Creating a Nation
The New Republic
The brand-new United States.
George Washington - our first
John Adams - our second president.
The Federalist Party
When the U.S. Constitution was written in 1787, the two-party
No, political parties were not written into the Constitution.
But the debate over the Constitution split the country into two
The Federalists and the Anti-Federalists.
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
The Federalists were led by Alexander
Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury.
The Democratic-Republicans (Anti-
Federalists) were led by Thomas Jefferson
The major domestic problems of the New Republic
1. maintaining national security - the Whiskey Rebellion, the
Alien & Sedition Acts
2. creating a stable economic system - Alexander
Hamilton’s Assumption, the National Bank, protective tariff
3. setting up the court system - “midnight judges” and the
Judiciary Act of 1801
4. defining the authority of the central government - the
federal government became powerful!
Why did the federal government become so powerful?
Because the Federalist Party believed in a loose
construction of the Constitution.
The power of Congress was stretched using the Elastic
How did the federal government become so powerful?
In 1800, he was appointed the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
He was a Federalist and sat on the bench for three decades (1800-
During that time, the Supreme Court ruled over and over in favor of
a strong central government.
The Presidencies of
Our Nation’s First President
The new U.S. government was a bold experiment with
republican rule and individual rights and it took shape
under the leadership of George Washington.
He took charge of a political system that was a bold
The Constitution provided a strong foundation, but it
was not a detailed blueprint for government.
Washington and his advisors had to make the following
How to raise revenue
How to provide for defense
How to establish a judicial system
Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 created federal court system
and the Supreme Court.
The Act created a judicial structure of a chief justice and
five associate justices.
It also set up 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal
district courts throughout the country.
It also allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a
federal when constitutional issues were raised.
The Executive Branch
Washington created the first cabinet, or
Washington chooses trusted leaders to
advise him on foreign affairs (Jefferson),
military matters (Knox), and finances
Hamilton and Jefferson were brilliant
thinkers with differing political ideas.
The first two political parties were founded
by Thomas Jefferson and Alexander
Hamilton during Washington’s
Hamilton and Jefferson disagree on the
role of government and on economic
Hamilton favored strong central gov’t,
whereas Jefferson did not.
His job was to set in order the nation’s finances.
He proposed a plan to manage the country’s
debts and creating a national bank.
He believed that the national gov’t was
responsible for two-thirds of the nation’s debt.
He proposed the following:
To issue bonds to pay off foreign debt
Federal gov’t assume the debt of the states an
incentive to get creditors to support the new federal
District of Columbia
Many Southerners were upset by Hamilton’s
Several southern states had already paid off
most their debts and resented the assumption
because they thought they would be taxed to
help pay the northern states’ debts.
In order to gain favor from Southerners for his
ideas, Hamilton suggests that the capital be
moved to the District of Columbia
Original plan was
developed by French
He was later fired by
replaced by Andrew
With the assistance of
Benjamin Banneker the
plans for capital were
completed in the 1800s.
The Whiskey Rebellion
Occurred during Washington’s second term in
Congress proposed a protective tariff (import tax
on good from Europe).
Hamilton wanted more money, so he pushed a
excise tax (tax on sale, distribution, or
manufacturing) on whiskey.
Most of the whiskey producers were small
Whiskey was made with corn, because it was
too bulky to carry across the Appalachian
Mountains to sell.
Whiskey was their main source of cash.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania refused to pay
They beat up federal marshals in Pittsburgh and
threatened to secede (withdraw) from the union.
Hamilton saw the rebellion as an opportunity for
the federal gov’t to show that it could enforce
15,000 militiamen were called up,
accompanied by Washington & Hamilton.
They marched over the Alleghenies and
scattered the rebels without loss of life.
The rebellion was a milestone in the
consolidation of federal power in domestic
Washington & Neutrality
An alliance between France & U.S. was created by the
Treaty of 1778.
