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					                      Norad


  Review of South Africa – Norway Tertiary
Education Development Programme (SANTED)


                  Final Report

                          By


             Stein Hansen (Team Leader)
          Nordic Consulting Group AS, Norway

                     Hugh Africa
         Hugh Africa & Associates, South Africa
                         and

                      Ad Boeren
                Nuffic, The Netherlands


                    Oslo, Norway


                  12. October 2005




                                                  1
                                         Foreword
Against a setting in 1999 where some of the historically disadvantaged tertiary education
institutions were in danger of being closed down due to a combination of poor administration,
worsening financial performance, declining financial support, inadequate human resources
management, and persistent polical instability with student protests and unrest, the
Norwegian Embassy indicated that it was prepared to fund a development programme to
support the transformation of higher education in South Africa. The initial task was to identify
a number of limited, but strategically important areas where it would be possible to assist the
South African authorities in reaching their goals. The projects should be institutionally
anchored. Three focal areas and four historically disadvantaged institutions were identified for
a set of project activities in the fields of (a) access for and retention of people from previously
disadvantaged groups, and (b) capacity building of historically disadvantaged institutions. In
addition, c) to support sub-regional cooperation in tertiary education between South African
universities and universities in other SADC countries as an integral part of the implementation
of the SADC protocol on higher education and training.

The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED) was
launched in November 2000 as a five-year programme with a tentative budget of NOK 54
million distributed between access and retention projects at two universities, capacity building
in the areas of finance, administration and human resources management for two others, and
initially four SADC cooperation projects.

As an integral part of the agreement, the Department of Education (DOE) and The Norwegian
Embassy in Pretoria decided to carry out an independent review covering the whole first
phase period of SANTED from 2001 to 2005 analysing and assessing the results in relation to
the objectives defined in the Business Plan of 28. November 2000, selected a Review Team
from Nordic Consulting Group AS, Oslo, with Stein Hansen as Team Leader, and with Ad
Boeren, Senior Policy Advisor at Nuffic Department for Human Resource and Institutional
Development, the Hague, Netherlands, and Professor Hugh Africa of South Africa, as Review
Team members. The Team conducted intensive meetings with the SANTED leadership and
administration, as well as with representative of project beneficiaries (e.g. university staff and
students from formerly disadvantaged groups) at the involved South African Universities and
Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) in Mozambique in mid-August 2005.

The Review Team is indebted to Derrick Young, SANTED Programme Director and Zamo
Shongwe, SANTED Programme Co-ordinator for their efficient and effective preparations
and organization of the field tour of the involved institutions, and for providing all the
background documentation. Furthermore, the Team in indebted to DOE and all the
universities involved, in particular to their SANTED coordinators/managers for their very
thorough planning, preparation and implementation of our intensive meetings with them, and
the careful preparation of presentations covering all the focus areas of relevance, and to the
affected stakeholders at each university for setting aside time to meet with the Review Team.

The findings, conclusions and recommendations in this report are those of the Review Team
and do not necessarily reflect those of Norad, DOE, SANTED or the involved universities.

Oslo, 12. October 2005
Stein Hansen, Team Leader



                                                                                                 2
                                               Table of Contents

Foreword............................................................................................................................ 2
Table of Contents ....................................................................................................... 3
List of Acronyms ........................................................................................................ 5
Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations ....................... 7
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................... 10
2. Focus of the Review – Comments to the ToR..................... 11
3. The Rationale for the SANTED Programme .......................... 12
       3.1  Post-Apartheid Restructuring of Higher Education in South Africa .................... 12
       3.2  The Deteriorating Development of Historically Disadvantaged Institutions ...... 13
       3.3  Focus Areas of Effort Identified as Crucial to Turn the Tide .............................. 14
       3.4  South Africa’s SADC Commitments in the Field of Education .......................... 14
       3.5  Complementarity and Synergy Between SANTED Focus Areas ........................ 15
4.       SANTED Organization and Implementation .......................... 16
       4.1  Programme Management ..................................................................................... 16
       4.2  Funds Administration ........................................................................................... 16
       4.3  Monitoring and Reporting Procedures ................................................................. 17
       4.4  Project Management Efficiency ........................................................................... 18
5.       Access and Retention Activities ..................................................... 18
       5.1. SANTED at the University of Western Cape ....................................................... 18
       5.2  University of Durban Westville/University of KwaZulu-Natal ........................... 23
       5.3  Lessons Learnt from the Access and Retention Projects ..................................... 26
6.       Institutional Capacity Building ......................................................... 27
       6.1  SANTED at University of Fort Hare .................................................................... 27
       6.2  SANTED at University of Zululand ..................................................................... 30
       6.3  Lessons from Capacity Building and Institutional Development ........................ 34
7.       Sub-regional Cooperation in SADC .............................................. 35
       7.1. Objective .............................................................................................................. 35
       7.2. Selection of projects ............................................................................................. 35
       7.3. Objectives of the SADC projects ......................................................................... 36
       7.4. Relevance ............................................................................................................. 37
       7.5. Effectiveness ........................................................................................................ 38
       7.6. Efficiency ............................................................................................................. 39
       7.7. Impact ................................................................................................................... 41
       7.8  Sustainability ........................................................................................................ 42
8.       SANTED Phase II .......................................................................................... 43
9.        Conclusions and Lessons Learnt .................................................. 45
       9.1  Access and Retention ........................................................................................... 45
       9.2  Institutional Capacity Building ............................................................................ 46
       9.3  The SADC Components of SANTED .................................................................. 46
       9.4  Overall Evaluation Conclusions ........................................................................... 48
10.       Recommendations ...................................................................................... 48
List of References .................................................................................................... 51
Annex 1: Terms of Reference for Programme Review ............. 54

                                                                                                                                       3
Annex 2: Questionaire for SADC Projects.......................................... 63
Annex 3: Itinerary for the Review Team 13-23 August 2005 65
Annex 4: Organization and Implementation of the Review .. 68
Annex 5: Higher Education: Priorities for 2005 Onwards ..... 71
Annex     6:     Equitable                       Access                     through                     Enrolment
Management Project at University of Western Cape ................. 74
Annex 7:     Upward Bound University-Wide Enrichment
Project and SANTED University Of Kwazulu-Natal Access
And Retention Project .......................................................................................... 88
Annex 8: SANTED University of Fort Hare Capacity
Building Project ......................................................................................................... 98
Annex 9: University of Zululand Organisational
Development Project ........................................................................................... 107
Annex 10: SANTED-University of Western Cape Review
Programme .................................................................................................................. 125
Annex 11: SANTED University of Fort Hare Review
Programme .................................................................................................................. 127
Annex 12: SANTED University of KwaZulu-Natal Review
Programme .................................................................................................................. 130
Annex 13: SANTED University of Zululand Review
Programme .................................................................................................................. 132
Annex 14: SANTED University of Witwatersrand Review
Programme .................................................................................................................. 133
Annex 15: Protocol on Education and Training in the
Southern African Development Community (SADC). ............. 134
Annex 16: SANTED – SADC Meetings held at
Witwatersrand           University                        and               Eduardo                       Mondlane
University, Mozambique ................................................................................... 138
Annex 17 : Achievements and implementation challenges
of the SADC projects........................................................................................... 139




                                                                                                                              4
                              List of Acronyms
APES        = Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences
CDP         = Career Development Programme
CEPD        = Centre for Education Policy Development
CHE         = Council of Higher Education
DAC         = Development Advisory Committe (OECD)
DOE         = Department of Education
EEP         = Employment Equity Plan
EHC         = Evelyne Hone College
HEQC        = Higher Education Quality Committee
HR          = Human Resources
ICT         = Information and Communication Technology
ITS         = Information Technology System
NCG         = Nordic Consulting Group AS
NCHE        = National Commission on Higher Education
NGO         = Non-governmental Organization
NEW         = NamibiaEduardoMondlaneWits
NOK         = Norwegian Kroner
NPHE        = National Plan for Higher Education
MoU          =Memorandum of Understanding
ODP          = Operations Development Plan
OECD         = Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development
PET          = Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Coop. with SADC Countries
PMC         = Project Management Committee
R           = South African Rand
RPL         = Reckognition of Prior Learning
RR          = Review Report
SA          = South Africa
SADC        = Southern African Development Community
SANTED      = South Africa – Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme
SASCO       = South African Students Volunteer Organisation
SIU         = Norwegian Center for International Coooperation in Higher Education
SP          = Strategic Plan
SRC         = Student Residences and Catering
SSD         = Student Services Department
SUKAR       = SANTED-UKZN Access and Retention Project
TLSP        = Teacher Learner Support Project
TOR         = Terms of Reference
UAN         = University Agostinho Neto
UBEP        = Upward Bound Enrichment Programme
UDW         = University of Durban Westville
UEM         = Universidad Eduardo Mondlane
UKZN        = University of Kwazulu-Natal
UWC         = University of Western Cape
UNAM        =University of Namibia
UNEP        = United Nations Environment Programme
UNISA       =University of South Africa
UNISA Project= Nurse Leadership Development in Angola
UNZA        =University of Zambia


                                                                                      5
UNIZUL   = University of Zululand
USD      = United States Dollar
VC       = Vice Chancellor
WITS     = Witwatersrand University
ZAWECA   = The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project




                                                 6
        Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions
The new South African dispensation ushered in by the political changes in 1994 meant that
the historical barriers that existed prior to 1994 were removed. In education students who
were formerly restricted to certain institutions, were free to apply to institutions of their
choice. As there was a determined drive to increase participation levels, the historically
disadvantaged institutions (HDIs) were the losers as students flocked to the historically
advantaged institutions (HAIs) Further, the HDIs had always been under resourced, and their
continued existence as competitive institutions of higher learning had to be addressed.
Towards the turn of the century the key challenges some South African higher institutions
confronted were prospects of downscaling because they were:

      Financially unstable,
      Delivered mainly low quality student outputs at all graduation levels,
      Were politically and managerially unstable, and
      Suffered persisent student protests (mostly related to institutional resource
       mismatches)

The overhaul of higher education in South Africa since 1999 coincided with a decrease in
state allocations to higher education institutions, and increasd businesstype demands made on
organizational efficiency and on internal operational structures.

The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED) project
was conceptualized and implemented at this juncture. It was launched in November 2000 as a
five-year programme with a tentative budget of NOK 54 million distributed between access
and retention projects at two universities, capacity building in the areas of finance,
administration and human resources management for two others, and initially four SADC
cooperation projects.

Institutions such as the University of the Western Cape, and the former University of Durban-
Westville now part of the merged University of KwaZulu-Natal, needed to re-conceptualise
their enrolment levels and strategies. The documented decline in their student enrolments had
serious adverse effects on their finances. At the time the government subsidy to institutions
was based on enrolment and completion rates. It was also calculated on the basis of the
previous two years’ enrolment which meant that a drastic decline in student enrolment meant
a significant decline in the subsidy payable to institutions. The DOE intervention with
SANTED funding in areas of access and retention was very important to create stability at the
University of Western Cape and the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Similarly, the intervention in the areas of capacity development at the universities of Zululand
and Fort-Hare was critical. Both these institutions were rural institutions and the recruitment and
retention of qualified staff, for example, in the areas of finance management, human resources,
administration and information technology is a constant challenge. The SANTED project
enabled these two institutions to provide training for the existing staff – thus empowering them
to take ownership for the transformative measures being implemented. This review finds that
institutions that are poorly prepared in terms of institutional capacity in the fields of finance,
administration and human resources management, face poor odds with regard to successful
implementation of access and retention activities.


                                                                                                 7
SANTED has provided the framework and mechanism for inter-institutional collaboration and
networking, among South African institutions, as well as institutions in the Southern Africa
Development Community (SADC). The SANTED funding was a sine qua non to undertake
collaborative activities within the SADC region. The main reason for this is the poor resource
base of the universities in the surrounding SADC countries. However, establishing good
working relationships between project partners took a long time and the formulation of the
business plans was time consuming. The proper embedding of project activities in existing
organizational structures and programmes is a key condition for effective implementation of
project activities and ensuring sustainability of the project results. This collaborative
relationship is supportive of the objective spelt out in the Ministry’s policy documents. All the
institutions visited during the review were enthusiastic about future collaborative ventures.

This review concludes that the SANTED programme is highly relevant in terms of areas
chosen and project components selected for implementation. SANTED is largely a demand
driven programme. It is effective in terms of goals achievement, and efficient in its
organization of implementation and monitoring because it combines the best of project and
budget support, and because of its outsourcing of day-to-day management of it from
Department of Education (DOE) to a Programme Secretariat.. Significant impacts have been
achieved in the areas stated as priority fields for turning around the deteriorating
administrative-, finance-, and human resources trends towards sustainable operations
observed at the SANTED-supported institutions. The three focus areas of SANTED have been
selected and formulated in such a way that they provide for exchanges of experience in ways
that can prevent reinvention of costly solutions. The SANTED Project Director has organized
the overall programme so as to facilitate such exchanges and mutual fertilization.

The Review Team concludes that had it not been for the Norwegian support, it would have
been very difficult to find other external support for the University of Fort Hare (UFH) and
University of Zululand (UNIZUL) reform projects, needed to turn around their precarious
situation. Similarly, in three of the four SADC sub-regional projects the inter-institutional
collaborations would most probably not have taken place without SANTED funding.

Recommendations

This review clearly shows significant progress along all SANTED dimensions during and
towards the end of this first phase. At the same time, each involved institution has clearly
shown where goals have been achieved and where there is still mileage to be covered
compared to to initially stated goals, in order to establish a resilient set of systems and
procedures for eliminating the historical disadvantages that these institutions and their
students have been facing. Thus SANTED still has an important mission and a Phase II is
thus recommended with a focus as follows:

   1. The Business Plan for SANTED II should be followed for the three focus areas, but
      with a slight change of budget emphasis from access and retention projects towards
      capacity development and SADC co-operation because: (a). UFH and UNIZUL will
      be much better prepared to undertake effective access and retention activities as a
      result of their capacity development activities during SANTED I, (b) SADC
      cooperation at the institutional level is more demanding than was originally envisaged.

   2. The SANTED Director must give this the highest priority in 2005 to making a well
      prepared process for selection of projects in line with the NPHE towards of a sound


                                                                                               8
   balance between continuation of old projects and provision for new initiatives,
   including a set of carefully developed NPHE-derived criteria and procedures for the
   selection of SADC projects. Funds must be allocated for this purpose in Phase II.

3. Some of the focus areas given increased emphasis in the SANTED II phase could be
   more management-intensive, and therefore the proposed allocation for management in
   the SANTED II Business Plan appears to make sense.

4. SANTED II needs to further develop the performance indicators to monitor each
   activity relative to a realistic “without SANTED II future”.

5. The Business Plan must display the projects’ institutional anchoring to secure
   stakeholder ownership of the projects, intra- and inter-institutional communication and
   networking so as to create for synergies to result.

6. SANTED II must take full advantage of the complementarities/synergies between
   access and retention activities; successful implementation of the former providing for
   easier achievement of the latter. Since much funding has been allocated to recapitalize
   UWC and to finance relocation of faculties and to secure the merger into the UKZN, it
   is recommended that the retention activities in SANTED II continue at these two
   institutions to secure sustainability.

7. The experience from access activities in SANTED I must be spread to other
   institutions for use in their access activity planning irrespective of SANTED funding.

8. Once the institutional capacity building at UNIZUL and UFH is well established and
   functional, access and retention activities are much more likely to succeed, and such
   proposals from these institutions should be judged from this perspective.

9. Capacity building projects should be expanded to provinces not included at present;
   e.g. Northern Cape. This however, needs to be worked out in details while assessing
   where the basic needs are and in what order the many different capacity needs ought to
   be addressed for effective and efficient implementation. SANTED II should consider
   direct DOE support to develop such projects in detail for subsequent implementation.

10. Continue the SADC component, and, if resources permit, expand its coverage in terms
    of participating institutions and disciplines. In relation to this, introduce a higher level
    of formalization of programme- and project procedures and practices.

11. Solicit external advice in the selection procedure of proposals when there are doubts
    about the feasibility of projects that are being proposed, and avoid adding projects to
    the SADC component on the basis of ad-hoc decisions rather than according to agreed
    assessment and selection procedures.

12. Consolidate the projects that show potential for establishing broad-based longer-term
    institutional collaboration by giving them the opportunity to further implement what
    they have initiated in Phase I. This specifically regards NEW and ZAWECA.

13. Design and implement a programme policy on payment of financial or non-financial
    benefits for the SADC partners involved in projects.


                                                                                              9
1.       Introduction
Towards the turn of the century some South African higher education institutions had to face
the prospect of down-scaling because they were:

        Financially unsustainable
        Delivered mainly low quality student outputs at all graduation levels,
        Were politically and managerially unstable, and
        Suffered persisent student protests (mostly related to institutional resource
         mismatches)

The overhaul of higher education in South Africa since 1999 coincided with a decrease in
state allocations to higher education institutions, increasd businesstype demands made on
organizational efficiency and on internal operational structures.

It was against this setting in 1999, that the Norwegian Embassy indicated that it was prepared
to fund a development programme to support the transformation of higher education in South
Africa. The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED)
was launched in November 2000 as a five-year programme with a tentative budget of NOK 54
million. Norad was responsible for the programme from the start, but in 2004 the Royal
Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) took over funding and decision making of it.

The initial SANTED task was to identify a number of limited, but strategically important
areas where it would be possible to assist the South African authorities in reaching their goals.
The projects should be institutionally anchored. The historically disadvantaged institutions
were identified as having the greatest need for assistance. Three focal areas were defined:

     -   access for and retention of people from previously disadvantaged groups
     -   capacity building of historically disadvantaged institutions
     -   sub-regional cooperation; implementation of the SADC protocol on higher education.

Two institutions were granted support under what were called student access and retention
projects. The “Equitable Access through Enrolment Management Project” at the University of
Western Cape (UWC) began in January 2001. The “Upward Bound University Wide Project”
at the University of Durban Westville (UDW) had effectively started in January 2000 with
support from other donors, and developed into an access and retention project (SUKAR)
when the merger with University of Natal into the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN)
materialized in January 2004. In 2002 a formative research project was added to these projects
including the above universities and University of Bergen. This project set is referred to as
Focus Area 1.

Faced with worsening indebtedness due to declining student numbers and poor fee recovery,
new mandates and mergers followed the release of the government’s restructuring plan for
higher education. Institutions in dire financial crisis and acute need of special assistance in
building the capacity for change, were facing possible closing down as a real alternative. Two
institutional projects, one at the UNIZUL and the other at UFH were selected as Focus Area
2. The aim was to develop the institutions’ capacity in financial management, administration
and planning, and in human resources management in ways suitable to the challenges of the
new era. These projects were launched in 2003.



                                                                                              10
The project’s Focus Area 3 was on institutional collaboration within the SADC region. It was
based on the SADC Protocol on Higher Education of 1997 and in response to outcome 4:
“Increased reqruitment of students from the Southern African Development Community
(SADC)” presented in the South Africa Government’s “National Plan for Higher Education”
of February 2001. In spite of the massive contribution to other SADC-countries by admitting
thousands of their students into South African universities at the same subsidized terms as
South African nationals, very little institutional university collaboration across national SADC
borders had resulted. This Area of Focus therefore was driven by the Department of
Education (DOE) as a strategic instrument for acceleration of South-South institutional
collaboration. Norway agreed to commit resources to this effort and it was decided to operate
as a set of pilot projects. After an open call for proposals, four out of 36 South African
universities were selected and SADC-cooperation projects were launched between 2002 and
2003.

DOE and the Norwegian Emabassy decided as an integral part of the agreement to carry out
an independent review covering the whole first phase period of SANTED from 2001 to 2005.
It shall analyse and assess the results in relation to the objectives defined in the Business Plan
of 28. November 2000.


2.     Focus of the Review – Comments to the ToR.
The issues covered by this review are described in chapter 1 above. The Terms of Reference
(ToR) is comprehensive (see Annex 1), clear and detailed in outlining what the review shall
concentrate on and how. It is more or less following the by now well established OECD DAC
evaluation criteria dimensions of (1) relevance, (2) effectiveness, (3) efficiency, (4)
sustainability, but not explicitly addressing dimension number 5: impact. However, impact is
addressed in the ToR under the heading of “effectiveness”.

The review surveys the achievements of the projects against planned outputs and expected
effects. Actors and factors which have influenced their achievement or non-achievement have
been analysed to the extent possible given availability of data and time for analysis. This has
been done by studying project documents and progress reports and by interviewing project
implementers and direct stakeholders, including academic and administrative staff as well as
affected students of the selected institutions.

One challenge – common to virtually all development cooperation programmes, including
SANTED – is the observation that little or no attempts were made from the outset to define a
counterfactual path of development, i.e. what would have happened in the fields of SANTED
project activities if the SANTED project had not materialized. Futhermore, there is the
question of would the SANTED funded activities have been implemented and within the same
time frame if the Norwegian funding had not materialized? Given the way the SANTED
project was designed and performance indicators to monitor it were chosen, such quantitative
counterfactual analysis will not be possible. Qualitative counterfactual considerations will be
a key issue based on the document reviews, responses to questionaire and questions and
interviews with the those responsible at the participating institutions and in DOE.

The implementers of the projects have been asked to give their opinion about the efficiency of
the rules and regulations of the programme, the management model, including financial
management, the organisation, administration effectiveness and coordination of SANTED.


                                                                                               11
As regards sustainability, project documents have been analysed and project implementers
questioned to find out to what extent the projects can be expected to achieve sustainable
results. In the case of the SADC sub-regional projects, the review assessed to what extent they
can be expected to result in sustainable multilateral and bilateral relationships with institutions
in neighbouring countries. Important indicators for sustainability in this respect are
commitment of staff and institutions, mutual benefits, adequate capacities for effective
collaboration, and financial resources.

The review has conducted a performance assessment of the three focus areas. Observed
variance in performance may to some extent be explained by differences in the genesis of the
projects, as well as by internal factors. Notwithstanding, differences in performance levels
may also be caused by internal organizational factors, such as institutional leadership and
commitment and human resource management. The reviewers have attempted to identify
factors that are influencing the performance levels of the projects in a positive or a negative
direction.

The review provides a survey of the performance levels of outputs/deliverables in terms of the
indicators for each of the projects as defined for the “Upward Bound” and “Equitable Access“
projects in the Business Plan. A challenge in this context has been the way these indicators
have been selected and defined by SANTED, and as a consequence has formed the basis for
formative research aimed at documenting performance and impact. But how do these
indicators compare to the performance levels nationally for universities and
technikons/intstitutes of technology.

Official DOE statistics show an impressive growth in the proportion of qualifications awarded
by South African universities to black learners. This proportion grew steadily from 37.1% in
1992 to 53.7% in 2001. The transformation of the technicon sector took place at an even
faster rate, growing from 24.7% in 1992 to 74.8% in 2001. At the same time the gender
distribution of awarded qualifications at all institutions shows the share of women learners
growing from 45.4% in 1992 to 54.4% in 2001. It is only in the fields of Engineering Sciences
and Technology (23.1%) that women are not in majority.


3.       The Rationale for the SANTED Programme
3.1      Post-Apartheid Restructuring of Higher Education in South Africa

In 1994, the democratically elected South African Government had a legacy of almost 50
years of apartheid legislation to repeal and amend. In order to deal with an irrationally
structured higher education system, a sound policy framework was needed. Consequently, a
Presidential Commission was established in 1995 (The National Commission on Higher
Education - NCHE) to recommend to government a new, rational and equitable higher
education system for South Africa. The NCHE reported its findings in August 1996 under the
title A New Policy Framework for Higher Education Transformation (NCHE, 1996). The
three central objectives on which the policy proposals were based are:

        Increased participation, with a focus on issues of redress and equality. The report
         emphasizes that greater numbers of students will have to be accommodated; and these
         students will be recruited from a broader base of social groups and classes;


                                                                                                12
      Greater responsiveness to societal interests and needs; and
      Increased cooperation and partnerships in the governance structures and operations of
       higher education.

The subsequent White Paper of April 1997, entitled A Programme for the Transformation of
Higher Education, highlighted the following principles upon which the new higher education
system would be based:

      equality and redress
      democratisation
      development
      quality
      efficiency
      academic freedom and institutional autonomy
      public accountability

The Higher Education Act was passed in late 1997 and was formulated around these
principles. The Branch of Higher Education (established in 1997) at the Department of
Education (DOE) has been addressing key areas of implementation of the Act.

From 1994 onwards, the total State budget to higher education increased from year to year.
However, it is acknowledged that increases may not have kept abreast with increases in real
costs and with increases in student numbers.In January 2000 the Minister of Education
indicated that the Council of Higher Education (CHE) should establish a Task Team to
conduct a far-reaching review of the higher education system. It should provide the Minister
with a set of concrete proposals concerning the shape and size of the higher education system.
The National Plan on Higher Education (NPHE), the Ministry's response to the CHE Report,
was released in February 2001. The NPHE outlined the framework and mechanisms for
implementing and realising the policy goals of the White Paper. The Ministry presented a
transformation and restructuring program for a new institutional landscape for higher
education in June 2002 (MOE 2002). Following the National Plan, the Cabinet approved the
Ministry’s proposals in December 2002 for the transformation and restructuring of the
institutional landscape of the higher education system so as to consolidate the higher
education institutions through mergers and incorporation.

3.2 The Deteriorating Development of Historically Disadvantaged
Institutions

By 2000 the slow rate of change indicated that the success of the transformation had been
limited. Some institutions were finding it difficult simply to survive, with many of them
operating in crisis mode, threatening the universities’ financial stability and demanding an
immediate response. There were a number of reasons for this:

      Most institutions experienced a drop in student numbers from 1995 to 1999, and this
       resulted in considerable financial stress, e.g. a 35% drop from 14,600 to less than
       9,500 at UWC,, in part since many formerly disadvantaged students could now apply
       for universities previously closed to them;




                                                                                           13
         The international and local private higher education market grew rapidly in South
          Africa in the period 1995-2000 and this impacted on the public higher education
          sector;
         Many students had difficulties paying the rising university student fees and many
          institutions accrued sizeable bad debts;
         Astute financial management was required during this period, yet many institutions,
          the historically disadvantaged universities in particular, suffered from a low level of
          expertise in this area;
         Many institutions experienced management problems at all levels during this period;
         The goal of greater cooperation in the sector, a theme that runs through all the policy
          documents, was virtually cancelled out by the increased competition between
          institutions for students and alternative funding sources.

A consequence of these developments was that the gap between the historically advantaged
and -disadvantaged institutions failed to diminish and may in fact have widened in some
cases. The Government’s plan of 2002 to restructure the sector aimed to erase this
institutional divide, and identified a need for special support to promote institutional
modernization.

In addition, measures of redress and changes to produce equal grounds for access to higher
education remained a challenge in democratic South Africa. Inequalities in access conditions
and differences in preparedness due to an inadequate high school system, which hindered
learners from formerly disadvantaged groups in taking the leap to university, were identified
as a major obstacle to equity in higher education.

3.3       Focus Areas of Effort Identified as Crucial to Turn the Tide

Turning the tide would require a broadbased approach. The deteriorating financial situation
due to dramatic losses of students to other institutions was magnified by the decrease in State
allocations to higher education institutions. The scale of the policy reforms included:

         the development of new schooling exit mechanisms,
         the introduction of state assured quality control methods,
         new programs and qualifications,
         shifting enrolment balances,
         new governance structures, and
         a search for efficient and high quality student throughput,

This generally resulted in immediate increased busines-type demands made on institutional
managers calling for organizational efficiency and on internal operational structures, i.e. a
change in managerial approach and attitudes of service providers.

3.4       South Africa’s SADC Commitments in the Field of Education

The SADC sub-regional component was included in the SANTED programme because it
gave both the South African government as well as Norad/Norwegian Embassy an
opportunity to actively pursue higher education collaboration in the SADC region. For both
organizations this was an area where they would like concrete results to be achieved.



                                                                                              14
The South African (SA) Government had undersigned the 1997 SADC Protocol on Education
and Training ( see Annex 15 for Article 7 of the Protocol which deals with higher education)
but lacked the funds to finance the implications of its recommendations. It was however
aware of the need to implement these collaborations for socio-economic, academic as well as
moral reasons. Collaboration contributes to institutional capacity building and human resource
development in the region. This was regarded as critical if SADC is to become a major social
and economic development bloc. The exchange of staff and students between SADC
institutions was expected to enrich educational experiences and broaden understandings of the
social, cultural, economic and political ties that underpin the peoples and countries of the
SADC. Collaboration with institutions in the SADC region may help the SA universities to
‘Africanize’ its curricula as the collaborations expose SA academics to the challenges,
conditions and realities of higher education in the wider region. The collaboration also gives
South Africa a chance to pay back some of the ‘moral debts’ to the countries that provided
assistance in the struggle against the apartheid regime.

Norway has actively supported the establishment of SADC and collaboration within the
region. Because of their thrust and outlook universities are bound to look for collaborations
with partners abroad and are therefore excellent vehicles for international collaboration.
However, universities in the SADC region usually engage in collaborations with counterparts
in the Northern hemisphere, either because they want to link up with renowned institutions
which give them access to highbrow research collaborations and publication possibilities, or
because they are linked to Northern partners in the framework of development cooperation
programmes. Hence cooperation with partners in the region is not a priority for the well-
established SAuniversities and not a reality for the weaker SADC institutions. The SANTED
programme can actually change this as it focuses on collaboration within the SADC region
and provides the funds to do it.

3.5    Complementarity and Synergy Between SANTED Focus Areas

The three focus areas of SANTED have been selected and formulated in such a way that they
provide for exchanges of experience in ways that can prevent reinvention of costly solutions.
The SANTED Project Director has organized the overall programme so as to facilitate such
exchanges and mutual fertilization. For example, the access and retention experience from its
implementation at UWC during this first SANTED phase has not only led to a clear focus on
retention as the priority area of the next phase, it has also benefitted UKZN, where they had
a more difficult starting up situation and had to undergo a difficult merger while trying to
implement their Upward Bound project components and subsequently the follow up SUKAR
project (see chapter 5.3 for a detailed discussion). The dialogue with UWC has been clearly
beneficial for UKZN during this transformation phase. Furthermore, both UFH and UNIZUL
have benefitted from mutual dialogue in the planning and implementation of their institutional
capacity projects; both as regards project components to be included and how to implement
and mainstream them. In addition, the Project Director has facilitated and stimulated a
dialogue and exchange of experience on how to go about the focus area challenges between
UWC and UKZN on the one hand and UFH and UNIZUL on the other, because there are
clear complementarities and interdependencies of such a nature that the likely success of
access and retention activities is signifcantly improved with successful implementation of
institutional upgrading and capacity building in the areas of finance, administration and
human resources management. Finally, institutional cooperation between the selected SA
universities and those selected in other SADC member countries is also benefitting from the
SANTED-facilitated exchange of experience in implementing these arrangements.


