennes as a soldier when his regiment journeyed there in 1811 to join
William Henry Harrison for the Indian encounters that ended in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Four
years later, after many other military adventures, Peckham found his way back to Vincennes. He
                                                                                            Page 3 of 75
married Mary Dagenet, whose mother was a princess of the Wea tribe. The Wea reservation was
north of Fort Harrison not far from Terre Haute.
In 1816, the year that Indiana was admitted to the Union, Peckham and C. D. Cook announced
their partnership in the Vincennes Western Sun (a newspaper) as follows:

Co-Partnership, Lewis Peckham & C. D. Cook begs leave to inform the citizens of Vincennes
and its vicinity that they have commenced Portrait, Ornamental, Sign and House Painting, in the
chamber over Mr. N. B. Bailey’s store where any business in the above line mentioned will be
attended to in the shortest notice.

While stationed at Fort Independence, located near Boston, Peckham had the opportunity to meet
Gilbert Stuart. Stuart, who is now renowned for his portrait paintings of George Washington,
befriended Peckham. Stuart loaned him brushes, pencils, and paint. Although Stuart gave him
general encouragement, Peckham never received formal art instruction from him. Peckham
painted miniatures of many of the officers at Fort Independence in 1810, which helped to prepare
him for his career as an artist in Vincennes.

Slide No. 7

Paul Peckham
N.D., watercolor on ivory, 1 3/4" x 1 1/16"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This miniature is a portrait of Paul Peckham, the artist’s brother. It is painted on an ivory oval.
Before the invention of photographic processes, portraiture was the only way to record a
likeness. A miniature was the only way to carry the likeness of a loved one conveniently. Note
the fine detail in this portrait despite its small size.

(Note that this miniature is incorrectly labeled on page 76 of Mirages of Memory.)

Some Points to Consider

      Portraits as a style of art done in early Indiana were done only for those who could
       afford them and could find an artist who could paint one. What miniatures such as
       Peckham’s are carried today because of the discovery of the camera. Which kind of
       portrait is more realistic with a recognizable likeness? Discuss why some people still
       have their portraits painted today and what style is used?(Art 4.2.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

river. He then set up his studio in Louisville and from 1840 to 1846 painted 1,200 miles of
scenery on what was reported to be three miles of canvas. The canvas was attached to two
revolving cylinders and wound from one to the other in order to show the full painting in one
room. The painting took on a movie-like quality as it was shown to an audience; Banvard would
have the cylinders stopped occasionally so that he could explain the action and the location
pictured. Unfortunately the painting has been destroyed.
                                                                                             Page 4 of 75
According to Wilbur Peat, this type of entertainment “became very popular both in America and
abroad” and brought Banvard a great deal of wealth and fame.” Indiana contributed a number of
scenic subjects to a section of his Panorama Royal of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, such as
views of the towns of Rising Sun, Vevay, Madison, and New Albany" (Pioneer Painters, 36).
Longfellow saw this canvas, probably in 1846, before he wrote the poem “Evangeline.” It was
one of his main sources of information about the lower Mississippi for that poem.
Some Points to Consider


Slide No. 14 Amish Quilt
Slide No. 15 Floral Spray “Lily” Quilt

Quilts are bed coverings made by sewing two pieces of material together with a filler in between.
Quilts are typed according to the techniques used: pieced, appliquéd, quilted, and combinations
of those techniques. The Appendix on Textiles contains explanations and illustrations.

Quilt making was a skill passed down from mother to daughter, and quilts-although a very
practical household implement-were decorative items as well. Quilt making also could provide
much needed social occasions through the quilting bee—a work party where women came
together to help each other in the final assembly of quilts. Pioneer women had little time for
visiting, and neighbors were generally far away. The quilting bee provided a chance to visit with
others while completing a necessary task.

The Amish are members of a religious sect that dates from the Amish 17th century in Europe.
During the American Revolution the sect immigrated to Pennsylvania, escaping religious
persecution. In the mid-1800s the Amish began migrating westward; there are still significant
settlements of Amish in several Midwestern states including Indiana.

The largest numbers of Amish in Indiana are concentrated in the countryside between Elkhart
and LaGrange. Their lifestyle is much the same as it was in the late 1800s. They shun the
"worldly ways" of modern inventions such as automobiles, electricity, and tractors. They work
the land and live from its bounty keeping tight and strong family units.

Amish dress is distinctive. The women wear bonnets to cover their heads, white aprons, and
uniformly cut hand-made dresses of black, gray, or brown. The men have beards, round black
hats with a three-inch brim. Their black suits have no buttons, just hooks and eyes.

Amish houses are simple. There are no curtains or pictures on the walls, but there are vivid
colored rugs, pillows, afghans, quilts, and glassware. The bright intense colors make these items
decorative, but because they have a function the decoration is acceptable.

Slide No. 14

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Amish Quilt
1910, pieced and quilted, 78" x 78"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This quilt is an excellent example of the useful combined with the ornamental. The simplicity of
the design is complemented by the complexity of the fine detail of the hand quilting which binds
the two fabric layers and the cotton filler together. According to the IMA files this traditional
Amish quilt type has become popular with young collectors-with simple, severe arrangements of
geometric piecework set off by unusual combinations of deep, intense colors and curved rope or
feather quilting. This “Central Diamond” or “Diamond in Square” motif “probably descends
from central medallion quilts produced during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.”

Some Points to Consider

      Discuss how a quilting bee was a social activity that produced a functional work of
       art. Compare slide 14 and 15 and discuss why one artist chose one large image and
       the other artist chose repetition of the same pattern. (Art 4.6.2).

Slide No. 15
Floral Spray “Lily” Quilt
19th c., appliquéd and quilted, 81" x 67"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This quilt uses an appliqué technique with a diagonal composition. The background material is
white, the patches appliquéd are red and green. The jagged edge is accomplished by piecing two
triangles together to make a square.

Some Points to Consider
    Analyze the formal (traditional) and technical (measured) quilt design choices.
      Identify and discuss shape, pattern, repetition, balance, and the red/green color
      scheme. (Art 4.3.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up use with experience 1

      Make a nine patch pieced quilt block design math problem. Research designs on the
       computer. What is the name of your choice (Ohio Star etc.)? Invite a quilter to
       bring in quilts for a display. Use precut triangles and squares. Using two pieces of
       fabric and quilt batting, sandwich the batting between the fabrics. Baste together
       and draw designs using chalk on the top fabric. Stitch through all layers using
       small stitches. Try for ten stitches in an inch; that is how many stitches a master
       quilter would have. Ask a parent to sew the squares together and be sure to exhibit
       the finished quilt. (Art Standard 7 and 8)

                                                                                         Page 6 of 75
Lefevre F. Cranstone

Slide No. 16 Street Scene in Richmond
Slide No. 17 South Seventh Street, Richmond

Lefevre F. Cranstone was born in England and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1845 to
1865. In the years before the Civil War in the United States he traveled as a landscape artist and
sketched in the Midwest from the late summer of 1859 until June 1860. He was recognized for
his etchings as well as his watercolors.

Slide No. 16

Street Scene in Richmond
1859–1860, watercolor and pencil, 6 1/2" x 11"
Indiana Historical Society

This painting depicts the National Road (Route 40), which passes through Richmond. Notice the
perception of depth and distance as the viewer looks at this streetscape. This painting has much
potentially valuable historical detail—the buildings, the horse-drawn hay wagon, the dress of the
people. Notice how the colors in the sky contribute to the wintry feeling.

Slide No. 17
South Seventh Street, Richmond
N.D., watercolor and pencil, 5 1/2" x 13 1/4"
Indiana Historical Society

The artist has documented what appears to be a relatively new housing addition in the winter
season. The gray-blues in the sky help emphasize the wintry atmosphere; there is also a
distinctive light coming from the sky. Notice how small the trees are especially in comparison to
the trees in the previous slide. The trees also appear to have been wrapped, which is usually done
only to newly planted trees. Once again note the people and transportation mode included as well
as the perspective of the streetscape.
Some points to consider
     Mr. Cranstone imitated these early scenes and diligently painted what he saw
        including the weather. List how his painting informs us about Richmond, Indiana
        in the 1860’s (architecture, weather, clothing, and amount of activity). (Art 4.6.1)

Karl Bodmer

Slide No. 18 New Harmony on the Wabash
Slide No. 19 Mouth of the Fox River

                                                                                           Page 7 of 75
Karl Bodmer was a native of Switzerland. In his early twenties Bodmer came to the United
States with the Prussian Prince Maximilian von Wied-Neuwied. Prince Maximilian visited
Indiana—including New Harmony and Vincennes—at various times between 1832 and 1834 to
gather information for a book; Bodmer was the illustrator for the book.

Prince Maximilian was a naturalist drawn to the unspoiled wilderness of the United States like
many other Europeans of the day. He filled over a thousand pages with notes, and Bodmer did
hundreds of sketches and watercolors of the people and places that they saw. Historically their
work is very important since it combined the skills of a trained artist and an experienced
The book was published in Paris from 1839 to 1841 as Reise in das innere Nord-Amerika in dem
Jahren 1832 bis 1834. The engravers were Sigismond Himely (Swiss, 1801–1872) and Lucas
Weber (German, 1811–1860).

Slide No. 18

New Harmony on the Wabash 1842, engraving, color aquatint and hand coloring, image 11 3/4"
x 17 1/4" (a separately issued proof)
Indiana Historical Society

This engraving appeared in Prince Maximilian’s book about his travels that was published in
1839–1841. This is a documentary work, but the scene is depicted in such a way that it is quite
romantic. The color scheme is basically complementary, using red and green. There is also the
use of light and shade, especially in the trees, called chiaroscuro. The composition of the work
leads the viewer’s eye in a Z formation. The wild pigs in the foreground get first notice, and the
path they are on moves to the right. This path directs the eye back to the stream. The eye then
moves with the stream to the right, on the last segment of the Z, to the town. In his work,
Bodmer often portrayed man/civilization in contrast with nature.

Slide No. 19

Mouth of the Fox River (Indiana)
1839, engraving, color aquatint and hand coloring, image 12" x 17 1/4" (a separately issued
proof) Indiana Historical Society

This engraving also is from Prince Maximilian’s book. It too is romantic although it documents
the Indiana scene. The use of color gives a particularly eerie effect; notice the highlights on the
trees. Notice also the rhythm created by the wavy trees and grape vines. Notice once again the
contrast between nature (the wilderness, the eagle) and the softer, more distant aspects of
civilization (the boat, the cows). Since Prince Maximilian became ill while visiting New
Harmony, Bodmer had more time to develop such romantic documentary works, which are not
characteristic of the majority of his work.

Some Points to Consider

                                                                                            Page 8 of 75
      One of the career choices of a skilled artist is to illustrate stories. Karl Bodmer’s
       early training prepared him to illustrate Indiana for the first time by anyone. ( Art
      How might Bodmer’s impressions of Indiana help to make connections to the
       culture? Was the function of the drawing to entice people to come to Indiana or to
       draw an accurate record of what he saw here? How would people perceive Indiana
       based on these drawings? ( Art 4.1.2)
      Does the vegetation seem realistic (technical) or romantic (expressive) (Art 4.3.1)

George Winter


Slide No. 22 Indians Playing the Moccasin Game
Slide No. 23 Detail of No. 22
Slide No. 24 Detail of No. 22
Slide No. 29 Frances Slocum
Slide No. 30 Detail of No. 29
Slide No. 31 Scene on the Wabash

George Winter, the youngest of twelve children, was born in Portsea, England, in 1810. His
family was well-educated, and the home had a gallery where he often listened to people talk
about art. The town itself contained many collections of celebrated paintings.
Having decided to become an artist, Winter spent four years in London. He arrived in New York
in 1830 and studied at the National Academy of Design. He went to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1836
and on to Logansport, Indiana, in May 1837, where he spent the next 14 years. He became a U.S.
citizen in 1841.

Apparently he was drawn to Logansport by a desire to record the appearance of the Potawatomi
and Miami Native Americans who were being removed beyond the Mississippi River following
their relinquishment of their Native American lands to the United States government. He had
never seen a Native American before his arrival at Logansport, and his journal records his
reaction: “The Indian as I found him was not the one I had seen through the imagination or
fancy; he was clothed in varied colored draperies, each in accordance with his own peculiar
conceit. Instead of the shaved head and scalp lock towering from the center of the cranium, his
head was wrapped around with a shawl of many colors, turban fashion, a la Turk, presenting a
picturesque appearance” (The Journals and Indian Paintings, 44). Winter’s paintings are an
extremely valuable historical record of the customs of these Indiana Indians.

After the Indians left, Winter painted portraits of local settlers and landscapes from sketches he
made along the Wabash River often with groups of Indians painted into them. Peat says of
Winter’s landscapes, “Tinged with an air of romanticism in both composition and color, and
planned to bring out the most picturesque aspects of the region, they became very popular,
finding their way into many local [Lafayette] homes" (Pioneer Painters, 116).

                                                                                           Page 9 of 75
In 1850 Winter opened a studio in Lafayette and painted commissioned portraits. In 1852 he
started his “Distributions”: Winter would hold a public showing of a group of paintings, sell
chances for one or two dollars, and then hold a drawing to determine the winners of the

In 1874 Winter went to California and made numerous sketches. Only a week after he returned
to Lafayette, he died while attending a meeting at the Opera House on February 1, 1876.

Slide No. 22

Indians Playing the Moccasin Game
N.D., oil on canvas, 34" x 42"
Indiana State Museum

According to Winter’s notation on the back of the canvas, this painting was “Originally sketched
at Kee-wau-nay Village, 1837, when Col. A.C. Pepper held his councils with the Pot-ta-wat-to-
mies of the Wabash, Indiana.”

The composition draws the eye into the scene because it forms a perpendicular ellipse, rather like
the world itself, going into the third Dimension.

Notice the costumes of the Native Americans in the detail slides. There was a lot of French
influence because of the French traders and trappers. The French traded with the Native
Americans, providing them with the brightly colored silk that they wrapped turban-style around
their heads.

The Moccasin game is a game of chance similar to the shell game in which a pea is hidden under
one of three nut shells. The player must guess the correct shell to win. In the Moccasin game four
miniature moccasins are used instead of shells, and a small stone is the object hidden. There are
four players instead of just one, and each participant takes a turn at guessing the right moccasin.
Also called Bullet, this gambling game was so widespread that a law was enacted to prohibit
playing the game. Offenses were punished with fines. The game was borrowed from the
Delaware Indians, For more information see Robert B. Duncan, "The Games of Moccasin and
Bullet," Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 1 (1905), 17-18.

Some Points to Consider

      Do the painted figures agree with George Winter’s written description of the Native
       Americans at Kee-wau-nay Village? (Art 4.6.1)
      Do the players seem subdued? Describe how Winter might have used movement to
       depict a much more animated game. List the art elements used by Winter to depict
       clothing? Discuss how this clothing differs from most Native American clothing.
       Does the clothing give the art more variety? (Art 4.4.2)

                                                                                         Page 10 of 75
Frances Slocum
1839, oil on canvas, 20 3/4" x 16 1/2"
Tippecanoe County Historical Association

Frances Slocum (1773–1847) had been kidnapped at the age of five by Delaware Native
Americans from her home in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. She was discovered in 1837 when she
confided her story to Colonel George Washington Ewing. Ewing sent an account of her story
east, and Slocum’s brothers and sister came to Deaf Man’s Village to see her in 1837. She
refused to leave her home and family. This “Lost Sister” was called Ma-con-a-qua, and she had
married twice—first a Delaware warrior and then a Miami chief, the Deaf Man. The story is told
in Martha Bennett Phelps, Frances Slocum the Lost Sister of Wyoming. Compiled and Written by
her Grandniece (2nd ed., Wilkes-Barre, 1916) and elsewhere.

Winter painted his portrait of Frances Slocum at the request of her brother on his return trip in
1839. The trip is recorded in Winter’s account “Journal of A Visit to Deaf Man’s Village, 1839”
(The Journals and Indian Paintings, 151–196, as revised in 1871).

According to this journal, Slocum’s daughter placed the black silk shawl over her mother’s
shoulders, and pinned it in front. Winter’s description as she posed includes the following:
“Frances Slocum’s face bore the marks of deep-seated lines. The muscles of her cheeks were like
corded rises, and her forehead ran in almost right-angular lines. There was indication of no
unwanted cares upon her countenance beyond time’s influence which peculiarly marks the
decline of life. She bore the impress of old age, without its extreme feebleness. Her hair which
was evidently of dark brown color was now frosted. Though bearing some resemblance to her
family, yet her cheek bones seemed to bear the Indian characteristic in that particular-face broad,
nose somewhat bulby, mouth perhaps indicating some degree of severity. In her ears she wore
some few ‘ear bobs’” (ibid., 176–177).

Some Points to Consider

      List the properties of this painting that make Frances seem Native American? (Art
      Compare this portrait to portraits of typical early Indiana women. (Art 4.1.1)

Scene on the Wabash
N.D., oil on canvas, 28 3/4 19 x 24"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This scene is near Pipe Creek and was painted at Logansport, which Winter described in his later
journal of Logansport: “Its locality possessed very many natural beauties; the river views were
picturesquely charming, being dotted with many thrifty islands.” Rivers were probably Winter’s
favorite subjects for landscapes.

The sky and land become one in the background of this painting, giving it a soft quality. There
are three parallel levels: the foreground, the islands and water, and the clouds. The trees make an

                                                                                          Page 11 of 75
interesting contrast: the smaller one points towards the sky and the lower pine branch points
towards the women. Notice how the men and women are separated.

Some Points to Consider

      Discuss the poses of the people and horse and the treatment of the background to
       discuss what mood was created by Winter. (Art 4.3.1)
      What does this painting mean and what story does it depict about Native Americans
       and their culture? Does the picture seem to foretell what might happen to the
       Native Americans(4.3..1)

Some Points to Consider

Script will be taken out
     The Lafayette Daily Courier in 1851 considered winter’s works to be “prizes”. Do
        you think there were art critics in Winter’s day who knew about Winter’s work?
        What criteria did the Daily Courier use? Do you agree?
     Is the composition pleasing?
     Do you like the wide-angled view and mood included in the scene?
     Does the contrast of the greens and oranges help to silhouette the trees?

