Application Checklist for Exam 4 – Human Anatomy
READ ME THOROUGHLY:
Use this list to help you prepare for Exam 4. I will use several of these questions exactly as you see them here on the exam
for the application section of the exam. Others will be embedded in the multiple choice section. However, I reserve the right
to modify any question as I see appropriate. Some material may not be covered depending on where we get in lecture, but
will surface on subsequent exams.
Also please note that not all the material presented in lecture is represented here, so don’t forget to study your lecture notes
(in-class and on-line) and the assigned coloring book plates.
Again, please note, I (or your lab instructor), will NOT answer these questions for you, nor will I CHECK your answers for
accuracy. Answers may be found from in-class lecture notes, on-line lecture notes, your text, and from your own neuronal
synapses. The intent is for you to come up with the solutions on your own (i.e. develop problem-solving skills), not to parrot
(repeat) back to me answers I give you in advance. Problem-solving based on anatomy is extremely important for those of
you going into athletics, psychology, and healthcare. The index at the end of your textbook is a great help. I will point you in
the right direction and/or explain concepts that are to ensure you can answer the questions correctly. Just come by anytime.
1. After a long voyage across the open ocean, Jimmy has been enjoying a cheeseburger (medium-rare with an onion slice) at a local
island establishment. (a) Trace the pathway of Jimmy’s cheeseburger through the GI tract, listing in order the structures & spaces it
passes through/over starting from the labia (lips) & ending outside the body (please note, I expect a comprehensive list). (b) Then note
briefly the function of each. (c) Finally list the accessory structures that contribute to digestion that it didn’t encounter on its journey
(d) where they “connect” to the GI tract and (e) and what structures (ducts ) make this possible.
2. Read the cartoon.
Okay, let’s say the ol’
battle-axe is up to 2
packs a day. (a) Educate
Miss Wormwood on the
ills of smoking by tracing
the pathway of the
carcinogenic smoke (&
atmospheric air) through
the respiratory system
listing in order ALL the
structures & spaces it
would encounter on its journey beginning at the nares & ending at the alveoli. Then (b) describe how smoking can negate the
defenses of the respiratory tract. Finally, (c) smoking decreases the amount of oxygen that gets to the tissues = Why? & (d) Based on
this observation, what then is the ultimate reason why we breathe?
3. (a) Trace the pathway blood would take through the heart & body listing in order the structures, vessels, & spaces it encounters
along the way beginning with the superior & inferior vena cava & ending at the aorta. Then (b) describe the differences between
arteries & veins most notably their internal structure (histology) & general location within the body. Finally (c) list the 3 major
circulatory units in the body & (d) where blood circulates in them.
4. Sperm must make a remarkable journey in order to fertilize an ovum. Millions are helplessly slaughtered by the female’s immune
system & the acidity/muscular contractions of the vagina (Poor little guys ). You however you are a super-duper “egg-seeking”
sperm. (a) Trace your pathway through the male & female reproductive system beginning in the specific structure in which you are
“manufactured” & ending at the “normal” location for fertilization in the female listing in order ALL the structures, spaces, & glands
you encounter along the way. Then (b) list the primary function(s) of the human reproductive system.
5. The urgency to urinate begins with the formation of urine way up in the kidneys. As a student of anatomy you should be able (a) trace the
pathway a drop of blood plasma would take through the urinary system beginning at the afferent arteriole & ending outside the body, listing
in order ALL the structures & spaces it encounters along its journey. (b) Then list the three most important functions of this system. Finally,
you should know the differences between “boys” & “girls” when it comes to urinary anatomy. Yes, it is that important! (c) Describe the
anatomical differences between the male & female urinary tract.
6. Roscoe the Ram goes to a fertility clinic after failing to start a new family of little lambs with his beloved wife Ewenice. Roscoe has
not been circumcised or castrated, but the doctor tells him to start wearing boxer shorts as opposed to his favorite briefs (a.k.a. tighty
whities). (a) Why did the fertility doctor tell him to do this? (b) Why do the testes descend & rise within the scrotal sac? (c) What
specific anatomical structures makes this possible? (d) What situations would cause the testes to rise & descend? Finally (e) what
effect would circumcision have on Roscoe’s reproductive capability? (f) What effect would a vasectomy have on his reproductive
7. Examine the
Calvin cartoon to the
right then (a) explain
why milk comes out
of your nose if you
drinking. (b) Then
describe what s
structures the milk
would encounter on
its way out. (c) Now
determine whether it
is really possible for the milk to shoot his ears & if so (d) what structures would it hypothetically pass through?
8. (a) Define artery, arteriole, capillary, venule, and vein from a functional
standpoint. Then (b) describe the anatomical structure of the arteries, veins, and
capillaries from the cellular level (i.e. what are they made of and what are these
layers called – tunics). Finally (c) Do all arteries carry oxygenated blood? Do all
veins carry deoxygenated blood? Explain why or why not.
9. Pulse points are very important for those going into health and allied health
care fields. (a) Define what a pulse points is and provide (b) 5 example locations
(c) what arteries are involved at these locations and (d) why pulse points are
important from a health care standpoint. Hint (see CB, 108, 110,111). (e)
Finally what type of vessels do you draw blood from? (f) Why? (g) Name three
of the most common vessels used to extract blood from patients
10. Blood is another very important component of the cardiovascular system.
Without it not even Roscoe the Ram could survive. Because of this, its important
to know something about blood. (a) List the functions of blood. (b) Which of
the four basic tissue types is blood? (c) What are the components of blood and
(d) what do these components do? Finally (e) how much blood do humans have
and (f) where is it made?
11. (a) Answer the question on the Farside cartoon at right.
(b) Where is this structure located? (c) What does it do? (d) What happens when
air rushes against it when you inhale?
12. Read the Calvin and Hobbes cartoon below. Then (a) describe what the
medical term for “barfing” is and (b) how this occurs in your stomach.
13. You’ve heard me say it a dozen times if that. One out of every 2 people (me or you) will suffer from heart failure at some point in
their lifetime. So (a) what exactly is heart failure and how is it different from (b) congestive heart failure? Hint see your text.
14. The conduction system of the heart is important in regulating its contracting rhythm. (a) List the components of the cardiac
conduction system and describe briefly (b) what they do. Then (c) describe ventricular fibrillation and atrial fibrillation are.
15. Read the Calvin
and Hobbes cartoon
below. Then describe
(a) What are hiccups
are (b) How to stop
them. You may have
to search for this
answer on the internet
since we will not have
time to cover it in