Because of that alliance, the French expected the U.S. to
help during the French Revolution.
Washington issues a declaration of neutrality so that the
U.S. would not get involved in European affairs.
The French tried to recruit Americans, in spite of
Jefferson, who supported France, was called a radical by
Federalists, so he resigned from cabinet in 1793.
Treaty with Spain
U.S. wanted to secure lands west of the
Mississippi river, as well as gain shipping
To do this, they had to come to
agreement with Spain.
Pickney’s Treaty with Spain settled a
boundary dispute and gave the U.S.
permission to use the Mississippi River and
the port of New Orleans.
Native American Conflicts
Americans assumed that the Treaty of Paris
gave them free rein to settle in the West.
Settler’s were met with fierce resistance from
the original inhabitants.
Jay’s Treaty achieved the removal of British from
their forts on American soil, but angered many
Americans because it allowed the British to
continue fur trading on American soil.
Washington’s Farewell Address
The bitter fighting over Jay’s Treaty and
political party divisions caused Washington
not seek a third term.
In his “Farewell Address” he urged
Americans to “steer clear of permanent
He retired to Mount Vernon in 1797.
1. What major advice did Washington
give in his Farewell Address?
2. Who were the two candidates in
the Election of 1796?
The presidency of John
Election of 1796
The Federalists nominated Adams, and the Democratic-
Republicans nominated Jefferson.
The presidential election of 1796 in which John Adams
was elected showed a problem in the Constitution with
the election of president and vice president because of
the rise of political parties. According to the constitution,
the runner-up in a presidential election should become
It showed signs of sectionalism or placing interests of
one region over the nation as a whole.
All of the electors from South voted for Jefferson, while
the north voted for Adams.
Adams & France
As the end of the 18th century drew near, relations
between the United States and France were
President John Adams wanted to preserve American
neutrality in conflicts between Britain and France.
He sent a minister to France who was not received.
President Adams then addressed a joint session of
Congress on May 16, 1797, expressing his concern
about the possibility of war with France and
dissension at home caused by France and its
The American people are divided over
whether or not to support the French
The French government regarded the Jay
Treaty with Britain as a violation of the
October of 1797, three commissioners appointed
by Adams arrived in Paris in hopes of "restoring
mutual confidence" between the countries.
The American delegation planned to meet with
the French foreign minister, but France sent
three low-level officials, whom Adams referred
to as X,Y,& Z.
The officials demanded $250,000 bribe as
payment for seeing the French foreign minister.
The news of the insult became known as the
In 1798, Congress created a navy department
and authorized American ships to seize French
1200 men marched to the president’s residence
to volunteer for war.
Congress authorized an army of 50,000 and
brought Washington out of retirement, once
again, to be commander-in-chief of the armies.
War was never officially declared, the next years
France & U.S. raged in undeclared naval war.
Alien & Sedition Acts
Anti-French feelings continued to flourish that many
Federalists believed that French agents were
everywhere, plotting to overthrow the government.
Arrivals from foreign governments were soon held in
suspicion, especially those active in the Democratic-
The Federalists pushed through Congress four measures
that would become known as the Alien & Sedition Acts.
The first of the three measures raised residency
requirements from five years to 14 years, and allowed
the president to deport or jail any alien considered
The fourth measure set fines and jail terms for anyone
trying to hinder the operation of the government or
expressing “false, scandalous, and malicious statements”
against the government.
Under the terms of the act, the federal
gov’t prosecuted and jailed a number of
Democratic Republican leaders.
The Acts passed under Adams’
administration was seen as a violation of
the First Amendment by Jefferson &
The Alien and Sedition Acts divide
Federalists and Republicans
Alien & Sedition Acts
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolution were
in reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts
and asserted the principle of nullification.
The new government struggle to establish
relations with other countries. However,
many people disagreed with the
Foreign policy has continued to divide the
nation throughout its history
Do a Decision-Making Model
You will need complete a decision making model
about the VA and KY Resolution.