      What elements make this composition strongly organized? Why? Analyze the
       mood of this painting, the formal arrangements of the items, how well it is painted,
       and what parts might be imaginary. (Art 4.3.1)
      Research early Indiana carts, oxen, and bridges and decide if Winter painted this
       painting for different reasons than his usual attention to accuracy. (Art 4.3.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Play the moccasin game using shoes and a smooth stone. Take turns until you find the one that
has the stone. The winner can begin the game again.
• Reenact a day in the life of a Woodland Indian. What would you eat? How would you get your
food? Who would prepare the food? Where would you sleep?
• Write a poem about your pet and incorporate a game that you might play with your pet in the
• Reenact a moment from the past. Dress up as Woodland Indians and white settlers. Have one
person act as a scout and another as an interpreter, others as a leader for the Indians and for the
settlers. Carry on your conversation through the interpreter. Discuss the purchase and settlement
of land by the white man.
• Have you ever had to interpret anyone’s words for another person? Try it, especially if there is
a student or parent with a second language or a hearing impaired person.
• Negotiate a treaty in your classroom. What are your goals? Who are the Indians and who are
the white men?
                                                                                          Page 12 of 75
• Imagine yourself on the banks of the river in Slide No. 27 with this group of Indians. What do
you think they might be discussing? Why did they choose this spot to rest? Write your thoughts
in story format; discuss them with the rest of the class.
• Draw a picture of this great chief in Slide No. 28 as you might imagine a chieftain to appear.
Why was he concerned about his soul?
• Think about Frances Slocum’s life as a white woman raised among the Indians. Write about her
youth among the Indians, her acceptance by them, and what you think she might have faced. You
might also write from her perspective, a memoir or reminiscence.

Detail slides are meant to give the viewer more information. Show the detail slides briefly and
test the recall of your students.

For example, in Slide No. 30, have them describe what she is wearing and how her hair is fixed,
and comment on the condition of her complexion.

• In Slide No. 31 the clouds become an important part of the painting. They almost appear as
smoke signals. Study clouds and notice how various artists use clouds to set a mood.

• Have your students create a silhouette picture by combining watercolors and construction paper
cutouts. First saturate with water a sheet of white paper. Using watercolors and a large brush or
sponge apply colors that you feel would best simulate a sunset. Develop slightly darker areas to
indicate the land areas and horizon line. Let the paper dry. While it is drying, cut out silhouetted
figures, trees, animals, etc. For the silhouettes choose dark colored papers such as purple, brown,
dark blue, and black. Glue these onto the dry painting.

• Another activity could incorporate painting in miniature. Hard boil eggs, paint a sunset-like
wash on half of the egg. Allow this to dry; spray with acrylic clear spray. Use permanent markers
to draw on shadowy, silhouetted figures and parts of a landscape.

• Draw a portrait of how you think you will look when you are grown up. What kinds of clothes
will you wear? How will your face and hands look? Incorporate these ideas into your drawing.

• Create a miniature model city on a piece of cardboard 24" x 24." As city planners you will need
to make lists of the elements essential to the growth and development of a city. Construct small
buildings by making small cubes or use small discards of wood from a local lumberyard. Use
your imagination to come up with materials that will be appropriate for trees, bushes, roads,
water, and other objects.

• How could one man purchase the original area of Lafayette in 1824? Find out about public land
sales in Indiana.

• Has the area of Lafayette changed? Examine maps to determine how and why.

• Imagine yourself as this young boy about to cross this bridge, which has no rails, driving two
huge oxen. Look at trees in the painting and the rocks in the river that almost appear as huge

                                                                                          Page 13 of 75
submerged animals. Also note the time of day and how the sky looks. Write a story about
yourself as this young boy about to make this trip.

• Research information about oxen. How were they used as helpers to the pioneers?

• Discuss proportion with your students. Are the oxen in Slide No. 36 in correct proportion to the
cart and child in the painting?

A 19th Century Photograph

Slide No. 37 The John B. Ruger Family

Photography was a new form in the 1800s and was much more involved than taking a
photograph today. Unlike today’s instant color processes, photographs took a long time, and
color could only be obtained by adding it by hand with paint. The subject of a photograph had to
pose for many minutes; it is not hard to understand then why old photographs most often depict
people who look stiff and do not smile.
Until this time drawn and painted portraits were the only methods of preserving one’s image.
The most portable image was the miniature. Many more individuals could have their images
made by this relatively inexpensive process.
A new art form was also created for later generations—the family photograph with its rich
information about clothing, household furnishings, and other historical items depending upon
setting and content. Because photographs were portable and inexpensive, many still remain from
earlier periods and provide visual images of people from all levels of society and from many

The John B. Ruger Family
N.D., photograph, 16" x, 12"
Tippecanoe County Historical Association

John B. Ruger started the family business, J. B. Ruger and Son Bakery, twenty-four years after
William Digby founded the city of Lafayette. The family operated the bakery until 1854, when it
was sold. Their address was 216–222 N. Sixth Street.
This photograph appears to be a “cabinet” card—a style of portraiture common from 1867 to the
turn of the century. This is an albumen print. In this process the paper used was first sprayed with
a thin coating of egg white and then with light sensitive silver salts. The prints are quite long
lasting and have nice brown and purple tones. After the print was made, it was mounted on a
standard heavy card with the photographer’s studio name printed upon it, usually in gold at the

Some Points to Consider

                                                                                          Page 14 of 75
      Compare this family portrait from the 1800’s to a typical family portrait today. List
       the differences between this early portrait done in a tradition way and
       contemporary portraits done of your family. Discuss the setting, clothing,
       expressions, hair-dos, and poses. (Art 4.2.3)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Have each student bring in family portraits. Compare them to the family in this photograph.
How do expressions differ? The clothes worn? The pose of the people? If possible, find an old
family photo similar to the one in the photograph; ask your local museum, perhaps, to provide
one or several for use.

• Can you name something in the present that compares with the studio portrait in Slide No. 37?
Note the stores that solicit with free family photographs and the stock folders, etc. Ask for
similarities and differences and have some brought in.

• Do you think modern color photographs will still be around 100 years from now? Not likely.
Look into photographic processes.

Jacob Cox
Slide No. 38   William Sullivan
Slide No. 41   Still Life
Slide No. 42   Scene in Indianapolis
Slide No. 44   Pogue’s Run, The Swimming Hole

In 1820 after his parents died, Jacob Cox left his birthplace of Burlington, New Jersey, and went
to live with his grandfather and aunt in Washington, Pennsylvania. In 1826 he apprenticed as a
tinner and worked in Pittsburgh. He married in 1832 and came to Indianapolis in 1833 to open a
stove, tinware, and coppersmithing business with his brother. In 1840 he painted a political
banner for the presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison.
At the age of thirty-one, in 1841, he printed a card announcing himself as a portrait painter and
asking Indianapolis citizens to visit his studio on Washington Street between Illinois and
Meridian. Although he lacked formal training, Cox had painted landscapes, “fancy” pictures, and
portraits in his spare time.
In 1842 Cox and John G. Dunn opened a studio in Cincinnati. Cox returned to Indianapolis in
1843 and through hard work gained recognition as a master craftsman. His portraits, figure
compositions, and landscapes were in numerous homes in the city. He still found it necessary,
however, to make a living in his tin business for many years.
After several years as a prosperous full-time painter, he went to New York and painted some of
that city’s most prominent citizens. It is believed that at this time, in 1860, he received his first
formal training at the National Academy of Design.
Cox returned to Indiana in 1861. He taught many talented students, including William Merritt
Chase who called him his “father in art.” Cox’s daughter Julia also was an artist. His
considerable talent and stature is reflected in the many portraits by Cox in the collection of
governors’ portraits started in 1869 by Governor Conrad Baker.
                                                                                           Page 15 of 75
Some Points to Consider

Slide No. 41

Still Life
N.D., oil on canvas, 23" x 19"
Anonymous loan

This still life is very beautifully painted and has a great deal of detail. It could have been a study
in painting many textures and materials. The triangular composition contains examples of
various fruits, glass, cloth drapery, and wood. The fruit is painted in the context of the natural
materials that would surround it.
The frame is very decorative and ornate, a style that goes well with this finely detailed painting.
This is a good instance to point out that the frame is an important part of the finished appearance
of a work.

Some Points to Consider

      Use the art elements: line, shape, form, texture, color and space to analyze the
       qualities of this still life
      Also identify the principles: repetition, variety, rhythm, proportion, movement,
       balance, and emphasis. (Art 4.3.3)
      How does this painting appeal to the five senses -sight, hearing, touch, taste, and
      Why might early Hoosiers have appreciated hanging this painting in their homes?
       (Art 4.5.1)

Slide No. 42

Scene in Indianapolis
1865, oil on canvas, 26" x 40"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This landscape pictures a log bridge across Fall Creek where the Illinois Street bridge is now
located. It is difficult to imagine that this serene site is the same as that major thoroughfare
today. Note that this bridge has a railing and an obviously constructed base at the edge of the

Some Points to Consider

      This scene helps us to understand the growth that Indiana has experienced. List all
       that has changed .(Art 4.1.1)

Slide No. 44

                                                                                             Page 16 of 75
Pogue’s Run, The Swimming Hole
1840, oil on canvas ‘ 18 1/2" x 24 1/2"
Indiana State Museum

Once again this landscape of an Indianapolis location is tranquil and pastoral. It does, however,
provide a realistic portrayal of the location and documents some aspects of this time and locale.
Note the pole fence on the right and how well constructed and substantial this bridge is.
Pogue’s Run is a stream that cuts southwest through the original plat of Indianapolis,
necessitating some changes in the regularity of streets. It crossed Washington Street, the National
Road, at present College Avenue and then meandered with all major streets crossing it until it
dropped south parallel with Mississippi Street (now Senate Avenue) after crossing it. Jacob Piatt
Dunn, Greater Indianapolis, Lewis Publishing Company, 1910, Volume 1, has the original 1821
plat on page 30 and an 1830 map on page 52. Pogue’s Run was the subject of many works of art
and poetry.

Some Points to Consider

      Through the years in many places and cultures artists have painted pastoral scenes.
       Generally they are idyllic or rustic scenes and give the viewer a feeling of peace or
       contentment. What do you consider restful in this painting.
      What would you want to do if you were there? Find a similar painting from another
       time and culture that has the same mood? (Art 4.3.2)

John Jacob Hegler

Slide No. 46
Slide No. 47
Slide No. 48

Mary Alice Lyons
Dr. Turner Welch
Ester Welch

John Jacob Hegler was born in Bretzwil, Switzerland, on January 21, 1812. He came to the
United States in 1831. He worked as a miller, his father’s trade, but began portrait painting in
Ohio. In 1845 he went to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and remained in the state the rest of his life. He
arrived in Lafayette in 1849 and became its first important painter. According to Peat, he
announced in the Lafayette newspaper, “portraits from good daguerreotypes and also from
corpses if called upon immediately after death” (Pioneer Painters, 112). In 1853 he went on to
Attica, where he remained for the last few years of his life.

Mary Alice Lyons
C.1855, oil on canvas mounted to wood panel, 39" x 28"
Indianapolis Museum of Art
                                                                                         Page 17 of 75
The subject was the daughter of Attica physician Dr. Lewis D. Lyons. The artist was obviously
using a backdrop; notice how artificial the background appears especially for the subject.
Originally, Hegler had painted Mary Alice with a cat, but Dr. Lyons despised cats and told
Hegler to make the animal into a dog.
This is a charming portrait of a young girl well dressed for the occasion. Notice the detail on the
dress, the neck chain, white pantalettes, and banana curls of her hair arrangement. Notice how
the red of her feet, dress, and lips draws the viewer’s eye through the painting.

Some Points to Consider

      Discuss having your portrait done in a studio today. How has the activity changed
       from this portrait? Would the portrait painter today have chosen a different
     Was the artist successful in transforming the cat into a dog?
     Are the little girl’s feet and arms in proportion to the rest of the body? (Art 4.3.1)
Dr. Turner Welch
1853, oil on canvas, 35" x 28"
Tippecanoe County Historical Association

Dr. Welch (1790–1875) had been a surgeon in the War of 1812. In 1846 he settled in Tippecanoe
County with his wife and children; he was one of the first physicians on the Great Wea Plains.

Some Points to Consider

      Many portraits used clothing, backdrops, and objects to indicate something about
       the person being painted. What symbols were used to help illustrate who Dr. Welch
       was? (Art 4.1.3)
      Compare this painting with the painting of Esther Welch. Discuss the expressive
       qualities of both; do you think most paintings of that day were painted the same
       way? (Art 4.3.1).

Ester Welch
1853, oil on canvas, 35 1/2" x 27 3/4"
Tippecanoe County Historical Association

Mrs. Welch was fifty-five when this portrait was painted. It is an obvious companion piece to
that of her husband; note the background and chair. This portrait, however, is painted in softer
tones with more painterly brush strokes. Very stark color combinations and the folds of her
garment indicate that the artist took great care to add to the scale of the woman. Note the
transparent bonnet, painted over the hair.

Some Points to Consider

      Where did John Jacob Hegler use repetition and what is the effect?
                                                                                          Page 18 of 75
      Mrs. Welch’s hands were expressively painted; describe the mood which was
       created by the delicate arrangement of the hands. (Art 4.3.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Create a new animal by starting with one that is familiar to you. For example, using a pencil
draw a picture of a dog. Now erase parts of the dog and change those parts to that of another
animal, such as a rabbit. Make up new names and uses for these creatures.

• Recreate a day in the life of a country doctor. Look into early medicine and cures. Travel down
the dirt road to visit the sick in your horse and carriage. As you approach each new house or deal
with an ailment, have the children each add a portion to the tale. Tape this conversation story as
you and the children tell it. A day later play it back. You might transcribe and edit it to make a
booklet with illustrations, including a map.

• While the doctor is out, his wife is also busy. What are her activities? Let this be the equivalent
of chapter two in your story.

• See if your local museum or library has some original journals, letters, etc. Create a drama from

Marcus Mote

Slide No. 49
The Hoosier’s Nest

Marcus Mote was born in West Milton, Ohio, on June 19, 1817. At an early age he had proved
resourceful; paints were not easily obtained, and he made colors from plants, organic matter, and
indigo from his mother’s laundry supplies.
Mote was self-trained. He began painting stagecoaches in Ohio and then moved on to portrait
painting. By the time he arrived in Richmond, Indiana, in 1863, he was a successful painter and
teacher, highly regarded for his portrait painting.
According to Wilbur Peat he also produced pictorial commentaries or cartoons dealing with
theological controversies within the Quaker church.

The Hoosier’s Nest
1890, oil on canvas, 19" x 29"
Indiana State Museum

Just how the word Hoosier came about has been the subject of much debate, and there is still no
definitive answer. It must have been generally familiar or John Finley would not have
memorialized it in his poem The Hoosier’s Nest, published in the January 1, 1833, Indianapolis
Journal as a New Year’s greeting. It has been an accepted part of Indiana history since, but it is
still considered derogatory by many who look back to original connotations of “backwoods” and
                                                                                            Page 19 of 75
Mote’s painting depicts one stanza of the ten-stanza poem by Finley:
I’m told, in riding somewhere West,
A stranger found a Hoosier’s nest—
In other words, a buckeye cabin,
Just big enough to hold Queen Mob in;
Its situation, low, but airy,
Was on the borders of a prairie;
And fearing he might be benighted,
He hailed the house, and then alighted.
The Hoosier met him at the door-
Their salutations soon were o’er.
He took the stranger’s horse aside,
And to a sturdy sapling tied;
Then having stripped the saddle off,
He fed him in a sugar-trough.
(Quoted from The Hoosier’s Nest, and Other
Poems, Cincinnati, 1866)

This painting is very colorful and cartoonish in its presentation. There is much detail. Notice
such things as the fireplace construction, the animal skin being tanned, the gourds for drinking
vessels, and the many other things that illustrate the poem in detail. On the right, the sky and
land become one, adding to the vastness of the prairie.

Some Points to Consider

      From what you have learned about Indiana, is this painting characteristic of a
       Hoosier dwelling in 1890? What is cartoonish about it?
      What does the scene tell us about the people who live there and how does it improve
       our knowledge about early Indiana. (Art 4.1.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Write a poem about an event in your life and how you felt because of it.
• Take a poem that you are familiar with and make illustrations to go along with the content of
the poem or the mood that the poem conveys.
• Write a creative story about what they will do inside the cabin with the man as their guest and
where he will go the next morning.

John Gibson Dunn

Slide No. 50 Temperance Pledge

                                                                                         Page 20 of 75
John G. Dunn was the son of George H. Dunn, a well-known state official. He decided early to
become an artist and studied with Jacob Cox; he went to Cincinnati in 1842 with Cox to open a
studio. Cox returned to Indianapolis in 1843. Dunn later received a medical degree from a
college in Cincinnati. Before he could begin a practice, however, he began service in the
Mexican War as an assistant surgeon in Company K, Third Regiment, Indiana Volunteers.

Following military service he seems to have spent a few years painting in Indianapolis. By 1851
he was back in Lawrenceburg dividing his time among medicine, mechanical inventions,
painting, and poetry. He went to Louisiana after 1855 and died in New Orleans.

Cox said of his partner, according to Wilbur Peat, “he was a genius with more ill-jointed, badly
directed talent than any man I ever saw. His ideas on color were admirable—exquisite; his
invention was wonderful, but he never carried a picture to completion. He was somewhat of a
poet, too, but wild and erratic to the last degree: His death, I fear, was the result of dissipation, as
he was given to terrible sprees” (Pioneer Painters, 67).

Slide No. 50 Temperance Pledge
1851, oil on canvas, 40 1/8" x 33"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

The temperance movement was at its height at the time this painting was completed, and it was a
dominant theme in all forms of art and literary expression. The painting uses communion
symbols or themes-the devil equated with liquor, the woman as the temperance force, the written
pledge as the first step for the afflicted male. The obvious lack of wealth was also a common
complaint: money for drink deprived a family of the necessities of life. The very obvious pain
and tension depicted are more powerful when one remembers Dunn’s own problem with liquor.
This is one of, only two works apparently completed by Dunn. The use of color is quite good: the
orange draws the eye across the painting connecting the three conflicting parties; the light tones
on the faces highlight emotion and the light tones on the hands draw attention to the pledge-in
shadow and unsigned; the blue highlights on hat, collar, and mint julep glass further emphasize
the connected but conflicting figures.

Some Points to Consider

       What emotions are conveyed by the expressions of the people?(Art 4.3.1)
       Do social problems today find an expression in art forms? Name some.(Art 4.3.2)
       This work is almost surreal in style. The leering faces seem to be human and yet not
        human. Why does this style of art seem out of place for early Indiana? (Art 4.2.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Do a painting using complementary colors. Choose a subject that makes a strong statement
such as the one illustrated in this painting.

Barton S. Hays
                                                                                              Page 21 of 75
Slide No. 51 William Henry Harrison
Barton S. Hays was born in Greenville, Ohio, and moved to Indiana with his family around
1850–1851. Hays was self-taught, and his parents were not enthusiastic about his time being
spent sketching on fences and buildings.
He lived for a time in Wingate, Covington, and Attica, where he painted portraits of early
settlers. In 1858 he moved to Indianapolis and occupied a studio in the same building as Jacob
Cox. He continued to paint portraits and often painted enlargements of photographs.