                                                                                           15
4.     SANTED Organization and Implementation
4.1    Programme Management

The Higher Education Branch of the DOE is responsible for the implementation of the
Programme under the Management Support Directorate. The CEPD (Centre for Education
Policy Development, Management and Evaluation) which is an NGO to which the DOE
outsources project and policy analysis, acts as the managing agency and charges an
administration fee to administer the SANTED funds.

A Programme Director approved by the DOE manages the programme located in CEPD with
the necessary administrative support. The Programme Director is responsible for managing
and co-ordinating all aspects of the programme on a day to day basis. This includes regular
field visits to the institutions benefiting from the programme. When the SADC projects and
the UNIZUL project came on line at the end of 2002, a secretary position was added to handle
logistics and travel arrangements. This position was later upgraded to Programme
Coordinator. As of lately, a planning officer and a programme secretary have been added so
that both the completion of SANTED Phase I and the planning of Phase II can be conducted
effectively.

The SANTED institutions report formally to the Programme Director at least twice a year.
The reports are both narrative and financial. The institutions are responsible for executing the
approved projects in accordance with the approved project proposals and budgets, the socalled
business plans. Continued funding support for the projects is dependent on satisfactory
implementation of the projects and adequate reporting and accountability structures being in
place at the institutions.

The Programme Director reports regularly to the DOE. The DOE has an Advisory Committee,
spesifically established for the SDAC projects. It includes representatives from the Higher
Education Branch and such external persons that may be deemed appropriate. The Advisory
Committee has advised the DOE on SADC projects to be included in the programme.

The Review Team was surprised that in the final selection of projects and the approval of the
business plans the DOE had to solicit the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The Review
Team assumed that in a delegated programme like SANTED, the DOE would carry the full
responsibility for the proper implementation of the programme including the selection of
projects and partners. However, when asked about this by the Review Team, the DOE
expressed not to have any problems with the management arrangements in the programme. As
a matter of fact, the relationship between the DOE and the Norwegian Embassy has been
exemplary and the discussions about projects and partners between DOE, the SANTED
Office and the staff at the Norwegian Embassy had been very constructive and fruitful.

4.2    Funds Administration

The SANTED funding from Norway (initially administered by Norad, but in 2004 the
programme responsibility transferred to Norway’s MFA) is allocated as follows.




                                                                                             16
        Table 4.1.   Norad funding fo SANTED projects 2001-2005 (‘000 Rand)
Cost Item                           2001    2002      2003      2004    2005
                                                                        budget
Durban Westville UBEP             3,784    2,528        587       91         -
UKZN SUKAR                           -       -           -     2,224      1,112
UWC Access and Retention          1,945    2,748      2,061    2,146      1,984
Regional Cooperation (SADC)            3     597      1,730    5,312      4,226
Capacity building (UFH, UNIZUL)        3       3      4,419    4,900      1,519
Formative research                     6     685      1,060    1,200      1,070
Management and administration       668      806      1,325    1,384      1,463
Total                             6,409    7,367    10,491 17,258        11,374
Source: SANTED Project Office

CEPD is an experienced fund management NGO to which DOE outsources fund management
tasks. In the case of SANTED CEPD was contracted to manage the fund for R1.1 million over
the five year project period, equivalent to approximately 2% of the overall SANTED funding.
.
The Signed Business Plan of November 28th. 2000 states that DOE shall submit a written
request for disbursement under the SANTED Grant twice a year. The requests are based upon
approved and revised workplans and budgets for the coming year and accompanied by a
statement of accounts certified by the Director General of DOE. Transfer of the funds to a
separate account operated by the CEPD then takes place upon Norad’s approval of the
request, and CEPD immediately acknowledges the receipt of the funds, and starts disbursing
according to the programme budget on instruction from the DOE.

The participating institutions are responsible for applying their own regulations and standing
orders that are made in terms of the approved project budgets. The DOE follows departmental
procurement procedures , and the CEPD follows standard CEPD procurement procedures.

4.3    Monitoring and Reporting Procedures

The projects have developed a comprehensive set of performance indicators for monitoring,
and these are reported on in annual progress reports, but they report both narrative and
financial to the Programme Director every four months, and he undertakes regular visits to the
institutions benefitting from the programme. For the two access and retention projects such
visits occurred every other month over the five year project period. For the two capacity
building projects such visits took place on a monthly basis over the two year duration of the
project. For the SADC projects each one had an annual visit from the Programme Director to
the SADC country institution, whereas visits to the cooperating South African institutions
were coordinated with other visits to these institutions in order to save on the travel costs.

The CEPD submits half-yearly financial reports to the DOE, and the Programme Director
submits an annual report to the DOE. The DOE then submits annual progress and financial
reports signed by the Director General to the Norwegian Embassy for Norway’s MFA (until
2004 Norad was the responsible Norwegian party), and the DOE submits an annual audit of
the project acount to Norway’s MFA. The cost of the audit is covered by the Grant. Once a
year, the DOE calls for and chairs the Annual Programme Meeting. Norway’s MFA is then
represented by the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria.




                                                                                           17
4.4      Project Management Efficiency

Locating the project office with the established and well-functioning CEPD is claimed to have
saved significantly in startup costs and provided for smooth project management and
monitoring with minimal delays since the CEPD procedures are much simpler and less time
consuming than those of DOE. While one may have considered establishing an independent
project office infrastructure for a long term (e.g. ten years) activity, it was considered more
cost-efficient for a five year operation to use the premises and infrastructure of an existing
NGO with a lean bureacracy where relationship building was made much easier and quicker.
At the same time, CEPD had their own audits, which under any circumstances were
supplemented by that of the Auditor General.

In the case of SANTED, administration and programme management was originally budgeted
to be 14% of overall costs (including the 2% fund management payment to CEPD). This,
however, has gradually been reduced around 10.8%, including the 2% fund management fee
to CEPD. This percentage is considerably higher than what Nuffic of the Netherlands gets on
its contracts (6.2%), and what SIU charges for managing the Norad Fellowship Programme.
UNEP charges around 7-8% for managing the Framework agreement projects, and that is over
and above the core financing of UNEP. Even if it seems high from this comparison, one has to
reckognize that there are vast differences in the nature of the above programmes in terms of
their administration intensity. A direct comparison of managment cost percentages is
therefore not possible. It would be reasonable to assume that an innovative and reformative
approach to access, retention and institutional capacity upgrading at established but poorly
performing universities, and piloted sub-regional institutional collaborative arrangements,
would be rather demanding of administrative coordination and monitoring resources
compared to many of the above mentioned programmes for which administrative costs are
referred.The Review Team thus has no reason to conclude that programme management is
cost inefficient.

5.       Access and Retention Activities
5.1.     SANTED at the University of Western Cape1

5.1.1 Background
The University of the Western Cape (UWC), located in the greater Cape Town metropolitan
area, was established in 1960 to serve the needs of the people classified ‘Coloured’ by the
apartheid regime. Today UWC is one of only three historically disadvantaged universities
singled out by resolution of the Cabinet to retain its autonomous university status, and is a
medium-sized university. Following a period of rapid decline in the late 1990’s, student
enrolments grew dramatically since 2000 until it was voluntarily capped at below 15000.

Internally over the past years UWC experienced severe fiscal constraints, dwindling student
numbers, an exodus of staff and cumulative under-funding that led to backlogs in
maintenance and renewal that began to compromise the teaching, learning, research and
quality of campus life. It also affected its ability to respond efficiently to emerging
opportunities. The sense of urgency among institutional decision-makers to move the
institution to an academically and financially viable position as well as the leadership team’s

1
  A detailed account of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of this project is shown in
the Synopsis report in Annex 6. The text in chapter 5.1 thus presents key findings


                                                                                                                18
confidence in the university’s strategic direction has stabilised and positioned UWC
favourably. Effective from 2005 the university has been fully recapitalised, and all short-term
debt has been eliminated.

5.1.2 Relevance
The SANTED project, entitled “Equitable Access through Enrolment Management”, forms
part of UWC’s broader enrolment strategy. The project was conceptualised as part of an
extensive strategic planning exercise in 1999 and 2000 and the actual roll-out coincided with
its five year horizon (2001-2005). Generally, the project responded to an area of vulnerability
when student numbers declined dramatically, student debt escalated, public confidence in
UWC was at an all time low and these factors threatened the academic and financial viability
of the university. The project was designed to assist, to stabilise and manage the overall size
and shape of the university, support student development, and address issues of quality,
efficiency and finance (tuition and subsidy) based on a coherent and well-planned
participation strategy. As such it must be concluded that the project is HIGHLY RELEVANT.

5.1.3 Effectiveness
The target audience of this project has been
    a) Prospective Grade 12 learners,
    b) Current students,
    c) The further education sector educators,
    d) University staff members.

To meet their demands, the SANTED-project is comprised of the following eight
components:
   1. Increase access to higher education for disadvantaged learners by providing advice
      and subject-specific support to grade 12 learners and school teachers,
   2. Widen access to non-traditional learners through the recognition of prior learning and
      testing for academic potential,
   3. Improve retention, throughput and graduation rates of students through tracking, early
      warning systems and academic support,
   4. Conduct formative research, linking pertinent information to planning and strategic
      management,
   5. Grow the post-graduate enrolments through work-study arrangements linked to
      strategic goal attainment,
   6. Provide professional administrative and support services to improve satisfaction level
      and quality of campus life,
   7. Foster reciprocal open communication and culture of information-sharing with internal
      and externalconstituencies, and
   8. Increase employability of graduates through carer development and graduate job
      placement opportunities.

These components appear to have been carefully selected based on identified stakeholder
needs and on the basis of observed gaps between goals and what was considered achievable
prior to the SANTED opportunity appeared. Furthermore, the components have been selected
and designed so that they complement and reinforce each other. Furthermore, each component
has been clearly formulated from an operational implementation perspective. This is also
reflected in the way UWC has organized to manage the overall project.




                                                                                            19
Given the change in national and institutional context over the period of the project, it was
necessary to adopt a flexible approach to implementation of the project, and to annually
reflect on objectives and implementation for the year. Receptivity to change was at the very
heart of the project. Difficulties included the fact that all initiatives were new interventions,
cross-faculty and across portfolios, were complex, slow to take root and extremely time
intensive. It also required buy-in from all relevant stakeholders and complex project
management skills which had to be applied at all layers of the university’s hierarchy. The
support of leadership mitigated most of the risks in these areas.

In the main, all components started in the first year, although the project funding of the
different components varied from two years to the full five years. In cases where planned
project funding came to an end the university opted to sustain the activities, phased in its
funding and institutionalised it where appropriate. The project was organized to provide for
considerable organizational learning and it has achieved this goal. Failures in sub-projects
were detected and immediately addressed, and all sub-projects operated alongside existing
faculty or student support initiatives, complemented these and therefore provided for
transparent and effective institutional management In conclusion therefore, this review finds
that the UWC equitable access and retention project has been HIGHLY EFFECTIVE.

5.1.4 Efficiency
The project is coordinated by a full-time Project Manager who reports directly to the
Institutional Planner and Executive Assistant to the Rector. A component manager was
appointed within each of the components. The project was never designed as a stand-alone but
firmly integrated to blend into existing management and governance structures with the
respective executive managers accepting responsibility for its roll-out. A project board was
established to coordinate more complex components that straddled across academic and
administrative executive portfolios.

Central management of financial aspects of the project allowed for stringent financial
principles and practices to be followed, which facilitated the auditing process as no
transaction could take place without the authorization of the project office. However, the
involvement with financial management uncovered for the project an array of difficulties in
terms of processes and timeous information and highlighted the need to integrate the
information from UWC’s disparate systems. This has proved to be a major challenge as the
institution has different legacy systems, one for its HR function and another for its Financial
transactions. The different systems make it difficult to have a single version of the “truth”.

The project has assisted the university to align its combined institutional and project
objectives with UWC’s annual budgets and performance expectations. In cases where project
funding ended, the university sustained such activities beyond the funding cycle. It appears
from this review that in spite of the reported difficulties and remaining challenges the project
implementation has been HIGHLY EFFICIENT.

5.1.5 Impact2
Much individual as well as organisational learning has occurred within and as a result of this
project, and a culture of monitoring and evaluation emerged. Typical of the UWC-SANTED
components is the close monitoring, focus on detecting weaknesses early on, and transparent
reporting of progress or lack thereof. UWC adopted a set of monitoring indicators for this

2
    The detailed impact presentation for each sub-component is presented in Annex 6.


                                                                                              20
purpose, but have gradually come to realize that not all impacts can be attributed to SANTED
alone. However, there can be little doubt that SANTED was crucial for launching such
ambitious and comprehensive project packages at a time when the financial situation of UWC
could have suggested a more cautious strategy. With the gradual improvement of the UWC
finances, isolated quantification of the SANTED impact is in fact virtually impossible, since
UWC has prepared back up contingency plans for sustained operation of their high priority
commitments to these projects.

Teacher and Learner Support (TLSP): Within two years of project initiation UWC has
been able to stabilise student enrolments, increase the pool and quality of intake of first time
entering students and to attract fee paying students. Through this community outreach and
educational support initiatives UWC also restored its relationship and confidence levels with
feeder schools and raised the aspiration levels of learners to proceed to degree studies. More
learners from these schools opted to do Maths and Physics at higher grade level and the
support enable teachers and learners to complete their curriculum on time. The project
recruited experienced teachers to be utilised on the program to enhance competencies of
Grade 12 learners within the areas of mathematics and physical science in the main. In areas
where the support was provided on the school’s site, the local communities owned the project
with greater appreciation.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): The project saw the first intake of RPL students to
provide non-traditional students with a second-chance to access Higher Education (HE). This
category of students performed exceptionally well, often outperforming the students who
gained entry via the normal route.

Academic and Profesional Support has covered three sub-components:
Identifying students at risk became a fully-fledged project in 2003, and has, among others,
already lead to a significant improvement in throughput. Academic Support to undergraduate
students provides much needed interdisciplinary, cross-curricular academic development
support to undergraduate as well as postgraduate students. Academic support to post-graduate
students addresses the difficulties that students and supervisors experience that hamper their
progress. For example, HIV/AIDS has had impacts on the enrolment patterns and more
particularly on the success of students, as well as the retention rate of students.

Under the Postgraduate Enrolment and Throughput (PET) project component, various
study guides have been published and disseminated, and the postgraduate administrative
procedures streamlined. The project has assisted the institution to create a framework in
which students can find support, which attends to common difficulties such as isolation and
inadequate advising, and promotes academic collaboration and mentorship.

Component Mangement and Institutional Research includes Coordination and
management. Much individual as well as organisational learning has occurred within and as a
result of this project, and a culture of monitoring and evaluation emerged. Institutional
Research has initiated many surveys and has instituted a culture of self reflection, and self
assessment.

Through the Internship and Workstudy Component 160 masters and doctoral students
were assisted with much needed financial assistance and work related experience and skills.




                                                                                             21
UWC uses SANTED to ensure Effective and Efficient Student Services and has developed
a central marks administration system for tracking purposes. It has also purchased a central
timetabling package to ensure effective and efficient organisation and implementation of the
examination timetable.

The Career Development Progeramme (CDP) provided the framework for campus-wide
career related projects, initiatives and activities in order to facilitate students’ progression into
the world of work. In 2005 a Director of Public Affairs was appointed who is also tasked
with building relationships with the institutions alumni, but it does not yet have a vibrant or
any kind of relationship that is sustainable with its alumni. This lack of relationship implies
that many opportunities for the institution and its students are lost, as alumni often support
their own institution when recruiting students or donating funds.

While some among the sub-projects had to be re-designed and some elements given up along
the way, the vast majority of the eight SANTED components have been implemented and
achieved or overachieved the initially agreed goals. Due to the complementarity and
interdependencies between many of these components, significant synergies resulted. It must
be added that the Review Team also finds that the access and retention activities implemented
at the same time have implied a significant amount of student- and staff-oriented institutional
capacity building to better meet the stakeholder demands.

Given the constrained precarious financial situation UWC was in at the time of the SANTED
initiative, the access and retention projects could not have been initiated and implemented on
such a broad scale during this period without donor funding. It is not at all clear that other
donor were prepared to support these UWC initiatives at the time and as developed by UWC.
The overall conclusion of this review is that the SANTED project has provided genuine value
added. THE IMPACTS HAVE BEEN MOST IMPRESSIVE.

5.1.6 Sustainbility
Effective from 2005 UWC has been fully recapitalised, and all short-term debt has been
eliminated. Within two years of equitable access project initiation UWC has been able to
stabilise student enrolments, increase the pool and quality of intake of first time entering
students and to attract fee paying students. The RPL component received financial support
from the project for the first two years of its life span, and thereafter the institution opted to
sustain it by providing financial support.

The PET project has since 2004 budgeted for the activities within the project. The PET
director has also been incorporated into the various committee structures that deal with
postgraduate issues. The challenge in the coming years is to increase the quality of students
with retention measures and to attract an increasing share of graduate and post-graduate
students, because the revised DOE funding scheme favours post-graduates.

UWC appears to have established itself on a sustainable path for providing higher education
for the student categories it is targeting. Strict and transparent management both financially
and academically as well being student needs focused now characterizes the institution.

5.1.7 Valuable lessons for wider dissemination and adoption
The following are some main conclusions and lessons learnt from SANTED at UWC::




                                                                                                  22
        The project structure is innovative and unconventional. Its link to all executive
         portfolios gave it high prominence and secured the sustainability of the different
         components and alignment to current strategic thinking.
        The project has facilitated processes to work across functional silos, and aspects of
         each of the access strategies have become institutionalised. The institution has
         prioritised, and hence supported these with resources - both financial and human.
        Given the hierarchical nature of the institution, it is essential that the most senior
         person takes responsibility for the initiative and implementation.The project model
         enabled UWC to quickly ascertain this to take place.
        Central management of financial aspects of the project allowed for stringent financial
         principles and practices to be followed, which facilitated the auditing process as no
         transaction could take place without the authorization of the project office.
        The project spearheaded a shift in the way in which the institution employs its
         workstudy students, now linking their experience to match their formal skills acquired
         hence giving them real work experience as opposed to menial work experience.
        Through the project good relationships evolved with the leadership, while internal
         collaboration with internal stakeholders developed positively. An unintended
         consequence of one of the access strategies to attract a better candidate pool of top
         achievers lad to a rapidly changing race profile at UWC.
        As enrolment management becomes a key instrument in guiding national strategy, the
         project paved the way for a much more sophisticated way of student enrolment
         management and student development. This would encompass student processes from
         prospective students, through their studies to their alumni status.

In spite of the impressive goals, achievements and progress made, much work is still required
to change the business culture and processes to be more service orientated and to live up to
the challenge of a post-apartheid modern higher education institution.

5.2      University of Durban Westville/University of KwaZulu-Natal3

5.2.1 Background
The five year trajectory of Upward Bound Enrichment Project (UBEP) involves the
University of Durban-Westville (UDW), where the project originated and ran for four years;
and the new University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), which came into being at the start of
2004 through a merger of the UDW with the former University of Natal. In the context of the
merger, the original UBEP project, too, became part of a broader project; the SANTED
UKZN Access and Retention Project (SUKAR) at the merged institution. This review
therefore begins with a consideration of UBEP (2000 – 2003), and then moves on to SUKAR
(2004 – mid 2005).

UDW was one of the first to open itself to Black African students, and call for social and
educational redress. From the mid 1990s, however, UDW was characterized by high levels of
internal instability, labour unrest and leadership turmoil. It was within this context that UBEP
was conceived, planned, launched in 1999, and implemented, as part of the Vice Chansellor’s
(VC) transformatory vision for UDW. By the time SANTED became involved in funding
UBEP (in 2000), an initial survey into competencies and deficiencies of the target group of
learners, as well as a pilot Summer School (1999) had already been completed and materials

3
  See Annex 7 for a detailed synopsis of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impacts, lessons learnt and
recommendations from the UBEP/SUKAR project.


                                                                                                             23
development was being undertaken. Hence SANTED funding became directed towards the
Intervention Phase, the Summer and Winter Schools linked to the University’s strategic plan,
with the endorsement of the DOE. Yet for a variety of reasons, considered below, the vision
was realized only in part, see Annex 7 for detailed analysis and review.

5.2.2 Relevance
One of the problems facing South African higher education institutions in the 1990s was a
dramatic rise in the number of Black students entering university from rural areas and
townships, and how to cater better to their needs. UBEP was a major intervention, designed to
offer school-level assistance to learners in Grades 10, 11 and 12 and continued support for
them once they were admitted to the university. Accordingly, the focus of the programme was
on improving access, success and retention. The detailed objectives of the UBEP (see Annex
7, subchapter 4.1) combined four aspects: ‘marketing’ UDW to schools; preparing and
recruiting school learners for university studies; promoting participatory pedagogy in schools;
and, within the university, transforming curriculum and teaching to be better attuned to the
South African society and disadvantaged communities. In other words, UBEP was HIGHLY
RELEVANT from an access and retention perspective.

5.2.3 Effectiveness
UBEP was a complex and carefully conceptualised programme with the potential for
substantial transformatory impact, both on the learners, and on the University community
broadly. Its roll-out was intended as incremental, beginning with an initial survey to identify
the strengths and weaknesses of the learners, and following this with a substantial
intervention phase, the Summer and Winter Schools. With these learners were to be
positioned for success in Matriculation exams and for entry into higher education. Registering
substantially increased numbers of learners from disadvantaged schools would in turn have
considerable impact on mainstream curricula, for the project envisaged that UBEP entrants
would be monitored and supported, during their studies at UDW, for a further two years.

The roll-out of the Summer and Winter Schools evoked an extremely positive response in the
participants, but became fraught with very substantial logistical problems, and, at the same
time, was impacted on by the more general campus turmoil. As a result, during 2002 and
2003 UBEP energies focused increasingly on the Summer and Winter Schools. The intended
additional focus on mainstream curricula was largely lost sight of. In this way, UBEP was in
danger of failing to realise its intended transformatory potential for the university as a whole.
At this point, the merger offered an opportunity for something of a renewal: The SUKAR
project (May 2004) emerged through a process of reflection on the partial failure of UBEP, a
revisiting of the original UBEP goals in the context of the merged university. It resulted in a
much more explicit focus on retention issues and ‘mainstream’ curricula.

It is the conclusion of this review that while the effectiveness in reaching the learners turned
out to be only partial, it was rather high in terms of the achievements of the teacher
workshops.

5.2.4 Efficiency
Difficulties experienced were primarily logistical. Given that capacity development was
included in the project’s goals, many staff (including project leadership) had to learn ‘on the
job’. The logistical difficulties inherent in running a two-week residential programme for
2000 teenaged learners (many of whom were experiencing an urban area for the first time)



                                                                                              24
were clearly immense. Nevertheless, progress was made; and the 2002 schools (in terms of
project management) were a clear improvement on 2000 and 2001.
Modifications and a gradual scaling down to match the UKZN-capacity for sound
implementation were introduced into project management and running from 2001 onwards
(see Annex 7 for more details of main activities). However, a core weakness of UBEP was
that of the Project Director reporting direct to the Vice-Chancellor, thus bypassing the Deans,
who remained largely unaware of UBEP. This was changed with SUKAR, which in addition
to a greatly scaled-down UBEP. included:
     A ‘test development project’, with the specific goal of identifying students with
        potential from disadvantaged schools. In team-work with other institutions of higher
        learning, a new entrance and placement test has been developed and trailed,
     Redevelopment of ‘merged’ foundation programmes in Science and in the
        Humanities, all existing teaching materials have been substantially reworked.
     Initiation of approximately 20 disciplinary-based retention projects in Science and the
        Humanities;
     Initiation of an institutional access and retention research project, which includes
        ongoing tracking of student performance;

Major difficulties were also experienced in the financial management of the project, with
financial reports and audits either not appearing, or appearing after substantial delays. These
matters were only resolved with the introduction of stringent financial management with the
SUKAR project.

While efficiency was UNSATISFACTORY during the UBEP phase at UDW, it clearly
improved during the SUKAR phase at UKZN.

5.2.5 Impacts
Such a programme brought with it enormous logistical challenges, especially as, following on
the initial pilot with 500 learners, the target for each Summer/Winter School was set at 2000
learners, with well over 100 schools participating. For five years (2000 to 2004), ongoing
contacts were maintained with the over 100 participating schools, regular Summer and Winter
Schools were held at UDW, substantial numbers of learners attended UBEP over the five
years; and in most cases responded to the project with considerable enthusiasm; on surveys
they rated their learning and increased knowledge highly.

The impact of the project on the learners involved cannot be solely judged in terms of the
learners who registered for higher education (one of the specified performance indicators).
For one, even if they did not register as intended by the UBEP, they are likely to come out
better prepared than otherwise. Furthermore, many learners with a disadvantaged background
chose to apply to institutions that were not previously open to them.

A further achievement of UBEP has been its impact on participating schools, and on the
teachers at these schools. From the outset, up to 50% of the UBEP tutors were teachers from
local schools, who benefited from the preparatory training sessions for all tutors.

The SUKAR project, into which UBEP was integrated from 2004 on, took as its theme
‘Learning from Upward Bound’ and drew extensively on the above points in its project
conceptualisation. In working towards these specific projects, SUKAR has furthermore
enabled fruitful working relationships to develop between staff at the two merging
universities, and in this way has made a substantial contribution to the success of the merger.


                                                                                            25
Impacts of both the learner- and teacher oriented components were far below expectations
from the start of UBEP, but improved gradually and with the more stable SUKAR setting
became significant.

5.2.6 Sustainability
UBEP evolved and developed in a setting that could not provide for sustainability. Between
2003 and 2004, due to the above listed substantial difficulties and the fraught situation of
university politics, UBEP was placed in a holding phase. Following the merger and staff
reorganization, with the project being transformed into SUKAR, the sustainability outlook is
much improved and the commitment of the stakeholders appears to be greater. Great care has
been taken in the SUKAR project to ensure that Deans remain involved, not least in that
projects must in the long run be sustainable by Faculty budgets. At the same time, the ability
of the Executive Director to have access to initiate and fund curriculum projects (in a time of
great budgetary constraints) has given additional status and visibility to access and retention,
and more broadly to the teaching project. In sum, this holds promise for a sustainable future.

5.3    Lessons Learnt from the Access and Retention Projects

Both UWC and UDW/UKZN entered the SANTED programme to implement changes aimed
at widening student access and completion success through retention measures for improved
institutional quality. Both drafted a strategic three year plan that was submitted to the DOE in
2000/2001 for access to donor money provided through the SANTED partnership with Norad.

For UWC this meant that donor money provided an opportunity to implement a newly
conceptualized strategic focus, whereas for UDW, it meant additional funding for a USA-
designed programme “imported” by its new Rector as a “Rector-owned” project, and started
in 1999 as a way of addressing the legacy of Apartheid. Thus the key difference in
institutional contexts was that UDW tried to mould students to the institutional requirements
by introducing a reform initiative in an inherently unstable system, whereas UWC tried to
adapt their institutional structures to their reform projects and to presumed student features.
They introduced the reform in a situation in which project staff shared a general
organizational goal and showed commitment to improving institutional activities, and there
was an organic link with the high school system.

It appears that the UWC SANTED project management model has been extended to other
projects. Furthermore, there are signs that individuals involved in SANTED activities have
been rewarded for their effort, and that the involved institutional leaders have developed more
efficient leadership skills. Related to this, the project management model gave rise to
operational efficiencies. Collectively, this indicates that UWC has derived considerable
additional benefits from the resources made available through the SANTED initiative.

While the contrasts are stark so long as the comparison is limited to UDW’s UBEP only, one
would need to look to the progress and achievements taking place once the merger was
completed and stability assured at UKZN. This provided a basis for much more effective and
efficient implementation of the revised programme now named SUKAR, and which included
much hard earned lessons from UBEP and inputs from other institutions. In working towards
these specific projects, SUKAR has furthermore enabled fruitful working relationships to
develop between staff at the two merging universities, and in this way has made a substantial
contribution to the success of the merger. With this being the setting when SANTED Phase I



                                                                                             26
ends and Phase II is to be decided on, one should not jump to the conclusion that the
experience and lessons learnt at these Durban campuses have been a failure.


6.         Institutional Capacity Building4
6.1        SANTED at University of Fort Hare

6.1.1 Background
The University of Fort Hare (UFH) came into existence in 1916 and is the oldest historically
black university in Southern Africa, considered one of the prestigious universities of the
Continent. However, a 1999 Review Report (RR) identified serious problems in the current
systems, procedures and practices in the academic, financial and administrative sectors,
whose ability to provide the services required of them had collapsed due to negligence and
mismanagement. With such a broad-based crisis UFH was faced with collapse.

At the same time, the 1999 RR also saw opportunities for the University to re-invent itself.
These were consolidated and focused in ”the Strategic Plan 2000” (SP2000). A new
leadership team was brought in which recognized that it was important to create the necessary
environment and conditions that would enable the University to achieve its core business of
quality teaching and research. Central to this issue was the importance of revamping the
University support services.A critical aspect of capacity building identified was in the area of
human resources, systems and procedures. This entailed the development of the quantity and
quality of people capable of realizing the vision.

UHF, therefore, decided to seek financial for funding its capacity building initiative from
DOE, and the Norwegian Government, However, the parties were uncertain about UFH’s
ability to restructure so as to survive as an institution. However, Norway decided to risk it,
and the UFH SANTED project was designed to re-establish a resilient and modern
“machinery” for running a university, and was launched during November 2003 with the
appointment of the Project Leader

6.1.2 Relevance
There are three major objectives for the project, one for each of the three service departments:

1.             Finance: to provide effective and efficient financial services to the institution.
2.             Human Resources: to manage and develop human potential and effective
               leadership.
3.             Administration: to provide students with improved and effective links to the
               faculty, curriculum, and classroom through a continuum of services from
               enrolment to graduation.

The tasks defined under SANTED in each of these three areas are mutually reinforcing and
complementary, and HIGHLY RELEVANT for the implementation of the Strategic Plan 2000.

6.1.3 Effectiveness
The initial upgrading of the information technology system (ITS) was implemented during
January 2004, with the completion to the current web-based system during January 2005.

4
    See Annex 8 for a detailed synopsis


                                                                                              27
However, staff have not been able to maximize the benefits of the enhanced system due to
their limited IT skills. This is an area of concern and could likely be addressed during the 2 nd
phase of the SANTED Programme.

