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Engineering Licensing Procedures by Dietz 2005

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					                        ENGINEERING LICENSING PROCEDURES
                                       John D. Dietz
                                      13 June 2005
                           Civil and Environmental Engineering
                                University of Central Florida



REQUIREMENTS

Education Component

       Satisfied by BSE degree in Civil or Environmental Engineering from UCF (both degrees
       are ABET-accredited)

Examination Component

       Fundamentals of Engineering Exam (FE Exam)
             <      Also referred to as Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer in Training (EIT)
             <      Requires senior classification in (or graduation from) engineering
                    program

       Principles and Practice Exam (PE Exam)
               <      Requires completion of degree
               <      Requires successful completion of FE Exam
               <      Requires completion of four years of professional experience

Experience Component

       <       Four years of progressively responsible experience
       <       Evaluated for acceptability by state board

Continuing Education

       Required in many states (including Florida) to maintain license



RECIPROCITY BETWEEN STATES

Registration is by state - several state’s rights issues

       <       Independent evaluation of qualifying experience (e.g. credit for graduate
               degrees, military service, etc.)
       <       Eligibility for examinations - timing (e.g. completion of 4 years experience not
               required in all states)
       <       Eligibility for examinations - acceptable degrees (e.g. some states allow
               registration of engineering technology majors)
       <       Acceptable references, calculators
       <       Additional examination components (e.g. seismic exam in California)
       <       Continuing education required in some states
                                    Dietz 2000 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 1
Examinations are uniform throughout the U.S.

         Developed by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying
         (NCEES)

                       NCEES
                       P.O. Box 1686
                       Clemson, SC 29633-1686
                       1-800-250-3196
                       www.ncees.org

Trends

         <      Movement to greater uniformity among states
         <      Virtual portability between states in U.S.
         <      Movement to include other countries (NAFTA)
         <      More states adopting continuing education requirements
         <      Perennial discussion of Masters Degree as minimum requirement


EXAMINATION COMPOSITION

FE Exam

         <      Eight hour, multiple choice exam, no penalty for guessing
         <      120 questions in morning, 60 questions in afternoon
         <      Closed book, closed notes
         <      Supplied reference manual
         <      Different versions available, candidate choice
                <       Morning exam (general) is common to all exams
                <       Afternoon exam is discipline specific
                        <       General
                        <       Civil
                        <       Chemical
                        <       Electrical
                        <       Industrial
                        <       Mechanical
                        <       Environmental



PE Exam

         <      Eight hour, multiple choice exam
         <      Open book, open notes
         <      Discipline-specific, more than 20 different exams, including both civil and
                environmental
         <      Civil examination has five versions
                <       Common morning exam (breadth) with all topics, no choice exam (must
                        answer all questions)

                                   Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 2
             <      Five afternoon modules with specific discipline, candidate chooses
                    module
                    <       Geotech
                    <       Sanitary/environmental
                    <       Structures
                    <       Transportation
                    <       Water Resources
      <      Environmental examination has single version, no choice exam


FE EXAM ADMINISTRATION DETAILS

<     Offered twice per year - Fall (October) and Spring (April)
<     Offered at several locations in Florida on Saturday
<     Application to take FE Exam, must file application almost 6 months in advance

             Application submitted to State Board in Tallahassee

                    The Florida Board of Professional Engineers
                    2507 Callaway Road, Suite 200
                    Tallahassee, FL 32303-5268
                    850-521-0500
                    www.fbpe.org

Degree Requirements
      <      Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering graduation requirement to
             take (not pass) exam
      <      Not required by all departments in the College of Engineering
      <      May retake if fail, number of attempts may be limited by the State Board
      <      Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering may relax certain GPA
             requirements for graduation if pass FE (reduce minimum GPA in core from 2.25
             to 2.00)




                                Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 3
Fundamentals of Engineering Examination Specifications
(Effective October 2005)



MORNING SESSION

Topic Area                                                                        Approximate
                                                                                  Percentage of
                                                                                  Test Content

MATHEMATICS                                                                       15%

Analytic geometry; Integral calculus; Matrix operations; Roots of
equations; Vector analysis; Differential equations; Differential
calculus

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS                                            7%

Measures of central tendencies and dispersions (e.g., mean, mode,
standard deviation); Probability distributions (e.g. discrete,
continuous, normal, binomial); Conditional probabilities;
Estimation (e.g., point, confidence intervals) for a single mean;
Regression and curve fitting; Expected value (weighted average) in
decision-making; Hypothesis testing