William Merritt Chase and John W. Love were his pupils for a while. Their study consisted of
copying Hays’ works, which was a widely used form of art education at the time. According to
William Forsyth, Hays “was a rather attractive and agreeable personality and especially kind to
young artists who might visit him” (Art in Indiana, 7). In 1883 he moved to Minneapolis,

William Henry Harrison
1869, oil on canvas, 36 1/4" x 29 1/4"
Indiana Historical Bureau

Hays probably copied this portrait from a version of one painted around 1850. Peat discusses this
problem in Portraits and Painters and rates Hays’ portrait “very forceful”: “It is a good likeness
and an unusually convincing character study. Harrison’s expression is resolute and tense; a look
of incisiveness, and not a little shrewdness, appears in the eyes and about the mouth; the forms of
the head are strongly and fully modeled. Some of the picture’s strength comes from its rich, deep
colors; ruddy flesh tones and deep blacks are placed against a greenish gray background, and red
accents appear at the left where light falls on the upholstery of the chair” (1011). The portrait
was commissioned for the Governors’ Portrait Collection in 1869 by Governor Conrad Baker.
William Henry Harrison was a Virginia native, well educated, and from a prominent—though
not wealthy—family. He came west with General Anthony Wayne, served as secretary of the
Northwest Territory, territory delegate to Congress, governor of Indiana Territory, and a
successful general in the War or 1812. He defeated the Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe in
1811. He went on to a successful political career in Ohio and was elected President of the
(United States in 1840; he died on April 4, 1841, only one month after his inauguration-the
shortest presidential term in American history.

Harrison was appointed governor of Indiana Territory on May 13, 1800, at the age of twenty-
seven. He served until December 28, 1812, when he resigned to command the Army of the
Northwest against the British. Vincennes was the capital of the territory, and Harrison’s home,
Grouseland, has been restored and is open to the public. Under Harrison’s leadership eight
Native American treaties opened up to white settlement large amounts of land in present Indiana
and Illinois between 1803 and 1809. A useful map of these Native American land cessions and a
history of this period are available in John D. Barnhart and Dorothy L. Riker, Indiana to 1816:
The Colonial Period, Indianapolis, 1971.

Some Points to Consider

                                                                                         Page 22 of 75
      List the criteria used by Peat to determine the success of the painting of William
       Henry Harrison. It was painted in 1869; have Hoosiers portraits improved by then?
       (Art 4.4.1)
      Use the same criteria to make an informed judgment about an earlier Hoosier
       portrait? (Art 4.4.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Research William Henry Harrison and the role he played in the settlement of Indiana. Write a
short biography about your findings.

• Create a huge still life. Have each student bring something from home to add to the still life,
and help in its arrangement. Turn out the lights in the classroom; use several portable light
sources and project onto various sides of the still life. Each student can than choose an area of
the still life to closely observe and draw. Change positions or the light source and draw a new
area. Compare and exhibit the various interpretations.

Elias Max

Slide No 53 Tippecanoe County Courthouse
Slide No. 54 Detail of No. 53
Slide No. 55 Detail of No. 53

Elias Max was a local contractor in Lafayette. When he was selected on the last day of 1880 by
the commissioners to design the courthouse, there were objections because he was not an
His plans were accepted, however, and work was begun in 1881. James Alexander, a local
architect, was building superintendent, and many still think that the design of the courthouse
belongs to him.
The cornerstone was dedicated on October 26, 1882, and the building was finished two years
later. That same year Mark Twain visited Lafayette and commented on the courthouse: “A very
striking courthouse, very striking indeed. It must have struck the taxpayers a very hard blow.”
Architects are another type of artist and their buildings are their works of art. Buildings can be
thought of as very large pieces of sculpture, but there are more considerations than artistic design
since buildings must be occupied by people and house many different kinds of activities.
(Information is from “100 Years of the Courthouse,” Tippecanoe County Historical Association,

Tippecanoe County Courthouse, Lafayette

This building combines a number of architectural styles. It contains suggestions of Baroque,
Gothic, Georgian, Victorian, Beaux Arts and Neo-Classical. The temple-like porticos and
sculptures show touches of the Neo-Classical; some of the windows show a touch of Victorian
                                                                                           Page 23 of 75
There are relief carvings of George Washington, George Rogers Clark, and Tecumseh. There are
four female figures in the niches beneath each clock, possibly signifying the four seasons of the
year. There are figures representing important areas of Indiana life, including education,
agriculture, and the law. There are 100 columns, nine statues, and a dome containing four large
clock faces and a bell that could be heard for twelve miles.
The top of the cast iron dome is 212 feet above the ground. The statues of the four seasons are
9.5 feet tall. The faces of the clocks, installed in 1884, are eight feet across with hands four feet
long. The bell, cast in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1884, weighs 3,300 pounds and was tuned in the
key of C-sharp. Each walnut door at the main entrance weighs 500 pounds.
In 1887, a statue of the Marquis de Lafayette was set. It was made from a mold created by an
eminent sculptor, Lorado Taft. The fourteen-foot figure on top of the dome represents the
Goddess of Liberty.

Some Points to Consider

      Using an architectural style book, identify how many different styles of windows
       there are and what historical culture used them? • Name the different styles of
       columns and the culture that designed them (Art 4.2.1)
      How does the architecture of this building change the characteristics of Indiana
       culture? How do you think the people of Indiana responded? (Art 4.1.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow Up

• This courthouse is so dramatic. Photograph your own courthouse and research its construction
and cost to build. Take a field trip to your own courthouse and learn about how it is being

• Research architectural styles and invite an architect to talk to your students about architecture
and how it has changed.

• Look around your own town and find where there are sculptures, on buildings or freestanding.
What kinds of buildings have these sculptures?

• Take an architectural field trip into your own community. Search for interesting sculptures,
structures, and styles of architecture. Create an exhibit, photo album, scrapbook, or slide show
about your findings. Share it with other groups to interest them in your community also.

Susan Ketcham

Slide No. 56 Portrait of a Hat
1888, oil on canvas, 15" x 12"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

                                                                                           Page 24 of 75
Susan Ketcham was very influential in Indianapolis art circles. She studied under John W. Love
at the Indiana School of Art. She helped establish two art schools, taught art, and organized an
international exhibition for the Art Association of Indianapolis in 1883.
She went to Europe in 1886 to study music and art. After leaving Europe in 1889 she lived in
New York studying at the Art Students’ League. She then studied with William Merritt Chase
and later maintained a studio in Carnegie Hall, where for twenty-nine years she was devoted to
painting seascapes.

Her maternal grandfather, Samuel Merrill, was Indiana’s first treasurer of state and moved the
state treasury from Corydon to Indianapolis.

This is a portrait not only of a hat, but also of the wearer. It is done in a very painterly style. The
hat and the figure divide the background into distinguishable spaces; the spaces actually
emphasize, or set off, the face of the sitter.

Some Points to Consider

       What has the artist done to make this painting expressive? (Art 4.3.1)

       Discuss the possibilities for art training that existed in the late 1800’s and Hoosier
        interest in that training. Select criteria to analyze how painting has improved.
        (Art 4.4.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Make your own hat. You can use construction paper, tag board flowers, feathers, buttons,
fabric, and any other objects to add interest and detail.

Christian Schrader

Slide No. 57 Stagecoach
Slide No. 58 City Market
Slide No. 59 Abraham Lincoln Lying in State in the Indiana State House

Christian Schrader was born in Indianapolis in 1842 to German immigrant parents. His family
had made the trip from Germany to the United States in a small, crowded sailing vessel, taking
weeks for the ocean crossing. They settled in Pittsburgh, but learned of the wonderful
improvements contemplated in the new state of Indiana and decided to journey there. They
traveled by flatboat down the Ohio River to Jeffersonville, then came to Indianapolis by wagon
in the early 1830s.
Christian Schrader became a successful china merchant, but he also had a natural gift for
drawing. His artist’s eye saw the city changing and growing about him, and he was determined to
preserve the picturesque scenes of early Indianapolis. His documentary sketches provide scenes
and intimate glimpses of life in Indianapolis during his lifetime.

                                                                                              Page 25 of 75
1850s, pencil, 9 3/4" x 15"
Indiana State Library

This drawing depicts “The National Road high bridge in east Washington St. and Noble three
squares east of Little’s Hotel–Crossing Pogues Run” according to a notation on the drawing. The
“high bridge” is a covered bridge, of course. Little’s Hotel was at New Jersey and Washington
streets. Noble Street is now College Avenue. See the discussion at Slide No. 44.
R. Carlyle Buley in The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period, 1815–1840 (Indianapolis, 1950)
provides an interesting description of stagecoaches and stage travel: “The body contained two or
three transverse seats for three passengers each, had side doors and was mounted or suspended
high above the axles on plaited or riveted leather thongs or thorough braces, in lieu of springs.
The result was a somewhat wobbly, top-heavy vehicle. Small luggage might be taken inside,
stored with the driver, or put under the seats, but the infinite variety of odd-shaped carpetbags,
leather trunks, hatboxes and such . . . presented a problem. The baggage boot at the rear could
not hold all, but soon the coach top was utilized as well" (I, 471).
According to The Diary of Calvin Fletcher (Indianapolis, 1972–1983, 9 vols.) in 1836 there were
three stages leaving Indianapolis in the morning: west to Terre Haute, east to Lawrenceburg, and
south to Bloomington (I, 371); in April 1849, Fletcher left Indianapolis by stage around 10 a.m.,
ate in Plainfield and Putnamville, and arrived in Terre Haute at 4 a.m. After conducting some
business, Fletcher caught a small steamboat at 4 p.m. and arrived in Lafayette at 12 midnight the
following day (IV, 104).

Some Points to Consider

       Compare the mode of travel, the bridge and the fence with similar scenes of
        traveling today. Why is this an important historical drawing? (Art 4.1.1)


City Market
1850s, pencil, 8 1/2" x 17 1/2"
Indiana State Library

This sketch has been labeled “East Market.” The original plat of Indianapolis in 1821 indicates
market squares on the north side of Market Street both east and west; this market is on the same
spot as today’s restored and expanded City Market. A story in the Indianapolis Times, April 13,
1936, provides the following:
“When the city was incorporated in 1831, it was given jurisdiction over the market area.
“The first building was erected by subscription and was opened in August, 1833. It resembled a
covered bridge with its shingled roof supported by two long lines of 10-foot brick columns. It
later was enclosed to within two feet of the roof. The building covered more than one-third of the
ground between Wabash and Market-Streets and extended from Alabama-Street to within 150
feet of Delaware-Street. “The building was equipped with a dining room. The structure served
the city as its market place for 50 years."

                                                                                        Page 26 of 75
Some Points to Consider

      How did Schrader use movement to create mood? What was the purpose of this
       drawing? (Art 4.1.2)
      This is a finished drawing. Can you note any differences or similarities between this
       and the Leseur sketches? What reason were they both drawn? (Art 4.6.1)

Abraham Lincoln Lying in State in the Indiana State House
1865, pencil, 8 1/2" x 8"
Indiana State Library

Following Lincoln’s assassination on April 14, 1865, the nation began to mourn the fallen
president, and plans were made for his final journey to Illinois. Indianapolis had the honor of
being one of the twelve cities where Lincoln’s body would lie in state.
Plans and proclamations were immediately made for the solemn occasion in Indiana. The funeral
train would be met at Richmond on the Indiana-Ohio border by Governor Oliver P. Morton and
other dignitaries. They would accompany Lincoln’s body to Indianapolis, where after an
appropriate display of public grief, the body would lie in state in the rotunda of the (old) State
House. The funeral train would later continue on to Chicago.

Sunday April 30 was a rainy, miserable day. As the train passed through the Indiana countryside,
citizens turned out to pay their respects. At Indianapolis the large and complex funeral
procession made its way to the State House. The first group to be admitted were Sunday school
children and their mothers. Finally the long lines of patient, rain-soaked citizens were admitted.
Ladies were requested to wear their skirts unhooped to allow more room. The public viewing
was from 9 a.m. to 11 p.m.; at midnight Lincoln’s body was once again escorted back to the
funeral train.

This sketch is roughly drawn but has some amazing points of detail nonetheless. Schrader has
chosen to portray the scene as a documentary view. The casket and mourners are dwarfed by the
location, but the casket group is balanced by the light oval of the rotunda dome opening. Rather
than focus in and show the grief of the mourners close up, Schrader has shown the event in
context with respect but not exploiting the emotion.

Some Points to Consider

      Why do you think that Schrader chose to draw the Lincoln lying in state scene from
       this perspective? Does the drawing fit the description in the narrative of a solemn
       event? List the ways the drawing depicts sorrow.
      What is your personal response to this work? (Art 4.3.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• How fast did Calvin Fletcher’s stagecoach go on his trip to Terre Haute? Subtract time for each
meal, use a present-day road map showing U.S. 40, and figure it out.
                                                                                         Page 27 of 75
• Find Fletcher’s river route on a map. Could you do this today?

• Make a game board using landmarks on the way from your community to the capital of
Indiana. Use different modes of travel of a specific time period. Calculate the length of time to
make the trip and obstacles on the way. Select a different time period and compare the trips.

• Grocery stores today are so different from the 1800s and early 1900s. Today one person or
company acts as the merchandiser. In the old city markets every individual who sold produce,
meats, or other goods sold and often manufactured his own goods. Create a model city market
and have each stall selling an item or product that would have been found at the turn of the
century. Half of the fun is in the buying of the goods. Let each student have an opportunity to
sell and buy. Also be sure to note the value of the dollar and research the types of currency used
at that time.

• Is there a city market or something comparable in your location? Explore it, and compare it to

• As a reporter it is your assignment to document an important event of your choosing. Your
camera is broken, and you can take notes, but your editor also wants visual images. How will
you illustrate the event? Choose an event to document in this way.

Theodore Clement Steele

The Bloom of the Grape
Slide No. 62 Portrait of James Whitcomb Riley
Slide No. 63 The Steps of the Monument

T. C. Steele was born in Owen County, Indiana, on December 11, 1847. He studied art in
Cincinnati and Chicago and spent five years in Munich, Germany. Steele is one of The Hoosier
Group, which is fully treated in the Appendix.

Steele spent many years in Indianapolis, but his most lasting and popular work was done in his
Brown County Studio, which is a State Memorial and still houses a large collection of his work.
Steele also was an accomplished portraitist and was selected to paint nine of the portraits in the
Governors’ Portraits Collections. Like many artists, Steele’s portrait work actually was his
moneymaking activity.

The House of the Singing Winds: The Life and Work of T. C. Steele by Selma N. Steele,
Theodore L. Steele, and Wilbur D. Peat was published in 1966 by the Indiana Historical Society.

The Bloom of the Grape

                                                                                          Page 28 of 75
Some Points to Consider

Portrait of James Whitcomb Riley
1916, oil on canvas, 50" x 42"
Indiana State Museum

Riley would often stop into his friend Steele’s studio on Washington Street to chat and read some
of his newest poems to get a reaction. Steele painted Riley first in 1878 when the poet was 28
and Steele was 30. Riley in this portrait view was painted in 1902; this is a 1916 copy of the
1902 portrait. Both men encouraged efforts to attract attention to the talents of Midwestern
artists. Riley is the poet most closely identified with the Hoosier state because of his dialect
poetry—believed to be Hoosier speech but controversial in literary circles on that point. He is
probably most widely known for such poems as “Little Orphant Annie,” “The Raggedy Man,”
and “When the Frost Is on the Punkin.”

In this portrait “Riley is standing with black coat, black vest and gray-striped pants. The shirt
cuffs are shown slightly. His left hand is in his pocket and his right hand, resting on a desktop, is
holding a pair of gloves. Riley, who was prosperous by now, exudes an expression of dignity and
calm” (Indianapolis Star, October 3, 1971). This is a formal portrait with a background
impressionistic in style.

Some Points to Consider

       Read a James Whitcomb Riley poem and research why it was written. Does Steele’s
        portrait of Riley seem to portray the wit and cleverness of Riley, the poet? (Art
       Name the features that make this portrait formal? (Art. 4.3.1)

The Steps of the Monument
1902, oil on canvas, 22" x 27"
Indiana State Museum

The Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument was designed by Bruno Schmitz of Berlin, Germany. The
cornerstone was laid in 1889, and the monument was dedicated in 1902, the year Steele painted
this work.
This painting is a sharp contrast in style. It is very painterly, with a thick layer of paint (impasto).
There is a great quantity of white used to tint the other colors. The brighter colors used in
painting the people are more pure in hue, giving a nice rhythmical contrast that makes the people
“move.” Note that the figures are indicated but not fully detailed, making it impressionistic,
rather than a documentary view.

Some Points to Consider

       Analyze the impressionistic style of this painting. Do the people look unposed as if
        the picture were quickly snapped by a camera? Why do the lower sides of the

                                                                                              Page 29 of 75
       painting have an unfinished appearance? What colors are used to create a mood?
       What is the mood? (Art 4.2.2)
      Why was this monument built? Generally why are monuments built?
      How does this monument add to the culture of Indiana? (Art 4.1.1)

William Merritt Chase

Slide No. 68 Self-Portrait
Slide No. 70 Rest by the Wayside
Slide No. 71 Dorothy
William Merritt Chase is one of the most renowned of Indiana’s artists outside of Indiana. He is
considered to be the foremost still-life painter of his time in America.
He began a business career at sixteen when he and his father opened the largest shoe store in
Indianapolis, one section of which was the first women’s shoe store in the West. Apparently
Chase was more interested in drawing than selling shoes, and his father, according to Burnet,
finally turned him over to Barton S. Hays.
Chase studied under Hays for about a year and then went to New York to study at the National
Academy of Design. He moved to St. Louis, where he painted still lifes and portraits, and in
1872 he entered the Academy of Munich. He had problems because he wanted to compose his
own pictures instead of using conventional ideas. Not only was he criticized by his teachers, but
he also ran out of money. His luck changed when Piloty, one of his teachers, was impressed with
a painting he had done, and asked him to paint his children. After that Chase received many
commissions and prizes.
In 1878, he returned to New York to teach at the Art Students’ League. He was a leader there in
art circles, and he was a genuine teacher. He encouraged his pupils to use paint with freedom,
instead of just drawing. He had a wide range of subjects: portraits, still lifes, landscapes, and
genre. Chase also used a variety of media for artistic expression: oil, watercolor, pastel, and
Chase had a very colorful lifestyle, with a white Russian Wolfhound, two brightly colored
macaws, and a white cockatoo in his 10th Street studio in New York.