The SP 2000 was developed internally by UFH, which means that a UFH “ownership” to it
was established. Preparation of the Compliant Financial Manual is progressing slowly.
However, a mindset change of UFH’s Finance Department in the direction of being a user-
friendly university administration in the three selected areas is not implemented overnight, but
based on the field visit, the Review Team is convinced that it is well underway.

Overall, significant effectiveness is observed in all three areas reflecting gradual achievement
of the stated goals, and in ways that mutually reinforce each other and provide a sound basis
for managing and monitoring the challenging plan of aquisition and development for the next
five years. Staff of all three departments now see more clearly how their jobs impacts on the
users of their services, and therefore see the challenge in abiding by service level agreements.
With user-friendly services departments in place, UFH is also much better placed to take upon
itself access and retention tasks of the kind that UWC has successfully implemented.

6.1.4 Efficiency
A Project Management Committee (PMC) was established, and conducted monthly meetings
over the duration of the project, in order to monitor the very stringent timeframe and to ensure
the successful attainment of all the predetermined outcomes. All relevant issues pertaining to
each deliverable were closely scrutinized and any deviations recorded by the Secretariat.
However, from the outset of the SANTED programme, the delay in the appointment of a
Project Leader placed undue constraints on the achievement of the respective objectives. The
original two-year project timeframe had been reduced to a 12 month period. A combination of
shortage of in-house staff to manage and coordinate the project, and the very pressed
timeframe, led UFH to engage external expertise to take on the management and coordination
of the SANTED project. This appears to have been an effective and efficient solution, and the
project has been well mainstreamed into and affected the design and implementation of
UFH’s administrative, reporting and monitoring procedures.

From a slow start with several delays, the organization of the project is now showing clear
signs of good progress in terms of increased responsiveness to meet stakeholder demands with
high levels of service, and the UFH at all levels is taking ownership of it. As a result, UFH is
now sharing experience and cooperating with UWC and UNIZUL, and in this way avoids
reinventing what these other institutions have already achieved.

6.1.5 Impact
UFH was in deep trouble at the time its SANTED proposal was initiated and eventually
approved. Stimulated by the support from DOE and Norway, a tremendous team building
effort has taken place, and staff of different departments started to communicate. This was
new to the UFH administration. SANTED has thus been catalytic in reintroducing confidence,
pride and removing the feelings of inferiority in the UFH workforce. Students interviewed by
the Review Team suggested that the transformation of UFH has been most encouragingly felt
by them as well.

One may claim that UFH would have been forced to carry out the modernization and user-
oriented administrative reforms irrespective of SANTED in order to survive as a university,
but being accepted by Norad as an institution prepared to undergo severe “reform surgery”,


                                                                                              28
led to a massive mobilization of internal staff resources around a consensus that a solid and
stable foundation must be in place before the rest of the structure is added on top of it.

It seems fair to say that without Norway’s support it would definitely have taken much longer
to reach these goals, and UFH could not have survived unless such structural reforms were
implemented. SANTED has helped accelerate the restructuring process, and to catapult UFH
into areas that no-one at UFH had thought of and, to provide oportunities for staff to be
trained in using hardware and software so as to achieve much better utilization of the various
university equipment.

Since SANTED occurred in the context of an established UFH plan (SP2000), it had a much
better chance of contributing to success at a systemic level than had it been an isolated
initiative. Impacts are described in more detail for each of the three departments that the
SANTED project has focused on in Annex 8. Here is a summary:

The Finance Department
The new up-to-date ITS system has had a significant impact including the alignment of the
various operational activities/functionalities to the ITS Financial sub-system. This new
manual will add significant value to the operational aspects in the Finance Department and
will also be marketed to other institutions as a best practice SANTED product.The Budget
Control Process has been addressed, with the establishment of a Budget Review Committee.
The Human Resources Department
All HR policies have been reviewed in terms of current labour legislation and embraced by a
wide spectrum of stakeholder groups and approved. Extensive individual designed training
was conducted by an ITS expert in HR administration to meet each individual staff members’
capacity needs. A comprehensive Employment Equity Plan (EEP) was duly approved and
implementation thereof will be monitored by the HR Department. In sum, the process led to
much improved internal communication, an ability to handle criticism, a more open dialogue,
and ability to identify departmental training needs.
Administration Department
Implementation of the “Archiving and Retrieval” system has been delayed due to the
institution’s process of outsourcing the document management activities. A comprehensive
policy manual Examinations Operational Procedures has been compiled. The ITS Student
iEnabler Web Application/Registration System and the ITS Enquiry Module have been
implemented. By 2006 it is expected that student waiting lines and waiting times for
procedural services shall have been significantly reduced. In an endeavour to enhance the
administrative personnel project management skills, staff were registered and exposed to a
“Practical Projects Management” programme which is presented by the Johnson and Johnson
Leadership Development Institute which is an internally accredited division.

6.1.6 Sustainability
The political economy of UFH is now stabilized, but still vulnerable with very constrained
margins of flexibility. With tight margins many important activities are postponed. Therefore,
SANTED has become a major contributor to facilitate faster and more effective
transformation towards a sustainable future. The achievements notwithstanding, UFH will
need significant funding in order to fullfill the challenging institutional capacity enhancement
in a university-wide context it has embarked upon. UFH has to tie the various administrative-
and service departments to service level agreements with set expectations with the faculties.




                                                                                             29
This funding requirement will be even more critical if UFH is to succeed in implementing all
the ambitious expansion projects that require new land and renovation of old buildings to
satisfy the needs they are determined to be used for. However, the success in creating trust
and enthusiasm for the transformation activities they have committed to and gone a long way
in achieving also suggest that UFH will be an institution that will benefit from the new
formula for allocating tertiary education funds, and at the same time be an attractive partner
for a dynamic employment creating industrial sector in East London.

6.2    SANTED at University of Zululand

6.2.1 Background
University of Zululand (UNIZUL) is located in the rural north of Kwa-Zulu Natal. It was
established in 1960 as a College. In 1970 it became a fully-fledged university. Given its rural
location, the University continues to play a role in broadening access to higher education in a
part of the Kwa-Zulu Natal Province which was not well served.

However, the University, like many other historically disadvantaged institutions, experienced
significant fluctuations and decline in student numbers over the past 25 years. The apparent
unpredictable fluctuation in student numbers made planning and financial management
difficult. At the same time, large student debts were accumulated. As the preponderance of
students at this University come from disadvantaged school systems, it often takes them
longer than the minimum period to complete their studies. The State funding system does not
take this handicap into account and the outcome is reflected adversely in the allocation of
funds. UNIZUL thus experienced a decline in its financial situation and was plagued by
management/governance disruptions. This impacted not only on teaching, learning and
research, but also on the quality of the day-to-day life of students and personnel.

The University was in a serious financial crisis with a debt burden of R141 million and South
African Generally Accepted Accounting Standards were not being followed. In addition,
attention was drawn to concerns about the financial viability of the University. Thus, the
immediate priority for all concerned was to ensure the future viability of the University. This
situation, together with the fact that students mostly come from indigent environments and
subsequently pay greatly reduced tuition and board and lodging fees, has forced the
University to launch a vigorous fundraising programme in order to augment its resources and
to generate additional funds to finance its many special projects aimed at community
upliftment.

6.2.2 The Restructuring and Turnaround Begins
The DOE had been acutely aware of the need to find lasting solutions to the problems
experienced by UNIZUL and has now addressed this as part of the overall restructuring of the
higher education system. It includes refocusing the mission of UNIZUL to become a
comprehensive institution offering technikon-type programmes, as well as a limited number
of relevant university-type programmes, with its future growth linked to the Richards Bay
region. This new orientation has the full support of the Cabinet.

The academic programme profile of UNIZUL at the time of the SANTED Business Plan
preparation was not responsive to the development needs of the region, especially for
increased opportunities for technikon type vocational certificate, diploma and degree level
qualifications, to support and sustain the industrial developments associated with the growth
of the Richards Bay area. The rural location of the institution also allows exciting possibilities


                                                                                               30
for teaching and research to be closely linked to development challenges, through, amongst
others, service learning and other forms of community service.

In order to succeed with the major task of re-shaping and strengthening the academic
offerings of UNIZUL, a turnaround strategy was immediately needed to restore its financial
stability, and was approved for immediate implementation. It was shown to depend largely
on the development of efficient and effective administrative, management and financial
systems which became the focus areas of the SANTED project. However, another key to the
‘turnaround’ of the University was resolving the under-capitalisation of the University. This
would eventually lead to the injection of major resources to the University. Policies, systems
and processes needed to be shown to be in place before major new investment could be made.
The process of institution transformation began during 2002 and a substantive Vice-
Chancellor has been appointed and is committed to continue the work that was initiated by a
temporary highly experienced VC.

The purpose of this SANTED project was therefore to lay the foundation for a viable
academic organisation, through building capacity in the establishment of sound
administrative, management and financial systems. It was implemented in parallel with three
of the University's initiatives already in progress (See the Business Plan of 2003 in Annex 9
for details):
(i)     The University of Zululand's internal turnaround initiatives
(ii)    The Department of Education’s contribution to turnaround activities
(iii) Refocus of the vision and mission of the University

6.2.3        The SANTED Project Activities
As the focus was on ensuring a functional organisation that operates within financially
sustainable parameters to facilitate the strategic aspects of the University’s refocusing towards
becoming a comprehensive institution, the SANTED activities included:
     stabilising the institution;
     the identification and analysis of all material factors pertaining to the current situation
        at the University as well as to the future vision for the University;
     work sessions with representative groups of stakeholders in each of the appropriate
        focus areas to facilitate the above analysis;
     development of an executive report which summarises the needs for institutional
        changes;
     changing and improving the support service structures of the University in line with
        the newly defined core academic business.

The project was to run through to the end of 2004/early 2005 with a SANTED budget
contribution of R 5 million (amounting to less than 5% of the overall budget for refocusing
the vision and mission of UNIZUL over a three year period).

The Director of SANTED was responsible for monitoring the overall progress according to
normal procedures for the SANTED Programme. Disbursements would only occur on the
successful attainment of the a priori agreed performance indicators in terms of defined
outputs. Based on the Synopsis Report on the implementation of the Operational




                                                                                              31
Development Plan (ODP) of 2005, and interviews with stakeholders at UNIZUL, the Review
Team is led to draw the following conclusions5:

6.2.2 Relevance
In order to succeed with the reshaping and strengthening of the offerings of UNIZUL,
investment needs to be made in building institutional capacity and a committed and competent
leadership. As a first stage in this development, the necessary administration and managerial
structures, policies and processes essential to support teaching, learning, research and
community service must be put in place.

The Project is one of the institutional projects that are identified as appropriate in terms of the
overall SANTED Progamme's aims and specifically in relation to the institutional capacity
building component thereof. Considering the precarious state of UNIZUL and the sector-
wide reform in South Africa at the time of SANTED being formulated, it must be concluded
that the UNIZUL SANTED proposal was HIGHLY RELEVANT.

6.2.3 Effectiveness
It is interesting to observe from the impacts described in section 6.2.5 below that the measures
initiated and implemented in all nine areas where frustration and poor performance was being
observed, have yielded results very much in line with the objectives of the SANTED project
for UNIZUL. Furthermore, the Review Team concludes based on the meetings at UNIZUL
that the mutual interactions and communication between staff responsible for implementing
the tasks in each of the nine project areas now communicate and exchange experience and in
this way produce synergies and a joint UNIZUL impact and effectiveness that goes beyond
the sum of the impacts of each indiviual project component. Staff and management now
clearly see the extent to which all these operational fields are mutually dependent on the
performance of the others, and thus find it in their own interest that other fields also do well.
Visible gains have already been made in areas such as governance and student debt recovery.

6.2.4 Efficiency
Efficiency has been achieved in implementation of the institutional upgrading and reforms
from the effective collaboration with UFH which has been facilitated by SANTED. As a
result, UNIZUL could draw on the UFH experience and avoid time-consuming re-invention
of cost-efficient and effective approaches to deal with the many challenges in the nine
administrative areas discussed under impact in section 6.2.5 below. SANTED has contributed
significantly to the overall restructuring and reform which again has facilitated productivity
enhancing attitudes among staff who now appear to take ownership of the turnaround process
of UNIZUL. Staff have now taken on an attitude of user-friendliness and service orientation.

The part elimination of the high risk situation caused by the financial crisis has provided for
staff confidence, and staff now sees the importance of financial efficiency as a basis for
overall sustainability of the institution.

6.2.5 Impact
The Review Team observed that there has been CONSIDERABLE PROGRESS AND IMPACT
in accordance with stated project goals in all the nine sectors where institutional capacity
development and effectiveness was to be achieved (for details see Annex 9):


5
 See Annex 9 for a detailed synopsis from UNIZUL, the 2003 Business Plan, and the Detailed report of the
Review Team, upon which this chapter, conclusions and recommendations are based.


                                                                                                           32
With regard to academic administration, new academic policies and procedures have been
approved. Registration planning was finalised end-2004 and implementation of improved
procedures took place in 2005.

A proper finance governance structure has been implemented. The University’s debt
collection policy has been revised and implemented. Debt collection has improved
considerably. Proper budget management has been implemented centrally with departmental
budget management improvements underway. A risk assessment of the Finance Department
was completed and improved processes implemented. In sum, the University’s overall
financial situation has been turned around from an operating deficit to an operating surplus.

In the Human Resources area, the staff transfer from the closed-down satellite Durban-Umlazi
campus has been completed, and a new HR structure has been developed and recruitment to
fill high-priority positions is underway. The HR policies and procedures were approved.

The equipping of new Information Communiation Technology ICT offices is about finalized.
A comprehensive selection process for new University business systems is ready for
implementation in 2005. A new network infrastructure tender process has been completed and
implementation commenced January 2005. The integrated data-cleanup is well underway.

As regards Catering and Student Services, the SANTED project has contributed to improved
food cost control. The Student Services Department has completed an internal Business Plan.
The “Keep Unizul Clean Campaign” is successfully launched and should continue as an on-
going project. Improved financial monitoring and control mehcanisms for Sports &
Recreation have been put in place and the recruitment of additional staff for the Financial Aid
Bureau was completed and service improvement has been visible.

As for Facilities, an assessment of the Physical Planning and Works departmental structure
was completed and a new, specialised structure submitted. Outsourcing of the vehicle fleet is
underway, with a comprehensive tender process conducted.

With regard to the library, the Library roof repair project has been completed, which means
no more of the substantial flooding of the library floors which made studying there virtually
impossible and uncomfortable for a long period.

For marketing, the overall strategic coordination project was completed for 2004, and an
improved 2005 business plan addresses lingering shortcomings. Marketing policies and
procedures were approved, and a Marketing Committee established to co-ordinate University-
wide marketing activities. The new UNIZUL website was launched in February 2005.

Finally, with regard to the important area of security, a Crime Prevention Officer job
specification has been completed and the recruitment process is underway. A Campus
Protection Forum has been established, and a physical security improvement plan is being
implemented. Residence access control supervisors commenced work in January 2005.

6.2.6 Sustainability
It appears to the Review Team that UNIZUL’s leadership has taken on the turn around
challenge and given an all out effort to secure sustainability.




                                                                                            33
The debt crisis has been turned around and thanks to the massive recapitalization given by the
DOE a solid foundation for future success has been laid.Both politically and financially
UNIZUL now seems to be be well placed and can plan ahead as a national university with its
major task being that of meeting the demands for highly skilled labour in its region. The
science education at the Richards Bay Campus is an important element in this context. At the
same time, one cannot disregard the challenges resulting from UNIZUL’s rural location.
Since many academics tend to form families with academic spouses, one has to take into
account the fact that it will be much more difficult to provide attractive terms at a location
where it is less likely that both spouses will be able to find jobs suitable to their academic
background. This raises the problem of recruitment and retention of staff.

6.3    Lessons from Capacity Building and Institutional Development

The Review Team concludes that SANTED stepped in with much needed financial support
for key uplifting activities at a critical time when both these institutions were at risk due to
many mutually reinforcing detrimental factors, and when few if any other donors were
prepared to take the financial risk. From this perspective SANTED has contributed genuine
value added.

Key lessons that were learned from the organizational development projects on higher
education business turnaround (UFH and UNIZUL) are:

      A project management approach to delivery can be difficult to grasp for line managers
       and sufficient preparation time is required for project management capacity building;
      Leadership is key to the success of turnaround initiatives and any uncertainty on where
       an organisation is headed based on feedback (or lack thereof) received from the top
       can debilitate those responsible for implementation;
      For an institution such as Unizul, which is confronted with various management
       challenges on a daily, weekly and monthly basis, projects should be clearly defined
       and staggered in order to prevent delays in implementation;
      Strong management action is required in areas where delivery is not forthcoming;
      Regular monitoring and performance checking significantly increases the quality and
       tempo of work done;
      The in-built tension at higher education institutions between academic and
       administrative managers is a fact and needs to be addressed through joint planning
       initiatives and communication;
      The human aspects of change and turnaround as they transpire through capacity,
       adaptability and commitment are critical. If not sufficiently addressed from the start,
       they present a perpetual risk that can prevent long-lasting change from occurring
       within an organisation.
      Lessons learnt from organisational turnarounds have indicated that major
       organisational shifts take approximately three years to fully bed down into new work
       cultures and methods that are sustainable. Future interventions of an ODP nature
       might need to take a longer view on the support required.




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7.     Sub-regional Cooperation in SADC
7.1. Objective

The background for the SADC component in SANTED is described in chapter 3.4 above
under the rationale of the SANTED programme. The SANTED Business plan states that the
SADC sub-regional component aims at establishing and strengthening ties between higher
education institutions within the South African Development Community (‘SADC’)
countries, in line with the SADC Protocol on Education (see Annex 15). It was stipulated
that the projects selected under this component have to cover some or all of the outputs
emerging from the SADC Protocol, in particular:
     To co-operate in the design of academic programmes, particularly in programmes that
        are jointly taught.
     To establish links between and among institutions bilaterally and multilaterally, for
        purposes of joint or split-site teaching, and for other academic activities where
        appropriate.
     To collaborate in the production of teaching and learning materials, such as textbooks,
        computer software and others.
     To promote student and staff exchange programmes negotiated on a bilateral and
        multilateral basis.
The tentative budget for the SADC sub-regional component was set at NKR 9,487,500.

7.2. Selection of projects

A letter with guidelines signed by the Director-General Education was sent to the Vice-
Chancellors of all South African institutions in April 2001 inviting them to submit a proposal
to be considered by the SANTED Programme for funding. The guidelines had to guarantee
that women would benefit from the projects. A total of 28 proposals were received. Of these
28 proposals, 4 were eventually short-listed to be considered for funding. The SANTED
Advisory Committee used as selection criteria the main objective and output areas for
regional collaboration as mentioned in the SADC Protocol on Education and Training. Before
the end of 2001 three out of four of the projects could start their implementation. The fourth
commenced early in 2003 (ZAWECA) after a long re-orientation and re-formulation process.
The four selected and implemented projects are:

  The NEW (Namibia EduardoMondlane Wits) Institutional Co-operation Project; a
   collaboration between the Witwatersrand University, the University of Namibia and the
   Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique, with a budget of R 6.5 million.
 Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Co-operation with SADC Countries (PET); a
   collaboration between the Port Elizabeth Technikon (since 1 January 2005 named the
   Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University) and the Evelyn Hone College in Zambia, with a
   budget of R 0.7 million.
 Nurse Leadership Development in Angola (UNISA Project); involving a collaboration
   between the University of South Africa and the University Agostinho Neto in Angola,
   with a budget of R 1.0 million.
 The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project (ZAWECA); a collaboration involving the
   University of Western Cape and the University of Zambia, with a budget of R 1.8 million.
Late in 2002 a fifth project was added:




                                                                                           35
   The SASVO-SANTED SRC Workcamp 2003; a project of the University of Pretoria
    involving student leaders from the SADC region, with a budget of R 0.2 million.

This project did not originate from the selection process that was carried out in 2001 but was
added to the portfolio of SADC projects on different grounds at the request of the Department
and with the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy.

7.3. Objectives of the SADC projects

This section briefly lists the specific objectives of the various SADC projects and sub-
projects. This is necessary as background for addressing the main questions in the ToR in an
effective and meaningful way. These main review questions are be dealt with below in the
sections 7.4 – 7.8. A comprehensive account of the projects’ achievements, lessons learnt and
challenges as identified by the Review Team is presented in Annex 17.

7.3.1 The NEW (NamibiaEduardoMondlaneWits) Institutional Co-operation Project
The NEW project was implemented in two phases. The first one started in 2001. The purpose
of this phase was two fold:
1. To build and strengthen existing relationships with the two partner institutions in Namibia
   (Unam) and Mozambique (UEM) through a series of workshops and exchange visits, and;
2. To develop a detailed business plan for academic collaboration between the three partners

The NEW project has sub-projects in three subject disciplines.

Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences (APES)
There are two broad objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly produce a programme for
a joint Masters of Science degree in Rangelands Management based at the University of
Namibia and to agree a way forward with regard to joint implementation of this degree.
Secondly, to pilot undergraduate team teaching courses on Inhaca Island in Mozambique.
Economics
There are four objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly develop a Masters programme
in Economics at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Secondly, to support
high level staff development at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Thirdly,
to encourage collaborative research and sharing of research. Finally, to review the
undergraduate offering at the University of Eduardo Mondlane. These inputs rely heavily on
Wits’ long expertise in delivering Economics programmes at the undergraduate and
postgraduate level.
Engineering
The following are the main objectives in the Engineering component. Firstly, to jointly
develop an undergraduate curriculum for the University of Namibia. Secondly, to assess the
offering of the University of Eduardo Mondlane and to advise on issues of accreditation and
harmonization. Thirdly, to assist the University of Eduardo Mondlane in the adequate
provision of teaching and learning materials. Fourthly, to promote human resource
development of academic staff, and; finally, to initiate a staff exchange programme between
the three institutions.

7.3.2 Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Co-operation with SADC Countries
(PET)
The goal of the project is to help SADC countries to upgrade the qualifications of health
academics and professionals by providing opportunities to obtain higher qualifications


                                                                                             36
through the Port Elizabeth Technikon. The qualifications offered are B Tech post diploma in:
a) Radiography, b) Environmental Health, and c) Biomedical Technology. The B Tech is
offered by means of distance tuition as well as contact lectures. A further objective is to assist,
in particular, education institutions in SADC countries to upgrade their staff so that they in
time will be able to offer these higher qualifications. Apart from increased numbers of
graduates with advanced studies, the project’s Business Plan mentions the establishment of
research projects and increased contacts with other countries in Africa as envisaged outputs.

7.3.3 Nurse Leadership Development in Angola (UNISA Project)
The main purpose of the project is to develop and empower Angolan nurses as leaders in the
health field for Angola, and that these leaders will upon completion of their degrees, continue
to develop and empower the nurses in Angola. The development of nurse leadership forms a
foundation for the improvement of nursing education and the strengthening of health service
delivery.

7.3.4 The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project (ZAWECA)
The goal of the ZAWECA project is to enhance institutional collaboration between UWC and
the University of Zambia through developing, implementing, and evaluating appropriate
university-based HIV/AIDS peer education programmes. It aims to equip students on both
campuses with relevant life skills, enabling them to negotiate safer sex practices in order to
reduce HIV/AIDS transmission.

7.3.5 The SASVO-SANTED SRC Workcamp 2003
This project was an ad-hoc funding arrangement at the request of the Department of
Education and with the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The project aimed to enable
the South African Students Volunteer Organisation (SASVO) to spread volunteer work by
involving student leaders from the SADC region. The SANTED programme funded on a pilot
basis a workcamp in December 2003.

7.4. Relevance

The critical question regarding relevance is: Are these the right projects for achieving the
programme objectives? In order to answer this question, the review analysed the extent to
which the projects aim to achieve outputs defined in the SADC Protocol on Education and
Training (Article 7, Higher Education), and to what extent the projects aimed to establish and
strengthen ties between higher education institutions in line with South Africa’s policies for
transforming higher education during the programme period from 2000 to 2005. The review
also looked into the criteria that have been used to select projects for this component, and the
argumentation for selecting the SADC projects.

Of the four projects, the NEW project scores high on the main objective and on all four of the
output areas as it involved curriculum development, joint teaching activities, the production of
teaching and learning materials and the exchange of staff and students. The proposal
addressed the aims of the SADC Protocol directly. The agreement on institutional co-
operation in a number of key areas was already established at the highest institutional level.
Staff development and research collaboration activities have been added which will contribute
to longer-term institutional collaborations.

The ZAWECA scores high on the main objective as well as on staff and student exchange. It
addressed a key social problem in co-operation with other SADC institutions. Strictly


                                                                                                37
speaking the peer education programme is not an academic programme, but it lays the
foundation for academic collaboration in various academic disciplines. Quite a number of
conference presentations were made and articles written on the project.

The Unisa project was assessed as able to make a real contribution to the region and
accommodate the SADC Protocol. It would empower a SADC university. However, the
results of the project make clear that the approach (distance education) might not have been
the most appropriate for achieving the specific objectives. The Business Plan also does not
mention institutional collaboration as an important vehicle for project implementation.

The Committee considered the PET Project to be an interesting project that seemed viable.
Strong points were that it was an existing project that seemed to be working and it served a
need in the region. However, in its implementation it has very little to offer in terms of the
SADC protocol output areas. It has established contacts within various SADC countries but
not with the intention to establish institutional collaborations.

The Review Team is of the opinion that the SANTED Advisory Committee has performed the
assessment and selection in an accountable and professional manner. Many of the 28
proposals were not appropriate or too rudimentary. This may partly be explained by the fact
that the letter of invitation and the accompanying guidelines were very concise and provided
interested parties with little or no instructions for the formulation of proposals.

The four proposals that were eventually recommended by the Committee and selected by the
DoE and the Norwegian Embassy, do indeed qualify according to the set aims and outputs
areas of the SADC component. Four years later we may conclude that the selection of the
NEW and ZAWECA projects was justified and a good choice. The reservation that the
Committee had with regard to the institutional co-operation scope of the PET project has
proven to be correct. In the case of the Unisa project, an external advice or short exploratory
study could have helped to assess the feasibility of a project like this.

7.5. Effectiveness

Based on the project documents, progress reports and interviews with project implementers
and the SANTED office, the Review Team assessed the quality and impact of the four SADC
projects in terms of facilitating increased cooperation based on the SADC Protocol of Higher
Education and Training. In particular the Team looked for indicators of increased cooperation,
and analysed the influence of project objectives and set-up on establishing and sustaining
cooperation between institutions. A testing question was whether the SANTED support could
be regarded as the sine qua non for the relationships that are being built through the projects.

Only one of the four projects was based on an existing collaboration, i.e. the PET project, but
it is not a collaborative project in the true sense. Apart from existing relationships with EHC
in delivering the B Tech programmes, the other contacts that were established in the course of
the project were made to market the PET programmes and attract students. The SANTED
funding helped to finance the tutoring of students in their home countries or in South Africa.
It is not far fetched to think that SANTED was only one of the possible sources of funding for
this project. Considering the topic and discipline, the Review Team thinks that PET could also
have found the necessary funds elsewhere.




                                                                                             38
For the NEW project the SANTED funding was essential. Collaboration agreements had been
signed between Wits, UEM and Unam prior to the NEW project, plans had been discussed,
but no activities had been undertaken. Although Wits has funds to engage in collaborative
arrangements, Unam and UEM are less well off. The latter institutions do not have spare
funds to finance their part of a collaboration project. Although both universities do get donor
support for collaborations, this is commonly earmarked for collaborations with Northern
partners. Despite the fact that many of these programmes propagate regional and South-South
cooperation, in practice it seldom happens. The Team was told at UEM that SANTED is a
unique programme, precisely because it is set up to stimulate institutional collaboration in the
region. This is one of the strong points of the programme.

Through the NEW project good relations and collaboration evolved between the staff
involved in the APES and Economics sub-projects. The desire to continue the co-operation is
shared by the partners in these sub-projects. The Engineering sub-project is not at that level
(yet). Strong relations have also been built at the level of the project administration. For Wits
the project has provided an opportunity to be more strategic about its collaborative activities
and also to pilot systems of collaboration and the management thereof. It has enriched Wits’
work in various areas.

The Unisa and ZAWECA proposals aimed to establish new collaborative relationships
between institutions. The ZAWECA collaboration would not have taken off without the
SANTED programme. Because of the topic, the project activities as such could probably have
found external funds from other sources. However, the establishment of a collaboration
between the two institutions needed a type of funding which focused on collaboration in the
first place and on content in the second.

Unfortunately, the Unisa project has failed to establish good collaboration with the
University Agostinho Neto. According to Unisa there has been a lack of commitment on the
part of that institution. On the other hand, the lack of co-operation may also find its origin in
the design of the project and the approach taken. There is little doubt that SANTED funding
has been instrumental in getting this project off the ground.

Summing up, for three out of four of the SADC projects the SANTED funding was a sine qua
non to undertake collaborative activities within the SADC region. The main reason for this is
the poor resource base of the universities in the surrounding SADC countries. Without
external funds they cannot collaborate. In two SADC projects relatively strong foundations
have been laid for continued collaboration that is based on mutual interests and shared
commitment. Credit must be given to the NEW and ZAWECA projects. In the NEW project,
good foundations for further collaboration have been laid for two of the three discipline areas.

7.6. Efficiency

The SANTED programme is a programme with a limited set of rules and regulations for
programme and project implementation. In the SADC component there are no formats for the
formulation of a proposal, a business plan, a progress or financial report. There are no
guidelines for drawing up a budget, nor guidelines for costs that are reimbursed. It is
implicitly understood that the management costs should not exceed 10% of the total project
budget. Similarly, it is understood that the institutions follow institutional or national
guidelines for the costing of travel expenses and the purchase of equipment and materials, and
that the partners do not cost fees for the time inputs of the South African partners.


                                                                                              39
There are no contracts that stipulate the terms of the contractual arrangement. The business
plan is accepted as the ‘plan of operations’ sealed with a covering letter in which the
‘contractor’ accepts to carry out the project according to this business plans. The agreements
with the SADC partners are left to the SA institution.

SANTED is a fairly small programme which started off as a programme with an uncertain
future in terms of possible continuation after the agreed period. Therefore the administrative
bureaucracy at programme level was kept to a minimum. An intense hands-on management of
the projects by the SANTED Office compensated for the lack of detailed instructions and
manuals to guide the programme management and project implementers. Workshops were
organized in which project partners were to discuss and agree on the scope of their
collaboration and contents of the business plan. In some projects it took several workshops to
come to an agreement. The SANTED Office was present at all workshops. This arrangement
has worked very well and can be regarded as one of the strengths of the programme.