CHEMISTRY                                                                         9%

Nomenclature; Oxidation and reduction; Periodic table; States of
matter; Acids and bases; Equations (e.g. stoichiometry);
Equilibrium; Metals and nonmetals

COMPUTERS                                                                         7%

Terminology (e.g., memory types, CPU, baud rates, Internet);
Spreadsheets (e.g. addresses, interpretation, ‘what if’, copying
formulas); Structured programming (e.g., assignment statements,
loops and branches, function calls)

ETHICS AND BUSINESS PRACTICES                                                     7%

Code of ethics (professional and technical societies); Agreements
and contracts; Ethical versus legal; Professional liability; Public
protection issues (e.g. licensing boards)

ENGINEERING ECONOMICS                                                             8%

Discounted cash flow (e.g., equivalence, PW, equivalent annual
FW, rate of return); Cost (e.g., incremental, average, sunk,
estimating); Analyses (e.g., breakeven, benefit-cost); Uncertainty
(e.g., expected value and risk)


                               Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 4
ENGINEERING MECHANICS (STATICS AND DYNAMICS)                                      10%

Resultants of force systems; Centroid of area; Concurrent force
systems; Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Frames and trusses; Area
moments of inertia; Linear motion (e.g., force, mass acceleration,
momentum); Angular motion (e.g., torque, inertia, acceleration,
momentum); Friction; Mass moments of inertia; Impulse and
momentum applied to particles and rigid bodies; Work, energy,
and power as applied to particles and rigid bodies

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS                                                             7%

Shear and moment diagrams; Stress types (e.g., normal, shear,
bending, torsion); Stress strain caused by axial loads, bending
loads, torsion, and shear; Deformations (e.g., axial, bending,
torsion); Combined stresses; Columns; Indeterminant analysis;
Plastic versus elastic deformation

MATERIAL PROPERTIES                                                               7%

Properties (chemical, electrical, mechanical, physical); Corrosion
mechanisms and control; Materials (engineered materials, ferrous
metals, non-ferrous metals)

FLUID MECHANICS                                                                   7%

Flow measurement; Fluid properties; Fluid statics; Energy,
impulse, and momentum equations; Pipe and other internal flow

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM                                                         9%

Charge, energy, current, voltage, power; Work done in moving a
charge in an electric field (relationship between voltage and work);
Force between charges; Current and voltage laws (Kirchhoff,
Ohm); Equivalent circuits (series, parallel); Capacitance and
inductance; Reactance and impedance, susceptance and
admittance; AC circuits; Basic complex algebra

THERMODYNAMICS                                                                    7%

Laws (e.g., 1st Law, 2nd Law); Energy, heat, and work; Availability
and reversibility; Cycles; Ideal gases; Mixture of gases; Phase
changes; Heat transfer; Properties of enthalpy and entropy




                               Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 5
Fundamentals of Engineering Examination Specifications
(Effective October 2005)



AFTERNOON SESSION - CIVIL ENGINEERING

Topic Area                                                                         Approximate
                                                                                   Percentage of
                                                                                   Test Content

SURVEYING                                                                          11%

Angles, distances and trigonometry; Area computations; Closure;
Coordinate systems (e.g., GPS, state plane); Curves (vertical and
horizontal); Earthwork and volume computations; Leveling (e.g.,
differential, elevations, percent grades)

HYDRAULICS AND HYDROLOGIC SYSTEMS                                                  12%

Basic hydrology (e.g., infiltration, rainfall, runoff, detention, flood
flows, watersheds); Basic hydraulics (e.g., Manning equation,
Bernoulli theorem, open channel flow, pipe flow); Pumping
systems (water and wastewater); Municipal water distribution
systems; Reservoirs (e.g., dams, routing, spillways); Groundwater
(e.g., flow, wells, drawdown); Sewer collection systems (storm and
sanitary)

SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATIONS                                                     15%

Index properties and soil classifications; Phase relations (air-
water-solid); Laboratory and field tests; Effective stress
(buoyancy); Retaining walls (e.g., active pressure/passive
pressure); Shear strength; Bearing capacity (cohesive and non-
cohesive); Foundation types (e.g., spread footings, piles, wall
footings, mats); Consolidation and differential settlement;
Seepage; Slope stability (e.g., fills, embankments, cuts, dams);
Soil stabilization (e.g., chemical additives, geosynthetics)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING                                                          12%

Water quality (ground and surface); Air quality; Solid/hazardous
waste; Sanitary sewer system loads; Basic tests (e.g., water,
wastewater, air); Environmental regulations; Water treatment and
wastewater treatment (e.g., primary, secondary, tertiary)