1915, oil on canvas, 52" x 63"
Art Association of Richmond

The artist has painted himself at his craft. According to Forsyth, "Though not a large man, he is
distinguished in appearance-with the dash and bearing rather of a military man than of the
traditional artist. . . . He has always stood for good craftsmanship. His language is paint and he
expresses himself in it. . . . the charm of color, quality, form, arrangement and tone is his, and
always the insistence on the masterly use of the painter’s materials" (Art in Indiana, 9). This
painting is life-sized.

Some Points to Consider

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      Use the listed criteria; “charm of color, quality, form, and arrangement”, and
       decide the merits of this painting. (Art 4.2.2)
      What is happening in this painting? Find meaning in the scene. Does Chase’s attire
       seem fitting for someone who is painting a large canvas or is his attire in keeping
       with what you have read about his personality? (Art 4.3.2)

Rest by the Wayside
C. 1898, oil on wood panel, 25 1/2" x 20 1/4"
Ball State University Art Gallery, Muncie
Permanent loan from the Frank C. Ball Collection, Ball Brothers Foundation

This painting focuses on an expanse of landscape, with suggestions of land that has shaped the
culture and character of America. Note the very specific and definite horizon line that helps to
create a sense of great distance. Note also the rich texture and the use of analogous colors—those
next to each other on a color wheel.

Some Points to Consider

      Does the man in the picture help to create perspective? What about the trees?
      What else creates the sense of great distance? (Art 4.3.1)
      Trace the stages of Chase’s artistic growth from being taught by Indiana artist,
       Barton S. Hays, to becoming famous and a teacher himself. He had many style
       changes as he developed his skill. Describe the Impressionistic features of this
       painting. (Art 4.2.4)

1902, oil on canvas, 72" x 36"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This is a portrait of Chase’s youngest daughter. His favorite subjects were his family, but he
produced many full-length portraits of young girls between 1886 and 1902. This is one of the
largest and most formal of his works. Done with his usual brilliant technique and cosmopolitan
sophistication, qualities that helped bring him his initial fame in portraiture, this picture has a
fashionable air along with aesthetic purity. Chase is remembered for his realistic color.

Some Points to Consider

      What questions would you ask Dorothy who is probably nine or ten about her life in
      Combine the questions of classmates and develop a hypothesis about Dorothy as a
       person. (Art 4.5.1)
      What mood was the artist portraying with his choice of expression, gesture, and
       attire? (Art 4.3.1)
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      Write descriptive sentences using the art elements and principles as guides. (Art

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Paint your own self-portrait. Be sure to put in objects that reveal facts about your personality
and interests.

• If you were to eat breakfast outdoors, you would probably be camping or fishing. How would
your dress and activities compare to the life style in Slide No. 69? Describe a time when you
have eaten outdoors.

• Travel down the country road in Slide No. 70. Write about how you feel and where you are

• Pretend the girl in Slide No. 71 is one of your classmates. Write a personality sketch about her.
What are her interests? How has she been reared? What are her values? Don’t forget what you
think her age to be.

• Put this slide out of focus. Have students on a 9" x 12" sheet of paper shade with the side of
their pencil leads the largest shapes they see. Slowly focus giving them time to draw more detail
and value changes. Continue to focus until the shapes have become fish. This is a good way to
understand how an impressionist painter works with value, shape, and intensity.

John W. Love

Slide No. 73 The Sycamores

John W. Love was born in Napoleon, Ripley County, Indiana. His family moved to Indianapolis
when he was a boy. He eventually attended Northwestern Christian University (now Butler
University). At nineteen he studied with Barton S. Hays and then went to Cincinnati to study
under Henry Mosler. He studied a few months at the National Academy of Design in New York
and went on to Europe in 1872, enrolling in the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris.
Love returned to Indiana in 1876 and founded the Indianapolis Art Association and the Indiana
School of Art with the help of James F. Gookins. It was located in the Saks Building at the
corner of Washington and Pennsylvania Streets in Indianapolis. The time wasn’t ripe financially
in the city for such a fine school, and eventually it failed.
One of Love’s first pupils, William Forsyth, as quoted in Peat, said of him, “In person he was
tall, broad shouldered and distinguished, a handsome blond giant whose appearance would have
attracted attention anywhere.” Peat goes on, “The few extant canvases by Love attest to his
power as a painter, and reflect both his foreign training and the germ of an individual style. He
worked in a strong, direct manner, based on sound draughtmanship and a good understanding of
form and color" (Pioneer Painters, 186). Forsyth said elsewhere, “Mr. Love was hardly thirty
when he died, and his death was a great loss not only to the state but to the country in all
probability . . . . Exceptionally trained, a splendid draughtsman and painter—quite the equal of
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Chase and Alden Weir and others who had been with him either at New York or abroad—there
was no reason, had he lived, why he should not have developed into a leading light in art in this
country” (Art in Indiana, 10).

The Sycamores
1878, oil on canvas, 30" x 25"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This painting is impressionistic in style. The parasol acts as a frame around the face of the
woman in the painting. It is a vertical composition with strong parallel lines. The play of light
and shadows is very interesting and adds an air of mystery to the painting. The scene is at Broad
Ripple in Indianapolis. The water could be the Central Canal, but the White River is more likely
given its apparent rapid current.

Some Points to Consider

      Reflect on the Impressionistic style and list the characteristics of the style. Discuss
       the thrust of the trees which dwarf the figure. Why do you think John Love used
       proportion as he did? ( Art 4.3.1)
      Respond as a group to how this painting makes you feel, whether it is well painted,
       and has expression? What makes this painting have merit?(Art 4.4.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

In Slide No. 73 we almost get the impression that the figure might have been added later. Paint a
landscape on white paper. Utilize the entire sheet of paper. Now cut figures and objects from
magazines. Attempt to use figures that fit the scale of your painting. Glue them onto the painting
creating a collage effect. How has this changed the mood of the painting?

Richard B. Gruelle

Slide No. 74 The Canal, Morning

Richard B. Gruelle was born in Cynthiana, Kentucky. At the age of six, he was taken by his
family to Illinois, where he soon began drawing long lines of soldiers marching into battle. His
mother always encouraged his drawing. At twelve or thirteen he had to begin earning a living.
He tried farming but finally apprenticed as a house and sign painter and learned to grind and mix
colors. The village carpenter taught him how to make easels and stretchers. He joined an
engineering corps in Illinois and later painted portraits there. He still had not seen an artist paint.
Gruelle is said to have been self-taught. He found he was a good landscape painter while
painting pictures on iron safes in Cincinnati.
He came to Indiana in 1882 and devoted himself to painting. “He stayed here twenty years,” says
Peat, “turning from portrait, dull in color and execution to landscapes that are colorful, airy and
vibrant.” He is considered a member of The Hoosier Group, which is fully treated in the

                                                                                             Page 33 of 75
Appendix. He spent a good deal of time in Washington and Baltimore and the last years of his
life in Connecticut. He died in Indianapolis.

Slide No. 74 The Canal, Morning (Indianapolis)
1894, oil on canvas, 32 1/2" x 38 1/8"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This landscape depicts a segment of the Central Canal in Indianapolis with a bridge crossing.
The State House dome and the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument are shown in the center distance
painted on a pinkish sky. The hat on the figure, because it is red, serves as a focal point. The cool
colors of the background suggest the coming of morning. The bridge cuts the canal in half.
The Central Canal was part of the massive internal improvements program that the state began in
1836. Canals were planned and constructed throughout the state, but the system was never
completed. Fragments of the many canals remain in various places throughout the state. The
Central Canal has become a focal point for Broad Ripple Village and for the urban development
in downtown Indianapolis.

Some Points to Consider

      What has the artist used to pull your eye to the center of the painting?
      What mood did the artist create by painting the atmospheric conditions and
       reflections as he did? (Art 4.3.1)
      With the class respond to the painting and decide how many would like to visit this
       place or float down the tranquil canal to explore the rest of it? Discuss whether
       artists find such perfect scenes or do they only paint the beautiful parts of what they
       see? (Art 4.5.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Are there any canals, or fragments, near you? Find out more about them. Why were they
constructed? Why did the internal improvements program fail? What effect did it have on the

19th Century Indiana Glass

Slide No. 75 Nursery Rhyme Pattern
Slide No. 76 Hey Diddle Diddle Plate, etc
Slide No. 77 Spooner and Child’s Creamer
Slide No. 78 Pitcher
Slide No. 79 Various Samples of Colored Greentown Glass
Slide No. 80 Bowl

Around 1885 a gas boom began in central Indiana. It propelled Dunkirk, Jay and Blackford
counties, from a sleepy railroad town to a bustling community of more than 7,500 people. About
eleven glass factories were located there around the turn of the century. The glass industry has
                                                                                           Page 34 of 75
been preserved in Dunkirk’s Glass Museum, which houses 3,000 examples of glassware from
more than fifty companies throughout the United States. Indiana Glass in Dunkirk, according to
the Muncie Star, is the nation’s third largest producer of glass tableware. Many towns in the gas
belt had glass factories, but few have survived to the present since the gas was used up.

Nursery Rhyme Pattern
N.D., Gas City glass, bowl, 3 3/8" x 4 5/8," cup, 1 3/8" x 1 5/8"
Anonymous loan

The U.S. Glass Company was located in Gas City. The Nursery Rhyme pattern pictured in the
slide was produced from the 1800s to the early 1900s. The embossed figures portray animals and
juvenile figures. The punchbowl pictures the wolf in Grandma’s clothes, Red Riding Hood, a
tree, and a house. The dishes were designed for children. There are also examples in the
photograph of white and blue milk glass from the same company.

Some Points to Consider

• Why is the apple included in this slide?
• Did you have special dishes as a child? How do these items compare or contrast? Are there
special dishes for children today? What do they look like?
• Find out more about Gas City and the U.S. Glass Company.

Hey Diddle Diddle Plate, etc.
N.D., Indiana Glass Company
Anonymous loan

The Indiana Glass Company was located in Dunkirk. This slide shows doll dishes: a plate (Hey
Diddle Diddle, 6 1/2" diameter), toy birthday candlesticks, and a sugar, creamer, and butter dish
of the oval and star pattern.

Some Points to Consider
    Brainstorm about the effects of the gas boom on Indiana. Who would need to design
      the glass products before they were manufactured? Who would train the
      glassmakers?(Art 4.1.1)
    How or when would people use the glassware? How did the use of this glassware
      effect the culture of Indiana.(Art 4.1.2)

N.D., Greentown Glass
Anonymous loan

Greentown Glass, as it has become known, was the product of the Indiana Tumbler and Goblet
Company (from 1899 to 1903, the National Glass Company) in Greentown. The factory, near
Kokomo, was in production from 1894 until it was destroyed by fire on June 13, 1903. The
company relied mainly on plain, utilitarian glass at first, “but by late 1898 colored patterned
tablewares became the major part of its output. . . . Unlike the colorless glass of some factories,
                                                                                           Page 35 of 75
those pieces pressed by Greentown were distinguished by a brilliance and clarity due not only to
the intense heat generated by the use of natural gas, but also to the purity of the batch [ the raw
materials melted to produce glass]. . . . The colored glass produced at Greentown ranged from
clear amber, yellow (called canary then and now), and green, to several shades of blue. The
factory also created three opaque colors: a vivid chartreuse now called . . . Nile green; an opaque
white glass which is less slippery and translucent than most milk glass; and the famous chocolate
colored glass . . . which may be considered Indiana’s outstanding contribution to the history of
American glass” (Catherine Beth Lippert, Greentown Glass, Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1975,
p. 12).

Slide No. 77 shows a child’s spooner and creamer. The spooner (2 7/8" x 2"), of clear and
colorless glass, was placed on a table to hold extra teaspoons; it was a narrow bowl on a pedestal.
The creamer (3 1/4" x 2"), a small pitcher, here is of clear, vasoline colored glass. The color was
so named because of its resemblance to the yellow jellylike substance.
Slide No. 78 shows a pitcher of the famous chocolate colored opaque glass. The pitcher (6 3/4" x
4 1/2") is decorated with the shuttle pattern, so called because it resembles a sewing machine
Slide No. 79 contains pieces, or shards, of various Greentown glasses picked up at the factory

Some Points to Consider

      What does transparent mean? What does opaque mean? (Art 4.3.3)
      Compare glassware to our current use of take-out cartons. Which has better form,
       would be pleasing to use and is more functional? (Art 4.4.1)

N.D., Albany Glass, 1 3/4" x 7 1/2"
Anonymous loan

“The Albany Glass Company was first the Natural Glass Company, which owned the factory
until 1899. At this time, the gas started to give out. The most beautiful was made before that
time. Besides crystals, the colors range from vasoline opalescent to shades of blue, light to cobalt
blue; several shades of yellow, vasoline to deep amber; several shades of green, very light to
deep emerald; some pink; some appear to be in vasoline slag or perhaps custard slag” (Marcelle
Bond, Albany Glass).
The bowl in this slide is blue opalescent-so called because the play of colors on it in light is like
an opal. The bowl has been photographed head on; note the shadows and bend in the backdrop to
allow for the bowl’s depth.

Some Points to Consider
• How can you tell that this is a bowl and not a plate?
• What is different about the glass in this bowl?

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

                                                                                           Page 36 of 75
• Bring in objects from home that incorporate nursery rhymes. Why do you think the same
rhymes have lasted so long and been used in so many different ways? Research what a nursery
rhyme is and then write your own.

• Discuss scale and proportion in Slide No. 76. Compare and contrast objects that are familiar.
Use a ruler to learn about scale. Use geometry to discuss proportion.

• Slide No. 77 can be used to reinforce the discussion of Slide No. 76. If you want to challenge
students, bring apples of various types and sizes. Compare them to something that is considered
a miniature. Discuss what would be the best object to use to show size.

• Don’t tell the students the object in Slide No. 78 is glass. Have them tell you what they think it
is made of. The color of an object can be very misleading. Show them Slide No. 79 to reinforce
the fact that the object is glass.

• Research the contribution Indiana made to the growth and development of the glass industry.

• Has anyone visited the Greentown Glass Museum in Greentown? Report on it.

• Discuss other objects that have an opalescent appearance. Man often copies nature in the
designs he chooses and the materials he uses. What does the bowl in Slide No. 80 become if you
squint at it?

John Ottis Adams

Slide No. 81 Wash Day
Slide No. 83 Summertime

John Ottis Adams was born in Amity, Johnson County. After attending Wabash College,
Crawfordsville, for two years, Adams left to become an artist. He studied at the Kensington Art
School in London in 1872 and at the Royal Academy of Bavaria in Munich from 1880 to 1887.
At this time he formed the alliance with the other artists of The Hoosier Group, which is fully
treated in the Appendix.
Adams returned to Indiana and set up portrait studios in Seymour, later in Martinsville, and
eventually in Muncie, where he and William Forsyth began a partnership in 1888. Adams also
painted with T. C. Steele at Metamora. He was much influenced by William Merritt Chase’s
paintings exhibited at the Indiana State Fair around 1896.
In 1898 Adams married Winifred Brady of Muncie, also an artist; they lived in the Brookville
home in a shelter of great forest trees that Adams and Steele called the "Hermitage," their
Indiana Barbizon.
Adams was an instructor at Indianapolis’ Herron Art Institute from 1904 to 1909. The Adamses
spent part of each summer in Leland, Michigan, painting woodlands and sunsets. He is said to
have a poetic feeling in his work and subtle charm. He was a student of nature, with jewel-like

                                                                                           Page 37 of 75
brilliancy in his colors. Otto Stark joined them, and they later spent their winters in Florida and
painted there. Adams died in Indianapolis in 1927.

Wash Day
1885, oil on canvas 18 1/2" x 23 1/4"

Indianapolis Museum of Art

This work was painted while Adams was in Munich and it has a very European look. Notice the
thatched roofs and the garments of the woman. The painting is full of the detail of daily life and
creates a warm, pleasant appearance and feeling.

Some Points to Consider
    How does this genre painting done in Munich in 1885 compare with wash day in
      Indiana done at that same time? How does it compare with wash day today? How
      does the painting inform us about 1885? (Art 4.2.2)
    John Ottis Adams was one of the “Hoosier Group”. Research and discuss the
      effects their association had on Indiana art. (Art 4.2.2)

1890, oil on canvas, 20" x 14"
Ball State University Art Gallery, Muncie
Permanent loan from the Frank C. Ball Collection,
Ball Brothers Foundation

This painting still retains the European look with the thatched roofs in the background even
though Adams was in Indiana in 1890. Note also the formal treatment of the trees. The children
are wearing field hats to protect their skin from the sun.

Some Points to Consider
    What details in this painting might tell you that it is 1890? (Art 4.1.1)
    Name properties in this painting that make it Impressionistic. (Art 4.2.2)
    John Ottis Adams painted with T. C. Steele and was influenced by William Merritt
      Chase. Look at Chase’s “Rest by the Wayside” and find the similarities to

John Elwood Bundy

Slide No. 86 Dunes Landscape

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John Elwood Bundy was born in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 1853. At the age of five, he
traveled across the Allegheny Mountains to Indiana in a prairie schooner to settle in Monrovia,
Morgan County.
At the age of twenty, he began to study in Indianapolis with Barton S. Hays. Though he stayed
only a few weeks, Bundy broadened his technical knowledge and was exposed to the work of
other contemporary artists in the area. After this short study, he spent a brief time in New York
and was allowed the privilege of copying at the Metropolitan Museum.
According to Burnet, “In 1888, Bundy became a resident of Richmond where he took charge of
the Art Department of Earlham College acting as instructor for eight years” (Art and Artists,
282). He resigned in 1896 to devote full time to painting. Bundy’s home near Richmond was at
the edge of a woods, and the forest often caught his artistic attention. His work reflects his love
for the Indiana landscapes with which he was familiar. He eventually became one of the leading
artists in the Hoosier impressionist tradition.

Dunes Landscape
1903, gouache, 10" x 14"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

This painting is a formal sunlit pastoral landscape typical of the early 20th century. Notice how
the artist leads the eye to the center of the painting-the focal point.
The dunes area has fascinated artists and scientists alike since the Great Lakes are fresh water
and such sand dunes are unusual. Frank Dudley, discussed later, is primarily known for his
association with the dunes.

Some Points to Consider
    How does the artist lead the eye to the lake? (Art 4.3.1)
    What makes this a pastoral scene? What makes this painting Impressionistic? (Art
    What is gouache and why might an artist use it for a Plein Air painting? (Art 4.3.3)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Have you been to the dunes area? Begin doing some research, moving on to Dudley in Slide
No. 108, on the dunes area. Explore the unique scientific aspects, the folklore, artistic expression
inspired, politics, etc. that have, and still do, revolve around this area.