The SANTED Project Director visited the collaborating partners at regular intervals, the SA
partners twice a year, and the SADC partners once a year. The hands-on management
provided the necessary backing and guidance to the institutions and the project implementers,
solved problems where needed and facilitated good relationships between the participating
institutions, and between the SA institutions and the Department of Education. All
participants in the programme spoke highly of the professional support rendered by the
SANTED Office staff and their commitment to the projects in the programme. Compared to
other programmes the management costs are fairly high (10.8% of the total programme
budget), but taking into account the positive impact of the SANTED Office on the
implementation of the programme the Review Team thinks that the expenses were worth it.

The hands-on management by the SANTED Office also includes a possible risk: Its success
very much depends on the commitment and attitude of the SANTED staff involved and their
capacity to establish and maintain good relations with all stakeholders involved. So far, the
programme has been very lucky with the professional quality and social personality of the
SANTED Office Director and other staff. The same management concept may not work all
that well with staff that do not possess the same qualities. This risk has suddenly and
unexpectedly surfaced with the tragic recent death of the SANTED Project Director.

Similar observations can be made about the management at the project level. The
administration and management of the NEW project is well organized. Essential is the role of
the full-time co-ordinator at Wits who co-ordinates all internal and external contacts of the
project, monitors the progress in the sub-programmes and co-ordinates the financial
administration. The co-ordinator follows-up on financial matters when necessary and prepares
the progress reports for the NEW project. The NEW co-ordinator acts in a similar way as the
SANTED office for the SANTED programme as a whole. Also the NEW co-ordinator is very
committed and professional, and her role and inputs are highly appreciated by the institutions
and staff involved in the NEW project.

The SADC partners have accepted the tight financial control exerted by Wits once they
understood that Wits is held accountable for all the project funds. They have to submit
financial reports at regular intervals, and the NEW co-ordinator makes sure that this happens
in time. Requests for new funds by the SADC partners are not honoured unless they have
properly accounted for the money they have previously received. The co-ordinators at UEM


                                                                                           40
expressed their satisfaction with this system and approach. The only bottleneck is the slow
transfer of money, which seems to be a banking problem. The Review Team has no
information on the management arrangements in the other SADC projects.

An issue that affects all SADC projects is the ‘buying of time’ of the staff members at the
SADC counterpart institutions. Because of the under-resourced status of these institutions,
staff members usually have side jobs to supplement their meagre salaries. If they have to
perform activities over and above their agreed workload they expect to be compensated or
incentivized. Involvement in projects like the SADC projects is regarded as an extra activity.
There is no common policy among institutions and donors to deal with this issue. Some
accept it as a matter of fact, others refuse to give in to this practice.

It may be advisable to call for the advice of external experts in those cases where the
Advisory Committee feels not capable enough to properly assess the merits of a proposal or
where it has doubts about the feasibility of its implementation. The Team was surprised by the
fact that in the final selection of projects and the approval of the business plans the DOE had
to solicit the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The Review Team assumed that in a
delegated programme like SANTED, the DOE would carry the full responsibility for the
proper implementation of the programme including the selection of projects and partners.
When asked about this by the Review Team, the DOE expressed not to have any problems
with the management arrangements in the programme. As a matter of fact, the relationships
between the DOE and the Norwegian Embassy are excellent and the discussions about
projects and partners between DOE, SANTED Office and the staff at the Norwegian Embassy
had been very constructive and fruitful.

7.7. Impact

It is still early to be able to assess the impact of the SADC projects on the participating
institutions and the higher education sectors in the countries involved. The projects have
barely been completed and some of them had a very short lifespan. At this point in time we
can only speculate about expected longer-term effects. The major impact that all four projects
will have is on the staff and students who have been involved in the projects. They have been
exposed to situations and opportunities that were unknown to them before. It affects their
knowledge base and professional as well as personal outlook. In the long run the effects of
this will trickle down to the research that is being undertaken, the curricula that are being
taught and the networks that are being established.

The SA partners have learned how to run collaboration projects with counterparts in the
SADC region and can use this experience in setting up new projects. They also have learned
that they are not involved in the projects just to give, but also to receive. This is a great
stimulus for continued collaborations in the region. The curricula that have been developed
and which are meant to involve joint-teaching or split-type teaching, are expected to increase
the exchange of staff and students and will therefore contribute to further academic and social
integration in the region. Since the greatest interest of most academics is doing research, the
established contacts will no doubt lead to joint research activities. This will further boost
capacity building at the institutions and probably enhance the content relevance of the
research that is being carried out.

The projects had to submit progress reports twice a year, a narrative report complemented
with a financial report. The Review Team noticed that the business plans and progress reports


                                                                                            41
contain few quantitative indicators to measure the progress of the project. This makes it
virtually impossible to determine the impact/success/failure of a project in exact terms.

7.8    Sustainability

The sustainability of institutional collaborations depends on many factors, some of which are
easier to control than others. Key words in sustainability are shared vision, shared interests,
mutual benefits, institutional and personal commitment, and adequate resources.

In most cases institutional collaborations start at the top in the form MoU’s between
institutions or at the bottom when academics from two institutions decide to get involved in a
collaborative activity. For achieving proper sustainability, it is necessary that the management
gets the support and commitment of the staff for a collaboration project or programme, and
for the individual academic to get the backing of his department and/or institutional
management. In other words we are talking about institutional commitment in a broad sense,
involving all layers of the institution.

The NEW and ZAWECA projects have laid good foundations for continued institutional
collaboration. The management of the institutions have given their full backing to the
collaborations, which augurs well for continued collaboration.

At Wits, the NEW project can count on the backing of the institutional management and the
commitment of the staff involved, but the commitment from the intermediate level, that of the
department or faculty is weak or non-existent. In order to ensure the sustainability of the
project, its activities need to be properly integrated in the regular programmes and budgets of
the departments, and in the workloads of the staff. In other words, the project activities need
to be institutionalized.

Also the ZAWECA project has been able to generate commitment at various levels, but also
in this case the institutionalisation of the activities still needs to be arranged. The Review
Team does not have sufficient information at hand to judge on the commitments of
institutions and individuals involved in the two other projects.

As soon as partners are clear about the mutual benefits involved, which may seem unequal but
which are acceptable to both, the partnership is placed on a good footing. It seems that both
in the NEW as well as in the ZAWECA project the mutual benefit principle is developing
roots. In the beginning some of the Wits staff looked upon the projects as a form of technical
assistance to their poor neighbours, but now that academic programmes are being developed
at the partner institutions and staff is being trained, the perspectives of interesting
collaborations in terms of teaching and research are dawning.

What may come out of the PET and Unisa projects is unpredictable. It is unlikely that they
will result in lasting institutional relationships. Benefits of a mutual nature were not explicitly
intended. The end result of the Unisa project more or less reflects the PET situation although
originally the project aimed for broader mutual benefits.

When it comes to financial sustainability, the projects do have a challenge. The majority of
the institutions in the SADC region are poor, donor dependent and spend most of their
budgets on staff salaries. The masters degree programmes developed in the NEW projects are
being integrated in the academic programmes of the institutions, which will ensure their


                                                                                                42
continuation. The South African universities will probably be able to cover the costs involved
in joint and split-side teaching arrangements, although the Review Team has not checked this
with the institutions. The involvement of UEM in the team teaching at Inhaca island in
Mozambique continues to depend on external funding unless the activity is integrated in a
regular academic programme of the institution. For joint research activities, publications,
conference visits and the like, the SADC institutions do not have the funds. Hence the
collaborating partners will have to look for these funds elsewhere.

Now that the programme has come to the end of Phase I the question arises whether to
continue with the existing projects or give an opportunity to other initiatives, in other words to
consolidate or to renew. When asked about this, the DOE indicated that it plans to do both:
consolidate what shows potential for continued institutional collaboration and give the
opportunity to other institutions to come up with new proposals. The DOE would like to see
that as a result of the SADC component long-term partnerships between institutions in the
region develop.

The Review Team fully supports this view of the DOE. There are examples of broad-based
and longer-term collaborations with potential to develop into real partnerships in the SADC
portfolio: the NEW and the ZAWECA projects. It would be befitting to give them support for
another phase to consolidate the results, which they have achieved to date and to expand and
deepen the collaboration. The other two projects do not seem to have a similar potential.


8.     SANTED Phase II
The goals of DOE for the transformation and development of the sector are presented in the
National Plan on Higher Education (NPHE) (2001). One of the four areas chosen by Norway
for the agreed new development co-operation period with South Africa for the period 2005-
2009 is higher education and research, and is based on this plan and the experience gained
from the SANTED Phase I Programme for 2001-2004. The SANTED II programme follows
on from what has been achieved in SANTED I, and aims to heighten these achievements.

Section 2 of NPHE underlines the need for increased participation and graduation rates from a
broader social base. It highlights the need to shift the balance in enrolments between arts and
sciences, and emphasizes the need for greater equity in the sector, particular for black and
women students . Although significant gains have been made in these areas between 2000 and
2004, access and retention of non-traditional students will remain a major challenge in the
sector for a long time to come, and therefore also in phase 2 of SANTED. One or two
intervention project in this area will be continued during the second funding period. These
projects can cover broader issues that impact on student access and retention and, more
importantly, success through the system.

Another major goal of NPHE is the restructuring of the higher education sector through
institutional mergers and transformations, The institutional capacity needs to successfully
complete this have been highlighted and a second focus area for phase 2 will fall under the
broad heading of capacity development. Currently, the DOE can identify three distinct need
areas where capacity development is essential for restructuring. The first concerns the
processes necessary to establish effective National Institutes of Higher Education in
Mpumalanga and the Northern Cape. Secondly, some universities are shifting from their
traditional university offerings to becoming new comprehensive universities, intended to offer


                                                                                               43
both traditional university programmes and vocational higher education. Apart from major
organizational restructuring, and in some cases the merging of institutions, these changes
require major curriculum developments and the institutions will need significant assistance in
these endeavours. Thirdly, major project management skills are required by institutions
involved in acquisitions where campuses and/or institutions are incorporated. The DOE, after
consulting with the institutions concerned, will determine where the greatest needs are and
will subsequently propose two or three projects in this area. A Phase 2 objective will be to
assist the DOE to complete the restructuring process.

NPHE also highlights the need for a greater role in the SADC region. The 1997 SADC
Protocol on Higher Education has acted as a guide. This review has shown encouraging
results from the SADC projects under SANTED I, but also that this is a very time- and
resource-consuming process where much greater momentum is needed to reach the stated
goals. These projects are particularly difficult to initiate, as co-operation, trust and a working
relationship have to be established between two or more institutions that often function very
differently. Nevertheless, these projects are vitally important for the future development of the
Region and should be pursued vigorously in SANTED II favouring bids that include clusters
of institutions. Thus the area of institutional co-operation in the SADC region will form
another focus area for phase II.

As a result, the majority of the projects will again fall into the 3 broad areas of
    access and retention
    capacity development
    SADC institutional co-operation in higher education

In defining projects in these areas, it will be desirable to build on what has been developed
and to raise the achievements to a higher level. Emphasis will be on institutional
collaboration, not only for SADC projects, but also between SA institutions on access and
retention and capacity building projects. All the SANTED I projects are located at individual
institutions. No project is managed centrally. In phase II it may be beneficial to establish some
centrally run projects initiated by the DOE that have national or provincial importance.

DOE and the SANTED Secretariat anticipate that in order to continue the work in the priority
areas the budget for phase II will be of a similar magnitude as that for phase I (of the order of
R60 million). During the five year period of the SANTED programme dramatic increases
were experienced in basic costs like air travel and accommodation and attempts should be
made to anticipate these uncontrolled escalations. This is a difficult task, not made any easier
by fluctuations in the Rand over a five year period. In addition, if an inflation rate of 7% over
the five year period from 2000 is estimated, the funds need to increase by 40% to have the
same buying power in 2005. The overall budget should be made as robust as possible. The
anticipated breakdown of the phase II budget is given below, taking into account the current
level of the Rand. The SANTED (phase I) figures are given in brackets:

Access and Retention Projects:                R15m            (R22m)
Capacity Development:                         R15m            (R12m)
SADC Co-operation:                            R15m            (R12m)
Research:                                     R 4m            (R4.5m)
Management:                                   R 8m            (R5.3m)
Project Development Year:                     R 8m            (R0.0m)
TOTAL         (16.5% increase)                R65 million     (R55.8m)


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9.       Conclusions and Lessons Learnt
9.1      Access and Retention
Key characteristics of the Upward Bound case at UDW can be summarized as a failure of a
specific project management model as follows:

        Organizational stress, poor planning and poor financial administration (frequent
         underbudgetting), leading to incremental ad hoc decision-making and a “muddling
         through” approach,
        The necessary means to ensure that organizational learning from the project was
         disseminated were not established, very little coordination or contact between faculty
         members, administrative officers of the univeristy and the project, which initially had
         its own management structure,
        Project employees were on temporary contracts with little vested interest in the
         project,
        The institutional location of the project changed during implementation,
        Organizational change at UDW was fraught with political contestation, contributing to
         organizational stress and a lack of institutional insertion.
        Poor knowledge management of project activities due to the absence of proper filing
         systems to store project material and due to absence of institutional dissemination of
         project knowledge

In contrast, the Equitable Access case at UWC provides an example of considerable
organizational learning. Unlike at UDW, the project structure at UWC remained unchanged
from 2001 to 2004 and applied as such both to positions and individuals. Even in the many
sub-projects that this SANTED project was composed of, and where most of the appointees
had temporary jobs, considerable continuity was evident. The SANTED projects at UWC
helped create a fairly durable structure and system of institutional relationship that provided a
basis for future enactment of policy decisions, and an organization concerned with improving
existing policies and practices and of one that can effectively run, organize, implement
projects and achieve success. The UWC SANTED sub-projects operated alongside existing
faculty or student support initiatives, complemented these initiatives and therefore provided
institutional management –through structured and face-to-face reports – indirect insight into
operational features. The main integral project features involved:

        Setting prior goals and achieving targets (see e.g. the “Equitable Access Performance
         Indicators 2001, 2002, 2003” report),
        Recruiting suitable individuals with extensive experience and sound reputations to
         initiate project activities,
        Providing them opportunity to develop ideas and to take limited initiative,
        Curbing their style when they became too adventurous,
        Maintaining the reporting lines that previously characterized old projects that were
         revamped,
        Trying to use technology advances to improve institutional efficiency and to centralize
         knowledge co-ordination, and
        Establishing a new co-ordination structure with a hierarchical command to oversee the
         implementation of SANTED sub-projects.



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While the contrasts are stark so long as the comparison is limited to UDW’s UBEP only, one
would need to look to the progress and achievements taking place once the merger was
completed and stability assured at UKZN. This provided a basis for much more effective and
efficient implementation of the revised programme now named SUKAR, and which included
much hard earned lessons from UBEP and inputs from other institutions. In working towards
these specific projects, SUKAR has furthermore enabled fruitful working relationships to
develop between staff at the two merging universities, and in this way has made a substantial
contribution to the success of the merger. With this being the setting when SANTED Phase I
ends and Phase II is to be decided on, one should not jump to the conclusion that the
experience and lessons learnt at these Durban campuses have been a failure.

9.2    Institutional Capacity Building

By 1999, UFH had serious problems in its systems, procedures and practices in the academic,
financial and administrative sectors, whose ability to provide the services required of them
had collapsed due to negligence and mismanagement.

During the same period UNIZUL experienced a decline in its financial situation and
management/governance disruptions and serious student unrest. This impacted on teaching,
learning and research as well as the quality of the day-to-day life of students and personnel.

The political economy of UFH is now stabilized, but still vulnerable with very constrained
margins of flexibility. With tight margins many important activities are postponed. Therefore,
SANTED has become an important contributor to facilitate faster and more effective
transformation towards a sustainable future. The achievements notwithstanding, UFH will
need significant funding in order to fullfill the challenging institutional capacity enhancement
in a university-wide context it has embarked upon.

Significant impacts are observed in all three UFH SANTED project capacity building areas of
finance, administration and human resource management reflecting gradual achievement of
the stated goals, and in ways that mutually reinforce each other and provide a sound basis for
managing and monitoring the challenging development plan for the next five years. With
user-friendly services departments in place, UFH is also much better placed to take upon itself
access and retention tasks of the kind that UWC has successfully implemented.

Similarly, at UNIZUL there has been considerable progress and impact in accordance with
stated project goals in all the nine sectors where institutional capacity development and
effectiveness was to be achieved with SANTED support. Both politically and financially
UNIZUL now seems to be be well placed and can plan ahead as a national university with its
major task being that of meeting the demands for highly skilled labour in its region. At the
same time, one cannot disregard the challenges resulting from UNIZUL’s rural location.

9.3    The SADC Components of SANTED

For three out of four of the SADC projects the SANTED funding was a sine qua non to
undertake collaborative activities within the SADC region. The main reason for this is the
poor resource base of the universities in the surrounding SADC countries.

In two SADC projects relatively strong foundations have laid for continued collaboration that
is based on mutual interests and shared commitment. The NEW and the ZAWECA projects


                                                                                             46
are examples of broad-based and longer-term collaborations with potential to develop into
real partnerships. It would be befitting to give them support for another phase to consolidate
the results, which they have achieved to date and to expand and deepen the collaboration. The
other two projects do not seem to have a similar potential.

Establishing good working relationships between project partners took a long time and the
formulation of the business plans was time consuming. The time investments were needed
and paid off. The workshops which brought the partners together to agree on the content of
the project and work out implementation agreements have been instrumental in this process.

The SANTED programme is a programme with a limited set of rules and regulations for
programme and project implementation. An intense hands-on management of the projects by
the SANTED Office compensated the lack of detailed instructions and manuals to guide the
programme management and project implementers. Workshops were organized in which
project partners were to discuss and agree on the scope of their collaboration and contents of
the business plan. This arrangement has worked very well and can be regarded as one of the
strengths of the programme. The hands-on management by the SANTED Office also includes
a possible risk: its success very much depends on the commitment and attitude of the
SANTED staff involved and their capacity to establish and maintain good relations with all
stakeholders involved.

The proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational structures and
programmes is a key condition for effective implementation of project activities and ensuring
sustainability of the project results. Linking project objectives to interest areas of departments,
faculties or institutions, helps to ensure institutionalization of projects. Linking projects to
academic interests of individual staff members is stimulating the implementation of project
activities but not necessarily the institutionalizing of project results. Three out of four of the
SADC have as yet not properly institutionalized the project activities in their institutional set-
up and programmes. This needs to be done if project results are to be sustained.

It is important to note that relationships between institutions that seem unequal at first because
of obvious disparities in capacities and resources should be looked at from the perspective of
potential for growth and development into mutually benefiting arrangements. This guiding
principle helps to keep the relationship on the right footing.

An issue that affects all SADC projects is the ‘buying of time’ of the staff members at the
SADC counterpart institutions. The Review Team feels that it is important the SANTED
programme develops a policy about the payment of incentives that is applied across the board
and agreed upon with the SADC counterpart institutions before projects are signed.

A very positive effect of the projects has been that the SA partners have learned how to run
collaboration projects with counterparts in the SADC region and can use this experience in
setting up new projects. They also have learned that they are not involved in the projects just
to give, but also to receive. This is a great stimulus for continued collaborations in the region.

 The financial sustainability of the projects poses a challenge. The majority of the institutions
in the SADC region are poor, donor dependent and spending most of their budgets on staff
salaries.




                                                                                                47
9.4    Overall Evaluation Conclusions

Based on the NPHE, the SANTED programme is considered highly relevant in terms of topics
chosen and project components selected for implementation. It is generally viewed as effective
in terms of goals achievement, and efficient in its organization of implementation and
monitoring because it combines the best of project and budget support, and because of its
outsourcing of day-to-day management of it from DOE to a Programme Secretariat located at
CEPD. The budget support element is that Norway allocates funds to DOE based on the
SANTED agreement, while DOE decides where to spend it based on its analysis and
judgement of domestic needs and how to implement the SADC Protocol. From this
perspective SANTED is largely a demand driven programme. The Review also concludes that
significant impacts have been achieved in the areas stated as priority fields for turning around
the deteriorating administrative-, finance-, and human resources trends towards sustainable
operations, along with improved access and retention indicators, observed at the SANTED-
supported institutions catering to formerly disadvantaged students.

Compared to other programmes the management costs are fairly high (10.8% of the total
programme budget), but taking into account the positive impact of the SANTED Office on the
implementation of the programme the Review Team thinks that the expenses are justified.

The effectiveness and efficiency of the programme has been enhanced by the close and
streamlined relationship and reporting that evolved between the Programme Director, DOE
and the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria. Such relationships often evolve more as a result of
dedicated individuals than as a result of formal structures.

The hands-on management by the SANTED Office also includes a possible risk: its success
very much depends on the commitment and attitude of the SANTED staff involved and their
capacity to establish and maintain good relations with all stakeholders involved. So far, the
programme has been very lucky with the professional quality and social personality of the
SANTED Office Director and other staff. The same management concept may not work all
that well with staff that do not possess the same qualities.

From a counterfactual perspective, the Review Team concludes that had it not been for the
Norwegian support, it would have been very difficult to find domestic or other donor support
for the management of the UFH and UNIZUL reform projects, because they were not very
“glamorous”, but rather basic “down to earth” set of capacity building and institution
improving activities needed to turn around the precarious situation of these clearly
endangered institutions. The DOE formula for allocating to universities applied at the time
was unfavourable to such institutions.


10. Recommendations
The recommendations of the Review Team draw implications from the above conclusions and
the higher education priorities of the Government of South Africa for the 2005-2010 period,
and suggest adjustments/improvement to the following aspects in particular:

   1. The Business Plan for SANTED II should be followed as regards the overall budget
      stability for the three focus areas, but with a slight change of budget emphasis from
      access and retention projects towards capacity development and SADC co-operation


                                                                                             48
   because e.g. UFH and UNIZUL will be much better prepared to undertake effective
   access and retention activities as a result of their capacity development activities
   during SANTED I, while SADC cooperation at the institutional level is more
   demanding than was originally envisaged. The Review team also supports the use of
   funds for thorough project development in 2005 which will pay off in the form of
   more realistic project designs and implementation plans.

2. The SANTED II Business Plan provides a well prepared process for selection of
   projects in line with the NPHE towards a sound and valuable balance between the
   continuation of old projects and the provision of support to new initiatives, including a
   set of carefully developed NPHE-derived criteria and procedures for the selection
   SADC projects. The SANTED Director must give this the highest priority in 2005.

3. Although the SANTED I projects have come to an end, the institutions still have many
   challenges related to the goals set out in these projects. SANTED II should encourage
   proposals for adjustment/adaptation of SANTED I projects, expected to yield
   incremental benefits in line with the NPHE goals .

4. The Review Team finds that the management and coordination of the Programme has
   been successful and should not be changed. However, some of the focus areas given
   increased emphasis in the SANTED II phase could be more management demanding,
   and therefore the proposed additional allocation for management appears to make
   sense. This issue has become particularly critical with the tragic loss of the Project
   Director.

5. SANTED I has done good preparatory work in the development of objectives and
   outputs and the definition of results with corresponding indicators for judging
   performance. However, the Review Team would emphasize the need to try to further
   develop the performance indicators to monitor each SANTED II activity from the
   perpsective of a counterfactual approach; i.e. each project proposal should present an
   outlook in terms of the selected indicators for a realistic “without SANTEDII future”.
   This means attempting to do a “With – without” comparison as opposed to a “before
   and after” one. This requires preparing for measurement and monitoring from the very
   beginning of the SANTED II projects

6. The Review Team finds that the format for a new draft of the Business Plan can
   follow that of the previous one, but with the addition that experience (what went
   wrong and why) from SANTED I be taken explicitly into account in the respective
   focus area projects for the institutional anchoring of projects. This will secure
   stakeholder ownership of the projects, intra- and inter-institutional communication and
   networking so as to create for synergies to result, and to present budgets, staffing and
   time schedules reflecting how to achieve such goals. A programme policy should be
   designed and implemented that will stress the non-financial (as opposed to the
   financial) benefits for the staff involved.

7. The Review Team see clear complementarities/synergies between access and retention
   activities; successful implementation of the former providing for easier achievement
   of the latter. The Review Team therefore finds it natural to recommend increased
   emphasis on the retention activities at the cost of access activities in SANTED II.
   Since much funding has been allocated to recapitalize UWC and to finance relocation


                                                                                         49
   of faculties and to secure the merger into the UKZN, it is recommended that the
   retention activities in SANTED II continue at these two institutions to ensure
   sustainability.

8. The experience from access activities in SANTED I must now be spread to other
   institutions for use in their access activity planning. This is now a prioritized activity
   that will take place regardless of SANTED funding in the future.

9. Access and retention challenges must not be underestimated. Institutions that are
   poorly prepared in terms of institutional capacity in the fields of finance,
   administration and human resources management, face poor odds with regard to
   successful implementation of access and retention activities. Once the SANTED I
   funded institutional capacity building at UNIZUL and UFH is well established and
   functional, access and retention activities are much more likely to succeed, and such
   proposals from these institutions should be judged from this perspective.

10. Capacity building projects should be expanded to provinces not included at present;
    e.g. Northern Cape. This however, needs to be worked out in details while assessing
    where the basic needs are and in what order the many different capacity needs ought to
    be addressed for effective and efficient implementation. SANTED II should consider
    direct DOE support to develop such projects in detail for subsequent implementation.

11. As regards the SADC component of SANTED, the Review Team recommends its
    continuation and, if resources permit, expand its coverage in terms of participating
    institutions and disciplines. In relation to this a higher level of formalization of
    procedures and practices should be introduced into the management and the
    administration of the programme and the projects..

12. Solicit external advice in the selection procedure of proposals when there are doubts
   about the feasibility of projects that are being proposed, and.to avoid adding projects
   to the SADC component on the basis of ad-hoc decisions rather than according to
   agreed assessment and selection procedures.

13. Consolidate the projects that show potential for establishing broad-based longer-term
    institutional collaboration by giving them the opportunity to continue. This
    specifically regards the NEW and ZAWECA projects.

14. To design and implement a programme policy on payment of financial or non-
    financial benefits for the SADC partners involved in projects. Preference should be
    given to the incorporation of non-financial benefits where needed, to ensure effective
    implementation of projects and sustainability of project results.




                                                                                          50
List of References
CEPD (2002), “ Minutes of the SANTED programme Annual Meeting 29 November and 2
December 2002.”

Deloitte (2005), “Report of the independent auditors to the fort Hare Foundation’s SANTED
project for period 1 January 2003 to 12 August 2005”

DOE (2000), “South Africa – Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme – Business
Plan.” Pretoria.

DOE (2002), “SANTED: Business Plans for 3 of the 4 SADC projects” (UNISA, Port Elisabeth
Technicon, University of Witwatersrand with University of Eduardo mondlane and University of
Namibia)

DOE (2005), “Strategic Plan 2005/6 – 2007/8, and operational plans for 2005/6

MOE (2001), “National Plan for Higher Education.” Pretoria

MOE (2002), “Transformation and Restructuring. A New institutional landscape for higher
education”

MOE (2004), “Statement on Higher Education Funding: 2004/5 to 2006/7”,

MOE (2004), “A new funding framework: How government grants are allocated to public higher
education institutions.”

Norad (2000), “Bevilgningsdokument. Tiltaksnr RSA 0050 Higher Education, Avtale RSA
99/320 South Africa Norway tertiary education deelopment programme (SANTED programme)

SANTED (2001), “ Guidelines for Submission of Project Proposals for the SADC Component.”,
SANTED Directors Office, Johannesburg

SANTED (2003), “Proceedings of the SANTED formative Research Seminar “. 3-5 December
2003, Magalies Manor, Magaliesburg
SANTED (2005), “Business Plan: Planning project on future co-operation in tertiary education
development between South Africa and Norway.”

University of Durban Westville (2002), “Upward bound, 2002. Evaluation Report.” by Cliff
Malmcolm,

University of Durban Westville (2003), “The Upwardbound university-wide enrichment
programme (UPB)” Narrative report for the Upward bound programme

University of Durban Westville (2003), “The Uward bound university-wide enrichment
programme (UPB)” Tracer study draft proposal.

University of Fort Hare (2002), “SANTED Business Plan – Capacity building for Fort Hare”




                                                                                               51
University of Fort Hare (2002), “Draft SANTED proposal - Capacity building – UFH Support
Services”

University of Fort Hare (2003), “Business Plan: Capacity building – UFH Support Services”

University of Fort Hare (2004), “SANTED project closure report – Executive summary report.”

University of Fort Hare (2005), “SANTED project – Comprehensive project closeout report”

University of Fort Hare (2005), “SANTED project – Executive summary report.”

University of Fort Hare (2005); “SANTED Capacity building projects at the UHF and UNIZUL.”
Report on the joint Review Workshop held in East London and at the Bisho Campus of UFH, 7-8
June 2005

University of Kwazulu-Natal (2004), “SANTED Business plan for the implementation of a
holistic access policy at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.” 22. March 2004.

University of Kwazulu-Natal (2004), “SANTED progress report on the implementation of a
holistic access policy at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The SANTED-UKZN
Access and retention project (SUKAR project)”, 09 July 2004

University of Kwazulu-Natal (2005), “Graduate trends for the period 2000-2004.”

University of Western Cape (2000), “ Draft Strategic Plan 2001-2005”

University of Western Cape (2002), “Annual Report 2002”

University of Western Cape (2003), “Annual Report 2003”

University of Western Cape (2003), “Equitable Access: Annual Report 2003”

University of Western Cape (2003), “Equitable Access: Performance indicators 2001 – 2002 –
2003”

University of Western Cape (2005), “Matric performance and post matric destinations of learners
on the teacher and learner support.” Prepared by the Further Education and training institute.

University of Western Cape (2005), “SANTED programme project synopsis 2005.”

University of Western Cape (2005), “Reckognition of prior learning” Summarised report for
SANTED project, August 2005

University of Western Cape (2005), “Executive summary of post-graduate enrolment and
throughput 2004/5”

University of Western Cape (2005), “Equitable access project review” August 2005

University of Witwatersrand (2005), “SANTED NEW: Project Update.”



                                                                                             52
University of Zululand (2003), “Capacity development: Administrative processes and financial
management” Strategy Partners Consortium

University of Zululand (2004), “Turnaround business plan 2004 and beyond.” Organizational
Development Project in association with SANTED.

University of Zululand (2005), “SANTED capacity building project and the University of Fort
Hare and University of Zululand “. Report on the joint workshop held in East London and the
Bisho campus of the University of Fort Hare, 7-8 June 2005.