TRANSPORTATION                                                                     12%

Streets and highways (geometric design, pavement design,
intersection design); Traffic analysis and control (safety, capacity,
traffic flow, traffic control devices)

                                Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 6
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS                                                              10%

Force analysis of statically determinant beams, trusses and
frames; Deflection analysis of statically determinant beams,
trusses and frames; Stability analysis of beams, trusses and
frames; Column analysis (e.g., buckling, boundary conditions);
Loads and load paths (e.g., dead, live, moving); Elementary
statically indeterminate structures

STRUCTURAL DESIGN                                                                10%

Codes (e.g., AISC, ACI, NDS, AISI); Design procedures for steel
components (e.g., beams, columns, beam-columns, tension
members, connections); Design procedures for concrete
components (e.g., beams, slabs, columns, walls, footings)

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT                                                          10%

Procurement methods (e.g., design-build, design-bid-build,
qualifications based); Allocation of resources (e.g., labor,
equipment, materials, money, time); Contracts/contract law;
Project scheduling (e.g., CPM, PERT); Engineering economics;
Project management (e.g., owner/contractor/client relations,
safety); Construction estimating

MATERIALS                                                                        8%

Concrete mix design; Asphalt mix design; Test methods (e.g.,
steel, concrete, aggregates, asphalt); Properties of aggregates;
Engineering properties of metals




                              Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 7
Fundamentals of Engineering Examination Specifications
(Effective October 2005)



AFTERNOON SESSION - ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Topic Area                                                                       Approximate
                                                                                 Percentage of
                                                                                 Test Content

WATER RESOURCES                                                                  25%

Water distribution and wastewater collection; Water resources
planning; Hydrology and water shed processes; Fluid mechanics
and hydraulics

WATER AND WASTEWATER ENGINEERING                                                 30%

Water and wastewater; Environmental microbiology;ecology;
Environmental chemistry

AIR QUALITY ENGINEERING                                                          15%

Air quality standards and control technologies; Atmospheric
sciences

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE ENGINEERING                                            15%

Solid waste engineering; Hazardous waste engineering; Site
remediation; Geohydrology; Geotechnology

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT                                             15%

Industrial and occupational health and safety; Radiological health
and safety; Radioactive waste management; Environmental
monitoring and sampling; Pollutant fate and transport
(air/water/soil); Pollution prevention and waste minimization;
Environmental management systems




                              Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 8
Fundamentals of Engineering Examination Specifications
(Effective October 2005)

AFTERNOON SESSION - OTHER/GENERAL ENGINEERING

Topic Area                                                                        Approximate
                                                                                  Percentage of
                                                                                  Test Content

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS                                                  10%

Differential equations; Partial differential calculus; Numerical
solutions (e.g., differential equations, algebraic equations); Linear
algebra; Vector analysis

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS                                            9%

Sample distributions and sizes; Design of experiments;
Hypothesis testing; Goodness of fit (coefficient of correlation, chi
square); Estimation (e.g., point, confidence intervals) for two
means

BIOLOGY                                                                           5%

Cellular biology (e.g., structure, growth, cell organization);
Toxicology (e.g., human, environmental); Industrial hygiene (e.g.,
personnel protection equipment (PPE), carcinogens);
Bioprocessing (e.g., fermentation, waste treatment, digestion)

ENGINEERING ECONOMICS                                                             10%

Cost estimating; Project selection; Lease/buy/make; Replacement
analysis (e.g., optimal economic life)

APPLICATION OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS                                              13%

Stability analysis of beams, trusses, and frames; Deflection
analysis; Failure theory (e.g., static and dynamic); Failure analysis
(e.g., creep, fatigue, fracture, buckling)

ENGINEERING MATERIALS                                                             11%

Material properties of metals, plastics, composites, and concrete

FLUIDS                                                                            15%

Basic hydraulics (e.g., Manning equation, Bernoulli theorem, open
channel flow, pipe flow); Laminar and turbulent flow; Friction
losses (e.g., pipes, valves, fittings); Flow measurement;
Dimensionless numbers (e.g., Reynolds number); Fluid transport
systems (e.g., pipes, ducts, series/parallel operations); Pumps,
turbines and compressors; Lift/drag

                               Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 9
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM                                                         12%

Equivalent circuits (Norton, Thevenin); AC circuits (frequency
domain); Network analysis (Kirchhoff laws); RLC circuits; Sensors
and instrumentation; Electrical machines

THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER                                                  15%