William Forsyth

Slide No. 87 The Painter Man
Slide No. 89 Constitutional Elm

Forsyth, born in Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1854, never remembered a time when he did not
want to paint. Both of his parents were very supportive of his talent. After moving to
Indianapolis, his father took him to Barton S. Hays’ studio, but Forsyth was too young to begin.
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Some years later, he again visited Hays’ studio and was fascinated with one of William Merritt
Chase’s paintings. In 1877, when John W. Love opened the first Indiana School of Art, Forsyth
was the first pupil. He then had a studio in Indianapolis for a short time. In 1883 he decided to
study at the Royal Academy in Munich.
After seven years in Europe he returned to Indiana. He held art classes with J. Ottis Adams in
Muncie and Fort Wayne. He then assisted T. C. Steele in establishing a school in Indianapolis. In
1906 he took charge of the life class at the Herron Art Institute and was considered an excellent
teacher of art. He was a member of The Hoosier Group, which is fully treated in the Appendix.
His series of articles, Art in Indiana in 1916, are a valuable source of information on this period
in Indiana’s cultural history.

The Painter Man
1923, oil on board, 23 3/4" x 19 7/8"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This painting is one of several self-portraits that Forsyth completed, and it is probably the best
known. Notice that the painterly strength of the brush strokes in the painting emphasizes form
and shape.
Forsyth has been described as “short, wiry, and energetic” and had a reputation as “a fiery,
sometimes sarcastic teacher.” He smoked continuously, he read widely, and he loved to act in
amateur productions. He was generous with his time and his paintings to the community and its
institutions (The Hoosier Group, 131, 133). Forsyth’s daughters in 1971 indicated that this
portrait was a good likeness of their father.

Some Points to Consider
    Review the relationship of the “Hoosier Group” to William Forsyth. Name others
      who were influenced. Remember also Barton Hay’s contribution to the art of
      Indiana (Art 4.1.1)
    Does the “Painter Man” painting match the description of William Forsyth?
      Compare a real photograph of William Forsyth to his self portrait and decide how
      well he painted. (Art 4.4.2)

Constitutional Elm
c.1897, watercolor and gouache on paper, 17" x 23" Indianapolis Museum of Art

This picture was painted in Corydon, where Forsyth often took his art classes. According to
tradition, when the 1816 Constitution was being written, it was too hot inside the territorial
capitol building’ and the men worked in the shade of this huge tree ‘ Only a stump now remains
because the tree became diseased and had to be cut down. Forsyth also did an oil painting of this
scene; it is pictured on page 115 of The Hoosier Group.
Gouache uses opaque watercolors mixed with Arabic gum to create an actual layer of paint.
Opaque watercolor is a water-soluble paint composed of pure pigment to which white has been

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Some Points to Consider

      Do you think that this painting recorded an important event in the history of
       Indiana or is it just any old tree? How important is it to make art which documents
       history? Should art be made only for enjoyment or decoration? (Art 4.5.2)
      Chicago art critics after the Five Hoosier painters exhibit stated that Forsyth’s work
       had “strength and freshness”. Use art elements and principles to describe what is
       strong and fresh about this painting. (Art 4.4.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Draw a portrait of yourself and the objects that are important to you. Think about how you are
dressed and what that also tells about you.

• Bring in photos of an older person. Discuss skin tone and other characteristics that make them
appear older. Draw a picture of yourself as you think you will appear at age seventy-eight.

• Imagine yourself as the tree in Slide No. 89. Write about the events that took place as you grew
tall, strong, and older. With each new year a tree develops a new growth ring. How old do you
think this tree is, and how much history has it seen?

John H. Mahoney

Slide No. 91 General George Rogers Clark

John H. Mahoney was born in Usk, Wales, and immigrated with his parents to Jennings County,
Indiana, in 1858. In 1868 they moved to Indianapolis, where Mahoney apprenticed in the
tombstone business. In 1878 he entered the English Academy in Rome; he returned to the United
States, where he was commissioned to do various statues and monuments in Philadelphia,
Milwaukee, Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Midwest, and the cemetery at Gettysburg
(Indianapolis Star, September 15, 1919).
In 1889 he returned to Indianapolis and opened his first studio. When the state Soldiers’ and
Sailors’ Monument was finished, he was commissioned to do statues of General George Rogers
Clark, William Henry Harrison, and Governor James Whitcomb.

General George Rogers Clark
1898, bronze sculpture, 14'
Indiana War Memorials Commission

This statue is part of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument on the Circle in Indianapolis. The base
bears the inscription, “Conqueror of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio from the British
1778–9.” As Burnet indicates, Mahoney’s “Conception of George Rogers Clark was not that of a
statesman or a man trained in the schools, but as a leader of the frontier, bringing his men
victoriously through the difficulties of the wilderness. This is his most successful work” (Art and
Artists of Indiana, 329).
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The arm and sword match in rhythm as well as the curve of the scabbard and knee. This piece
was cast out of molten metal that was poured into a form. When the metal was cool the form was
broken and parts of the piece were inside. The artist then smoothed the pieces and soldered them
together. The casting process can be thought of in terms of how hollow chocolates are made,
which although much simpler, has the same principles.
Clark was selected to adorn the monument because of his importance to Indiana history. The
bicentennial of his victory over the British on February 25, 1779, was recently celebrated as part
of the American Revolution Bicentennial. The British Fort Sackville at Vincennes surrendered to
Clark assuring that the territory-which became known as the Northwest Territory-became
American in the peace treaty negotiations.
As it turned out this was the high point of Clark’s life. He and his men were granted the land
around Clarksville for their war deeds, but the rest of Clark’s life was spent in bitterness and
poverty since he was unable to recover from the government money he had paid out in the war

Clark was born in 1752 in Virginia; he was the second of ten children. He had little formal
schooling, and his grandfather taught him surveying. He loved to hunt and to be outdoors. At
nineteen he went to Pittsburgh to be a surveyor, and the rest of his life was spent on the western
frontier. He settled in Kentucky and became an important figure in activities leading up to the
battles of the American Revolution.
Clark has been honored in many places throughout the states that made up the Old Northwest. In
Indiana at Vincennes there is the magnificent national memorial to him and the deeds of his men.
Murals inside the memorial depict his deeds.

Some Points to Consider
    Discuss the importance of Indiana’s recognition of leaders and heroes through
      memorial art. What is a commission and what must an artist do to be selected?
      (Art 4.1.2)
    How does the pose in the Clark statue seem to depict leadership? How does
      Mahoney use movement to excite to action. (Art 4.3.1)
    Why do we have public art such as this sculpture? What other public art can you
      name and why was it installed there? Is it always historical or may it be humorous
      sad, beautiful or expressive in other ways? (Art 4.1.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom follow up

• Do you have sculptures outdoors of persons important to your location? Who? Gather
photographs and documentation of the art and the subject.

• Using modeling clay shape a sculpture of an event or person from history. Research that
person, to know about his size and activities, dress, home, and comrades. You can use toothpicks
and other small objects for props too small to sculpt. Imagine making a sculpture life size.
Estimate the time, material, and skill it would take.

• Do you know of other statues of Clark? Describe or bring photographs. Compare ideas about
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Laura Anne Fry
Slide No. 94   Earthenware Vase
Slide No. 95   Hammered Redware Vase

Laura Anne Fry, born in White County, Indiana, was one of the most gifted of the artists in the
19th century women’s art movement. Her pottery is highly praised.
She was born into a family of prominent woodcarvers and studied woodcarving with her father
and grandfather. In addition she studied drawing, painting, pottery, and design with other
teachers. After study in New York she took up pottery in Trenton, New Jersey, and continued in
England and France. She taught in Cincinnati, at the summer school of Chautauqua, New York,
and later at Purdue University.
In 1883 she was a decorator at Rookwood Pottery, Cincinnati, where she helped develop a new
technique of using an atomizer to apply slip glazes to pottery. While the atomizer itself was not
new, the technique was, and this discovery revolutionized the industry.
Fry came to Purdue in 1891 at the age of thirty-four. She retired in 1922 as head of the Industrial
Art Department having spent over twenty-five years teaching. She was founder of the Lafayette
Art Association.

The Rookwood company was the best known of the companies in the Cincinnati area, which
formed the Women’s Art Movement. The pottery company was founded in 1880 by Maria
Longworth Nichols. The building was constructed in 1892 and used until 1967. Rookwood was
named after Maria Longworth’s father’s country estate in Walnut Hills. It was so named because
of the large number of crows, or rooks, which inhabited the area. The idea for the pottery first
began with a women’s ceramics club whose work was exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in
Philadelphia. The women were so impressed with the Japanese pottery that they returned
determined to experiment with new tints and glazes. In 1895, instead of a bonus, employees were
given pieces of pottery to give to friends and family at Christmas time. The building is now used
as a delightful restaurant.
Almost all of the clays were found locally. The different colors of clay resulted from the
different minerals in the earth as well as varying amounts of those minerals, such as iron oxide,
rutile, and titanium.

Earthenware Vase
1885, 6 5/8" x 3 9/16"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

This earthenware vase is a standardware piece with a frontal decoration. Standardware was not
unique; many vases of the same shape were made. The artist potter would then put on just one
side an individual design called a frontal design. All the decorating was done when the piece was
leather-hard, including the sgraffito, which was scratched in. On this example the ginger clay
body had a clear amber glaze applied. This illustrates the atomizer technique, which Laura Anne
Fry helped to develop.
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Hammered Redware Vase
1885, l2 1/8" x 9"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

This hammered redware vase is in a traditional ginger jar shape. The artist hammered the clay
when it was leather-hard to achieve the textured effect that is easily visible. Clay slip has been
applied to the vase before it was fired. Complementary colors (red and green) have been used for
decoration with a white accent; black has been added to the red to make a shade, gray has been
added to the green to make a tone.

Some Points to Consider

      Discuss why women formed the Woman’s Art Movement. Where do you think most
       women were working in 1885? Were many women making art? (Art 4.1.1)
      Reflect on glassware made in Indiana and compare to these ceramics. Which was
       most useful, ceramic or glass? Which was most beautiful? Which product do you
       think more Hoosiers preferred? (Art 4.1.2)
      Where do you see Japanese influences in the vases? Look at century old Japanese
       ceramics. ( Art 4.2.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Roll out a slab of wet clay using a rolling pin. Cut a 5" x 5" square from the most even part of
the slab. This will become a tile for you to decorate. Allow the tile to become leather-hard. Next
you will paint engobe (or slip) glaze onto the surface. Now scratch a design into the engobe
surface. This process is sgraffito. Next the tiles must be fired in a kiln. The final stage is to apply
a clear glaze and fire again in the kiln. This will give you a good idea of the process used in
producing the glazed vase in Slide No. 94.

• In making a hammered looking clay pot, begin with a pinch pot. Give each student a small ball
of clay the size of a tennis ball. Press a hole in the center of the ball. Insert thumb and work clay
clockwise pressing the clay between thumb and other fingers. Shape and smooth as you go. Let
the clay get leather-hard and tap the clay with a spoon while supporting it on the inside with your
fingers. If you like, the engobe can be applied for color and fired in the kiln. When cooled, glaze
and then fire again in kiln.

• How does a clay object differ from a glass object? If possible, have actual samples and use the
other senses as well as sight.

• Find out what types of clay dishes and vessels you have at home and see what similarities and
differences you find. How many different kinds can your class find?

Overbeck Sisters

Theodore Groll
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Slide No. 97 Washington Street, Indianapolis, at Dusk
Slide No. 98 Detail of No. 97
Slide No. 99 Detail of No. 97

Theodore Groll was born in Dusseldorf, Germany. He studied at the Berlin Academy of
Architecture as a student of Kasper Scheuren. A noted landscape and architectural painter, he
was asked to come to the United States to judge the German entries in the World’s Columbian
Exposition in Chicago in 1893. He apparently remained in the U.S. approximately three years.
His uncle, Frederick Herman Lieber, owned an important art gallery on South Meridian Street in

Washington Street, Indianapolis, at Dusk
1892-1895, oil on canvas, 76" x 98 1/2"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

The painting shows west Washington Street looking east with the State House and Park Theatre
in the foreground. The evening theatre audience is being delivered by the Blake Street trolley to
the northeast corner of Washington and Mississippi Streets (later Senate Avenue). The theatre
burned on March 7, 1897.
To the right there is a dramatically receding vista of the city skyline with the tower of the old
Marion County Courthouse in the distance. The Blake Street trolley drawn by a mule (Slide No.
99, detail) is being hailed by a prosperously dressed man in the foreground. On the right are a
market stall and a saloon bustling with activity (Slide No. 98, detail). The several separate views
are extremely detailed and probably quite accurate. There are distortions of perspective,
however, that suggest that the artist has combined smaller views into this salon-sized painting at
a later point in time. The angle of the saloon in the lower right, for example, is inconsistent with
the street direction; this is not a cityscape of the type illustrated here by Cranstone or Harry
Davis, for example.
The foreground is detailed and dark but the background is light and glowing. There is a light
middleground which blends with the light background leading the observer into the distance.

Some Points to Consider

      List the important features of this painting that describe life in downtown
       Indianapolis in 1895. Is it important to have a painting of a theatre that has since
       burned but was probably a major source of culture?
      How has the bustling activity of downtown Indianapolis changed from then to now?
      Do we still have market stalls in some downtown areas? With all our supermarkets,
       explain why people might go downtown to buy from a stall? ?(Art 4.1.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Write a short Play using the painting in Slide No. 97 as the setting and groundwork for the
play’s content or theme. For example, the theme might revolve around the trolley ride. You
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could arrange the desks and chairs like trolley seating. This would allow each student to have a
part. Use language of the period. Dressing up could be great fun and motivating to explore
customs of the time.

• Recreate a street scene from your own town. Have a local historian come in and talk to students
about the lighting, transportation, dress, language, commerce, and any other details you can think

• Research the evolution of the trolley and how it changed from its animal power to electric

• Write act two to your play and have the scene change to a “now” scene.

Write act three and have the play be in the year 2050.

Slide No. 101
Stoneware Crock
1910, 10 3/4" x 10 1/2"
Anonymous loan

Stoneware is a low-grade, rough-textured ceramic ware; it is fired at high temperatures making it
very hard and nonporous. Stoneware crocks are glazed to protect the surface and make them
easier to use for storage. The glaze in the kiln is like molten glass. Crocks were not glazed on the
bottom or on the rim so that they could be stacked during firing. If there were glaze on the
bottom or rim, firing would bake the crocks together.
Crocks are hand-thrown, not poured into a mold. Most potters today use purchased clay, but
there are still many clay deposits around the state suitable for use. After the Wabash River floods
and recedes, a large deposit of clay remains that could be cleaned and used for pots.
Crocks were used, for example, for pickles, sauerkraut, and other items. Fried meat could be
preserved in them by packing it in lard.

This is an example of the type of utility crock manufactured by UHL Pottery. Notice that the rim
is a different color because there is no glaze on it. The logo was applied by dipping a stamp into
blue glaze and then placing it on the crock before firing. Crocks were used as measures and made
in many different sizes. The number marks the size, here three gallons.
The UHL Pottery Company was first located in Evansville around 1854. In 1908 it moved to
Huntingburg, Indiana, but closed in the mid-1940s. The UHL logo was an acorn and combined
acorn and waves. At the time a logo would have been considered the trade mark of the company
much like company logos today.

Some Points to Consider

      If you see a crock with an acorn and waves logo what would that tell you about the
       manufacturer? (Art 4.1.3)
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      What did a number mean and why were the crocks not glazed on the top or bottom?
       (Art 4.1.2)
      Compare containers of today and discuss which is most functional, longer lasting, or
       attractive: one from 1910 or one from today? Which would be harder to
       manufacture a hand thrown crock or a pressed glass container? (Art 4.1.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Study symbols that are familiar to you in magazines, advertising, and on products. Create a
logo about yourself that can be used to identify your art work.

Otto Stark

Slide No. 102 Boy Sleeping
Slide No. 103 State Fair

Otto Stark was born in Indianapolis on January 29, 1859. Like many households, his family had
a cow for milk. Taking it to pasture one morning, Stark sprained an ankle and was unable to
continue at his job as a woodcarver standing at a bench. Thus at sixteen he apprenticed to a
Cincinnati lithographer and went to night classes at the Art Academy.
In 1879 he went to the Art Students’ League in New York and supported himself by illustrating,
designing, and lithography. When many of his friends were going to Munich to study, he
attended the Academie Julian in Paris. He studied under Boulanger, who was noted for his
Oriental subject matter. Stark is one of The Hoosier Group, which is fully treated in the
Stark returned to America in 1888 and worked in New York and Philadelphia until his wife died
in 1891. After his wife died, he brought his four children back to Indianapolis. Children were
among his favorite subjects. He portrayed them in candid situations doing simple, everyday
tasks. In 1899 he began teaching art at Manual Training High School. He also taught at the
Herron Art Institute. Many of his pupils went on to become artists or art teachers. Once when the
Indianapolis school board asked pupils to write essays on “Why We Take Pride in Indianapolis,”
Otto Stark followed right behind James Whitcomb Riley in popularity.
Stark wrote about his craft, and it is interesting to note his definition of impressionism:
“Impressionism to me has always meant the retaining of the first impression which nature makes
upon us as we approach her, be it of tone, quality, harmony, light, vibration, force, delicacy,
color, etc., and rendering this impression, if necessary, to the exclusion or at the sacrifice of
details or other qualities and characteristics not so essential or vital, and rendering it unhampered
by tradition and conventionalities” (from Modern Art, 111, 2, 1895, pp. 53–56).

Boy Sleeping c. 1894, oil on canvas, 18" x 23 7/8" Anonymous loan

                                                                                           Page 47 of 75
This painting is of Stark’s third child, Paul, born in 1890. It is very painterly, with heavy brush
strokes, and is impressionistic in style.
A similar painting titled “Tired Out” is pictured on page 41 of The Hoosier Group; it is a very
similar composition, but certain details have changed. A wagon has been added behind Paul, and
a crop lies under his left hand. Some details about the boy’s attire have also been altered. The hat
and toy horse in the foreground here have been omitted. “Tired Out” shows an attention to detail
that has the mark of a carefully crafted product.
Actually the version pictured here fits Stark’s conception of impressionism quoted previously.
Stark has kept the background simple, almost atmospheric. This emphasizes the boy, his hat, and
his toy horse.

Some Points to Consider

      Does Stark’s definition of Impressionism seem to be the way “Boy Sleeping” is
       painted? Did he capture the relaxed, unposed sleeping boy, the shadows of the tree,
       the dappled light, and the atmosphere as a first impression would? (Art 4.2.2)
     What is happening in this painting? Do you feel the impromptu nature of this
       painting; a boy who has abandoned his toys and play and is too tired to continue?
       Does this scene hold your attention and remind you of a time that you felt this way?
       (Art 4.5.1)
State Fair
1895-1900, watercolor and gouache, 3 1/2" x 5 1/4" Indianapolis Museum of Art

In this work Stark is documenting an event in great detail. He has selected a different medium
with which to paint, and his style is more like that of the illustrator for commercial work. Note
that the dress of the people is formal and they are portrayed in various types of activities and
with various degrees of interest in the exhibit. Notice also the color and detail of the farm
machinery. The color helps to create the feeling of activity and excitement that would be
expected at the fair.