                                                                                               53
Annex 1: Terms of Reference for Programme Review
1   BACKGROUND

1.1     The policy on the restructuring of South African Higher Education
In 1994, the democratically elected South African Government had a legacy of almost 50
years of apartheid legislation to repeal and amend. In order to deal with an irrationally
structured higher education system, a sound policy framework was needed. Consequently, a
Presidential Commission was established in 1995 (The National Commission on Higher
Education - NCHE) to recommend to government a new, rational and equitable higher
education system for South Africa.

The NCHE reported its findings in August 1996 under the title A New Policy Framework for
Higher Education Transformation (NCHE, 1996). The three central objectives on which the
policy proposals were based are:
     Increased participation, with a focus on issues of redress and equality. The report
        emphasizes that greater numbers of students will have to be accommodated; and these
        students will be recruited from a broader base of social groups and classes;
     Greater responsiveness to societal interests and needs; and
     Increased cooperation and partnerships in the governance structures and operations of
        higher education.
The subsequent White Paper of April 1997, entitled A Programme for the Transformation of
Higher Education, highlighted the following principles upon which the new higher education
system would be based:
         equality and redress
         democratisation
         development
         quality
         efficiency
         academic freedom and institutional autonomy
         public accountability
The Higher Education Act was passed in late 1997 and was formulated around these
principles. The Branch of Higher Education (established in 1997) at the Department of
Education (DoE) has been addressing key areas of implementation of the Act.

In January 2000 the Minister of Education indicated that the Council of Higher Education
(CHE) should establish a Task Team to conduct a far-reaching review of the higher education
system. It should provide the Minister with a set of concrete proposals concerning the shape
and size of the higher education system. The National Plan on Higher Education (NPHE), the
Ministry's response to the Council on Higher Education's Report, was released in February
2001. The National Plan on Higher Education outlines the framework and mechanisms for
implementing and realising the policy goals of the White Paper. Following the National Plan,
the Ministry released its proposals In December 2003, which were approved by the Cabinet,
for the transformation and restructuring of the institutional landscape of the higher education
system. The proposals aim to consolidate the higher education institutions through mergers
and incorporation.




                                                                                            54
1.2    Constraints on the transformation of higher education 2000 – 2004
By 2000 the slow rate of change indicated that the success of the transformation had been
limited. Some institutions were finding it difficult simply to survive, with many of them
operating in crisis mode. There were a number of reasons for this:

   Most institutions experienced a drop in student numbers from 1994 to 1999, and this
    resulted in considerable financial stress.
   The international and local private higher education market grew rapidly in South Africa
    in the period 1995-2000 and this impacted on the public higher education sector.
   Many students had difficulties paying the rising university student fees and many
    institutions accrued sizeable bad debts.
   Astute financial management was required during this period, yet many institutions, the
    historically disadvantaged universities in particular, suffered from a low level of expertise
    in this area.
   Many institutions experienced management problems at all levels during this period.
   The goal of greater cooperation in the sector, a theme that runs through all the policy
    documents, was virtually cancelled out by the increased competition between institutions
    for students and alternative funding sources.

A serious consequence of these developments was that the gap between the historically
advantaged and disadvantaged institutions failed to diminish and may in fact have widened in
some cases. The government’s plan of 2003 to restructure the sector aimed to erase this
institutional divide. There was a need for special support to promote institutional
modernization so as to level out the differences in capacity among South Africa’s higher
education institutions.

In addition, measures of redress and changes to produce equal grounds for access to higher
education remained a challenge in democratic South Africa. Inequalities in access conditions
and differences in preparedness due to a low quality high school system, which hindered
learners from formerly disadvantaged groups in taking the leap to university, were identified
as a major obstacle to equity in higher education.

1.3      The SANTED Programme
In 1999, the Norwegian Embassy indicated that it was prepared to fund a development
programme to support the transformation of higher education in South Africa. The initial task
was to identify a number of limited, but strategically important areas where it would be
possible to assist the South African authorities in reaching their goals. The projects should be
institutionally anchored. The historically disadvantaged institutions were identified as having
the greatest need for assistance. Three focal areas were defined:

    -   access for and retention of people from previously disadvantaged groups
    -   capacity building of historically disadvantaged institutions
    -   sub-regional cooperation; implementation of the SADC protocol on higher education.

The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme was launched in
November 2000. Two institutions were granted support under what were called student access
and retention projects. The “Equitable Access through Enrolment Management Project” at the
University of Western Cape (UWC) began in January 2001. The “Upward Bound University
Wide Project” at the University of Durban Westville (UDW) had effectively started in


                                                                                              55
January 2000 with support from other donors. In 2002 a formative research project was added
to the access and retention projects. Researchers from UDW and UWC joined up with the
University of Bergen to follow the institutions’ response to the national reforms introduced in
the sector.

Faced with new mandates and mergers following the release of the government’s
restructuring plan, many institutions needed special assistance in building the capacity for
change. Two institutional projects at the University of Zululand and the University of Fort
Hare were selected. The aim was to develop the institutions’ capacity in financial
management, administration and planning in ways suitable to the new era. These projects
were launched in 2003.

The project’s third area of focus was on institutional collaboration within the SADC region,
based on the SADC protocol on higher education of 1997. After an open call for proposals,
four out of 36 South African universities were selected and cooperation projects were
launched between 2002 and 2003.


Focus Area             Project (budget - R millions)         Institutions

Access and             Upward Bound (R7.0m)                  University of Durban Westville
Retention
                                                             University of Kwa Zulu Natal
                       SUKAR (R3.3m)                         University of Kwa Zulu Natal
                       Equitable Access (R10.0m)             University of the Western Cape
                       Formative Research                    University of Bergen
                       (R3.3m)                               University of Durban Westville
                                                             University of Kwa Zulu Natal
                                                             University of the Western Cape


Capacity               Organisational Development            University of Zululand
Development            (R 5.8 m)
                       SANTED Project (R 5.0)                University of Fort Hare


SADC                   SANTED Health Sciences                Port Elizabeth Technikon
Collaboration
                       (R 0.7m)                              Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
                                                             University
                                                             Evelyn Hone College, Lusaka
                                                             Health authorities in Botswana, Malawi
                                                             and Zambia
                       Unisa Nursing Sciences                University of South Africa
                       (R 1.0m)
                       NEW                                   University of the Namibia
                       (R 6.5m)                              University Eduardo Mondlane
                                                             University of the Witwatersrand
                       ZAWECA                                University of the Western Cape
                       (R 1.8m)                              University of Zambia




                                                                                                56
1.4    Programme Management
The Higher Education Branch of the Department of Education is responsible for the
implementation of the Programme under the Management Support Directorate. The CEPD
(Centre for Education Policy development) acts as the managing agency and charges an
administration fee to administer the funds. An agreement has been entered into for this
purpose between the DoE and the CEPD.

A Programme Director approved by the DOE manages the programme. The Programme
Director is responsible for managing and co-ordinating all aspects of the programme on a day
to day basis. This includes regular field visits to the institutions benefiting from the
programme. The Programme Director is housed at the CEPD with the necessary
administrative support. The Programme Director reports regularly to the DoE.

The institutions report formally to the Programme Director at least twice a year. The reports
are both narrative and financial. The institutions are responsible for executing the approved
projects in accordance with the approved project proposals and budgets. Continued funding
support for the projects is dependent on satisfactory implementation of the projects and
adequate reporting and accountability structures being in place at the institutions.

The Department of Education has an Advisory Committee, which includes representatives
from the Higher Education Branch and such external persons that may be deemed appropriate.
The Advisory Committee has advised the Department on projects to be included in the
programme.

1.5    A new phase for the SANTED programme
The Declaration of Intent between the Governments of South Africa and Norway was signed
31 March 2004. The Declaration reaffirms continued development cooperation for the period
2005 to 2009. The operational objectives of the development cooperation are to consolidate
democracy, strengthen regional integration and collaboration by using South African expertise
in the region and to build long term sustainable relationships between the two countries.
While the SANTED programme focuses mainly on the first and second of the operational
objectives, other programmes supporting bilateral research cooperation and student exchange
are aimed at the third. The Declaration of Intent also confirms the continued support for
implementation of the National Plan for Higher Education. Following this, the Norwegian
government is prepared to continue to support limited, but strategically important
interventions assisting South African authorities in implementing the policies under the
National Plan in a second phase of the SAINTED programme.

Discussions concerning a second phase of the SANTED Programme were initiated at the
annual meeting in November 2004. A planning project was approved for 2005 so as to avoid
delay in implementation of the second phase of the programme, due to start in 2006.

The Business Plan of 28 November 2000 states that a “final review shall be conducted on
completion of SANTED”. In view of the continued development cooperation and Norwegian
support for a second phase, the parties have agreed to undertake an overall review of the
programme, an in-dept review with a selective focus on certain important cases/projects. The
review will also describe lessons learnt during the first phase of the programme. The review



                                                                                          57
will be conducted in parallel to the planning project carried out by the SAINTED Programme
Director.

 Against this background a joint review will be carried out. Conclusions and
recommendations will be fed into the planning of the second phase of the SANTED
programme. The overall aim of the planning process for the second phase is to develop and
adapt the programme to cope with challenges currently facing the restructuring and
transformation of higher education, and this involves reassessing and adjusting to the sector’s
current development needs.

2   TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE REVIEW

2.1 Major issues
The review shall analyse and assess the results of the SANTED programme in relation to the
objectives defined in the Business Plan of 28 November 2000.

2.2    Issues to be covered
The review shall cover the whole period of the first phase from its start in 2001 to 2005. An
overall review of the programme should be assumed in terms of the criteria below. In
addition, more in-depth analysis of various sustainability elements, like mainstreaming of
access and retention measures (focus area 1), lasting effects of capacity building (focus area
2) and effectiveness on facilitating long-term cooperation in SADC (focus area 3) can be
addressed by using particular projects as cases, as indicated below.

Relevance
The review shall assess the relevance and relative importance of the three focal areas and the
selection of projects under them, in terms of South Africa’s policies for transforming higher
education during the programme period from 2000 to 2005. The reviewers shall analyse the
extent to which the programme has adapted to changing challenges facing the sector and the
policy development formulated by the South African authorities since 2000, and whether this
has had an effect on the overall relevance of the SANTED programme.

Effectiveness
The effectiveness of the projects should be studied in terms, firstly, of the objectives of the
SANTED programme, and secondly, of the overall objectives set out in the Plan for Higher
Education.

Quality, impact and relevance (contextual relevance)
In particular the review shall assess the effectiveness of the projects in relation to:


        Focus area I:
    -   the quality and contextual relevance of the school intervention projects
    -   the quality and impact of the summer schools in improving student access for
        previously disadvantaged learners
    -   the quality and contextual relevance of retention and throughput measures
        Focus area 2:
    -   the quality and impact of the institutional capacity for capitalising on human resources
        for the universities to function as effective and modern institutions in line with their
        turnaround strategies.


                                                                                             58
        Focus area 3
    -   The quality and impact of the four SADC projects in terms of facilitating increased
        cooperation based on the SADC Protocol of Higher Education.

Performance assessment
The “Upward Bound University Wide Project” at UDW and the “Equitable Access through
Enrolment Management Projects” at UWC have had varied success in delivering outputs in
accordance with the Business Plan. The variance in performance may to some extent be
explained by differences in the genesis of the projects, as well as by internal factors.
Notwithstanding, differences in performance levels may also be caused by internal
organizational factors, such as institutional leadership and commitment and human resource
management. The reviewers shall seek to identify factors that are influencing the performance
levels of the projects in a positive or a negative direction.

The review shall provide a survey of the performance levels of outputs/deliverables in terms
of the indicators for each of the projects as defined for the “Upward Bound” and “Equitable
Access“ projects in the Business Plan. In cases where outputs have not been delivered as
planned the reviewer shall seek to explain the reasons for the lack of achievement or the low
performance level.

The review shall provide a survey of the level of performance and impact of the four SADC
projects in terms of the outputs emerging from the SADC protocol on higher education (i.e.
concerning design of academic programmes, joint or split site teaching, production of
teaching and learning materials, and the promotion of student exchange).

Sustainability
The reviewers shall assess the extent to which the SANTED programme has contributed to
the sustainability and mainstreaming of university projects.

   To what extent have the institutions receiving support made concrete efforts to
    mainstream all or parts of the projects initiated under the SANTED Programme?
   To what extent are the access and retention initiatives and measures set up under the
    SANTED programme at UWC and UDW/KwaZuluNatal sustainable, in terms of the
    universities’ abilities, interest and plans to continue them organizationally and financially
    and in terms of the effects of the projects?
   To what extent have the projects at the University of Zululand and the University of Fort
    Hare been able to build sustainable internal capacity in human resources in ways that will
    have a lasting effect on the universities’ strategic plans for the implementation of new
    mandates and requirements on institutional and financial management in line with the
    national authorities’ policy for restructuring, modernisation and accountability of higher
    education in South Africa?
   To what extent are the projects initiated under the SADC component sustainable in terms
    of the South African institutions’ ability to maintain multilateral and bilateral links with
    institutions in neighbouring countries?
   To what extent has the University of Witwatersrand been able to prepare the ground for
    sustainable relationships with the universities of Eduardo Modelane and Namibia and/or
    the University of the Western Cape and the University of Zambia in the areas selected for
    cooperation and joint development.




                                                                                              59
Efficiency
The review shall assess the organization, dissemination, and transparency of the application
and selection procedures for the SADC projects.

The review should assess the management model, including financial management,
organisation, administration effectiveness and coordination of the SANTED programme.

The reviewers shall in particular assess the role of the SANTED coordinator in the initiation,
coordination and management of the overall programme as well as the individual projects.

2.3       Methodology and scope

In undertaking the tasks listed above, the reviewers shall employ the following methodology,
to which they are invited to add complementary elements that might be of interest.

      -   A desk study of relevant background documents
      -   A survey analysis of performance indicators
      -   Field visits to all universities/institutions in South Africa and the University of
          Eduardo Mondlane/Namibia/Zambia.
      -   Interviews with key personnel

The desk study requires familiarisation with, at a minimum, the following documents:
relevant agreements and correspondence between the parties to the Business Plan, minutes
from annual meetings, the proceedings, and guidelines, rules of procedure and relevant
documentation of the secretariat/coordinator, National Plan for Higher Education of 2001,
Dep of Education, annual report 2003-04, Dep of Education, Education Statistics in South
Africa at a Glance in 2002, Dep of Education, Strategic Plan 2005-2010 and other relevant
policy documents. The essential documentation required to carry out the review shall be
provided by the SANTED Director.

The survey analysis implies a general assessment of the programme's accomplishment based
on the perceptions of a reasonable selection of key actors participating in the projects

The field visits shall include in-depth interviews with the leadership (Vice Chancellors where
possible) and administrators at the respective universities, the coordinators and organisers of
projects, researchers/evaluators and a reasonable number of project beneficiaries, including
students from formerly disadvantaged groups. In addition the reviewer shall conduct
interviews with relevant personnel at the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria, Norad, and the
Department of Education (RSA), and the SANTED Programme management

The reviewers shall as far possible make use of the information and empirical data already
compiled in the evaluation and monitoring of the projects, including the formative research
project currently ongoing under the programme.

2.4       Conclusions, lessons learned and recommendations

The conclusions shall indicate the major strengths and weaknesses of the programme, with a
particular focus on the selected cases/projects. Conclusions shall assess the results and
usefulness of the programme in terms of the contribution to limited, but strategically
important areas of the National Plan for Higher Education.


                                                                                                60
The conclusions shall include an evaluation of the projects values, which will serve as a
benchmark and best practice for other universities involved in processes of change similar to
those of the institutions granted support under the SANTED programme.

The conclusions shall seek to explain major problems and obstacles to the progress of the
Programme and in light thereof discuss the realism of the goals, objectives and outputs
defined in the Business Plan.

The lessons learned should present the reviewers’ impressions of the major achievements and
successes together with the principal failings and the reasons for the latter.

The recommendations should draw implications from the conclusions and suggest
adjustments/improvement to the following aspects in particular:

       the relative importance of focal areas
       the selection of projects and the implication of a sound and valuable balance between
        the continuation of old projects and the provision of support to new initiatives
       proposals for adjustment / adaptation of projects likely to continue
       the development of criteria and procedure for selection SADC projects
       the management and coordination of the Programme
       the development of objectives and outputs and the definition of results with a
        proposal for corresponding indicators
       the format for a new draft of the Business Plan.

It is agreed that the recommendation from the review shall feed into the appraisal of the next
programme phase, and that this together with the planning project will constitute to as a
foundation for the dialogue concerning the continuation and adjustment of the Programme
2006 to 2009.

3       Organisation of the review

3.1     The Review Team
The team of the review shall consist of three persons, one higher education expert from South
Africa, one from Europe/Norway and one experienced consultant with knowledge of methods
and requirements of evaluations/reviews of Norwegian development programmes.

The higher education expert should have excellent knowledge of policies and
developments in higher education in South Africa and knowledge the institutions forming part
of the SANTED programme. This team member shall be selected based on a suggestion from
DoE.

The higher education expert form Europe/Norway shall have special knowledge of capacity
building in higher education and bring in experience form the international developments in
the sector, including from other countries in Africa.

The professional consultant shall bring in in-dept knowledge of assessments/evaluations of
Norwegian development assistance, be an experienced team leader and have sufficient
knowledge of support to higher education in development.



                                                                                           61
6.2     Budget and responsibilities
This is a joint review, where Norwegian Embassy and Department of Education share the
overall responsibility and costs. The Norwegian Embassy will through Norad assign a
professional consultant to lead the team, as well as the Norwegian/European consultant. The
costs of the South African consultant will be born by the programme

The time fame for total assignment will be as follows:
   -
   - maximum 12 days including travels for the team leader
   - maximum 11 days for the European consultant for the field visit, including travels
   - a total of 12 days working days for the two consultants to prepare for field visits and
       for writing up reports.

The team leader will take responsibility for the division of work within the team, including
the final assignment of field responsibilities and allocation of work days. The team leader
shall submit at total budget for the two international consultants to Norad for approval before
24 June 2005.

The South African consultant will be available for the whole field work period and report to
the team leader. The South African consultant will be contracted by the DoE /the Programme
Director. The Programme Director/Management will be responsible for support to the review
team with regard to appointments/meetings, as well as logistic within South Africa in
consultation with the team leader.

6. 3 Timelines, reporting and outputs
The review shall include the presentation and discussion of an inception report and a final
report with an executive summary.

The 10 days of field visits shall take place within the month of August 2005

The inception report should identify appropriate methods for the review, including the
planning of field visits, key questions to be asked and when applicable cases selected of in-
debt studies of particular questions covered by the review. The inception report shall not be
more than 4 pages. It shall be presented to Norad by 10 August 2005.

The final report shall cover all issues identified in the ToR. Adjustments that the review team
finds necessary and appropriate shall be communicated to and discussed with Norad. The
final report shall be written in English and shall include an executive summary, conclusions
and recommendations. The final report shall be from 30 -40 pages including the executive
summary. The draft final report shall be submitted to Norad before 15. September 2005.

The review team will e-mail the final report to DoE, the Norwegian Embassy and Norad, with
a copy to the SANTED programme Director. A paper copy shall be send to the Norwegian
Embassy in Pretoria,




                                                                                            62
Annex 2: Questionaire for SADC Projects
SANTED REVIEW
BASIC INFORMATION
Project title:
Your name:
Your position:
Your institute/organization:
Your involvement in the project:
Since when are you involved in the project:
PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS:
1.1 What do you regard as achievements of the project to date:
1.2. Which actors/factors have contributed to these achievements:
2.1.What do you regard as hindrances in project implementation :
2.2 Which actors/factors have caused these hindrances:
3.1 What do you recommend to (further) improve project implementation:
PROJECT IMPACT:
4.1 What are the effects you expect from successful project implementation:
4.2 What factors influence the achievements of these expected effects:
4.3 What actions are planned and executed to achieve these expected effects:
PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY:
5.1 What are the chances that the results of the project will be sustained after project funding
comes to an end:
5.2 Which factors influence the sustainability of project results:
5.3 What is are you doing to ensure sustainability of project results:
PROGRAMME DESIGN and IMPLEMENTATION:
6.1 What do you appreciate about the set-up of the SANTED programme:
6.2 What do you consider to be shortcomings in the set-up of the SANTED programme:
6.3 What is your opinion about the administrative arrangements of the SANTED programme:
6.4 What are your suggestions for improvement of the administrative arrangements of
SANTED projects:
6.5 What is your opinion about the management and administration of the SANTED
programme:
6.6. Any suggestions for improvements:
OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS and SUGGESTIONS:
7.1 Do you have any other recommendations or suggestions which would help to improve the
effectiveness of your project:
7.2 Do you have any other recommendations or suggestions which would help to improve the
effectiveness of the SANTED programme:
PROGRAMME RELEVANCE AND EFFECTIVENESS
8.1 Is SANTED a necessary or useful instrument to establish and strengthen ties between
higher education institutions within the SADC countries? In other words, would your
institution have established the ties with your partners if there had not been this SANTED
opportunity?
8.2 What is the added value of the SANTED programme compared to other mechanisms to
establish ties with partners in SADC countries?
8.3 Which of the outputs mentioned in the SADC protocol do you find most effective in
establishing ties with institutions in the SADC countries, and why? Could you think of


                                                                                              63
outputs or mechanisms which would be equally or more effective?

Please send your filled out questionnaire to:
Ad Boeren
Member of the SANTED review team
At: adboeren@zonnet.nl or adboeren@lycos.nl
Deadline: 12 August 2005

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION!




                                                                  64
 Annex 3: Itinerary for the Review Team 13-23 August 2005

 Date       Time        Persons                           Activity                    Arranged
                                                                                         by:
Sunday    10h10                                                                       Stein
14 Aug.   LH 576    Stein Hansen        Arrive Cape Town from Oslo                    Hansen
          10h30     Stein Hansen        Picked up by UWC at airport                   UWC
#51668    11h00     Stein Hansen        Book into hotel (The Commodore,               SANTED
                                        Waterfront)
          16h40     Hugh Africa         Arrive Cape Town from Johannesburg            SANTED
          SA 345
          17h00     Hugh Africa         Picked up by UWC at airport                   UWC
#51669    17h30     Hugh Africa         Book into hotel (The Commodore,               SANTED
                                        Waterfront)
          19h30     Stein Hansen        Dinner with UWC representatives – Blue        UWC
                    Hugh Africa         Dolphin Restaurant
          09h30
          SA 237    Ad Boeren           Arrive Johannesburg from Amsterdam            Ad Boeren
          10h00     Ad Boeren           Picked up by SANTED at airport                SANTED
#3134     11h00     Ad Boeren           Book into hotel (Courtyard, Rosebank)         SANTED
          19h30     Ad Boeren           Dinner with SANTED/Wits (Melrose Arch)        SANTED


                    Stein Hansen
Monday              Hugh Africa         Meetings at UWC (picked up at The
15 Aug.   09h00     Larry Pokpas        Commodore and returned to airport by UWC)     UWC
                    Desiree Cranfield
                    Tanya Vergnani
          17h00 –   Stein Hansen
          18h30     Hugh Africa         Fly to East London (transport to airport by   UWC
          SA 1375                       UWC)
          18h45     Stein Hansen
                    Hugh Africa         Picked up by UFH (Alan/Noel) at airport       UFH
#12288    19h00     Stein Hansen
#12287              Hugh Africa         Book into hotel (Dolphin View Lodge)          SANTED
          19h30     Stein Hansen        Dinner with UFH representatives -
                    Hugh Africa         Cape to Cairo Restaurant                      SANTED
          09h00 –   Ad Boeren           Meetings at Wits (picked up at hotel by
          14h00     D McConnell         SANTED/Wits)                                  WITS
                    (09h00-11h30)
                    Prof Mthembu
                    (11h30-12h30)
          14h30     D Young et al       Meet with SANTED at offices                   SANTED
          19h10 –                       Deborah to pick up Ad Boeren and drive him
          20h10     Ad Boeren           to airport                                    SANTED
          TM 306                        Fly to Maputo
                    Ad Boeren           Picked up at airport by Hotel transfer        WITS/UEM
                    Ad Boeren           Book into Hotel (Polana)                      SANTED
                    Ad Boeren           Dinner with UEM representatives               WITS/UEM




Tuesday   08h00     Stein Hansen
16 Aug.             Hugh Africa         UFH to collect Review Team                    UFH



                                                                                               65
                    Stein Hansen
          08h30     Hugh Africa         Meetings at UFH East London Campus             UFH
                    Noel Knickelbein
                    Alan Shaw et al
          13h30     Stein Hansen        Return to East London airport with UFH reps    UFH
                    Hugh Africa
          17h00 –   Stein Hansen
          18h10     Hugh Africa         Fly to Durban                                  SANTED
          SA 8257
          18h30     Stein Hansen        Pick up at airport an Imperial rental car      SANTED
                    Hugh Africa
                    Ad Boeren
          08h00     Orlando             Meetings at UEM                                SANTED
                    Quilambo et al
          12h00     Ad Boeren           Return to airport                              SANTED
          14h00-
          15h15     Ad Boeren           Fly to Durban                                  SANTED
          TM2325
          15h30     Ad Boeren           Picked up at airport by hotel Holiday Inn      SANTED
7A2G4               Stein Hansen
7A2G5     16h30     Hugh Africa         Book into hotel (HI Elangeni)                  SANTED
7A2G6               Ad Boeren
          20h00     Stein Hansen        Dinner with UKZN representatives –
                    Hugh Africa         Cargo Hold                                     SANTED
                    Ad Boeren


Aug                 Stein Hansen
Wed.      09h00     Hugh Africa         Meetings at UKZN                               UKZN
17.                 Ad Boeren
                    Elizabeth de Kadt
                    Stein Hansen        Drive to Empangeni
          15h30     Hugh Africa         Book into B&B (Zimbete Lodge)                  SANTED
                    Ad Boeren           Dinner at B&B


                    Stein Hansen
Thurs-              Hugh Africa
day       09h00     Ad Boeren           Meetings at Unizul                             UNIZUL
18 Aug.              Prof Gumbi
                    S Govindsamy
                    S Maphisa et al
          15h50 –   Stein Hansen
          17h15     Hugh Africa         Fly from Richards Bay to Johannesburg          SANTED/
          SA 1606   Ad Boeren                                                          UNIZUL
#22212              Stein Hansen        Picked up at airport by shuttle (Guy) and
#22214              Hugh Africa         driven to Pretoria                             SANTED
#22213              Ad Boeren           Book in hotel (Court Classique, Arcadia)

Friday    Morning   Stein Hansen        Work on report
19 Aug.             Ad Boeren                                                          SANTED

          14h00     Stein Hansen        Meetings with DoE, Pretoria, Nasima
                    Ad Boeren           Badsha’s office. Transport to be provided by
                                        SANTED from Court Classic
          16h30     Stein Hansen        Meeting with SANTED project Director
                    Ad Boeren           DerrickYoung and Co-ordinator Zamo
                                        Shongwe




                                                                                                66
Saturday                 Stein Hansen
20 Aug.–                 Ad Boeren      Work on report
Sunday                   Hugh Africa
21 Aug.
Monday     Morning and   Stein Hansen   Work on report
22 Aug     afternoon     Ad Boeren
                         Hugh Africa

           11h00         Stein Hansen   Debriefing at Norwegian Embassy                SANTED
                         Hugh Africa    Kirsti Methi, Advisor
                                        Sten Anders Berge, Minister Councellor.
                                        Embassy to provide transport


           Morning       Stein Hansen   Work on report
                         Ad Boeren
Tuesday                  Hugh Africa
23 Aug.
           16h00         Stein Hansen   Johannesburg Airport:
                         Ad Boeren      Meeting with Derrick Young, Project Director

           19h20 –                      Fly to Oslo                                    Stein
           11h40                                                                       Hansen
           LH 573
           (3130)

           21h00 –                      Fly to Amsterdam                               Ad Boeren
           10h20
           SA 236
           (7622)




                                                                                                67
Annex 4: Organization and Implementation of the Review
1.     The Mobilization and Inception Phase

The Review Team was mobilized as of the second part of July and consisting of Professor
Hugh Africa, a prominent expert on tertiary education reforms in South Africa, Ad Boeren,
Senior Policy Advisor of Nuffic, the Netherlands, who is a world-wide experienced expert on
higher education programmes in developing countries, and Stein Hansen, senior economist of
Nordic Consulting Group AS, Norway, as team leader. He was recently team leader for the
comprehensive evaluation of Norad’s Master Degree Fellowship Programme (where Ad
Boeren also was a team member) where field work was conducted at University of Western
Cape (UWC) and University of Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) in Mozambique.

During the inception phase, the SANTED secretariat and Norad have provided the Review
team with electronic and paper copies of all relevant documentation of relevance to SANTED.
This includes all available progress reports, the indicator reports, financial reports, the
SANTED Business Plans, minutes from annual meetings, proceedings, guidelines, the South
African policy documents and plans for tertiary education (National Plan for Higher
Education of 2001, Department of Education (DOE), Annual report 2003-4, DOE Statistics on
tertiary education, and DOE Strategic Plan 2005-2010 . These documents have been reviewed
during this study phase and forms the basis for the questions, questionaire and scheduled
meetings during the field visit phase.

A key incepetion phase activity has been a survey analysis of the performance indicators of
the SANTED Business Plan. The survey finding of this review is that the indicators selected
and defined in the SANTED Business Plan are selected as targets with time schedules for the
projects to reach. However, the indicators do not represent counterfactual type baselines
against which one could compare outcomes to determine the “additional value” of the
projects. The counterfactual analysis is therefore carried out in the main review phase during
and after the field work, but it could be established already at the inception stage that it would
be qualitative rather than quantitative in charcter.

The review is surveying the level of performance and impact of the four SADC projects in
terms of the outputs emerging from the SADC protocol on higher education (i.e. concerning
design of academic programmes, joint or split site teaching, production of teaching and
learning materials, and the promotion of student exchange). This task is started during the
inception phase with a document review, and completed during the field work in August.

In cases where outputs have not been delivered as planned the reviewers have sought to
explain the reasons for the lack of achievement or the lower performance level. As compared
to a counterfactual baseline indicator, the chosen ones may represent anything from highly
unrealistic, ambitious targets to “easy to reach” targets. The former could have been chosen to
stimulate the responsible institutions and staff to stretch efforts to the limit, and in such cases
not reaching the target does not necesarily indicate failure. In cases where the target values re
easy to reach, performance beyong the target may not at all be impressive. The review team
therefore has tried to establish what the actual indicators represent on such a performance
scale, and from the answers to that establish to what extent the results represent genuine value
added.