Elements of the Decision-Making Model:
Alternative Pros (+) & Cons(-)
Death of Washington
Throughout 1799, Washington remained
active in trying to recruit as many people
as possible for the possible conflict with
On December 14, he died from a severe
His death was instrumental in the
improvement of relations between France
& the U.S.
Election of 1800
The Election of 1800 was a bitter struggle between
Jefferson & Adams
To the Democratic-Republicans, Adams wanted to turn
the executive branch into a British style monarchy.
To the Federalists, Jefferson was a dangerous
revolutionary and an atheist who wanted to destroy
Jefferson defeats Adams by 8 electoral votes
His running mate, Aaron Burr, received the same
number of votes as Jefferson.
The H.O.R. had to decide which candidate would be
president, and which would be v. president.
Hamilton intervened and convinced the Federalist to
cast blank ballots that gave Jefferson the majority to
The Age of Jefferson
Jefferson’s inauguration marks the first
transfer of power from one party to
Jefferson decentralized the federal
He believed that simple government best
suited the needs of a republic.
He was the first president to take office in
the new federal capital of D.C.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Federalists continued to exert power in the
Before leaving office, Adams pushed through the
Judiciary Act, which increased the number of
federal judges to 16.
In his attempt to maintain Federalist control of
judicial decisions, he filled the positions with
The judges became known as “midnight judges”
because Adams signed their appointments late
on the last day of his administration.
Adams’s court-packing angered Jefferson & the
Marbury v. Madison
On his last day in office, President John Adams named forty-two
justices of the peace and sixteen new circuit court justices for the
District of Columbia.
The commissions were signed by President Adams and sealed by acting
Secretary of State John Marshall (who later became Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court and author of this opinion), but they were not delivered
before the expiration of Adams’s term as president.
Thomas Jefferson refused to honor the commissions, claiming that they
were invalid because they had not been delivered by the end of
William Marbury (P) was an intended recipient of an appointment as
justice of the peace.
Marbury applied directly to the Supreme Court of the United States for
a writ of mandamus to compel Jefferson’s Secretary of State, James
Madison (D), to deliver the commissions.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 had granted the Supreme Court original
jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus “…to any courts appointed, or
persons holding office, under the authority of the United States.”
Marbury v. Madison affirms the Supreme Court’s ability to declare an
act of Congress unconstitutional.
Expansion of America
Americans continued their westward migration
across the Appalachians during Jefferson’s
New states like Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee
had settlers who came through the Cumberland
Daniel Boone led the clearing of a road from
Virginia through the Cumberland Gap, into
It was known as the Wilderness Road and would
serve as a major route for westward migration.
The Louisiana Purchase
France sells the Louisiana Territory to the United
States for $15 million dollars.
Jefferson sends an expedition led by Lewis and
Clark to explore the new territory.
The Louisiana Purchase greatly expanded the
boundaries of the United States.
The territory provided land and opportunity for
many courageous Americans.
Westward expansion would fire people’s
imagination and ambition for many more years
The War of 1812
Britain seizes American ships and sailors
and opens fire on Chesapeake.
American troops battle Native Americans
for possession of the Indiana Territory.
The United States declares war against
Britain, but the U.S. military is ill-
After suffering losses on both sides, the
United States and Great Britain sign a
The War of 1812 produced mixed
results. It revealed the country’s
military inadequacies and resulted in
the destruction of many important
public buildings in Washington, D.C.
The war also confirmed American
independence and fostered
The principles of the Monroe Doctrine
protected the national interests of the U.S.
by discouraging European powers with
In turn, the U.S, agreed not to interfere
with European colonies in the Western
Nationalism & Missouri Compromise
Nationalism influenced the judicial system,
foreign affairs and rationale for national
The geographic and political importance of
the Missouri Compromise divides the
growing nation info free and slave states.