Some Points to Consider
    Did Stark depict the activity of a State Fair well? How did he use the elements and
      principles of art to show distance? (Art 4.1.1)

      How does an illustrator for commercial work make art differently from other art?
       How would this art be used? How does this work differ from Stark’s other
       work?(Art 4.2.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Paint a picture using small sponges. Apply large areas of color using dark colors first. As they
dry, gradually build up to the lightest colors and use a brush for some detailing.

                                                                                          Page 48 of 75
• Study farm machinery using photos or catalog drawings of old and new products. Invite a local
dealer or a farmer to come and talk to students about the equipment, and how it has changed in
color, size, design, purpose, and cost.

• Ask the parents of each student either to choose a picture in a magazine that describes or
reminds them of their child or to draw a picture of their child and tell why they chose a particular
setting for their child.

• Create a landscape that gives the feeling of moving back in space because of a soft fuzzy
background, by using a sponge to wet the entire paper. Use very intense color in the foreground;
water down the colors and add a little black to the colors used in the background.

Allen County Courthouse

Rudolph Schwarz

Rudolph Schwarz was born in Vienna into an old and influential family. He studied there at the
Imperial Academy of Arts. Around 1888 he went to Germany, where he executed important
works in stone. His dream of coming to America was fulfilled in 1897 when he accompanied
Bruno Schmitz of Germany to Indianapolis. Schmitz had been selected in a worldwide search for
an architect for the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument on the Circle.
In a later competition to complete the monument, Schwarz won over many other sculptors and
received the commission for several of the statues. He executed many other statues throughout
the state, including the statue of Governor Oliver P. Morton at the east entrance of the State
He lived the rest of his life in Indianapolis in a very quiet manner with his family. He taught
modeling classes at Herron Art Institute. However, he was a poor businessman, and lived in near
poverty (Theodore Stempfer, Ghosts of the Past, 1935). His studio was in a shed on the south
side of the city with his bronze-casting foundry in the ground.

Slide No. 107
The Scout
N.D., carved stone, 14 feet
Indiana War Memorials Commission

The Scout is one of four statues representing branches of the military: artillery and navy are on
the north side; infantry and cavalry (The Scout) are on the south. The statues exhibit regulation
Schwarz has achieved a convincing portrayal of a scout by having the left arm raised as if to
shade his eyes while peering out into the distance. A lifelike quality has been achieved by
carving the legs in a walking position rather than placing them together in what would be a more
static pose.
This slide was taken in 1983, and the saber that should be hanging at the left is missing. A photo
facing page 404 in Burnet, Art and Artists of Indiana, shows the undamaged statue. At present,
the rifle also has been damaged, but restoration of the monument is under way.
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Some Points to Consider
    Name the ways that Schwarz showed movement and think about the problems of
      balance? (Art (4.3.1)
    Find meaning in Schwarz’s interpretation. How did he depict the “Scout”? What is
      going on in this work and what did a military scout do? (Art 4.3.2)
    Research stone carvings. When did civilizations start making stone sculptures? Did
      anyone in Indiana make stone sculptures before 1900? Discuss the difficulty in
      working with stone (Art 4.1.2 and 4.2.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• In order to make a carved sculpture, one must think about the object in three-dimensional
terms: top, side, bottom, back, front, side. Try carving an animal from a bar of Ivory soap. You
must keep looking and turning the object in your hand as you work and be gentle yet firm as you

• Are there any carved stone monuments in your area? Find and research them.

Frank Virgil Dudley

Frank V. Dudley was born in Delavan, Wisconsin, and became interested in northern Indiana
dune country around 1916. In 1921 he had built a cottage there, which became known as
“cottage number 108.” His goal was to help save the dunes area with his art as part of a
movement to make the dunes a national park.
According to Dudley the “first gun” in the publicity campaign for the park was a pageant in 1917
with 800 actors and an estimated attendance of thirty to forty thousand people. “I felt I could do
something in my own way that might help some and so got very busy. In 1918 1 put on a one
man show in the Art Institute which was sponsored by ‘The Friends of our Native Landscape’
and twenty other organizations that were interested in conservation” (Dudley to Shoemaker,
March 30, 1945, Art Museum of Greater Lafayette).
During World War I little was done. In 1923 the Indiana Dunes State Park was established on
2,183 acres. In 1925, 2,200 acres were added with 3.25 miles of frontage on Lake Michigan thus
saving part of what Dudley and others considered the most important primitive landscape in the
Midwest. In recent times the Dunes National Lakeshore has been established by the U.S.
Congress to preserve this unique area.
Dudley and his wife continued to live in cottage 108 after creation of the park. His rental
payment to the state consisted of one original oil painting of the dunes each year; nineteen
paintings were completed and are in the collection of the Indiana State Museum. Every Sunday
the Dudleys held open house so that the public could view his work.

Slide No. 108
The Dune Vineyard
                                                                                        Page 50 of 75
N.D., oil on canvas, 27" x 30"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

There were many wild grapevines on the dunes. As the dune moves along and covers and kills
the trees, the vines survive, and in cases where the trees are entirely covered, the vine lives. The
vine may be covered by sand in the winter and spring when there are heavy winds and the sand
movement is greatest, but by mid-summer the grapevine will be back again.
According to Dudley in his 1945 letter to the Art Museum of Greater Lafayette, “I have painted a
number of pictures showing the wild grape vines and do not remember which one you have so I
cannot comment on that particular picture.

“We have many grapevines in the dunes particularly around the edges of the blowouts and as the
dune moves along and covers and kills the trees, the vines survive and in cases where the trees
are entirely covered the vine lives. It may be covered by the sand in the winter and spring when
we have heavy winds and the sand movement is greatest but by mid summer it will be back

In this painting the sky and lake do not blend together; there is a clear difference between them.
Notice the textures of the vines, sand, and water.

Some Points to Consider

     Discuss the reasons that artists make art and Dudley’s philosophy for making art
      that would cause conservation of the Dunes. (Art 4.6.1)
    What is the relationship between the geography of the Dunes and the works of art
      by Dudley? Why did this unique area of Indiana compel Dudley to paint the dunes
      many times?(Art 4.1.1)
    Analyze the sensory affects that you feel, the high horizon line, and the contrast of
      textures. (Art 4.3.1)
Adolph R. Shulz

Adolph Shulz was born, in Delavan, Wisconsin, June 12, 1869. He studied at the Art Students’
League in New York and at the Academie Julian in Paris. From his German parents he gained a
deep love for nature and the world of art. He spent much time in the country studying wild
flowers, trees, birds, and animals.

On a walking tour of Indiana, Shulz discovered Brown County. In 1917 he and his wife, Ada
Walter Shulz, also an artist, built a studio and home in Nashville. He was a pioneer of the colony
of artists that Brown County has since sustained.
Shulz, according to Burnet, says of Brown County, “There exists the rare color and caressing
atmosphere of the South so dear to the artist. We also find a people and a civilization as
hospitable as its air, and I firmly believe that Brown County is destined to become the greatest
sketching-ground in the Middle West” (Art and Artists, 309).

Slide No. 109
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Turkey Roost
1918, oil on canvas, 34 1/4" x 44"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This painting may be considered rather odd subject matter to some, but it makes a striking
composition. By creating a perspective with the horizon line below the roost, the artist has
focused attention on the roost and the turkeys, outlining them against the sky.
Turkeys like to roost in the air since they are susceptible to pneumonia and need protection from
the damp ground. The roost also offers protection against wild animals.

Some Points to Consider

      How does this painting inform us about farming in 1918? Do we see turkey roosts
       today as we drive in the countryside of Indiana? Make connections about why this
       painting is important to us historically. (Art 4.1.1)
      Identify the characteristics of Impressionism that are used in this painting.
       Consider the expressive properties achieved by the choice of the up-close turkey
       roost. What was the artist striving to do? (Art 4.3.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Investigate the habits of turkeys. How do their habits contrast to those of other fowl?

John T. McCutcheon

Injun Summer Slide No. 110
Chicago Tribune, 1907
Original pen, ink, and crayon artwork, 11 1/2" x 12"
Chicago Historical Society

John T. McCutcheon was born in Lafayette, Indiana, and attended Chauncey School in West
Lafayette, Red Eye School in Elston, and Ford School in Lafayette. He had a Sunday paper
route, swam in the Wea Creek, and while still a youth, formed a firm called McCutcheon and
Vellinger Painters of Signs, Houses, and Carriages; Vellinger became the foremost sign painter
in Lafayette. McCutcheon entered “preparatory” class at Purdue University in September 1884,
at the age of fourteen. McCutcheon’s father had come to Indiana in 1833; he was a Civil War
veteran and became sheriff of Tippecanoe County.
As a child John McCutcheon dreamed of pirates and gold and dug for treasures near the Red Eye
School in Lafayette. He bought his own private island in the Bahamas in 1916, and he and his
wife honeymooned there.
McCutcheon began working on the Chicago Morning, or Daily News, in 1889. He joined the
Chicago Tribune July 1, 1903. He drew front-page cartoons seven days a week for forty years.
He also handled some foreign correspondence, and in 1898 he wrote the first complete account

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of the Battle of Manila that was published in U.S. newspapers. In 1932 he won a Pulitzer Prize.
He retired in 1946 from the Tribune.
As a cartoonist, McCutcheon focused on matters of human interest, children, and weather, in
addition to political issues. He also illustrated the stories of his college friend, George Ade, the
popular Indiana humorist who also worked in Chicago.

Reportedly on September 29, 1907, McCutcheon was sitting in his studio on Michigan Avenue
in Chicago, trying to find an idea. As he peered out a window, “he detected an autumn haze in
the air and his mind wandered back to his dream of Indians.” He didn’t feel the cartoon he
created was very important, but the public loved it and still does (John T. McCutcheon,
Tippecanoe County Cartoonist, Tippecanoe County Historical Association, 1974). According to
another source, “Born out of McCutcheon’s impressions of the ‘Indian peril’ far west of his
Indiana home, Injun Summer combines the sheer fantasy of a child’s (or a creative cartoonist’s)
imagination with the believably sympathetic images of the old man, the boy, and the friendly
landscape. Seeking to depict the boy he believed ‘every man in the Midwest must have been,’
McCutcheon evokes in all of us the desire to escape to this secure place and to return to our own
childhood” (Mirages of Memory, 127).

Some Points to Consider

      Discuss the many opportunities available in art related careers. What training
       would be necessary to become a cartoonist? Did McCutcheon have other skills
       which added to his career choice?(Art 4.11.2)
      Identify the function of a political cartoon. What might a political cartoon cause
       people to do? (Art 4.1.2)
      Respond to this work and compare to a remembered childhood fantasy of yours.
       Form a hypothesis with the class about imagination and where it comes from. Why
       do people still like this cartoon? (Art 4.5.1)

Baumann, Gustave

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• What types of cartoons are familiar to you? Bring some examples of various kinds and study

• From your imagination illustrate a cartoon of a daydream, fantasy, or nightmare. Put yourself in
the cartoon, or create an imaginary being. Remember that your drawing should tell most of the

Winifred Brady Adams

Winifred Brady Adams was born in Muncie, Indiana, and studied there under Forsyth and J.
Ottis Adams, who became her husband in 1898. She studied also at the Drexel Institute in
Philadelphia and at the Art Students’ League in New York City. She died in Indianapolis.
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She is well-known for her excellent still-life paintings. She painted flowers from her own garden,
often in copper vases or old china from her collection. These copper vases generally were
painted to reflect the many colors in the compositions.

Slide No. 112 Flowers in a Copper Bowl
1909, oil on canvas, 22" x 30"
Ball State University Art Gallery, Muncie
Gift of Mrs. Robert Adams

This still life has been painted in a complementary color scheme of orange and blue. The
background serves to make the bowl, flowers, and the brass pot stand out. The touches of light—
highlighting—enhance the viewer’s perception of the three dimensional forms.

Some Points to Consider

     Discuss how Winifred Adams used highlights to make the copper bowl look three
      dimensional. Why would there be flower petals on the table? Is that a sensory,
      formal, technical, or expressive property of this work? (Art 4,3,1)
    What do you like about this painting and what is done well? Speculate about why
      we like still lifes and why artists like to do them? If the artist were using this
      painting to practice her skills, what do you think she learned about color, texture,
      form? (Art 4.5.2)
Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Make a monochromatic painting of a still life. Use one color and to that color only add white
and black.

• Slide No. 112 is a very good slide to discuss foreground, middleground, and background.
Project the slide onto the blackboard, and have the students outline the shapes as they relate to
these three areas.

John William Vawter

Slide No. 115 Scene of an Alley
Slide No. 116 Detail of No. 115
Slide No. 117 Barnes Cabin on Owl Creek, Brown County

John “Will” Vawter was born in Boone County, Virginia, and came with his family to
Greenfield, Indiana, at the age of six. He started his career as a cartoonist and illustrator; later he
painted landscapes as well. He completed many illustrations for his friend, Indiana poet James
Whitcomb Riley, whose portrait is Slide No. 62. His sketches appeared often in the weekly
issues of Life Magazine.
According to a story in the Indianapolis Star, February 12, 1941, “From the time his hands were
able to hold a pencil, he showed a marked talent for drawing; his mother encouraged his artistic
tendencies, and neighbors of the Vawters in the old days have innumerable anecdotes to tell both
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of the rapidly developing artistic talents of young Will, such as the numerous times when, setting
up his easel in the Vawter parlor, he absentmindedly wiped his paint brushes on the parlor
curtains and the plush upholstery of the furniture. His first paints were the leftover colors he
begged from the local house painters.”
Vawter moved to Nashville in 1904 and joined Steele and others in that famous Midwestern art

Scene of an Alley
N.D., oil on canvas, 30 1/2" x 36 1/2"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

This very painterly composition beautifully presents a winter day. Notice how the sky ‘colors
enhance the feeling of winter. The application of the paint embellishes the straight lines of the
frame constructions. The detail in Slide No. 116 shows the brush stroke more clearly. Notice that
the car tracks indicate that there has been movement although the present scene is quite still.

Some Points to Consider

      Analyze the painting and decide what you think “painterly” means? List the
       treatment of the buildings, atmosphere, and snow to decide if the painting is
       Impressionistic. (Art 4.2.2)
      What does it mean to be self-taught? Think about Indiana in 1871 and speculate
       about why Will Vawter might not have received art training when there was
       training available. What role might James Whitcomb Riley have had in Vawter’s
       success? (Art 4.1.1)

Barnes Cabin on Owl Creek, Brown County
N.D., oil on canvas, 24" x 29"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

The high horizon line pulls the viewer into the picture, with the clouds mirroring the tree line.
Notice how the log cabin is nestled into the natural setting. There are still many log cabins of this
type in Brown County, some even retain at least the illusion of remoteness. The painting has a
grayed monochromatic color scheme.

Some Points to Consider

      Discuss how to make a monochromatic color scheme. Review tints and shades.
       Why might Vawter have chosen this limited color scheme? (Art 4.3.2)•
      Use class developed criteria to determine whether this is a good work of art. (Art

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow Up

• Invent a new product, such as a new apparatus to solve math problems. Create an advertisement
to promote the product and describe the audience to which you want to market the product.
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• The snowy scene in Slide No. 115 is cold not only because the artist has painted snow but
because of the colors chosen, the effects of the cold on the land, and the lack of activity. Change
the season, the color of the objects, and the level of activity in a new painting of this scene.

• Write about your mood when looking at this painting. What things about the painting affect the
way you feel?

• Draw a close up view of this cabin, and include people in your drawing. What kinds of
activities would they be doing in your drawing?

Janet Scudder

Janet Scudder was born in Terre Haute, Indiana. She studied at the Cincinnati Art Academy, with
Lorado Taft in Chicago and MacMonnies in Paris, and at the Pitti Academy in Italy. For a time
after her Cincinnati studies she had a studio in Terre Haute to teach woodcarving, but there were
no students. She then moved on to become, according to Forsyth, “the most distinguished
woman artist born in Indiana” (Art in Indiana, 33).
She assisted Taft in designing statues for the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, where
she won a medal. In Paris she worked with clay and plaster, experimenting with various forms of
sculpture: portraits, busts, memorial tablets, medallions, statues, and finally fountains.
According to Forsyth she was best known for her fountains. She executed fountains in America,
for example, for J.D. Rockefeller at Pocantico Hills, Harold McConnick at Lake Forest, Illinois,
and Alexander Hudnut in Princeton, New Jersey, following her return to the United States in
1912 on a trip.
She had a studio in Paris after 1908, and she completed many successful commissions. Her work,
according to Forsyth, was the first of an American woman sculptor to be purchased for the
Luxemburg Museum in Paris. She was in France during World War I and served in the French
Red Cross.
She returned to New York to contribute more to the war effort and remained there. In her
Madison Avenue studio, she continued to create fountains, medallions, and other works of art.
She received many prizes for her work.
Children were a favorite subject for her sculptures. According to Burnet, Scudder’s years in Italy
provided the environment for studying “the gardens and fountains and the romping, rollicking
Italian boys who have served so often as her models and been the keynote of her work” (Art and
Artists, 336–37).

Slide No. 119
Front of Centennial Medallion
1916, bronze, 1 1/2" diameter
Indiana Historical Bureau

This medallion was designed for the centennial celebration in 1916 of Indiana’s statehood: the
inscription reads, “THE ADMISSION OF INDIANA TO THE UNION.” The tall figure of
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Columbia represents the United States welcoming her new child, Indiana, to the Union. In the
background there is a small illustration of the territorial capitol and Constitutional Elm in
Corydon. The artist’s name is at the bottom left inside the border.

The back, or reverse, presents an artistic rendering of the state seal design that had been
traditionally used. The hanger at the top originally had a small red, white, and blue ribbon, but it
is nicely designed for use with a chain. See the Appendix for more information about the

Back of Centennial Medallion Slide No. 120
Some Points to Consider

      What is the function of a medallion? How might Hoosiers have used it in 1916?
       What are some reasons for issuing a medallion? Name some other similar items of
       today.(Art 4.1.2)
      Analyze and compare the two choices of style on the front and on the back of the
       medallion. Identify a cultural style in the sculpting of the figure by Scudder. The
       figure symbolizes Columbia and who does she symbolize? (Art 4.2.2)
      Observe that the seal design on the back of the medallion had become an icon
       representing Indiana. (Art 4.1.3)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Research the use of bronze as a material in sculpture, construction, coins, etc. The encyclopedia
could provide a good starting point and resource for other resources.