                                                                                                68
The Review Team developed and passed on counterfactual questions to all involved
institutions in focus areas 1 and 2, and a questionaire designed for the four SADC projects
prior to the field work, and followed up on these in the meetings during the field visit phase of
the review, see Annex 2.

With the excellent assistance of the SANTED secretariat and its Director, Derrick Young, the
inception phase has proven to be a highly efficient field visit planning phase. The time and
budget available to the review team is rather limited, and it has been necessary to limit visits
to the only a sample of the institutions involved in the SADC projects. Based on consultation
with Norad and the SANTED Director, the Review Team decided to visit UEM, UWC and
WITS only, and review the remaining SADC focus area 3 institutions by means of a
questionaire, document reviews and interviews with the South African partner institutions
during the field visits.

2.     The Field Work

The field work in South Africa and Mozambique was completed during the period 13-24
August 2005. It covered visits to the involved tertiary institutions, the SANTED office, the
Department of Education in South Africa, the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria and to Eduardo
Mondlane University in Mozambique, see detailed field visit programme in Annex 3.

The Review Team was organized in two parallel groups during the first half of the field work.
It conducted intensive meetings with the leadership and administration, as well as with
representative of project beneficiaries (e.g. staff and students from formerly disadvantaged
groups). Ad Boeren visited University of Witwatersrand (WITS) in Johannesburg and
Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) in Mozambique, before teaming up with Hugh Africa
and Stein Hansen in Durban for joint meetings at and University of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN)
and University of Zululand (UNIZUL). Mr Africa and Mr Hansen visited University of
Western Cape (UWC) and University of Fort Hare (UFH) prior to teaming up with Ad Boeren
in Durban.

The team based its findings on a review of the available documentation about the programme
and the individual projects, interviews and questionnaires. Prior to the mission, three of the
SADC-cooperation universities had been selected for a field visit by the review team:
University of the Western Cape (ZAWECA project), Witwatersrand University and the
Eduardo Mondlane University (NEW project). UWC and UKZN were visited for the access
and retention projects, and UFH and UNIZUL for the institutional capacity building projects.
These visits gave the team a chance to discuss in-depth the achievements of the projects and
success of the programme with the leadership (Vice Chancellors where possible) and
administrators at the respective universities, the coordinators and organisers of projects,
researchers/evaluators and project beneficiaries, to the extent possible within a very tight
timeframe.

The institutions that are also involved the various SADC projects but which could not be
visited during the field mission were asked to fill in a questionnaire that covered the review
questions included in the ToR. These questionnaires were being sent to the management and
project responsible persons at these institutions one week prior to the field mission. The
response was modest as only five questionnaires were returned. Communication problems
with the partners in the SADC countries may well explain the low rate of return (see Annex 2
for the questionnaire).


                                                                                              69
After having visited the involved institutions, the Review Team met as one group with
relevant persons the Department of Education (DOE), the SANTED Programme Director and
management, and the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria.

3.       Reporting

This report is focused on indicating the major strengths and weaknesses of the SANTED
programme, with a particular focus on the selected cases/projects. The conclusions:

        Assess the results and usefulness of the programme in terms of the contribution to
         limited, but strategically important areas of the National Plan for Higher Education.

        Include an assessment of the extent to which the project achievments can serve as
         benchmark and best practice for other universities involved in processes of change
         similar to those of the institutions granted support under the SANTED programme.

        Seek to explain major problems and obstacles to the progress of the SANTED
         Programme and in light thereof discuss the realism of the goals, objectives and outputs
         defined in the Business Plan.

The lessons learned present the reviewers’ impressions of the major achievements and
successes together with the principal failings and the reasons for the latter.

The recommendations draw implications from the conclusions                       and    suggest
adjustments/improvement to the following aspects in particular:

        the relative importance of focal areas
        the selection of projects and the implication of a sound and valuable balance between
         the continuation of old projects and the provision of support to new initiatives
        proposals for adjustment / adaptation of projects likely to continue
        the development of criteria and procedure for selection SADC projects
        the management and coordination of the Programme
        the development of objectives and outputs and the definition of results with a
         proposal for corresponding indicators
        the format for a new draft of the Business Plan.

It is agreed that the recommendation from the review shall feed into the appraisal of the next
programme phase, and that this together with the planning project will constitute to as a
foundation for the dialogue concerning the continuation and adjustment of the Programme
2006 to 2009.




                                                                                             70
Annex 5: Higher Education: Priorities for 2005 Onwards
The basis for the priorities are the policy goals and objectives outlined in Education White
Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education (1997), and the
framework for the implementation of those goals and objectives, which is contained in the
National Plan for Higher Education (2001).

An area in which strengthened interventions will need to be made is in driving the reform and
transformation of our higher education institutions to enable the development agenda of the
Government to be achieved. This transformation can be achieved in terms of the changes to
the management, governance and administrative systems, staff and student profile, and
environment in institutions as all these affect how the institutions are able to equitably
develop graduates who exhibit high levels of cognitive achievement and exercise the values,
behaviours and attitudes envisaged in the Constitution.

In this regard, the formal processes of Higher Education institutional restructuring will be
completed by 2006. Transformation will be carefully monitored to assess the attainment of the
government's policy objectives. Graduation and through put rates, student and staff profiles,
research output, institutional ethos and culture, financial and resourcing patterns, as well as
differentiation and curriculum reform and programme output in the higher education system
will be examined. The Department will more closely examine the nature of the contribution
of higher education institutions to the creation of a new pool of intellectuals as well as the
extent of the development of centers of excellence in different fields in our country.

Administrative systems will also receive attention in that their contribution to the goals of the
education and training system will be more clearly defined in developmental, rather than
purely operational terms from institution level all the way up to national level. This
institutional reorientation will complement the extensive infrastructure development and
provision achieved in the system. Infrastructure provision as well as institutional and
structural reorientation will receive renewed attention through focused resource and fund
mobilization in the coming years, in order to achieve our development objectives.

The following are the key strategic priorities for the Branch’s activities in the following years.

1. To support the production of quality graduates needed for the social and economic
   development of the country.
   Particular attention will be paid to enrolment planning for the higher education system and
   the alignment during the period 2005-2009 of student growth with the availability of
   resources. In this regard a study will be initiated to assess the macro-funding
   requirements for a sustainable, affordable and quality higher education system, which is
   responsive to national policy goals and objectives.

   Attention will also be paid to the full implementation of the new funding framework,
   including effecting any changes that may be required as a result of existing weaknesses or
   gaps. This will include the development of a framework for the allocation of research
   development funds, which will be undertaken in conjunction with the Department of
   Science and Technology and the National Research Foundation.

   The goal and objectives, including, targets and indicators, in the National Plan, which was
   adopted in 2001, will be assessed and revised as necessary.


                                                                                               71
   A draft new qualifications framework for higher education was released in 2004. This
   will be finalised during 2005 in alignment with the revised NQF framework.

   With the introduction in 2006 of the new curriculum for grades 10-12, the FETC will
   replace the current senior certificate examination from 2008. In this regard, during the
   first half of 2005, the new statutory minimum requirements for entry to higher education
   will be finalised. In the subsequent years, and especially in the context of the rejuvenation
   of FET colleges, attention will be paid to the interface between higher and further
   education, particularly to promote student mobility.

2. To achieve equity in the South African higher education system.
   Enrolment and graduation patterns will be monitored, amongst others, to assess impact on
   the achievement of race and gender equity. The level of participation in higher education
   by adult learners will also be monitored to assess the system’s response to lifelong
   learning. The impact of institutional culture on the achievement of equity goals will be
   examined with the view to informing best practice at the institutional level.

3. To achieve diversity in the South African education system.
   The implementation of the new institutional landscape is underway. The Branch will
   monitor the ongoing implementation of the restructuring of institutions and facilitate the
   achievement of the broader policy objectives informing the restructuring exercise. As part
   of the ongoing planning processes, academic programmes, particularly at postgraduate
   level and in high cost fields, will be identified for possible regional rationalisation. This
   exercise will be based on the current “programme and qualification mix” of institutions,
   which provides a comprehensive audit of existing programme offerings at all levels of
   higher education. In the light of the re-shaping of the landscape of the higher education
   system, attention will also be paid to ensuring institutional diversity through, amongst
   others, programme differentiation.

4. To provide institutional support to higher education institutions.
   Continued attention will be given to supporting the governance capacity in higher
   education through the development of a framework for student governance and an
   evaluation of the role of institutional forums.

5. To promote and sustain research in the higher education system.
   The focus will be on the implementation and monitoring of the new policy for the
   measurement and reward of published research output. A review will also be conducted
   of the measurement and reward of research output in the performing and creative arts. In
   addition, the particular role of universities of technology in research and development will
   be assessed, with the view to enhancing innovation in these institutions.

6. To promote and support a leadership role for South Africa in responding to the
   African Renaissance and NEPAD.
   A national conference will be convened on African studies in order to provide a platform
   for debate amongst scholars from South Africa and the rest of the Continent. The Higher
   Education Branch will also engage with the sector in order to support curriculum
   development initiatives, and in particular those that seek to address the curriculum and its
   links to identity and values.



                                                                                             72
The proposed interventions and activities to realise each of the strategic objectives
outlined above, as well as performance indicators and timeframes are provided in the
detailed plans.




                                                                                  73
 Annex 6: Equitable Access through Enrolment
Management Project at University of Western Cape



South Africa Norway Tertiary Education
       Development Programme


               SANTED PROGRAMME


                SYNOPSIS 2005




                                                   74
                          History and profile of the institution.

The University of the Western Cape (UWC), located in the centre of the greater Cape Town
metropolitan area, was established in 1960 to serve the needs of the people classified
‘Coloured’ by the apartheid regime. There is broad recognition of UWC’s efforts throughout
the ‘struggle’ to repudiate the ideological terms on which it was founded and to refashion
itself at the intellectual forefront of South Africa’s historic change, consistently dedicated to
access, equity and quality. The university is firmly oriented to the future, committed to
excellence in teaching, learning and research, and to assist educationally disadvantaged
students gain access to and succeed in relevant higher education studies. In a rapidly changing
local and global setting, UWC’s established commitment to the needs of a society in transition
is an advantage. There is much to suggest that this South African University is exceptionally
well suited to play a distinctive intellectual role to engage with both the national and
continental needs and dilemmas, and establish a dynamic link between academic knowledge
and community service.

The period after 2002 saw the restructuring of the higher education landscape to address the
fragmentation of the apartheid-induced system through mergers. By 2005 this process reduced
the number of higher education institutions from 36 to 23, many with new institutional
identities. In this new landscape the UWC is one of only three historically disadvantaged
universities singled out by resolution of the Cabinet to retain its autonomous university status.
In addition, it was mandated to incorporate the School of Oral Health Sciences of the
University of Stellenbosch from 2004, and to be the only university in the region offering
undergraduate Nursing. A further accolade was the Cabinet’s public announcement that UWC
was to be developed into a flagship Higher Education institution. These developments brought
home the special place that UWC occupied in the minds and hearts of many but it also
emphasized the huge responsibilities that accompanied the new mandate.

UWC is a medium-sized university with strong programmes where approximately 80% of the
enrolment is undergraduate. At the upper level Master's students and Doctoral candidates
constitute 10% of the total headcount. Following a period of rapid decline in the late 1990’s,
student enrolments grew dramatically since 2000 until it was voluntarily capped at a
headcount of below 15000. The gender trend has been very consistent with 57% of current
enrolment being female. The student race profile is as follows: Coloured 48%; African 34%;
Indian 10%; White 6% and Other (International) 2%. Of the total permanent academic staff
complement, 40% are White, 39% Coloured, 7% Indian and 15% African. Females represent
46% (219 out of 475) of the permanent academic complement.

The university has the following faculties: Arts; Community and Health Sciences; Dentistry;
Economic and Management Sciences; Education; Law; and Natural Sciences. The Faculty of
Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) is the largest faculty, comprising 6 departments,
and the postgraduate School of Government, which also houses the Programme for Land and
Agrarian Studies (PLAAS). UWC is one of the most successful institutions in South Africa
producing Black scientists, economists and people with a business education The Community
and Health Sciences Faculty (CHS) comprises four schools of which the School of Public
Health recently received designation as a "World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre
for Research and Training in Human Resources for Health Development". The Dentistry
Faculty, the largest in Africa, offers a range of Dentistry qualifications as well as extensive
clinical care to patients, carried out at two Dental Hospitals and associated clinics. The faculty
of Education boasts the largest Science and Mathematics programme in Africa. The Law


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Faculty has a strong Social law and Human Rights thrust. The Science Faculty hosts the only
Herbal Science and Medicine Institute in South Africa, offers unique programmes in
Petroleum Geology and Advanced Material Chemistry and hosts the foremost research
institute in Bio-informatics in Africa, as well as one of the leading Biochemical and
Molecular Biological departments in the country.

                               Institutional/ Project Context

Two main external forces are shaping higher education in South Africa. The burgeoning and
increasingly sophisticated demands of globalisation as a world trend accelerated by
technological advances, and the imperatives of transformation to achieve major social and
economic change promised in the shift to democracy in 1994 shape the context in which the
university operates. UWC is challenged to give strategic prominence to both pressures,
transcend past glories and embrace a complex, challenging future in which the congruencies
and contradictions between transformation and global competitiveness are held in balanced
tension. For example: globalisation favours advanced technological solutions, while national
transformation requires widespread creation of jobs; globalisation requires advanced levels of
education and cutting edge research, while national transformation requires massive extension
of literacy and numeracy and equitable access to educational development opportunities,
globalisation is associated with international commerce and industry, while national
transformation must place the plight of the poor high on the agenda. Meeting both global and
national imperatives is vital for South Africa’s success in building social justice.

With its history of commitment to social justice, UWC finds itself in double jeopardy,
addressing both the huge ravages of apartheid and keeping up with the unprecedented pace of
global change. At national level this new set of realities had to be accounted for and is steered
through a planned economy, quality requirements and revised financial regimes. Several
changes occurred in the legislative and policy environment to undo the system’s apartheid
features and align institutional plans to national objectives. These strategies are outlined in the
National Plan on Higher Education. The restructured South African higher education
landscape in 2005 is very different from the apartheid-constructs that communities have
become accustomed to over the past decades. The statutory Higher Education Quality
Council’s (HEQC) quality criteria are in place which implies that all aspects of the university
will increasingly come under scrutiny and that dynamic institutions will make of planning an
ongoing quality promotion exercise. Institutional offerings and funded student places are tied
to approved mandates on Programme and Qualification Mixes. A new academic policy and
revised qualifications framework is in place and the introduction of the new Further Education
and Training Certificate (FETC) is poised to change the school offerings and admission
requirements to degree studies. Since 2004 a new distributive funding model is in place. The
restrictions placed on the number of students permitted to enter the system annually as well as
the new emphasis on the increased graduate outputs are likely to impact on the quality of the
candidate pool with unintended consequences for the class and race profile of institutions.

Internally over the past years UWC experienced severe fiscal constraints, dwindling student
numbers, an exodus of staff and cumulative under-funding that led to backlogs in
maintenance and renewal that began to compromise the teaching, learning, research and
quality of campus life. It also affected its ability to respond efficiently to emerging
opportunities. The sense of urgency among institutional decision-makers to move the
institution to an academically and financially viable position as well as the leadership team’s
confidence in the university’s strategic direction has stabilised and positioned UWC


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favourably. Effective from 2005 the university has been fully recapitalised, and all short-term
debt has been eliminated. There is a renewed focus on the right priorities. In repositioning
itself through the extensive planning processes, UWC has been afforded a unique opportunity
to envision and work towards a future scenario that is most sustainable and desirable.

                                    Project description

The university’s “Enrolment Management” approach is generally understood as a systematic
set of strategies to: influence the overall size and shape of the university; and define the
planned growth in the student body that will distinctly characterise the university by academic
field, programme types and demography and enable the university to make appropriate
resource and financial commitments in relation to these enrolment projections. The SANTED
project, entitled Equitable Access through Enrolment Management, forms part of this broader
enrolment strategy. Generally, the project responded to an area of vulnerability when student
numbers declined dramatically, student debt escalated, public confidence in UWC was at an
all time low and these factors threatened the academic and financial viability of the university.
The project assisted to stabilise and manage the overall size and shape of the university,
support student development, and address issues of quality, efficiency and finance (tuition and
subsidy) based on a coherent and well-planned participation strategy. The project is
comprised of eight components to:

Increase access of marginalised learners to higher education; Widen access to non-traditional
learners through the recognition of prior learning; Provide academic support that aims to
assist students in their academic success; Monitor management’s implementation and
complement strategic planning through targeted institutional research; Leverage student
hardship through financial aid linked to service learning; Improve the satisfaction level and
quality of student life on campus through professionalisation of administrative and support
services; and Assist with the smooth transition of graduates into the world of work by
providing career development support.

The project is coordinated by a full-time Project Manager who reports directly to the
Institutional Planner and Executive Assistant to the Rector. A component manager was
appointed within each of the components to strengthen existing units and to action some of
the component activities. The project was never designed as a stand-alone but firmly
integrated to blend into existing management and governance structures with the respective
executive managers accepting responsibility for its roll-out. A project board was established
to coordinate more complex components that straddled across academic and administrative
executive portfolios. Because enrolment management permeates all strands of the strategic
plan, the project’s planning location ensures continued alignment with executive priorities and
institutional strategies, as well as an understanding of internal and external changes in the
environment. The Project has also commissioned institutional research with a view to inform
UWC’s strategic planning. The project further assisted the university to align its combined
institutional and project objectives with UWC’s annual budgets and performance
expectations. In cases where project funding ended, the university sustained such activities
beyond the funding cycle.

The target audience of this project has been a) Prospective Grade 12 learners, b) Current
students, c) The Further Education sector Educators, d) University staff members.




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                                        Project Roll-out

The project was conceptualised as part of an extensive strategic planning exercise in 1999 and
2000 and the actual roll-out coincided with the five year horizon (2001-2005) of the strategic
plan. In the main, all components started in the first year, although the project funding of the
different components varied from two years to the full five years. In cases where planned
project funding came to an end the university opted to sustain the activities, phased in its
funding and institutionalised it where appropriate.

The project proposal was conceptualised at a very high level, giving the broad objectives for
each of the access strategies, and hence provided flexibility around the implementation
required for each of the access strategies. In the first year the project, with its different access
components needed to implement a project management methodology that encompassed the
different phases of project management, including a) developing detailed component plans
and setting criteria for selecting participating schools, b) organising resources, c) actual
implementation, and d) Monitor and control processes. Given the change in national and
institutional context over the period of the project, it was necessary to adopt a flexible
approach to implementation of the project, and to annually reflect on objectives and
implementation for the year. This required us to request approval for changes, where deemed
necessary and where such changes had an impact on the budget. Also, volatility in the policy
environment demanded a degree of flexibility, which led to a knock-on effect on budgets in
some components. This included the need to modify implementation of the stated goals to
reflect an alignment to the changing contexts and alignment to the institutional direction. A
description of some of the affected access strategies are described briefly below:

Component 1: Increase access
The project proposal provided for support to Grade 10, 11 and learners and teachers on a
once-off basis over vacations. This approach was not educationally justifiable. Instead the
idea of support to the former two groups was dropped in favour of extensive year-long
support to Grade 12 teachers and learners and to increase the budget proportionally to sustain
such support in clusters in the respective communities in township areas. In addition we
shifted the line item salary budgets between components 1 and 3 without affecting the overall
project budget.

Component 2: Recognition of Prior Learning.
This component was funded for a period of 2 years as per plan and no budgetary shifts were
required for it. UWC accepted responsibility for this component after the funding period.

Component 3: Academic and Professional Support.
Strategy 3.1: Identifying students at risk – The proposed initiative under-estimated the task
at hand, and while a student flow model, linked to an excel spreadsheet was initially
envisaged, it soon became clear that an on-line tracking system was required and that a Marks
Administration System (MAS) module was required as a first phase. UWC accepted long-
term responsibility for the extended MAS project, which was only fully implemented in 2005,
and institutional funds have been set aside for the completion of a tracking system.

Strategy 3.2: Academic support to undergraduate students: - In the writing centre the
budgeted salary of a senior writing centre workshop coordinator was concentrated over a
shorter period to attract and retain a replacement at a higher salary level. UWC agreed to fund
the post for the remaining two year until the original EAP contract period ended.


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Strategy 3.3: Postgraduate Enrolments and Throughput (PET) – The project seconded
Prof N Bak from the Education faculty in November 2000 as project director to manage this
initiative. However, no administrator was budgeted for to support the initiative, which
required a minor budgetary change.

Component 5: Financial Assistance through internships and workstudy.
The overwhelming need for the skilled help within the respective components, coupled with
the dire financial need of the postgraduate students required us to make a shift in budget each
year to accommodate for this category of students.

Component 6: Professionalisation of services.
One of the obstacles that present a case for urgent change is the university’s lack of
professionalism and technological support to respond efficiently to emerging opportunities.
The budget and priorities were amended to link the access strategy to the technology and
services.

Component 7: Communication and Marketing.
Although this component’s activities and budget remained largely within plan over the period,
the increased volume and quality of the Career Magazine, as a result of its resounding
success, required minor budgetary adjustments.

Component 8: Career Development Programme.
This component remained largely within budget and plan.

                                  Project Achievements

Component 1 &2: Increase and broaden Access:
Teacher and Learner Support: Within two years of project initiation UWC has been able to
stabilise student enrolments, increase the pool and quality of intake of first time entering
students and to attract fee paying students. Through this community outreach and educational
support initiatives UWC also restored its relationship and confidence levels with feeder
schools and raised the aspiration levels of learners to proceed to degree studies. More learners
from these schools opted to do Maths and Physics at higher grade level and the support enable
teachers and learners to complete their curriculum on time. Support to Grade 12 learners in
cluster schools was sustained throughout the year (February to September annually) for the
past five years, while the number of beneficiary schools increased from 7 in year one to 30
and eventually to 52 in 2005.

The institution was able to assist more than 400 learners and 60 educators each year through a
number of workshops, tutorial sessions throughout the year, laboratory visits to UWC, and
vacation schools. The project also initiated a peer network for educators which facilitated the
sharing of resources and experiences and allowed for a common platform for these educators
to participate and collaborate in. The project recruited experienced teachers to be utilised on
the program to enhance competencies of Grade 12 learners within the areas of mathematics
and physical science in the main. Although the project could not focus on the grade 10, 11
educators and learners, a workshop was held with this group of teachers in the project schools
in 2003 to explore ways to respond to challenges within these schools. In areas where the
support was provided on the school’s site, the local communities owned the project with
greater appreciation. Visits to UWC laboratories under the guidance of professors and


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teachers-as-tutors gave learners practical exposure to science experiments while they could
complete their assignments under professional supervision.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): Following a successful advertising campaign in
January 2001, the project saw the first intake of RPL students to provide non-traditional
students with a second-chance to access HE. The project also appointed an RPL coordinator
to provide a policy framework and assess students through a battery of tests, of which one was
the portfolio development process. In the first year (2001) sixty students were enrolled. This
total increased to seventy three in 2002 and in 2003 the first RPL students graduated. This
category of students performed exceptionally well, often outperforming the students whom
gained entry via the normal route. The RPL component received financial support from the
EAP project for the first two years of the projects life span, and thereafter the institution opted
to sustain it by providing financial support to the Division For Life Long Learning. Other
activities include the customisation of courses and the curriculum to accommodate this
category of learners, particularly in core professions. UWC now annually reserves places and
has an annual achiever award for RPL students.

Component 3: Academic and Professional support
Strategy 3.1: Identifying students at risk: Historically UWC’s system produced end-of-
semester marks for purposes of promotion to the next module or year level and students who
dropped out during this phase were only identified retrospectively. No current marks were
systemically available which also meant that there was no system of monitoring timeous
feedback to students. In 2001 and 2002 the project conducted a pilot, which involved the
development of a prototype to centralise all current (including continuous assessment) marks.
This pilot was to serve as a proof of concept that would demonstrate the functionality of such
a system within the UWC higher education context. This proof of concept also concretised
and highlighted the need for a centralised marks administration system. It proved that the
system would be a complex as it needed to encompass all the administrative rules and
processes for marks which in some cases were not formalised, and in many cases were
disparate across faculties and departments. This pilot also highlighted areas where certain
rules and standards were not in place, and it forced academics and administrators alike to
debate the standards and processes for administering marks, and highlighted areas where too
much flexibility was allowed. A process of discussion of these standards and rules was
undertaken, formalised and documented.

The institution recognised the importance of this initiative based on the proof of concept and
in 2003 it became a fully-fledged project within the Information and Communications
Services (ICS) Unit. The major development work required the institution to seek additional
funds and in 2004 the institution not only prioritised this area but also supported it financially.
Development work as well as training has taken place, several versions released and in the
second semester of 2005 the Marks Administration System (MAS) will be rolled out to the
campus community.

Increased emphasis on turn-around time for feedback to students, better management of
students’ course load and greater transparency of how marks are calculated has, among others,
already lead to a significant improvement in throughput. The degree credit rates of students
between 2003 and 2004 increased from 67% to 75%.

Strategy 3.2: Academic Support to undergraduate students. The majority of students
pursue their studies through the medium of a second language (English) and they also lack


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the prerequisite writing skills to cope in a tertiary environment. The Writing Centre Project,
almost solely funded by the EA project, provides much needed interdisciplinary, cross-
curricular academic development support to undergraduate as well as postgraduate students.
Several postgraduate students act as consultants and work collaboratively to facilitate
students’ academic literacy, with the focus being on academic reading and writing, and
promoting the development of related academic competencies such as the ability to manage
information, communicate effectively and to read and think critically. It also aims to support
students through the academic writing and reading support. This support included one-on-one
consultations (872 in 2001, 833 in 2002, 1078 in 2003, 515 in 2004), and workshops (95 in
2001, 110 in 2002, 74 in 2003 and 90 in 2004) offered within some academic programs as
well as stand alone workshops.

Strategy 3.3: Academic Support to postgraduate students.
The introduction of the Postgraduate Enrolment and Throughput (PET) component was
preceded by research in 2001 into the difficulties that students and supervisors experience that
hamper their progress. This report provided the project with the opportunity to respond to and
to align its support activities with the actual difficulties experienced by postgraduate students.
Most of the postgraduate students study part-time and their time-to-degree rate is a matter of
concern. This strategy complements UWC’s research objectives and is designed to support
higher degree students and to create an environment that encourage and support the increase
in postgraduate output of conference/seminar proceedings and publications. As of 2004, 41
papers and peer reviewed conference proceedings (including postdoctoral students and
visiting scholars) were produced by students.

PET has successfully evolved into a research service which co-ordinates and makes visible
the support structures in place at UWC for postgraduate students. The project has assisted
the institution to create a framework in which students can find support, which attends to
common difficulties such as isolation and inadequate advising, and promotes academic
collaboration and mentorship. The PET project has therefore contributed to the educational,
cultural and social advancement of postgraduate students by providing academic support so as
to deliver excellent masters, professional, and doctoral students.

The PET project has been institutionalised which means that the institution, since 2004 has
budgeted for the activities within the project. The PET director has also been incorporated
into the various committee structures that deal with postgraduate issues. A reference group
comprising experienced and well respected academics have been developed to inform the
implementation of the support services. Various study guides have been published and
disseminated, and the postgraduate administrative procedures streamlined. Two Software
packages were purchased, the one – ATLAS TI to assist students to conduct qualitative
analysis, and the other, Research Toolbox, was purchased to assist students with the
organisation of their research material and data.

The project also co-funded the appointment of renowned writer and poet, Professor Antjie
Krog, to stimulate debate and research interests in selected areas and to create sense of
community and belonging among student.

Component management and institutional research:

Coordination and management: Located within the Institutional Planning Office, under the
direct leadership of the institutional planner / Executive Assistant to the Rector, the project


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was able to constantly align with the aims and objectives of the institution as well as keep
abreast of the national and institutional changes and address these within the project where
possible. Much individual as well as organisational learning has occurred within and as a
result of this project, and a culture of monitoring and evaluation emerged. The project used a
phased approach in the first year, following the 4 general phases of management, i.e planning,
organising, implementing and monitoring and control. Within each of the individual access
strategies these different phases needed to be followed as the high level strategic plan did not
include implementation or tactical plans. The project model adopted the central management
of the finances which has facilitated the implementation of strict financial controls and the
annual financial auditing process was a very simple one. The central financial management
proved to be a model that worked well, although it was extremely time and resource intensive.
The project has enabled dedicated resources to strengthen various units and in so doing
allowed the institution to achieve and initiate certain aspects which it would not have been
able to do.

Institutional Research: This project has initiated many surveys and has instituted a culture of
monitoring, self reflection, and self assessment. Surveys initiated were: 1) A first and
second Tracer Study of the Career Destination of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 Graduates from the
University of the Western Cape (UWC); 2) Employer perceptions of the labour market
readiness of graduates and the quality of graduates UWC produces; 3) Understand how the
category of Senate Discretionary students perform in relation to the general admissions
students at the University of the Western Cape; 4) Institutional research to inform university
planning in the broad area of student services in relation to administrative/academic support
and the quality of non-academic campus life. The specific objectives of the study were to
determine the main challenges /barriers contributing to low throughput rates and to make
recommendations on how these could be improved, to understand student perceptions and
experiences of services, and to investigate student perceptions of the quality of non-academic
life on campus; 5) Factors that impact on postgraduate throughput and success; 6) Formative
study on RPL implementation at UWC; 7) Employer perceptions of our Law, Computer
Science and Information System students; 8) A space management survey was conducted
to monitor teaching space utilisation. This highlighted that the lecture venues were not
optimally utilised and a strategy to improve this needed to be considered. This study fed into a
broader strategy to expand the campus and modernise teaching facilities.

Financial Assistance through internships and workstudy:
Over the project period 160 masters and doctoral students were assisted in the internship and
workstudy component. Senior students were utilised and these students were not only exposed
to the real community difficulties, but were also given the opportunity to acquire practical
working experience and skills linked to their chosen profession and our strategic initiatives.
These students often would leave with a very good reference as well if they were diligent and
on task. Based on the way in which work-study is linked to strategic initiatives – the
institution is now rethinking the way in which it utilises the work-study funds.
The attrition rate of postgraduate students is high, many of these students being mature
students who drop out or stop their studies (with the full intention of continuing at a later
stage), due to financial constraints. Also, if students were to pursue their studies on a part-
time basis access to financial support would be almost non-existent, and hence access to
pursuing postgraduate studies becomes so much more difficult for this category of students.
Through this project students were assisted allowing them to not only receive much needed
financial assistance but also to receive work related experience and skills. The overwhelming
need for the skilled help within the access strategies, coupled with the dire financial need of


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the students required us to make a shift in budget each year, and even then we could not
accommodate this category of student s adequately.