Thermodynamic properties (e.g., entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity);
Thermodynamic processes (e.g., isothermal, adiabatic, reversible,
irreversible); Equations of state (ideal and real gases);
Conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer; Mass and
energy balances; Property and phase diagrams (e.g., T-s, h-P);
Tables of thermodynamic properties; Cyclic processes and
efficiency (e.g., refrigeration, power); Phase equilibrium and phase
change; Thermodynamic equilibrium; Combustion and combustion
products (e.g., CO, CO2, NOX, ash, particulates); Psychrometrics
(e.g., humidity)




                              Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 10
PASS/FAIL CONSIDERATIONS

Exam Purpose
     <     Identify minimally competent individual
     <     Distinguish between pass/fail, not A/B/C/D/F
     <     Very broad content, especially in general exam

Characteristics of Good Question

       <     “Items should be of such difficulty that they are answered correctly, on
             average, by approximately 70% of the first time examinees who graduated
             from an ABET accredited engineering degree program.”
       <     Time constraints acknowledged
       <     Equations provided in problem statement or supplied reference manual
       <     One or two-step calculations
       <     Knowledge vs. calculation
       <     Mixture of English and SI units, with movement towards increasing SI
             units

Exam Composition

       <     Approximately 25% brand new questions per exam, thus historical data
             available to assure questions with desirable performance characteristics
       <     Use of repeat block of questions (equators) to determine strength of
             candidate pool, facilitates setting of passing point

Pass Point Determination

   <   Passing point adjusted for difficulty of examination
   <   Passing point adjusted for strength of candidate pool
   <   Not a constant percentage of candidates that pass (pass rate data presented
       later)
   <   Not a constant score (percentage correct) to pass, usually passing score is about
       50% correct
   <   Passing score reported by NCEES to State Boards is 70
       < Does not mean 70% correct
       < Scores adjusted so that passing point is 70, individual scores are scaled up
           or down with a score of 100 implying 100% correct
       < Each point (out of 100) is usually worth about four points (out of 240 total, 1
           point for each morning question and 2 points for each afternoon question)
       < Each state has discretion to set passing score, Florida uses NCEES
           recommendation of 70 as passing score




                               Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 11
PASS RATE STATISTICS: CIVIL ENGINEERING MAJORS

                           Candidates Who Elected                                      Candidates Who Elected
                           Civil Afternoon Exam                                        General Afternoon Exam
                           October        April                                        October          April
                           1997           1998                                         1997             1998
ABET accredited degree     69%            72%                                          59%              64%
All examinees (civil)      61%            65%                                          56%              60%

Note: Higher pass rate for civil module


PERFORMANCE STATISTICS

Percent of questions answered correctly by Civil Engineering majors

General (morning)                     October 1997                       April 1998
  Chemistry                               70                                    48
  Computers                               43                                    53
  Dynamics                                62                                    49
  Electrical Circuits                     50                                    41
  Engineering Economics                   71                                    56
  Ethics                                  64                                    78
  Fluid Mechanics                         66                                    55
  Materials Science                       67                                    47
  Mathematics                             60                                    57
  Mechanics of Materials                  58                                    50
  Statics                                 64                                    53
  Thermodynamics                          49                                    44

Civil (afternoon)
   Computers/Numerical Methods                  43                                40
   Construction Management                      61                                63
   Environmental Engineering                    62                                44
   Hydraulics/Hydrology                         50                                41
   Legal/Professional Aspects                   75                                60
   Soil Mechanics/Foundations                   47                                42
   Structural Analysis                          58                                35
   Structural Design                            45                                30
   Surveying                                    50                                48
   Transportation Facilities                    45                                53
   Water Purification and Treatment             44                                47




                              Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 12
RECOMMENDATIONS

<   Obtain supplied reference manual from NCEES web site (www.ncees.org)
<   Use supplied reference manual as supplemental text in all courses
<   Evidence suggests higher pass rate on Civil (rather than General) afternoon exam
<   Focus on individual strengths (In my case, I would emphasize fluids (not circuits)
    etc.)
<   Exam becomes more difficult if you wait until after receipt of degree
<   Desirable to pass exam prior to entry into job market
    < Higher Salaries
    < Hiring Preferences




                               Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 13

				
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Description: June 2005 Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Central Florida REQUIREMENTS Education Component Satisfied by BSE degree in Civil or Environmental Engineering from UCF (both degrees are ABET-accredited) Examination Component Fundamentals of Engineering Exam (FE Exam % 7% Dietz 2005 Engineering Licensing Procedures Pg 5 Fundamentals of Engineering Examination Specifications (Effective October 2005) AFTERNOON SESSION - CIVIL ENGINEERING Topic Area Approximate Percentage