• Make a casting of a medallion. Fill the bottom of an opened 4 oz. milk carton with 3/4" of sand.
Wet the sand and design a medallion using your pencil to press into the sand. Make the depth of
the medallion between 1/4" to 1/2" deep. Spoon wet plaster into the negative space. Place a thin
straw in the medallion for a hanging device. Allow the medallion to sit over night. Pull it away
from the sand and pull out the straw. Gently clean the medallion and rub tempera paint onto the
surface. Clean off the paint leaving a little color on the surface.

• In this series the state seal is depicted in stitchery in Slide No. 1 and in bronze in Slide No. 120.
Now make a seed mosaic of the seal.

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

Paul Hadley
Slide No. 124 Indiana State Flag Design

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Paul Hadley was born in Indianapolis and lived in Mooresville, Indiana. He studied under Otto
Stark at Manual Training School, Indianapolis, and attended the Pennsylvania Museum and
School of Industrial Arts in Philadelphia. He also attended the Philadelphia Academy of Fine
Arts. He first concentrated on church windows, then he spent ten years in designing and interior
decorating; eventually he taught at the Herron Art Institute for ten years.
He painted many murals for homes. He would often ride the interurban to a rural spot and then
hike until he found a scene to do his watercolors. Madison and scenes along the Ohio River were
some of his favorite settings. See Becky Hardin, The Indiana State Flag, Its Designer (1976).
Slide No. 124

Indiana State Flag Design
Indiana Department of Commerce

The state flag (formerly called a banner) was adopted by the General Assembly in 1917 as part
of the commemoration of the state’s centennial, after a competition sponsored by the Daughters
of the American Revolution. The selection was the concluding act by the session of the General
Assembly in commemorating the centennial of the state.
This slide depicts a modern rendering of a design very similar to the prize-winning design
submitted by Hadley.
In the official version of the flag adopted by the Indiana General Assembly, the addition of the
word Indiana was the only change from Hadley’s original design. The torch in the center stands
for liberty and enlightenment; the rays represent their far-reaching influence. The outer circle of
stars stands for the original thirteen states. The five stars in the lower inside semicircle represent
the states admitted prior to Indiana. The larger star above the torch stands for Indiana, the
nineteenth state. The name was changed from banner to flag by the 1955 General Assembly.

Some Points to Consider

      Identify the symbols used to portray our state. How is the flag an icon? List places
       where it is displayed. (Art 4.1.3)
      Reflect on what the flag might mean to a returning veteran of war, a person who
       was born here and is returning, or to people watching a parade? Discuss a flag’s
       ability to make a person feel patriotic or proud. Is that the nature of flags? ( Art

Flag, 37).

Some Points to Consider

• What objects do you see in this painting? How were they used?
• Where is the artist’s signature?
• How was milk kept in a milk house? Is the pump a clue? What could be another name for this
house? What often was the source of the water?

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up
                                                                                             Page 58 of 75
• Design a flag for your classroom, school, or family. Discuss what symbols you might include,
how you might make the flags, from what materials, how large, and what colors you might use.

• Research which Indiana state birthday the flag was designed for, and how it was presented.
What other events have had special commemoratives made for them?

• Bring in a butter churn; using milk and manpower make your own butter. Discuss how butter
would have been stored and how various seasons might have affected storage of perishables.

Clifton Wheeler

Slide No. 127 Self-Portrait
Slide No. 128 Snow Covered Banks

Clifton Wheeler was born September 4, 1883, in Hadley, Hendricks County, Indiana.
When Wheeler was in the fourth grade, his family bought a flour mill at Mooresville and moved
there. In a 1945 letter he wrote, “One of my first new friends introduced me to James Fenimore
Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, and we built wigwams, tracked each other through the woods
along the creek and had a few camping and hiking trips into the hills in southern Morgan County.
By this time I was scrawling very poor drawings all over the fly leaves of my schoolbooks
instead of studying. I got good grades in English, Civil Government and History, poor grades in
Mathematics, until I reach solid Geometry when they went up, and awful grades in Latin, in
which I flunked one year. . . . When I finished high school I was reluctantly allowed to come to
Indianapolis to Wm. Forsyth’s studio for a year. Forsyth and my doctor aunt, who lived in New
York, assured my parents that I would not necessarily be a tramp if I studied art and at last they
sadly agreed that I might go to New York for a year to art school” (Wheeler to Art Museum of
Greater Lafayette, April 17, 1945).
Wheeler had studied under Forsyth at the John Herron Art Institute. He then studied with
William Merritt Chase in New York and went to Europe twice to study. Around 1911 Wheeler
returned to Indiana with his wife, and they built a home and studio in Irvington, an Indianapolis
eastside neighborhood, where Forsyth and other artists also lived. He became an instructor at the
Herron Art Institute, in charge of the antique class.
Wheeler had no special technique or subject, but his decorative work was well-known, and he
had murals all over the country. His murals at the Indianapolis Circle Theatre and City Hospital
(now Wishard) are among his best work. His landscape paintings—especially his snow scenes—
are held in high regard.

N.D., oil on masonite, 16 1/81’ x 20 1/16"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

                                                                                        Page 59 of 75
When looking at this painting you get an honest feeling for the artist’s love of the outdoors,
especially in his clothing and peaceful expression. Great detail is given to the face, with the
background and clothing less detailed, yet the clothes have an outdoor appearance. The
background is light in color and appearance, which is very different from the dark backgrounds
in the majority of the earlier portraits. Note that he has not painted himself as an artist with
visible tools of the trade.

Some Points to Consider

      Find meaning in the candid pose the artist has chosen to paint. What do you think
       he is trying to convey if not his profession? What does the pose tell us about the
       subject(Art 4.3.2)
      •Discuss why most artists use themselves as models. Decide if it is because: they
       can’t afford to pay someone to pose, they know their faces very well, they are trying
       to learn more about themselves, or they need to practice painting and problem

Snow Covered Banks
N.D. oil on canvas, 18" x 23 1/2"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

Even though there is snow on the banks the artist has given a warm feeling to the day by the use
of light and warm colors along with the cool colors. The shadows are long, and the stream pulls
your eye through the painting, inviting you to travel with Wheeler on the stream.
He wrote about the painting, “I hardly know what to say about the picture except that it was
painted on Pleasant Run near the edge of Indianapolis and that my hands nearly froze while I
was doing it. I am fond of walking both in summer and winter and I spend a good deal of time on
this stream which is only about two blocks from my home.” The painting was a gift to the
Lafayette Art Association by the children of the Ford School.

Some Points to Consider

      Where are the areas of cool color; compare with the areas of warm color? Reflect
       on the use of the curving line to paint the creek edge and the effects of the shadows.
       Do those properties add to the expressive quality of the painting? (Art 4.3.1)
      Does this painting portray what you feel on a snowy winter day? Arrive at a
       hypotheses with the class about how a winter scene needs to be painted in order to
       convey the beauty of a winter day. (Art 4.5.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Write a biography about the man in Slide No. 127. Where does he live, what is his home like,
what activities does he participate in, and what kind of man do you think he is?
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• Do a sensory activity with your students. Have them close their eyes and imagine the sounds of
water rushing over rocks and along the streambeds. Have them describe the sounds and odors
they hear and smell.
Scott, William Edouard
Rush, Olive
Wayman Adams

Slide No. 129 Self-Portrait
Slide No. 131 The Art Jury

Wayman Adams was born in Muncie, Indiana. His father was a farmer and a self-taught artist,
Nelson Perry Adams. Wayman Adams studied at the Herron Art Institute under William Forsyth
and J. Ottis Adams. He studied under William Merritt Chase in Italy and with Robert Henri in
Spain. He died at his home in Austin, Texas.
He had a studio in Indianapolis but spent much of his time at his New York studio. He
established the Old Mill School in upper New York State in 1933. He was nationally recognized
for his portraits, and he completed six for the Governors’ Portraits Collection of the State of
Indiana. Peat noted that Adams “employed his masterful artistic technique to reflect the
individual character of his subject” (Portraits and Painters, 64). United States presidents Herbert
Hoover, Calvin Coolidge, and Warren G. Harding, were among his subjects.

N.D., oil on canvas, 37" x 26"
Indiana State Museum

Peat’s comment about Adams applies just as well to this self-portrait. The artist has made the
tools of his trade especially prominent—note the palette he is using. The artist has a certain flair,
and the painting is very whimsical and upbeat. You are made to look up at the artist in the clouds
as he leads you with his band hat and baton. The paint is applied in a very painterly fashion,
allowing the brush strokes to exist as movement color, and surface.

Some Points to Consider

      Use Peat’s quote about how Adams “employed his masterful artistic technique to
       reflect the individual character of his subject” and discuss why that is important in
       a portrait? What more does a painting of a person tell us than a photograph? (Art
    What theory or philosophy do you think is evident in Adams’ self portrait? What
       was his reason to paint this painting in this style? Does he imitate what he saw in the
       mirror, paint a portrait in the manner of most portraits, or did he express who he is
       as a person? (Art 4.6.1)
The Art Jury
1921, oil on canvas, 82" x 54"
                                                                                           Page 61 of 75
Indiana Museum of Art

The four men here—T. C. Steele, Otto Stark, J. Ottis Adams, and William Forsyth—all served as
instructors and as inspiration for Wayman Adams. This is a good example of a group portrait,
and especially given its size, it is a magnificent accomplishment. The artists are obviously
dressed for a public occasion and conferring about something that is out of the surface of the
canvas. Since it is called “The Art Jury,” the assumption must be that they are jurying, or
judging, an art exhibit to select the winning pieces. The background makes them stand out, and
their proximity and interaction emphasizes that they were “The Hoosier Group.”

Some Points to Consider
    • After your study of the work of these men, does this portrait help you to
      understand them? (Art 4.2.1)
    •Look at the expressions on all the faces of the “Hoosier Group and speculate about
      what is going on. Think of the quality and style of the “Hoosier Group” paintings;
      make a list of what criteria these judges might be using for determining excellence
      in a work of art. (Art 4.4.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• This artist probably had a great love for music as well as painting. Often we have to choose one
profession but yearn for another. Ask your parents what they would have wanted to do or have
been if they had had a chance to be whatever they wanted. Tell them this is an opportunity for
you to know what their fantasies really are. Try to paint or draw your parents in their fantasy

• Choose several works of art and divide your class into jury panels. Have the students establish
criteria for judging a painting and on paper have them take notes about their assignment. Let
each group describe its decisions and how it determined what it would include in its exhibition.

Glenn (Glen) Cooper Henshaw

Slide No. 132 Portrait of Richard B. Gruelle

Glenn Cooper Henshaw was born August, 8, 1884, in Windfall, Indiana. His name originally was
Hinshaw, but he changed it, in 1911. He was a student of J. Ottis Adams in 1901 at the Herron
Art Institute. In 1902 he studied with Carl Marr in Munich. For the next ten years he studied at
the Academie Julian in Paris with Jean Paul Laurens, at École des Beaux Arts with Leon
Monnat, and at Delacluse Academie. In 1914 he moved to New York City and stayed for twenty
years; he also had part-time studios in Indianapolis and Chicago. In 1934 he moved to Baltimore,
Maryland, but kept a summer residence in Nashville, Indiana.

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Henshaw is best known for his pastels and oils. He has a toned-down palette, His portraits show
fleeting moments of expression on the faces. He did many cityscapes of Baltimore, Indianapolis,
and Chicago, as well as other cities.
Often an artist adopts more than one style or medium or expression in his lifetime. Henshaw had
four major creative categories during his lifetime: 1908–1915, sepia drawings, 1916–1927,
pastels, 1930–1936, portraits, and 1936–1946, mystical paintings.

Slide No. 132

Portrait of Richard B. Gruelle
1910, pastel on paper mounted on cardboard, 20" x 15"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

Even though the sketch is complete, it probably was to be the inspiration for a painting to be
done at a later time. Very little color has been used, we only see the use of color in the artist’s
palette. The sketch shows evidence of foxing—the small brown spots made by various molds
that attack paper.

Some Points to Consider

      Why is significance of this sketch? Does it have as much merit as a painting of the
       same subject? (Art 4.5.2)
      Does the sketch seem quickly done with some areas more detailed and technical
       than others? Why might Henshaw have chosen this media though paper does not
       have the permanence that painting does?(Art 4.3.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Make an artist’s palette. Use heavy cardboard and coat it with gesso or latex paint on the top
side. Choose your colors and arrange them in a color wheel leaving space for color blending and

Ruth Pratt Bobbs
Slide No. 134 Girl in White

Ruth Pratt Bobbs was born in Indianapolis. She studied with William Merritt Chase and others at
the Art Students’ League in New York and later in Paris at the Ulianne School. She maintained a
studio (created from an interesting stable) in Indianapolis for several years. She was the wife of
William C. Bobbs, head of Bobbs-Merrill Publishing Company.
According to an article in the Indianapolis Star, March 31, 1946, Bobbs said, “Portraiture is
never photography. It is seeing the medium through your own eyes and personality.”
Burnet paired Bobbs with Lucy Taggart, describing them as “conscientious workers in
portraiture, often painting in a high key with a dash that holds the observer. They depict their

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sitters with a subtle grace, and wealth of radiant color peculiarly rich in quality. They are both
frequent exhibitors in the Eastern galleries” (Art and Artists, 237).

Slide No. 134

Girl in White
1902–1910, oil on canvas, 47" x 29 3/8"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

The girl in white is said to be Jessica Penn, a Scottish woman who had just come to America at
the time of the portrait. She is wearing an outfit belonging to the artist. The painting is very
decorative and has a commercial look as if it were an advertisement for a fashion magazine. The
plume on her hat mirrors the plant decoration on the wall and causes the painting to flatten out.
The chair back also blends into the wall decoration.

Some Points to Consider

    Find meaning in the statement by Ruth Pratt Bobbs that “Portraiture is never
     photography”. What could a painted portrait of a person portray that a
     photograph could not? (Art 4.5.2)
    Analyze the balance of the painting and decide how the artist used line, shape and
     color to achieve that balance? (Art 4.3.1)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Find fashion magazines of the early 20th century and today. Compare the art and the costumes.

Lucy M. Taggart
Slide No. 135 Eleanor

Lucy Taggart was born in Indianapolis. She was a pupil of William Forsyth, William Merritt
Chase, and Charles W. Hawthorne at the Art Students’ League in New York. She was the
daughter of Thomas L. Taggart, a prominent politician in the Democratic Party. She studied at
May Wright Sewall’s private school in Indianapolis and at Smith College in Massachusetts.
According to her obituary in the Indianapolis Times, October 10, 1960, she favored Gloucester,
Massachusetts, but returned to Indianapolis to teach at the Herron Art Institute.
According to Forsyth she had been abroad and exhibited frequently in the East and West.
Writing in 1916 Forsyth said that “She has spent most of her time in the east of late years, in
New York and on the Massachusetts coast, but also has a studio in Indianapolis” (Art in Indiana,
33). Burnet’s comment included in the Bobbs section was published in 1921. Forsyth in 1916
indicated that Taggart was “best known for her figure pieces, but she also paints landscape”
(ibid., 33).

Slide No. 135
                                                                                            Page 64 of 75
1921, oil on canvas, 40" x 36"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

This lady is a graceful figure seated in front of a gold-framed mirror and reflected in that mirror.
The, mirror serves as a frame and almost gives the viewer the illusion of a painting within a
painting. The front reflection, allowing the artist to show both the front and back of the sitter,
adds a third dimension to the viewer’s perception of her. She is romanticized by showing her
face through the mirror, which softens the lines of her face and skin. There is an impressionistic
use of color in her dress and fan, which takes on the appearance of Monet’s water lilies. Notice
the curves of the fan and the top of the mirror and the other soft curves that pull the composition

Some Points to Consider

     Speculate about the technical problems involved in painting a person with a
      mirrored reflection. What changes in the person would there be in the reflection?
      (Art 4.3.1)
    What other impressionistic properties does the painting have besides the suggestion
      of a Monet painting on the fan? Why do you think the artist chose this style; was it
      a popular style of the day or was the artist interested in the mood he could create
      by using the impressionistic style? (Art 4.5.2)
Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

Have someone take a photograph of you looking into a mirror. When you see yourself as others
see you, it is often like hearing yourself for the first time on tape. Describe your reaction to this
image of yourself.

Sister Mary Rufinia

Sister Mary Rufinia was born in Calcum, Germany. She began her nursing career at St. Elizabeth
Hospital in Lafayette, Indiana, in 1906. She injured herself too badly to continue nursing, so she
began a new career as an artist in 1920.
She studied at the Academy of Art in Berlin, the Art Institute of Chicago, and Duchesne College.
In the 1930s, she opened an art studio at St. Francis High School near the hospital in Lafayette.
Here she taught watercolor, pottery, and sculpture, giving scholarships to deserving students
each year.
She studied under Wayman Adams in the Adirondacks in 1936 and graduated from Syracuse
University with a M.F.A. degree in 1937. Her work included portraits, still life, landscape
paintings, lithographs, and sculpture.
In her “Epilogue—Reveries of an Artist,” she wrote, “For me, an artist, one of the greatest
happinesses this world can offer is to behold the beauty of creation. In each tree, sunrise, sunset,
ocean, mountain, landscape and garden, my soul overflows with gratitude to the Supreme
Maker” (from “Sister Rufinia Art Club History” at the Art Museum of Greater Lafayette).

                                                                                             Page 65 of 75
Slide No. 136
Old Carpenter
1940, oil on canvas, 51" x 39 1/4"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette
This painting is very formally executed. Great care is given to documenting the interior space
and the activities of the carpenter. The light coming through the window highlights the carpenter
and gives importance to him in the painting, as well as the objects of his trade.

Some Points to Consider

      Analyze the formal and technical properties of this painting and form a point of
       view about what the artist considered important in doing a portrait. What do you
       think her philosophy of painting might be; imitationalism, formalism, or
       emotionalism. (Art 4.6.1)
      What would the artist have to do to the paint to get the effect of light coming
       through the window? Is there meaning in this strong use of light? (Art 4.3.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• We often take the world around us for granted. In the painting in Slide No. 136 the artist has
taken great pains to include details of the surroundings of the carpenter to give us information
about his work. In your home is there a workspace, a sewing room, wood working shop, or
maybe a desk where typing and recordkeeping is done? Draw a picture of this space and the
people who use this space.

• Select another type of craftsperson and show the tools of the trade with the person painted or
drawn in the picture.