Professionalisation of Services:
The institution strives towards an environment that enables student centeredness. Integral to
this goal is the need to professionalise our student processes to ensure effective and efficient
student services. To this end various initiatives were engaged under this strategy which
includes: The development of a central marks administration system for tracking purposes;
The purchasing of a central timetabling package to ensure effective and efficient organisation
and implementation of the examination timetable; The analysis of business processes within
the student enrolment management sector for the purposes of improvements in service
delivery to our students; Training of staff both in the area of call centre as well as front end
training of our student administration office; Dale Carnegie training for a pilot cohort of 30
participants which included both students and staff members.

Communication and Marketing:
Through this component the project was able to profile the institution in a positive way
through the internally and externally communicated printed material, as well as through these
annual public functions, which facilitated the strengthening of relationships with other
institutions, as well as government and funding agency representatives both in South Africa
and Norway, and in other cases deepened. The project provided printed material which
aimed to be supportive of the components in the project, but it was not to substitute what
essentially is the responsibility of the media and communications department. This printed
material included: a) promotional material to raise the aspiration of learners to access higher
education, career advisement, educational and marketing material for learner and teacher
support; b) An advertising campaign to launch the RPL project; c)A career magazine written
by student interns’ primarily, which is well received by students. This magazine has also
generated revenue to assist with the sustainability of it; d) Other forms of communication
included publication to support recruitment and retention, i.e. a supervisory guide, proposal
writing guide, research toolbox guide. In addition, the dissemination of research results,
annual as well as progress reports were published under this component.

Annually there has been broad public recognition for the generous support received from
SANTED at events that celebrated the year’s successes. This included round table discussions
with senior external officials (i.e. the Norwegian embassy, the Department of Education, and
NORAD) and celebratory functions involving the media and various beneficiaries. These
occasions provided opportunities to display project material and discuss progress. These
annual events included: The public launch in 2001 which coincided the end of Ambassador
Per Grimstad’s term of office; the broad gathering of external stakeholders (school
communities and employment agencies) in 2002 coincided with a visit by Ms Medina from
NORAD; the 2003 launch of the HIV & AIDS Peer education collaborative program which
marked the start of collaboration with the University of Zambia coincided with a visit to
UWC by Director Tove Strand; The 2004 annual event coincided with the new term of
office of Councilor Inga Stoll and the taking leave of office of Ambassador Jon Beck. A close
out function will celebrate the successes over the past five years in all three SANTED projects
at UWC: Equitable Access; ZAWECA HIV/AIDS Peer Education; and the Formative
Research Project.

Graduate Development Programme:



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The Career Development Programme (CDP) provided the framework for campus-wide career
related projects, initiatives and activities in order to facilitate students’ progression into the
world of work. The critical aim of the CDP was to increase the employability of the
graduates of UWC through career development and job placement opportunities, and establish
best practices. A recent survey of Employer Perceptions of UWC Graduates in Accounting,
Computer Science, information Systems and Law, completed in 2004 found interesting
matches and mismatches between the perceptions of academics, recruitment agencies and
recruiters about the qualities and competencies of UWC graduates. Through this program
various skills development workshops, graduate and recruitment and placement training
sessions and interviews have been conducted, the publication of a well received Career
Update Magazine (initiated by the project with articles written by EAP student interns); a
resource library is being realised in the CDP office.

                                     Project Difficulties

Component Management: The implementation of components was often complicated by the
model the project adopted as it conceptualized the appointment of support persons, in some
cases, who were often required to introduce interventions that went against the grain of well
established institutional cultures. Receptivity to change was at the very heart of the project.
Difficulties included the fact that all initiatives were new interventions, cross-faculty and
across portfolios, were complex, slow to take root and extremely time intensive. It also
required buy-in from all relevant stakeholders and complex project management skills which
had to be applied at all layers of the university’s hierarchy. The support of leadership
mitigated most of the risks in these areas.

Smooth roll-out was also often interrupted by the departure of contract staff who to up new
employment opportunities, mainly external to UWC. This included two managers of
component 1; the RPL manager; the PET coordinator who moved abroad; two Writing Centre
coordinators, etc. Securing suitable internal replacements often led to deviations in the plan.

The project model adopted presented many advantages and some challenges. Although the
advantages outweigh the challenges, some of the challenges linked to the project structure, not
being a stand-alone project in one office, makes for easier application of specific project
management methodologies and standards. The downside is that the project did not develop a
single identifiable identity or brand and often, under the leadership of executives, the rank and
file did not always understand their dual accountability to the line manager and the project.

The involvement with financial management has also uncovered for the project an array of
difficulties in terms of processes and timeous information and highlighted the need to
integrate the information from our disparate systems. This has proved to be a major challenge
as the institution has different legacy systems, one for its HR function and another for its
Financial transactions. Access to real time, pertinent, financial and student related
information, for management decision making purposes, remains a major difficulty and the
different systems make it extremely difficulty to have a single version of the “truth”, which
then becomes time and resource intensive to ensure that the information is correct and up to
date.

Increase and Broaden Access: Given the context of declining student numbers in 1999,
recruitment of a different kind of student became a priority to ensure the viability and
sustainability of the institution. However, the stated intention of this access strategy was never


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conceptualised around actively recruiting students, but focused on raising aspirations of Grade
12 learners to pursue higher education and to encourage learners to enrol for mathematics and
physical science subjects on the Higher Grade by providing consistent support throughout the
year. Through the type of engagement with teachers and learners, we hoped to change
preconceived ideas about the institution and instill a different kind of confidence that would
encourage these learners to be proud to read towards a degree at our institution, and not think
of it as a possible last choice. This happens over a period of time and is extremely difficult to
measure. Also the project adopted a model that allowed for informal collaboration with
schools rather than the formal collaboration via the Department of Education. This model had
its disadvantages as the school was often bombarded with different kinds of support
interventions from different institutions and NGO’s and as there was no directive from the
department instructing the school as to which intervention to participate in, the school needed
to make the choice, hence the competition became rife. Another difficulty related to the
unanticipated external pressure and incentives offered to schools which seemed to run
contrary to what the project aimed to achieve, as students were often advised by educators to
write the mathematics and physical science examinations on the standard grade so as to
comply with the required pass rate of the school, however, possibility limiting the learners
chance of access to programs that required it to be passed on the HG level, which in some
cases would also limit their access to higher education.

Since the introduction of Curriculum 2005, the structure of the curriculum and the approach to
assessment has changed. Outcomes Based Education presents opportunities but also many
different challenges to educators and learners. Given the institutional and national educational
system contexts the project needed to align it’s support with the needs of the individual
project schools as well as the learners to ensure that the kind of support provided would be of
value. This required continual analysis and reflection of the kinds of support offered which
required budgetary shifts, that often was inadequate and could not be accommodated.

Academic Support: Students at UWC are drawn from a diverse range of communities, the
majority however, coming from the poorer and educationally disadvantaged communities,
hence not being exposed to an excellent further education, and also having major financial
constraints. HIV/AIDS has had impacted on our enrolment patterns and more particularly on
the success of our students, as well as the retention rate of our students. Another issue that
came to the fore was that ill-prepared students within certain faculties would overload
themselves with modules to try and ensure completion within the minimum time. This had a
reverse effect impacting on these students ability to complete on time, as they were too
overburdened with modules. The problem was unforeseen and never managed until it was too
late. The effect of this being that these students would either drop-out or fail to complete
within the minimum time and then be excluded academically. Postgraduate students are often
the more mature students who generally have a family to cater for, and hence experience
financial constraints and pressures to pursue employment, which ultimately impacts on our
throughput, and retention rates.

Professionalisation of Services: Change management in a large organisation is always
extremely complex and time consuming which requires a process for change. This proved to
be complex, as it forced related organisational rules and requirements as well as processes to
be documented, but also reengineered, and the dynamic of the “one size fits all” debate
needed to be fleshed out. UWC has only recently budgeted to enhance its technological
support of administrative services.



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The notion of student development is a relatively new one at an institution like UWC and the
challenge remains to create an environment that is conducive to and promotes education and
learning outside of the classroom. UWC, with its largely commuting student body, lacks a
vibrant student life, and has a culturally poor student community which impacts on a student’s
ability to relate to concepts in the classroom. The institution has benefited greatly, via the
assistance of the project, by co-funding the broader inter-disciplinary experience to students,
which aimed to promote a culture that respects other views and critical citizenship.

Career Development and Job Placement: - The institution does not have a vibrant or any kind
of relationship that is sustainable with its alumni. This is a lost opportunity in many instances
as many of its alumni have progressed into key government as well as other positions. This
lack of relationship implies that many opportunities for the institution and its students are lost,
as alumni often support their own institution when recruiting students or donating funds. In
2005 a Director of Public Affairs was appointed who is also tasked with building
relationships with the institutions alumni. Relationships with companies need to be deepened
and there still is a need for internships with external companies to expose our students to real
life practical experience and to ensure that the confidence levels and employer perceptions of
our students and institution, continues to be improved.

                   Lessons learned/unexpected results or spin-offs

Lessons Learnt / Unexpected Results and spin offs

Leadership is often taken for granted. The project structure is unconventional but its link to all
executive portfolios gave it high prominence and secured the sustainability of the different
components and alignment to current strategic thinking. The project has facilitated processes
to work across functional silos and aspects of each of the access strategies have become
institutionalised which implies that the institution has prioritised, and hence supported these
with resources - both financial and human. Although the project model adopted enabled us to
quickly ascertain proof of concept and to place initiatives high on the agenda of the senior
management of the institution, given the hierarchical nature of the institution, it is essential
that the most senior person takes responsibility for the initiative and implementation, which
formally needs to be incorporated into the project model. Central management of financial
aspects of the project allowed for stringent financial principles and practices to be followed,
which facilitated the auditing process as no transaction could take place without the
authorization of the project office. Financial management raised some difficulties in terms of
systems and processes.

The project spearheaded a shift in the way in which the institution employs its workstudy
students, now linking their experience to match their formal skills acquired hence giving them
real work experience as opposed to menial work experience.

Through the project good relationships evolved between with the leadership of FE , while
internal collaboration with internal stakeholders developed positively. The unintended
consequence of one of the access strategies to attract a better candidate pool of top achievers
had the unintended consequence of rapidly changing the university’s race profile.

As enrolment management becomes a key instrument in guiding national strategy, the project
paved the way for a much more sophisticated way of student enrolment management and
student development. This would encompass student processes from prospective students,


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through their studies to their alumni status. Much work is still required to change the business
culture and processes to be more service orientated and to live up to the challenge of a post-
apartheid modern university.

                                    Recommendations

UWC is entering a vastly different future than the one that it has become accustomed to when
students were directed to it on the basis of ethnicity. UWC envisaged a future of associational
engagement that puts the individual staff member-and-student-in-community at the centre of
its concerns about local and global issues, particularly issues pertaining to the African
continent. During this funding period UWC has established strong relations with universities
in South Africa, SADC and Norway and it believes that this can form the basis for a much
stronger future. We trust that these networks will be built into the next phase.

Equity of access and outcomes remain a key challenge for South African universities.
Universities may become academically and financially vulnerable when students places are
capped and funding is directly linked to attainment of teaching and research norms. This
requires careful planning and alignment between institutional and national strategies at a time
when the school sector migrates to a relatively unknown curriculum and school leaving
certificate, the FETC. The new further education and training certificate is expected to be
phased in over the next three years with the first cohort likely to enter higher education in
2009. This provides for a much more purposeful relationship between further and higher
education institutions and to strengthen the former’s capacity in selected areas. It is
recommended that the next phase optimises this window of opportunity to mitigate the risk of
whole schools being systemically barred from higher education.

Universities in South Africa currently receive development grants designed to narrow the gap
between academic outputs and the expected levels of performance. Many institutions,
however, lack the necessary environment to stimulate a vibrant intellectual culture. Enrolment
management support activities therefore are critical elements necessary to create this
intellectual environment that will enhance student success. Government funding has also
changed to include an element that measures institutional student output linked to subsidy and
national norms. To position UWC as a serious teaching and learning and research institution
would require ongoing support. Student success (UG and PG): to ensure progress through
students’ chosen programmes at the required rate is vital. In addition, financial support
through in service learning helps to link the academic project to community need.




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Annex 7: Upward Bound University-Wide Enrichment
Project and SANTED University Of Kwazulu-Natal Access
And Retention Project




                 Executive Summary Report

                         June 2005




                         Compiled by:
                  Professor Elizabeth de Kadt
                  Executive Director: Access
                  University of KwaZulu-Natal




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1. INTRODUCTION

The five year trajectory of Upward Bound Enrichment Project (UBEP) spans a period of
enormous change at KwaZulu-Natal institutions of higher education. It involves at least two
universities: the University of Durban-Westville, at which the project originated and where it
ran for four years; and the new University of KwaZulu-Natal, which came into being at the
start of 2004 through a merger of the University of Durban-Westville with the former
University of Natal. In the context of the merger, the original UBEP project, too, became part
of a broader project at the merged institution, the SANTED University of KwaZulu-Natal
Access and Retention Project (SUKAR). This synopsis will therefore begin with a
consideration of UBEP (2000 – 2003), and then move on to SUKAR (2004 – mid 2005).

2. INSTITUTIONAL BACKGROUND

The University of Durban-Westville (UDW), which saw the genesis of UBEP, was founded in
1961 as one of a series of ethnic universities which were to cater for post-school education of
the various ethnic groups designated by the apartheid state. Durban-Westville was founded as
an ‘Indian’ university on Salisbury Island in Durban Bay, in due course moving to its present
site in the Durban suburb of Westville. The University of Natal (UN), on the other hand, with
three campuses in Durban and one in Pietermaritzburg, was one of the former ‘white liberal’
and in due course ‘open’ universities, with a vastly different history and institutional culture,
which was long captured by (but is certainly not limited to) the labels ‘Historically
Advantaged’ and ‘Historically Disadvantaged’.

To a large extent, changes in the South African higher education system have been driven by
national macro-economic policies, as the national government seeks a compromise between
the neo-liberal economic policies underpinning globalization and re-distributive policies
based on redress and equality of opportunity

3.     INSTITUTION AND PROJECT CONTEXT

3.1 The University of Durban-Westville
Over the decade preceding the first free South African elections in 1994, UDW had begun to
think of itself as the premier, and most politically progressive, Historically Disadvantaged
Institution; it was one of the first to open itself to Black African students, and call for social
and educational redress. From the mid 1990s, however, UDW was characterized by high
levels of internal instability. The university did not have a permanent leader to deal effectively
with differences between academics, students and members of the top management structures.
In particular, 1996 was a year of unprecedented labour unrest and leadership turmoil, and
from this flowed much that has dogged the university since.

Between 1994 and Professor Ramashala’s appointment as Vice-Chancellor in 1998, there
were three Acting Vice-Chancellors. Thus the appointment of Professor Ramashala as a
substantive (not Acting) VC was greeted with hope and optimism in the university
community. Her appointment period of five years promised a period of stability, conducive to
strategic planning and policy implementation that would ensure the university was not left
behind in the rapidly changing post-apartheid higher education context. Within months of her
appointment, a small (eight person), hand-picked Strategic Planning Task Team began work
in restructuring the university, aimed at improvements in planning and efficiency. This was
linked to government requirements of Five-year Rolling Plans, according to specific


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guidelines and protocols. Yet unrest and division continued as an accompaniment to
restructuring, deployments, financial management and general management processes.

It was within this context that UBEP was conceived, planned and implemented, as part of the
VC’s transformatory vision for UDW and a reflection of broader policy imperatives at both
global and national levels. It was linked to the University’s strategic plan, but funded through
donors (primarily NORAD and USAID) with the endorsement of the national Department of
Education. Yet for a variety of reasons, considered below, the vision was realized only in
part.

3.2 Towards the merger
In late 2002, the Department of Education announced its vision for the transformation of
Higher Education in South Africa, in the shape of a number of mergers of institutions of
higher education. The University of Durban-Westville was earmarked for a merger with the
University of Natal, to be formally implemented at the start of 2004. Merger preparations
would therefore become the main focus of 2003.

Durban this period, UDW institutional politics remained fraught. By the end of 2002, at the
end of her five years of tenure as VC, Professor Ramashala did not have the wide institutional
support required for renewal of her contract, and Professor Saths Cooper was appointed as
Vice-Chancellor, but - in view of the impending merger - only in an acting capacity. Thus,
three years into the UBEP, its original champion had left, and there was a major shift in
senior management, and again new structures and accountabilities.

3.3 The University of KwaZulu-Natal
In 2004, Professor WM Makgoba (Vice-Chancellor and Principal designate of the University
of Natal for the previous 18 months) was appointed Interim VC of the merged institution,
and, late in 2004, substantive VC. Within the newly-formed Executive, the creation of an
Access portfolio, to be driven by an Executive Director, signalled the new university’s
commitment to access as a strategic initiative, and provided a university-wide mechanism for
building on the UBEP and other existing access programmes.

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

One of the problems facing South African higher education institutions in the 1990s was a
dramatic rise in the number of Black students entering university from rural areas and
townships, and the need to cater better to their needs. UBEP was a major intervention,
designed to offer school-level assistance to learners in Grades 10, 11 and 12 and continued
support for them once they were admitted to the university. Accordingly, the focus of the
programme was on improving access, success and retention. As shown in the initial business
plan, it was intended too that UBEP would have major impacts on curriculum design and
teaching generally within the university and on associated programmes of academic
development.

4.1 Objectives
The objectives of the UBEP indicate the very considerable scope of the programme:
    To increase the participation of Black and women students from disadvantaged
       schools and communities in the higher education system through active recruitment,
       preparation and placement.



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      To increase the intake of disadvantaged students in fields such as science, engineering
       and technology, health sciences and commerce.
      To improve the progression rates of Black students who enter higher education,
       through early identification and systematic preparation of talented potential higher
       education students prior to and during their induction in higher education institutions.
      To restructure the university curricula and re-prioritise university services so that it
       provides a broader, more flexible and responsive educational programme to serve
       disadvantaged students over an extended period of time.
      To provide intensive staff development opportunities for senior students through
       training and experience in managing and teaching educational programmes to
       disadvantaged students.
      To provide in-service development for secondary school teachers to meet the needs of
       disadvantaged students.
      To build and test and test an innovative model for the induction and retention of
       disadvantaged students in the higher education system beyond the familiar ADP model
       of development.

Thus UBEP, in concept, combined four aspects: ‘marketing’ UDW to schools; preparing and
recruiting school learners for university studies; promoting participatory pedagogy in schools;
and, within the university, transforming curriculum and teaching to be better attuned to South
African society and disadvantaged communities.

5. PROJECT ROLL-OUT

5.1 Overview: From UBEP to SUKAR
The goals of UBEP, as listed above, show it to have been a complex and carefully
conceptualised programme with the potential for substantial transformatory impact, both on
the learners from the UBEP schools, and on the University community broadly. Its roll-out
was intended as incremental, beginning with an initial survey to identify the strengths and
weaknesses of the learners, and following this with a substantial intervention phase, the
Summer and Winter Schools, by means of which learners were to be positioned for success in
Matriculation exams and thereby for entry into higher education. Registering substantially
increased numbers of learners from disadvantaged schools would in turn have considerable
impact on mainstream curricula and indeed on campus ethos, for the project envisaged that
UBEP entrants would be monitored and supported, during their studies at UDW, for a further
two years.

In the event, however, the roll-out of the Summer and Winter Schools, while evoking an
extremely positive response in the participants, became fraught with very substantial
logistical problems, and, at the same time, was impacted on by the more general campus
turmoil. As a result, during 2002 and 2003 UBEP energies focused increasingly exclusively
on the Summer and Winter Schools, and the intended additional focus on mainstream
curricula was largely lost sight of. In this way, UBEP was in danger of failing to realise its
intended transformatory potential for the university as a whole. At this point, the merger (and
the SANTED formative research project) offered an opportunity for something of a renewal:
the SUKAR project (May 2004) emerged through a process of reflection on the partial failure
of UBEP, a revisiting of the original UBEP goals in the context of the merged university, and
resulted in a much more explicit focus on retention issues and ‘mainstream’ curricula.

5.2 UBEP: Summer and Winter Schools


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In conceptualising the UBEP for the University of Durban-Westville, Professor Ramashala
drew on a 1960s model from the United States. The project was launched by the University
management in 1999, as a special project of the VC. By the time SANTED became involved
in funding UBEP (in 2000), an initial survey into competencies and deficiencies of the target
group of learners, as well as a pilot Summer School (1999) had already been completed and
materials development was being undertaken. Hence SANTED funding became directed
towards the Intervention Phase, the Summer and Winter Schools.

The Summer and Winter Schools were to be the means of delivering a holistic programme of
enrichment to learners (and especially female learners) from disadvantaged schools. The
model envisaged learners being identified by their participating schools at the end of Grade 9
(at the age of 14/16 years) and participating in a total of six Summer and Winter schools over
the following three years (Grades 10 – 12). Holistic enrichment was to be offered via an
academic enrichment programme (targeting science and commercial subject areas, but
including English and communicating skills), a social and life skills development programme,
and a career development programme. For the twice-yearly Schools, learners from the whole
of KZN (and initially from other neighbouring provinces) would travel to the University of
Durban-Westville and spend two full weeks in residence there.

Such a programme brought with it enormous logistical challenges, especially as, following on
the initial pilot with 500 learners, the target for each Summer/Winter School was set at 2000
learners, with well over 100 schools participating. Project personnel included, on the one
hand, project management staff, who reported directly to University Management: the Project
Director, the Project Administrator, and the Research, Evaluation and Programme
Coordinator, together with additional research assistants and office administrators.
Curriculum staff, on the other hand, involved a team of 15 material developers, 20 tutor
coordinators, and 230 tutors (at least half of these post-graduate students from UDW). (In
subsequent years both the learner targets and the size of the project teams were reduced.)

For five years (2000 to 2004), ongoing contacts were maintained with the over 100
participating schools, regular Summer and Winter Schools were held at UDW; and systematic
evaluations of these Schools were undertaken.


6. PROJECT ACHIEVEMENTS

6.1 Numbers of UBEP Learners
Substantial numbers of learners attended UBEP over five years; and in most cases responded
to the project with considerable enthusiasm; on surveys they rated their learning and
increased knowledge highly. (In a self-evaluation undertaken in 2002, for instance, the two
highest ratings were selected for four out of eight categories by over 80% of learners; for the
remaining four categories by over 70% of these learners.)

                           Table 1: Learners attending UBEP by yeat
                  Winter            Summer                      Female      Target
   1999 (pilot)                     407                                     500
   2000           1791                                          59%         2000
                  Grd 10   502      Approximately the same      1060
                  Grd 11   513
                  Grd 12   776
   2001           491               *982 + 625                  Over 50%    ? 1500
                  Grd 10   -        Grd 10 326 + 264


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                     Grd 11 163            Grd 11 420 + 361
                     Grd 12 328            Grd 12 236
   2002              952                   1235                        50%/60%    ? 1500
                     Grd 10 408            Grd 10 662
                     Grd 11 277            Grd 11 371
                     Grd 12 267            Grd 12 202
   2003              599                   412                         WS: 58% 600
   (holding          Grd 10 278            Grd 10 -                    female
   phase)            Grd 11 232            Grd 11 242                  SS: 55%
                     Grd 12 40             Grd 12 170                  female
   2004 (as part 120                       80                                     120/80
   of SUKAR)         Grd 10 40             Grd 10 40
                     Grd 11 40             Grd 11 40
                     Grd 12 40
*Due to logistical difficulties, for 2001 a Summer School was held in both December 2001 and January
2002
Source: Yearly Evaluation Reports

6.2 UBEP learners entering higher education
The following table indicates the numbers of UBEP learners who can be shown to register at
UDW for degree studies. (There is some concern as to the accuracy of these figures; and the
table does not include learners who may have registered at other tertiary institutions, eg. at the
Durban Institute of Technology, or at UCT.)

 Table 2: UBEP Grade 12 learners by performance at Matric, and registration at UDW
     Date      Expected        Learners       Learners        Learners        Learners
               Grade 12        who wrote      obtaining       obtaining       registering at
               learners        Matric         Exemption       Senior          UDW
                                                              Certificate
     2000     1000            652             No data         No data         38
     2001     500             236             184             52              77
     2002     500             276             110             141             48
     Total    2000            1164                                            163
       Source: 2003 Narrative report p5

The figures for 2002 are of particular interest, as, in terms of the UBEP model, the Grade 10
intake from 2000 would have attended 6 Schools, prior to writing their Matriculation
examinations in November 2002. It is disappointing that relatively few of these appear to
have registered to study at UDW; and there is at present no means of ascertaining to what
degree UPEB may have contributed to their success in obtaining entry to the university.

At the same time, the impact of the project on the learners involved cannot be solely judged
in terms of the learners who did register for higher education (one of the specified
performance indicators). (See the need for a detailed tracer study, below.)

6.2 Teacher workshops
A further achievement of UBEP has been its impact on participating schools, and on the
teachers at these schools.

From the outset, up to 50% of the UBEP tutors were teachers from local schools, who
benefited from the preparatory training sessions for all tutors.

In 2003, teacher workshops were initiated. A workshop was held in January 2003 for 70
Physical Sciences teachers from UBEP schools, followed by a second workshop in August


                                                                                                 93
2003. In 2004, the decision was taken to hold teacher workshops in conjunction with the
Winter and Summer School: during the Winter School, 60 teachers from the 20 participating
UBEP schools attended a three-day workshop exploring changes in teacher roles, in view of
societal pressures and changes in departmental policy. This was followed by a smaller teacher
workshop in December 2004. At the same time, learners were provided with packs of UBEP
materials, to make these available in their schools on a broader basis.


7. PROJECT DIFFICULTIES

7.1 Logistical difficulties
Difficulties experienced were primarily logistical. Given that capacity development was
included in the project’s goals, many staff (including project leadership) had had little prior
experience, and had to learn ‘on the job’. The logistical difficulties inherent in running a two-
week residential programme for 2000 teenaged learners (many of whom were experiencing
an urban area for the first time) are clearly immense. Nevertheless, progress was made; and
the 2002 Schools (in terms of project management) were a clear improvement on 2000 and
2001.

7.2 Problems in learner selection
The UBEP model provided for selected learners to remain in the programme for three full
years, and to attend a total of six Summer/Winter Schools, before writing their final
examinations. This model proved difficult to realise, in that some schools appeared unwilling
to ‘privilege’ a few selected participants over others, and sought to vary the learners who
attended the Summer/Winter Schools. This factor must be borne in mind in evaluating the
outcomes of UBEP, in terms of the Matriculation performance of UBEP learners.

7.3 Financial management
Major difficulties were experienced in the financial management of the project, with financial
reports and audits either not appearing, or appearing after substantial delays. These matters
were only resolved with the introduction of stringent financial management with the SUKAR
project.

7.4 Project evaluation
Further difficulties were experienced by the project evaluators, especially once CEREP had
begun to conduct more sophisticated evaluations: attempts to obtain reliable input from tutors,
for instance, remained unsatisfactory in spite of repeated attempts.




8.     LESSONS LEARNT

8.1 Ongoing learning
Reading the evaluation reports in succession indicates clearly that lessons were being learnt
on an ongoing basis, after the enormous logistical difficulties experienced in 2000. (The
UBEP annual evaluations, which from 2002 were carried out by the UDW Centre for
Education Research, Evaluation and Policy, and the SANTED formative research project,
which used UBEP as a case study, greatly encouraged reflection on and learning from
UBEP.)


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8.2 Introduction of modifications into UBEP
Modifications gradually introduced into project management and running from 2001 onwards
included the following:

      Detailed upfront planning (which was not adequately in place in 2000) – this was
       imperative especially given the intended size of UBEP cohorts;
      Introduction of necessary support structures, in terms of security, health care, house
       parents etc. (In spite of these enhanced precautions, the Summer School 2002
       experienced the tragic drowning of a learner in the University swimming pool.)
      A more realistic estimation of the numbers of learners that could effectively be catered
       for;
      Attempts to build closer links with University Units, and in particular to involve
       Faculty staff (and especially Deans) in the project. Changes in 2003 included a revised
       Management structure, with a Planning Committee and an Academic Oversight
       Committee; and the re-location of UBEP within the Faculty of Humanities,
       responsible to its Dean;
      Attempts to involve teachers and schools in UBEP, primarily by means of teacher
       upgrade workshops;
      Reviews and revisions of the initial learning materials, not least in terms of a shift
       away from teacher-dominated approaches to learning;
      Implementation of a computer-based registration and student records system for
       UBEP learners;
      Planning of a tracer study, to gain a better understanding of the actual impact of
       UBEP (currently underway);
      A reiteration of the original conceptualisation of UBEP, which had included support
       for learners in undergraduate degrees.

8.3 The SUKAR project
Between 2003 and 2004, due to these substantial difficulties and the fraught situation of
university politics, UBEP was placed in a holding phase. The SUKAR project, into which
UBEP was integrated from 2004 on, took as its theme ‘Learning from Upward Bound’ and
drew extensively on the above points in its project conceptualisation.

In addition to a greatly scaled-down UBEP, SUKAR has included:
     A ‘test development project’, with the goal of refining the selection of applicants to
        UKZN, and the specific goal of identifying students with potential from
        disadvantaged schools. In team-work with other institutions of higher learning, a new
        entrance and placement test has been developed and trailed, and is currently
        undergoing validation; it will remain one focus of ongoing research.
     Redevelopment of ‘merged’ foundation programmes in Science and in the
        Humanities, drawing on expertise from both former universities; all existing teaching
        materials have been substantially reworked.
     Initiation of approximately 20 disciplinary-based retention projects in Science and the
        Humanities; these in the main involve curriculum and materials development and are
        student-centred and methodologically innovative. The intention is to extend these
        projects through the full major of the disciplines concerned; and to involve a wider
        range of Faculties.




                                                                                            95
        Initiation of an institutional access and retention research project, which includes
         ongoing tracking of student performance; the long-projected and much needed tracer
         study of ex-UBEP students is shortly to be carried out.
        One further small-scale schools outreach project, Fast Forward, involving two
         educationally marginalized schools and run by Humanities staff.

In working towards these specific projects, SUKAR has furthermore enabled fruitful working
relationships to develop between staff at the two merging universities, and in this way has
made a substantial contribution to the success of the merger.