Although is solved the problem of
representation in the Senate, it failed to
solve the political problems cased by
Creating a Nation
Growth, Expansion &
Define the following:
Francis Cabot Lowell
Samuel F. B. Morse
New inventions and manufacturing methods
result in an Industrial Revolution.
The United States begins developing industries.
New England embraces new forms of
Northern agriculture and manufacturing support
each other without slavery.
In the South, farmers use slave labor on huge
The American System seeks to unite the nation’s
economic interests by imposing tariffs on
imports and by creating a nationally accepted
Roads and canals are constructed to promote
the exchange of goods between regions.
During the early 1800s, different economic
systems developed in the North and South.
To unite the country’s economic interests
and support business among all of the
regions, the government created a
transportation network and a national
As a result, the country enjoyed a period
of goodwill and prosperity.
Mechanization allows many industries to carry out the
manufacturing process in factories.
Unskilled workers leave their farms to labor in the
Mill owners seek young female employees because they
can control the girls’ behavior and pay them less than
Factory work involves long hours, unhealthy conditions,
and hard work.
Strikes for higher wares at Lowell fail.
Workers in the 1830s and 1840s organize dozens of
Some Irish immigrants are willing to work for low
wages, while others join unions and organize strikes.
The National Trades’ Union wins the right to strike by
appealing to the Massachusetts supreme court.
By the 1820s, mechanization had shifted many
manufacturing jobs from home to factories in New
Many of the new factory jobs were filled by young
Low wages and poor conditions at the factories drove
both female and male employees to organize unions
Although the strikers were largely unsuccessful, the
workers’ efforts laid the groundwork for later
The Second Great Awakening resulted in
a series of Christian revivals throughout
Ministers like Charles Finney taught
individual responsibility for Christian
salvation and introduced the social gospel
(individuals could improve themselves and
Encouraged by the Second Great Awakening,
the Abolitionist movement led by free African
Americans like Frederick Douglass and
benevolent White Americans like William Lloyd
Garrison agitates for African Americans human
Using the press and anti-slavery societies,
abolitionists strive to appeal the America’s
The Temperance Movement, an offshoot of the
Women’s Rights Movement attempted to outlaw
Encouraged by the success of abolitionist
movement, the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention
was a meeting of women’s rights activists that
resulted in an agenda detailing of the rights of
women in American society.
The statement of women’s rights was called the
“Declaration of Sentiments.”
The Cult of Domesticity was a code of conduct
and social mores that affected women’s roles
and constricted their rights in American society.
Seneca Falls Convention
The code was heavily influenced by the
values of Victorian society.
Sisters and early women’s rights activists
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
decided to organize for the rights of
American women at London’s 1840 anti-
Creating a Nation
Jackson creates problems for Adams’s
The easing of property requirements for
voting greatly enlarges the electorate.
Jackson appeals to the common citizen.
Expanded suffrage helps Jackson win the
The Characteristics of Jacksonian
Indian Removal Act, the Nullification theory, the
The nullification theory was conceived by John
The theory held that states had the right to
nullify federal laws that violated state’s
Native Americans were never compensated or
restored to their traditional homelands.
The forced relocation was named the Trail of
Tears by Native Americans.
The spoils system was pioneered by
Jackson fired existing federal employees
and appointed his friends to their
positions. He called this “the spoils
The 1830 Indian Removal Act forced
Native Americans to abandon their
homelands and relocate to government-
Both critics and supporters of the Indian
Removal Act present compelling arguments
defending their positions.
Critics reject President Jackson’s claim that
removal offers Native Americans needed
protection from white settlers.
Jackson asserts that the Indian Removal Act
defuses the conflicts between state and federal
governments over the issue of Native
Westward Expansion fueled growth of
nationalism by increasing Americans
confidence in their government and national
identity as Americans.
1. Create a timeline of events of President
2. Summarize Jacksonian Democracy.
You will be given 30 minutes of class time to
complete this assignment.