Edna Browning Ruby

Slide No. 137 Stained Glass Windows
Slide No. 138 Arch Over the Pulpit

Edna Browning Ruby was born in Lafayette. Her father’s ancestors were French settlers in
Vincennes, and soon after the town of Lafayette was laid out, her grandfather made his way to
the new settlement. The old homestead he built stood at the corner of llth and Brown streets.
Ruby’s training was extensive, beginning with specialization in miniature portraiture, jewelry
designing, and metal work. Later she became interested in textile designing and gained
recognition as one of the three most skillful women designers in America. In 1915, at the age of
twenty-eight the petite Ruby took up the study of stained glass. She gained great renown also in
ecclesiastical art; at the time of her death she was the only woman in the United States who
designed, built, and installed stained glass windows.
Two churches in Indianapolis have her windows—West Washington Street Methodist Church
and United Brethren Church on Walnut (1923)—and her windows are in Stidham United
Methodist Church and Stidham Memorial Church (Elston Presbyterian Church) in Lafayette.
                                                                                          Page 66 of 75
A minister at the West Washington Street Methodist Church is reported to have said that he did
not need to preach about the windows because “they preach their own sermons.”

Stained Glass Windows
1915, grouping 70" x 75"
Stidham United Methodist Church, Lafayette

The windows shown in Slide No. 137 are not “pictures” containing people, but rather designs,
particularly with geometric and floral patterns. The coloring chosen is rich, with pinks, emeralds,
rubies, velvetlike purple, and opalescent cream, blending to make a harmonious, beautiful
experience for the worshipper. Note the shapes of the windows all pointing upward in
appropriate religious symbolism; appropriate too is the use of threes and other Christian religious
symbols. Note the wider structural bars on the windows (to allow for opening) that have been
incorporated in the design.
The design of the arch (156" x 88") in Slide No. 138 maintains design elements of the windows.
The degree of difficulty is magnified in the making of a three-dimensional form in stained glass.
Ruby has accomplished this task masterfully. She has also led the viewer to perceive the arch as
larger than it is by playing with the perspective in the glass panes. The squares nearest to the
viewer are large and get progressively smaller as they move up the arch. The quality of interest
has been enhanced by the varied colors in the large expanse of heavenly yellows.
Ruby was often asked about the difficulty of a woman working in the medium of stained glass.
She indicated that the work was neither laborious nor too difficult for women. She said, however,
that it was no work for amateurs since poor drawing is more conspicuous in this kind of work
than any other.
She once outlined the process for making stained glass windows, explaining that the designer
must understand the problems of the architect and adapt the design to the demands of lighting the
building and the style of architecture.
     According to information supplied by the Tippecanoe County Historical Association, a
         watercolor drawing is first made to show the color scheme and general effect of the
         finished window. This is then enlarged to the exact size of the window space and the
         parts are carefully numbered. Patterns then are prepared for each piece of glass used. At
         the side of the drawing the great sheets of opalescent, or potmetal glass, are placed on
         easels, and the sections which possess the proper shading and texture for each part of the
         design are chosen. Only faces, hands, and feet are hand painted. Finally, the glass is fitted
         into grooved lead and properly finished.

Some Points to Consider

      Compare Edna Browning Ruby’s stained glass windows to Rose windows in Gothic
       cathedrals. Discuss the similarities and the differences. Does the function of the art
       change with location? Why are these windows used in churches in Indiana and
       France?(Art 4.1.2)

      Find organic and geometric shapes; discuss kinds of lines, color contrasts, and the
       effects of using repetition. Find meaning in the description of “playing with
       perspective to make the arch appear larger”. (Art 4.3.2)
                                                                                            Page 67 of 75
     Why would a stained glass designer need to adapt to the demands of the lighting of
      a building? How would an initial watercolor painting help in the conception of the
      stained glass design? .Discuss how a poor drawing plan might lead to a poor stained
      glass window. (Art 4.5.2)
Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Make a stained glass window. Make a simple line drawing (at least 6" x 6") of an object like a
flower. Place waxed paper over the drawing and secure it with masking tape. Take heavy string
that has been cut to fit around the line design and dip it in glue. Place the string onto the drawing
that has the waxed paper over it; be careful to connect the ends of the string. Allow to dry. Add
tissue paper, brushing glue onto the string and waxed paper and onto the top of the tissue. Put on
two coats of tissue. Allow to dry. Peel the waxed paper off the back. You now have a transparent
stained glass-looking design.

• Make a stained glass window with melted crayons and waxed paper. Fold a piece of waxed
paper in half. Shave crayon bits onto the paper; sandwich the crayon bits inside. Place the paper
between newspaper and iron the paper to melt the crayon bits. Fold a piece of black construction
paper in half, cut a hole near the center of the paper to act as a frame. Be careful to keep the
frame uncut. Open the double frame and place the waxed paper inside; glue or paste the window
in the frame.

• Tiffany glass is perhaps the best-known decorative stained glass. Did you know that Louis
Comfort Tiffany bought much of his glass in Kokomo, Indiana? Look into the revival of stained
glass as decoration. Is there a stained glass artist in your area? Find out.

Marie Goth

Slide No. 140 Portrait of Constance Mary McCullough

Marie Goth was born in Indianapolis and studied drawing under Otto Stark at Manual Training
High School. She studied at the Art Students’ League in New York under Frank Vincent
DuMond, William Merritt Chase, Luis M. Mora, and others.
In the early 1920s she moved to Brown County and became a charter member in 1926 of the
Brown County Art Gallery Association. According to a Brown County Art Guild brochure, “She
loved the quiet peacefulness, the birds, and the beautiful flowers that surrounded her log studio.”
She was the first woman artist commissioned to paint a portrait for the Governors’ Portraits
Collection of the State of Indiana—of Governor Henry F. Schricker. Peat noted that “Goth’s
style is bold, combining skillful brushwork with a good knowledge of color and design”
(Portraits and Painters, 84).

Portrait of Constance Mary McCullough
1914, oil on canvas, 28" x 22"
Indiana State Museum

                                                                                           Page 68 of 75
The child in this portrait has the appearance of a china doll. Her larger-than-life eyes and cherry
red lips make her appear artificial. She has a primitive quality about her and yet a great deal of
care has been taken in the painting of her clothing, the carpet, the chair, and the cat. Her arms
and hands, however, do not appear realistic. The use of proportion and perspective is off in the
body and in the layout of the room.

Some Points to Consider

      An art critic, Peat, noted that Marie Goth’s paintings were bold in style and
       combined skillful brushwork with a good knowledge of color and design. Find
       examples of those criteria to determine excellence in the Portrait of Constance Mary
       McCullough.(Art 4.4.1)
      Personally respond to this work by considering the nature of this art work and the
       reason for this pose. How might the artist have posed the little girl differently to
       avoid the proportion and perspective problems? Art (4.5.2)

Randolph Coats
Slide No. 144 Landscape, Title Unknown

Randolph Coats was born in Richmond, Indiana. He attended the Herron Art Institute and the
Cincinnati Academy of Fine Arts and studied throughout Europe. He returned to Indianapolis in
1922 and opened a studio.
As president of the Indiana Artists’ Club he produced three films about art. He was well-known
for his landscapes, portraits, and figure studies. He painted two portraits for the Governors’
Portraits Collection, State of Indiana, and restored the thirty-six paintings in the collection.

Slide No. 144

Landscape, Title Unknown
N.D., oil on canvas, 26 1/8" x 26 1/4"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

The trees and shadows form a frame within a frame making the house the focal point. The
landscape portrayed is very typical of Indiana. This appears to be an early snow because there
still are leaves on the trees.

Some Points to Consider

      List the properties in this painting that are typical of Indiana. (Art 4.l.2)
      What ways has the artist used to lead your eye to the focal paint of the house in the
       background? What do you think he was trying to achieve? (Art 4.3.2).

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

                                                                                           Page 69 of 75
• We are seeing the painting in Slide No. 144 in the winter, and the shadows are very long during
this season. Draw how you think the painting would look in the summer. What now would create
a frame within a frame?

John Wesley Hardrick new image

John Wesley Hardrick was born in Indianapolis. He was one of Indiana’s first black citizens to
be recognized for his outstanding artistic talents.
During his 1914 art exhibition at Allen Chapel in Indianapolis, Hardrick wrote in the preface of
the catalogue an explanation for his exhibition: “As a race, the negro has made wonderful
progress in the last half century: It has produced great men as orators, statesmen, inventors,
educators and musicians and now the field of arts and crafts is open to the negro. Mr. H. O.
Tanner has been about the first to successfully venture forth . . . . The object of the present
exhibition is an attempt to stimulate an interest among the colored citizens of Indianapolis to
encourage art; to inspire, if possible, some young talented boy or girl to realize that life without
labor is crime, and labor without art is brutality.”
In 1927 Hardrick won the Harmon Foundation Award given to young Negro artists in America.
Because of this award his works were exhibited in New York. In this same year, he held a one-
man show in the Pettis Gallery in Indianapolis.
Hardrick specialized in portraits and landscapes of Indiana scenes. He was often recognized for
his life-size portraits of prominent Indianapolis citizens. These portraits won several prizes at the
Indiana State Fairs. Many of his paintings were displayed in the Hoosier Salon.
His religious and semi-religious paintings were also noted. In 1928 he painted a mural, 6 x 8
feet, in the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Indianapolis, which he entitled “Christ and
the Samaritan Woman at the Well.”

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• The painting in Slide No. 146 has an analogous color scheme. Paint a landscape using three
colors that are side by side on the color wheel. Be sure to use only these three colors; you can
add black and white for value changes.

• Color can set a very strong mood. Discuss how colors make you feel and how color is used in
advertising and clothing manufacture to create moods. How does this affect buying habits?

David Kresz Rubins

Slide No. 148 Strike
Slide No. 149 Statue of Young Lincoln

                                                                                           Page 70 of 75
David Rubins was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He studied in the 1920s at the Beaux Arts
Institute of Design in New York City and at the Academie Julian and École des Beaux Arts in
Paris. He was assistant to sculptor J. E. Fraser in New York for seven years.
From 1935 until his retirement in 1970 he was instructor at the Herron Art Institute, which
merged with Indiana University in 1967 and became the Herron School of Art. After his
retirement, he became an artist-in-residence at Herron. He is the author of a textbook, The
Human Figure, an Anatomy for Artists.

Statue of Young Lincoln
1963, bronze, 112 inches
State of Indiana

This statue of young Abraham Lincoln is in the plaza at the east entrance of the State Office
Building. Since there are no early images of Lincoln, Rubins read books—especially Carl
Sandburg and Albert Beveridge’s two-volume biography—to form his concept for the statue. He
produced a twelve-inch-high model as a preliminary sketch. After receiving the commission, he
completed a forty-six-inch working model that was sent to Connecticut to be enlarged; “it was
done on a turntable with two measuring arms so that its size could be increased mechanically.”

What returned was “a model made of plastelene, a kind of modeling clay that does not harden. It
was delivered in three pieces, and assembled in his studio at the art school, the towering 9-foot-4
figure almost touching the skylight in the corner of the narrow glass-enclosed working area.
“With the aid of a tall ladder and a platform on casters, Rubins spent the summer changing the
figure, fortifying himself with salt pills in the heat that poured through the glass.
“‘I scraped and fussed, I changed the head, cut down the arms, enlarged the chest, altered the
proportions generally,’ he says.
"‘There are lots of planes and angularity to the head. I wanted to show the youthfulness and
some of the strength of his mind the strength geometry can give.
"‘The physique is lean to show that he was still undeveloped. And all the way through there is
roughness of surface to indicate the rough character of his life.
"‘Clothing is minimized. It was probably linsey woolsey but certainly not important to him.
" Actually it is an ideal representation. I made a compromise between how he might have looked
in his Indiana years and the image we have of him now when he was 45. 1 tried to make mine
half way between.
"‘In his body I have attempted to represent a knotty sort of energy like the trees, with a quiet,
tranquil face. There is good reason to believe that he had begun to think. So his forelock makes a
minor shadow over the face, a shadow of thoughtfulness.
No one knows what his hair looked like, but it was coarse and probably matted and going all
over the place.’”

Plasterers from the East came and made a plaster cast from the model. The cast, again cut in
three pieces, was shipped east and molded in bronze. The final statue weighs about a ton.
(Source: Indianapolis Star Magazine, October 21, 1962.)

Some Points to Consider
                                                                                          Page 71 of 75
      Why is this sculpture an important feature of the State Office Building? Is this how
       a young Abraham Lincoln in Indiana might have looked and dressed? (Art 4.1.1)

      Read the artist’s quotes and build an understanding about the artist’s philosophies
       when creating this work. This was his interpretation and was based on which
       theory; imitationalism, formalism, or emotionalism? (Art 4.6.1)

     Reflect on the hardships of sculpting as a career:
      Rubin studied many years to become a sculptor and was an assistant for seven
      The process to make sculpture is demanding and complex.
      Many skilled craftsmen must be included in the creation.

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• In Slide No. 148 notice how the artist used line and shape to show movement. Put on a record
of classical music and have students make lines on their papers to indicate the mood created by
the music. Artists use lines the way that musicians use notes and scales.

• Find out more about unions and the labor movement in Indiana. Indiana has a rich labor
history, and there are exciting resources available.

• Make a sculpture using modeling clay. Remember you are working in three dimensions. Turn
the work as you progress. Think about what you might like to emphasize and what kind of
texture you want on the surface.

• Find out more about Lincoln in Indiana and the Lincoln Boyhood National Monument in
Lincoln City.

Constance Coleman Richardson
Slide No. 150 Street Light

Constance Coleman Richardson was born in Germany. Her father, Christopher B. Coleman, was
a student in Germany at the time. When Coleman returned to his teaching duties at Butler
University, he had her birth certificate changed to Indianapolis. Coleman headed the Indiana
Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society from 1924–1944 and oversaw the
construction of the Indiana State Library and Historical Building. She lived in Detroit after 1931.
At present she resides in Philadelphia.
Richardson studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and at Vassar College.

                                                                                          Page 72 of 75
Her paintings show light, space, and air. She has said of her work, “It interests me to look at
nature, which I find much more remarkable than anything anyone can make up; and try to say
something about light and space and air and how wonderful the world really is if you look at it;
and to say it with clarity and serenity and objectivity” (Indianapolis Museum of Art files).

Street Light
1930, oil on canvas, 28 3/16" x 36"
Indianapolis Museum of Art

The artist said that this painting “reeks of the cigar and the suburbs of Indianapolis” (IMA files).
It has been painted in a monochromatic color system—green with shades and tints. The style is
abstract—the trees look like Tiffany stained glass lampshades, and the tree trucks look like
sticks stuck into the ground. Note the exaggerated light and shadows as a result of the
streetlight’s effect.

Some Points to Consider

      What is abstract about this work? What looks unreal or distorted? (Art 4.2.3)
      Raise questions about the mood of this painting and the effect it has on the class.
       How does the monochromatic color scheme help express that mood? Are there
       other color schemes that might also work? (Art 4.5.2)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Cut a colorful picture from a magazine. Place a piece of red cellophane over the drawing. This
will reduce the colors to values of one color. Using only red paint, with white, black, or both
added, paint in the areas of the drawing. Do not attempt to achieve great detail only shapes and
value changes.

Donald M. Mattisonnew image

Donald Mattison was born in Beloit, Wisconsin. He studied art under Eugene Savage at Yale
University and spent three years studying in Rome. He taught in New York City from 1931 until
he came to Indianapolis in 1933.
Mattison served as dean of the Herron Art Institute from 1933 until 1970, including its merger in
1967 with Indiana University to become the Herron School of Art. He was a good administrator
and played an important part in the expansion of the school.
Among his many important portrait commissions was his portrait of Harold W. Handley for the
Governors’ Portraits Collection, State of Indiana.

Some Points to Consider

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

                                                                                           Page 73 of 75
• Imagine yourself leaving home for the first time. Maybe you are traveling alone to visit a
grandparent or you have finished high school and are going away to college. Write about how
you think you would feel, or draw a picture as this artist did to tell your story.

• What would the track have been for if this were in Indiana? It could have been an interurban or
a railroad. Find out more about rail transportation in this period by research and by asking family
members and neighbors.

Harry A. Davis
Slide No. 152

Harry Davis was born in Hillsboro, Indiana, and spent his early years in Brownsburg, Indiana. In
1938 he received a three-year fellowship to study at the American Academy in Rome. He was
artist-in-residence at Beloit College in Wisconsin in 1941. Davis was a combat artist during
World War II in Italy. He served with a camouflage unit, 1942–1946, in North Africa. Many of
his works of this period are a part of the Pentagon’s collection of war sketches. Davis began
teaching at Herron Art Institute in 1946. He taught for thirty-seven years, holding a professorship
from 1970–1983.
Harry Davis has traveled throughout Indiana recording architectural landmarks and historic sites
and has painted these in a contemporary realistic style. He says that painting old buildings has
been a “mission” that he had to perform. His work is an important documentation of architecture
of the American Midwest; many of the buildings that he has painted have been torn down in the
name of progress.
His paintings are realistic and make one think of the people who occupy the structures depicted.
According to Arthur Weber, Dean, Herron School of Art, Davis “forces us to reconstruct
mentally a cultural inheritance, and in an uncanny way, his paintings seem to anticipate our
inevitable reactions and feelings. While his paintings are certainly realistic, they go strangely
beyond realism” (from “A Segment of the Historic Ohio River Valley-A Series of Works by
Harry A. Davis”).
(Much of the Davis information is from the Evansville Press, May 12, 1981.)

Ferry Street, Lafayette
1970, acrylic on canvas, 24" x 32"
Art Museum of Greater Lafayette

This is a finely detailed streetscape with pointillistic brushstrokes—small daubs of color are
placed close to each other and then the eye mixes them for the visual impression.
Davis wrote of this painting, “I was inspired by the contrast in architectural styles, shapes, and
colors of this group of buildings which I happened to see in strong sunlight on one of my visits to
Lafayette. With the angle of light and the position I chose, I could see a strong element of design,
the triangle on which to build my composition” (Evansville Press, May 12, 1981).

Some Points to Consider

                                                                                          Page 74 of 75
      Do you think that Harry Davis’s mission to paint old buildings makes his paintings
       valuable to Indiana? Why?(Art 4.6.1)
      What is the more usual method today of documenting architecture and buildings?
       Why might photography be preferred? Would a photograph give us a sensory
       reaction to this scene? Do you think that this painting does …”go strangely beyond
       realism”?(Art 4.3.21
      Compare the brushstrokes of the painting to the pointillistic brushstrokes of Seurat,
       the French Impressionist. ( Art 4.2.4)

Suggested Activities for Classroom Follow-Up

• Make a pointillistic drawing using cotton swabs to paint the dots of color; remember to use
complements together to make a gray or vibrating area. The smaller the dots, the sharper the
detail, just like a computer image.

                                                                                        Page 75 of 75

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