9.       RECOMMENDATIONS

Schools outreach work is expensive and time-consuming; at the same time it does appear to
fulfil an essential role in redressing continuing education deficiencies. Numerous Schools
outreach projects exist – several are driven by UKZN staff, although the precise goals and
scope of UBEP appear to be unique; yet no up-to-date register of such initiatives is available.
Within the SUKAR research portfolio, the mapping underpinning such a register has been
initiated; we intend to seek funding to complete this important project, which will enable
schools outreach projects to interface with each other, thereby increasing their effectiveness.
On the basis of such an overview, renewed consideration will be given to additional outreach
work, specifically in the fields of science and mathematics, and specifically targeting female
learners.

The name of the UKZN Access portfolio is misleading, in that it appears to presuppose the
‘add-on’ foundational approach to alternative access, and downplays the imperative to
integrate academic development into disciplinary study, thereby making this additional
support available to any students who would find it of benefit. It also suggests that academic
development can be removed from faculties and disciplines and driven centrally. (This was,
of course, one core weakness of the original UBEP proposal, that in reporting directly to the
Vice-Chancellor the Project Director bypassed Deans, who remained largely unaware of
UBEP.) At the same time, an Executive portfolio does have the potential to highlight issues
and to ensure appropriate coherence across campuses and disciplines. Great care has been
taken in the SUKAR project to ensure that Deans remain involved, not least in that projects
must in the long run be sustainable by Faculty budgets. At the same time, the ability of the
Executive Director: Access to initiate and fund curriculum projects (in a time of great
budgetary constraints) has given additional status and visibility to access and retention, and
more broadly to the teaching project, which is often (incorrectly) seen as of lesser importance
than research.

SUKAR has initiated a wide variety of retention projects, but in the main these have been
limited to two Faculties. Limited University funding has now been made available, which will
enable some further expansion. However, budgetary restrictions are likely to remain a reality
for the foreseeable future, and it would hence appear wise to include a strong focus on
initiatives which explore the scope offered by modern technologies in student support and
development. (The School of Information Systems Technology is currently embarking on
such a project, with reference to the UKZN OLS system.) Of course, technologically
underpinned approaches may not be appropriate to all disciplines, and for this reason, a wide
variety of approaches should be encouraged.




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One core outcome of UBEP was its exploration of the capacities and needs of so-called
‘disadvantaged’ students, and of the (perhaps unexpected) contributions that these learners
can make to student-centred learning and teaching projects. However, these insights have
remained limited to the very few mainstream staff who became involved; a broad-based
understanding at UKZN of both the critical problems facing many schools in our province
and of the undoubted capacities of some of their learners has yet to develop. Any future
projects should include strategies to expose more teaching staff to the realities of township
and rural schools, to the challenges they face, and to the ways in which some schools are
overcoming these.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The many UKZN staff involved in the UBEP and SUKAR projects would like to
acknowledge the great generosity of the Norwegian funders, in making these interventions
possible; their impact, in a variety of ways, is likely to be long-lasting and remain productive.




                                                                                              97
Annex 8: SANTED University of Fort Hare Capacity
              Building Project

          Executive Summary Report

                 20 May 2005
                  Compiled by:
               Mr. Noel Knickelbein
              SANTED Project Leader




                                                   98
1.     Institutional Background
In the peaceful, historical Eastern Cape town of Alice, on the former military station which
was donated by the United Free Church of Scotland, is Fort Hare, with its proud tradition of
excellence and achievement.

This remarkable institution, traditionally recognized as one of the prestigious universities of
the continent of Africa, owes its inception to the initiatives of the black elite and early
twentieth-century white liberals, many of whom were clergy and the support of many
traditional Southern African leaders.

Fort Hare came into existence in 1916 and is the oldest historically black university in
Southern Africa. Throughout its existence, Fort Hare graduates have come from as far North
as Kenya, Uganda and Nigeria, and all knew they were as good as the best.

Many enjoyed prominent careers in fields as diverse as politics, medicine, literature and art.
Some alumni, like Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Robert Sobukwe, Mangosuthu Buthelezi,
Dennis Brutus (an acclaimed poet), Can Themba (an accomplished journalist), the 23 year-old
Dr Louis Brown in South Africa, Robert Mugabe, Herbert Chitepo, novelist Stanlake
Samkange and the first black Zimbabwean medical doctor, Ticofa Parirenyatwa, are well
known. Eliud Mathu and Charles Njonjo are two of our better-known alumni in Kenya.

This cosmopolitan university boasts a long-standing tradition of non-racism which is
characterized by intellectually enriching and critical debate. There is an almost tangible
aspiration towards educational excellence while social life on campus is vibrant.

The model blueprint for the transformation and repositioning of this legendary institution in
the twenty-first century - the Strategic Plan 2000 - nurtures and builds upon this tradition. The
objective of this internationally lauded corporate re-engineering plan is to make this
university worthy of its rich inheritance. As a reflection of a dynamic institution, the plan is
working.

Fort Hare students are definitely motivated by this distinctly superior reputation. Many are
inspired by the remarkable liberation movement archival records kept at Fort Hare. The
unparalleled academic, cultural and emotional development experience Fort Hare offers
counts for a great deal. Life after Fort Hare is based on the solid preparation afforded by the
complete scholarly experienced at the institution.

The University of Fort Hare is the proud recipient of the Supreme Councellor of the Baobab
(Gold) in recognition of the exceptional role it has played in the academic leadership in South
Africa and the African continent. South African President, Thabo Mbeki, bestowed the
honour on Fort Hare on the 26 April 2005.

2.      Institutional / Project Context
The recent history of the University of Fort Hare (UFH) has been characterized by a massive
transformation drive originating from pressures internal to the university and from the wider
higher education context. A critical phase in this history was captured in the Review Report
(RR) of 1999 which, among other things, documented a comprehensive assessment of the
UFH “…current systems, procedures and practices in the academic, financial and
administrative sectors...” (RR.p.1).



                                                                                              99
From these areas the RR identified problems and threats to the very survival of UFH as well
as opportunities for the University to re-invent itself. These were consolidated and focused in
the Strategic Plan 2000 (SP2000) which sought to chart a course for the renewal of UFH.

The UFH recognized that, for this to happen, it was important to create the necessary
environment and conditions that would enable the University to achieve its core business of
quality teaching and research. Central to this issue was the importance of revamping the
University support services, a point which had been expressed as one of the overarching
objectives emanating from the stated vision of Increasing Capacity, Quality and Efficiency of
Support Systems (SP2000:19).

A critical aspect of capacity building identified was in the area of human resources, systems
and procedures. This entailed the development of the quantity and quality of people capable
of realizing the vision. In short, capacity building in the UFH context was the development of
a “critical mass” of skillful people who understand the shared vision and mission of the
university and the full scope of the work and efforts underway and who, with the recently
acquired skills, would be able to carry them out.

The purpose of this proposal was, therefore, to seek financial assistance to cover the
development of the systems designed to address the identified needs of the three key support
services departments, Finance, Human Resources and Student Administration in order to
create the critical mass of capable people and modernized, appropriate systems. This resulted
in the acceptance of the SANTED Business Plan and an agreement between the UFH, the
Higher Education Branch of the Department of Education and the Norwegian Government,
funding the SANTED capacity building initiative at the institution.

3.      Project Description
The primary aim of the SANTED Project was to facilitate a process of developing the service
skills of all the individuals, who are functioning within the respective service departments of
finance, human resources and administration.

By providing the employees the opportunity to develop their skills, capacity will be enhanced
and thus, good individual skills should significantly contribute to a good system functioning
effectively and efficiently. A good system allows personnel to render an excellent service.
The institution requires well equipped and trained personnel in order to bring out the best in
its systems.

The SANTED project has progressed over a period of 14 months with the development of
essential systems and procedures in the three critical areas of finance, human resources and
administration. This development has not only been necessary as part of the turnaround policy
described in the introduction but also essential for the expansion of the institution to its' urban
campuses.

3.1    Project beneficiaries
The project will have two sets of beneficiaries: direct and indirect



3.1.1 Direct



                                                                                               100
The support service staff in the three service departments that have their skill and knowledge
base developed.

3.1.2 Indirect
Academic and management staff and students of the University enjoy the benefits of a fully
functional university with increased efficiency and effectiveness in all support areas.

3.2    Scope of the programme
3.2.1 Goal
Increasing capacity, quality and efficiency of support systems, which in turn will secure long
term sustainability and viability for the university.

3.2.2 Objectives
There are three major objectives for the project, one for each of the three service departments:

Finance: to provide effective and efficient financial services to the institution.
Human Resources: to manage and develop human potential and effective leadership.
Administration: to provide students with improved and effective links to the faculty,
curriculum, and classroom through a continuum of services from enrolment to graduation.

3.3      Management Structure


        PROJECT MANAGEMENT                    SANTED PROJECT LEADER           VICE-CHANCELLOR
             COMMITTEE

                                                                 PROJECT MANAGER
                                      PROJECT INITIATOR
             DEPUTY VICE -
             CHANCELLOR
                                                                   SANTED DIRECTOR



                                                                           REGISTRAR
        I.T.           DIR: FINANCE       DIRECTOR: HR
      MANAGER
                                                                               ASST. REGISTRAR
       SECRETARIAT




The Project Management Committee structure, reflecting all the applicable committed
members, is tabled hereunder, indicating their respective roles of involvement during the
entire project.

4.       SANTED Project Roll-out

The project was launched during November 2003 with the appointment of the Project Leader,
namely Mr. Noel Knickelbein. A comprehensive Project Plan was compiled and presented to
the Project Management Committee, which comprised of Executive Management staff
members, and Mr. Derrick Young, the National Director of the SANTED Programme.

Monthly meetings were conducted by the Project Management Committee (PMC) over the
duration of the project, in order to monitor the very stringent timeframe of 11 months and to


                                                                                            101
ensure the successfully attainment of all the predetermined outcomes, All relevant issues
pertaining to each deliverable were closely scrutinized and any deviations recorded by the
Secretariat, for record purposes.

5.     Project Achievements

5.1    Finance Department
5.1.1 The ITS migration process from Version 10 to Version 12 has had a significant
overarching impact on a number of the projects deliverables. The migration process from V10
to V11 was implemented during January 2004, with the successful migration from V11 to
V12 during January 2005.

The database clean-up exercise was conducted by a delegation of consultants from ITS (Pty)
Ltd. This resulted in the presentation of a comprehensive report being tabled by the Service
Provider. A number of the salient aspects were reflected in the report for immediate attention
by the relevant Heads of Department.

5.1.2 Extensive research has been conducted into the design and development of a GAAP
Compliant Financial Manual. The document is in its 5th draft and currently being endorsed by
the Chief Finance Officer, Mr Clint Ramoo, who will present the manual to the Finance
Committee for favourable consideration as well as to the Council for final ratification and
implementation purposes. A feature of the manual is the alignment of the various operational
activities/functionalities to the ITS Financial sub-system.

This document will add significant value to the operational aspects in the Finance Department
and will also be marketed to other institutions as a SANTED product in terms of best practice.

5.1.3 The Budget Control Process has been addressed, with the establishment of a Budget
Review Committee. The committee has been commissioned by the Executive Committee to
review and realign the Budget Control Process, by considering the implementation of a
decentralized budget system.

5.1.4 Co-ordination of a workshop on corporate governance requirements in terms of the
King 2 Report legislation has been recommended for the personnel of the Finance
Department, once the GAAP policy manual has been ratified and implemented.

5.1.5 Capacity Building initiatives have included workshops relating to “Salary Budgeting”,
“Advanced Training on the ITS Finance System” “Excel Training for Financial Managers”
and numerous ICDL computer courses for the personnel within the department.
5.2   Human Resources Department
5.2.1 Capacity enhancement initiatives relating to the labour legislation have been
embraced by a wide spectrum of stakeholder groups. Members of Executive Management,
Union Members and Line Managers have all been invited to participate in the various
workshops.



                               Training Courses                              Delegates




                                                                                          102
        1. Basic Conditions of Employment Act & Labour Relations Act              35


        2. Skills Development Act, Employment Equity Act & Occupational Health    14
           and Safety Act


        3. LRA – Discipline and Dismissals                                        32


        4. LRA: Arbitration Skills                                                14


5.2.2 In terms of the objective, extensive theoretical and hands-on training was conducted
over a two-week period by an ITS expert in Human Resources administration. All the
personnel within the section were exposed to individual training initiatives with the consultant
after he had analyzed each individual staff members’ capacity needs.

5.2.3 The implementation of the JE Manager grading system was duly sanctioned by
Executive Management and a sample of post descriptions have been re-drafted by the trainees
who have undergone training as JE Facilitators.

5.2.4 All HR policies have been reviewed in terms of current labour legislation and have
been approved by Executive Management for implementation purposes.

5.2.5 The institution has accepted a proposal to design and implement an integrated
performance optimization model, based on the Balance    Scorecard concept, which will
institutionalize a process of enhancing performance at all levels of the organization on a
sustainable basis.

5.2.6 In an endeavour to address the employment equity goals and objectives of the
institution, an appeal was made to include this Human Resources related outcome for
inclusion into the project as an additional deliverable. A very comprehensive Employment
Equity Plan was researched, compiled and presented, by the Service Provider, to the
Executive Management Committee for favourable consideration and implementation. The EE
Plan was duly approved and implementation thereof will be monitored by the Director of the
Human Resources Department.

5.2.7 Accepted internationally as a benchmark and regarded as one of the best Facilitation
Skills programmes in South Africa and DDI (Development Dimensions International)
accredited, seven staff members were identified and registered for the course.Endorsed as one
of the many successes of the programme, all seven candidates attained “Full Certification” for
the programme and awarded their internationally accredited DDI certificates.

5.3    Administration Department
5.3.1 Extensive research was conducted on the various document “Archiving and Retrieval”
products. A service provider had been identified, who would be implementing the system,
however the process has been delayed due to the institutions process of outsourcing the
document management activities.

5.3.2 Mr. Peet Du Plessis from Messrs. ITS (Pty) Ltd was commissioned to interrogate and
revamp the current examinations operational procedures. After considerable      research,


                                                                                            103
interviews with academic and administration personnel, a comprehensive policy manual was
compiled and is pending Senates approval prior to implementation. In terms of this outcome,
on-site training was also conducted over a two week period on the ITS Student sub-system for
all the Examination Administration personnel.

5.3.3 The ITS Student iEnabler web application/registration system and the ITS Enquiry
module have been implemented. The successful implementation of the respective modules is
dependant upon best practice principles and the institution is currently researching these
aspects. It is intended to introduce these modules to our student population in due course.

5.3.4 A process of addressing the CHE quality assurance issues at the institution have been
addressed by a cross-section of academic and administrative personnel at two workshops,
which were facilitated by representatives from the University of Pretoria. The workshops
broadly addressed the salient aspects that would be considered by all departments in
preparation for future institutional HEQC audit visit.

5.3.5 In an endeavour to enhance the administrative personnel project management skills,
staff were registered and exposed to a “Practical Projects Management” programme which is
presented by the Johnson and Johnson Leadership Development Institute. This is an internally
accredited division and has achieved ‘preferred supplier’ status with respect to leadership
development courses within the East London business community, including global
organizations like Johnson & Johnson and DaimlerChrysler. In addition, it has been engaged
by the Eastern Cape Department of Health with the support of funders MSH, to provide a
series of highly innovative and internationally recognized transformational leadership
programmes.

6.     Project Difficulties

From the outset of the SANTED programme, the delay in the appointment of a Project Leader
placed undue constraints on the achievement of the respective objectives. The original two-
year project timeframe had been reduced to a 12 months period. This resulted in the revision
of the original business plan timeframes and adopted accordingly.

An additional constraint was the unavailability of staff to be relieved from their daily
operational duties in order to attend and/or participate in numerous planned workshops and
training initiatives. In order to address this constraint, workshops were conducted during the
recess periods when academic personnel and students were away on vacation.

7.     Lessons Learned/Unexpected results or spin-offs.

An appeal by the Vice-Chancellor to consider the inclusion of the drafting of an Employment
Equity Plan for the institutions has been an unanticipated but beneficial spin-off for the
university and the Human Resources Department.

The institutions success of rapidly migrating from an obsolete ITS Version 10 system to the
current Version 12 web-based system must be celebrated. However, staff have not been able
to maximize the benefits of the enhanced system due to their limited IT skills. This is an area
of concern and could likely be addressed during the 2nd phase of the SANTED Programme.




                                                                                           104
The commitment of the staff to the project and its numerous objectives has been truly
symbolized by the projects logo “SAKHA NGETHEMBA” meaning “Building with Hope”.
Each staff member participating in the programme was presented with a golf shirt reflecting
the SANTED logo. These shirts are worn with pride at every opportunity. They tend to create
a sense of pride and belonging which was not evident prior to the SANTED project.

In terms of the significance and viability of the programme, all courses and training initiatives
were rendered by SETA accredited service providers. All certificates presented by the
service providers to the participants met the        minimum international or national
standards in terms of our SETA pre-requisites.

8.     Conclusion / Recommendations

The SANTED Project has progressed considerably since the implementation of the
programme. Many of the planned interventions, within the three service departments, have
been successfully implemented under very stringent operational timeframes.

The motto “Sakha Ngethemba – Building with Hope” has truly been embraced by all the
staff members from within the enhancement programmes relating to their respective areas of
responsibility and accountability. respective departments. The personnel have welcomed the
opportunities to attend the various skill

It has been encouraging to note how the staff members have acquitted themselves in a manner
beyond reproach and during these strenuous times, have been willing to go the proverbial
extra mile for the institution.

The opportunity to enhance their skills and knowledge during this programme, has had an
overwhelming positive impact on the individual’s confidence within the three targeted service
departments.

Unquestionably, real capacity has been built through the SANTED project over the past year,
and a foundation has been created for ‘real’ progress for building upon and enhancing what
has already been accomplished.

Future steps require careful and wise planning to ensure that the momentum created is
sustained and taken to the desired level. The excellence that we seek depends upon excellent,
appropriate and aligned capacity being in place.

On behalf on the UFH Council, Prof. Derrick Swartz: Vice-Chancellor, staff and students at
the institution, may I take this opportunity in expressing our sincere gratitude and appreciation
to the Department of Education, the Norwegian Government and the Embassy for their valued
contribution in the development of the systems designed to address the identified needs of
three key support services departments, Finance, Human Resources and Administration in
order to create a more effective and efficient support service of capable people with
modernized and developed systems.

We are convinced that the University of Fort Hare is ideally positioned to take advantage of
the many challenges that it faces as it forges ahead with its vision and mission for the 21 st
Century.




                                                                                             105
In addition, the university is convinced that it and other institutions could benefit significantly
from formalized sharing of lessons, resources and experiences gained from what has proven
to be major milestone in the life of this illustrious institution.




                                                                                               106
  Annex 9: University of Zululand Organisational
              Development Project

          in association with SANTED:




   (A) Final Project Report: Executive Summary

                  10 June 2005

                       and

          (B) The Business Plan of 2003

                       and

(C) The Detailed SANTED-UNIZUL Assessment of the
                   Review Team




                                                   107
                                                    Final Project Report: Executive Summary

SANTED Project overview

The SANTED Organisational Development Project (ODP) was initiated in August 2003 to
facilitate a process of sustainable business turnaround at the University of Zululand. The
project objectives as defined by SANTED were to:

                               Scrutinise the University of Zululand’s Business Plan of 1999 in the context of the
                                current turnaround strategy;
                               Assess the University of Zululand’s administrative and financial processes by
                                investigating the current situation at the University;
                               Revise and develop a business plan;
                               Implement the relevant recommendations contained in the revised business plan and
                                other mechanisms the consultants may think necessary to ensure that the University is
                                turned into a well-managed and efficient organisation.

The ODP was a project partnership between:

                               The University of Zululand (Unizul);
                               The Department of Education (DOE);
                               South Africa Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED);
                               Strategy Partners Consortium (SPC).

The following summary of activities comprises the ODP timeline:


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Review of project achievements and risks
                                                                                                                                                 Ongoing implementation and monitoring




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Detail assessment of project outcomes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Start-of-year assessment of short term
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                End-of-year assessment and planning
                                                                                                    Change management implementation




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Strategic prioritisation of deliverables
                                                Strategic imperatives developed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Launch of ODP internal phase
                                                Stakeholders review findings
                                        Oct ’03 Situation analysis completed



                                        Dec ’03 Assessment report finalised




                                                                                                    Action Plans developed

                                                                                                    Start of Implementation
                                                                                                    Business Plan finalised




                                                                                            May ’04 ODP Manco convenes
                                                                                            Feb ’04 Official Project Launch
  Aug ’03 Project commences




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                progress
                                                                                                                                                                                         Aug ’04




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Nov ’04
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sep ’04
                                        Nov ’03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Dec ’04




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Mar ‘05
                              Sep ’03




                                                                                            Mar ’04




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Feb ’05
                                                                                                                                       Jun ’04




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oct ’04
                                                                                            Apr ’04




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jan ’05
                                                                                  Jan ’04




                                                                                                                                                          Jul ’04




                    STAGE 1
                    STAGE 1                                                  STAGE 2
                                                                             STAGE 2                                                                                                        STAGE 3
                                                                                                                                                                                            STAGE 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             108
PHASE 1: Situation Assessment

The Situation Assessment phase comprised the above stages 1 and 2 and was conducted
between August 2003 and February 2004. The components were:

Project establishment – clarification of scope and setting up logistic arrangements;
Initial stakeholder interaction – communication of project scope and assessment of
expectations;
Detail situation assessment – individual reviews of all administrative functions in terms of
cost and staff profile, service quality, effectiveness and efficiency;
Situation assessment feedback – report back to stakeholders and management to capture
comments and feedback;
Leadership planning and prioritisation – critical reflection on strategic priorities for
business turnaround and prioritisation of actions and projects;
Detail business planning – incorporation of all inputs into a comprehensive Unizul
turnaround business plan.

The assessment of Unizul’s administrative functions and business processes yielded the
following scenario by October 2003:


         At the end of 2003, the University of Zululand finds itself in a precarious
         financial position, in part due to its inability to effectively and efficiently
         collect student funds over time and tightly manage its internal operations
         and systems. The organisational structure needs to be critically assessed in
         the move towards a ‘comprehensive academic institution’, while specific
         administrative and support areas requiring urgent attention are financial and
         human resources management. At Unizul, management processes in general
         require greater application of financial and staff discipline, communication
         and performance management. While a provisional turnaround assessment
         of Unizul indicates room for investment, a lack of financial resources
         necessitates unambiguous prioritisiation of key areas.




Based on the situation assessment findings a Unizul leadership group identified the following
priority areas to address in a business plan:

Finances: resources, debt and administration;
Structure: organisational size and shape;
Human capital: human resource management;
Change: leadership, management, culture;
IT/ Systems;
Academic restructuring.

The business plan outlined projects in the various functional areas aligned to these priority
areas to address the shortcomings identified in the assessment phase.




                                                                                                109
                               PHASE 2: Implementation

To assist project managers with implementation, business plan activities where cascaded into
fifty-two action plans that were to be implemented, measured and monitored. Action plans
were developed for the following functional areas:
   Academic Administration;

   Catering;

   Facilities;

   Finance;
   Human Resources;

   ICT;
   Library;

   Marketing;

   Security;

 Student Services.
Implementation progress was monitored on a monthly basis by way of progress reports
submitted by University project managers. Informal interaction and advice strengthened the
monitoring mechanism. The primary project oversight bodies were:

   Project Committee –  comprising representatives from SANTED, DOE, Unizul senior
    management and SPC and responsible for overall project monitoring;
   Management Committee          – the Rector/ Vice-Chancellor’s senior management team,
    responsible for day-to-day running of University;
   ODP Manco       – comprising senior University academic and administrative managers,
    responsible for progress monitoring of all ODP projects;
   ODP Programme Office –         set up by SPC and responsible for project logistics and
    coordination;
   Strategy Partners Consortium –       specialist higher education consultants appointed to
    undertake project assessment and advice;
In August 2004 an assessment was made of the first six months of implementation and
projects were reprioritised based on factors such as a changed academic reconfiguration
timeline and an analysis of successes and remaining risks. Priority projects for completion
were earmarked and closely monitored in the second six months of implementation.

By February 2005 significant progress had been made with improving the University’s
administrative and financial processes and recommendations were made to management as to
how to address remaining risk factors.




                                                                                         110
                         Achievements and lessons learnt

The major achievements of the ODP by end-February 2005 were:

FUNCTIONAL          MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS (24-02-2005)
AREA
                       Academic policies and procedures have been drafted, finalised and approved

                       Registration planning was finalised end-2004 and implementation of improved
   Academic             procedures took place in 2005 (with room for further improvement)
 Administration
                       An International Office needs analysis was done, infrastructure was established
                        and the recruitment of an officer is underway

                       The University’s debt collection policy has been revised and implemented

                       Debt collection has improved considerably (with room for further improvement)

                       Proper finance governance structures have been implemented

                       Proper budget management has been implemented centrally with departmental
                        budget management improvements underway

                       Final University budgets were approved by Council

                       A risk assessment of the Finance Department was completed and improved
                        processes implemented
     Finance
                       A Finance department concept structure has been drafted

                       A skills assessment and action plan for the Finance department has been
                        completed

                       The University’s external funding plan was approved by Council and a DBSA loan
                        application was approved

                       A third stream revenue policy was developed and approved

                       The University’s overall financial situation has been turned around from an
                        operating deficit to an operating surplus

                       The staff transfer from the closed-down satellite Durban-Umlazi campus has
                        been completed

                       New HR structure have been developed and recruitment to fill high-priority
                        positions is underway

                       Selected HR policies and procedures were approved by Council, with the
Human Resources         remaining policies to be tabled to Council in March 2005

                       A preliminary assessment of workers Co-operatives, responsible for cleaning and
                        maintenance contracts, was completed and recommendations submitted to
                        Manco. A detailed feasibility study has been commissioned

                       A complete organisational chart for Unizul has been compiled

                       Equipping of new ICT offices is nearing finalisation

                       A comprehensive selection process for new University business systems has
                        been completed, with implementation to commence in 2005
       ICT
                       A new network infrastructure tender process has been completed and
                        implementation commenced January 2005

                       The integrated data-cleanup is well underway given constraints such as filing




                                                                                                     111
FUNCTIONAL           MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS (24-02-2005)
AREA
                         backlogs

                        Improved food cost control has been implemented

                        A “Pick and Pay” system has been put in place, to be activated with card reader
                         installation

                        A self-catering system for West Residences has been put in place

                        A VIP lounge conversion/ student training programme has been initiated

                        A room booking system was put in place for returning students

   Catering &           The Student Services Department completed an internal Business Plan

 Student Services       Improved communication and interfaces between the SRC and SSD are evident,
                         linked to important student governance events that took place such as the
                         establishment of a Student Parliament

                        The Keep Unizul Clean Campaign was successfully completed

                        Improved financial monitoring and control mehcanisms for Sports & Recreation
                         have been put in place

                        The recruitment of additional staff for the Financial Aid Bureau was completed
                         and service improvement has been visible

                        An assessment of the Physical Planning & Works departmental structure was
                         completed and a new, specialised structure submitted to Manco

                        Outsourcing of the vehicle fleet is underway, with a comprehensive tender
     Facilities          process conducted

                        A hot water system for East Residences is being installed and on schedule for
                         completion before Winter 2005

                        A facilitated conflict resolution workshop took place, with follow-up workshop to
                         commence as soon as funding is made available

                        A new functional structure for the Library was developed and submitted to
                         Manco
     Library
                        New hardware is to be supplied to Library on an incremental basis

                        A training plan has been finalised and is being incrementally implemented

                        The Library roof repair project has been completed

                        The overall strategic coordination project was completed for 2004, and an
                         improved 2005 business plan addresses lingering shortcomings

                        Marketing policies and procedures were submitted to Manco and approved
    Marketing
                        The new University of Zululand website was launched in February 2005

                        A Marketing Committee has been established to co-ordinate University-wide
                         marketing activities

                        A Crime Prevention Officer job specification has been completed and the
                         recruitment process is underway

                        A Campus Protection Forum has been established

                        A physical security improvement plan was finalised and is being implemented
     Security
                        A CCTV network extension is being implemented jointly with ICT

                        the recruitment of new Director: PSD is underway

                        Residence access control supervisors commenced work in January 2005


Key lessons that were learned on higher education business turnaround during the ODP are:

                                                                                                     112
   A project management approach to delivery can be difficult to grasp for line managers and
    sufficient preparation time is required for project management capacity building;
   Leadership is key to the success of turnaround initiatives and any uncertainty on where an
    organisation is headed based on feedback (or lack thereof) received from the top can
    debilitate those responsible for implementation;
   For an institution such as Unizul, which is confronted with various management
    challenges on a daily, weekly and monthly basis, projects should be clearly defined and
    staggered in order to prevent delays in implementation;
   Strong management action is required in areas where delivery is not forthcoming;
   Regular monitoring and performance checking significantly increases the quality and
    tempo of work done;
   The in-built tension at higher education institutions between academic and administrative
    managers is a fact and needs to be addressed through joint planning initiatives and
    communication;
   Lessons learnt from organisational turnarounds have indicated that major organisational
    shifts take approximately three years to fully bed down into new work cultures and
    methods that are sustainable. Future interventions of an ODP nature might need to take a
    longer view on the support required.
   The human aspects of change and turnaround as they transpire through capacity,
    adaptability and commitment are critical. If not sufficiently addressed from the start, they
    present a perpetual risk that can prevent long-lasting change from occurring within an
    organisation.




                                                                                            113
                                       Business Plan
The Project is located at the University of Zululand, Kwa Dlangezwa, in the Province of
KwaZulu-Natal.

1.      PROJECT GOAL
The overall goal of the Project is to provide the appropriate capacity within the University of
Zululand to facilitate the establishment of a viable academic organisation that has been
restructured in accordance with the National Plan for Higher Education, and the subsequent
proposals of the Ministry of Education for the institutional reconfiguration of higher
education.

2       PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The Ministry of Education requires the University of Zululand to refocus its vision and
mission in line with the National Plan for Higher Education. In order to succeed with this
major task of reshaping and strengthening the offerings of the University of Zululand to
become a comprehensive higher education institution, an investment needs to be made in
building institutional capacity and a committed and competent leadership. As a first stage in
this development, the necessary administration and managerial structures, policies and
processes essential to support teaching, learning, research and community service must be put
in place.

The Project is one of the institutional projects that are identified as appropriate in terms of the
overall SANTED Progamme's aims and specifically in relation to the institutional capacity
building component thereof.

Background to the Project
The University of Zululand, which is located in the rural north of Kwa-Zulu Natal, was
established in 1960 as a College affiliated to the University of South Africa (UNISA). In
1970 it became a fully-fledged university. Given its rural location, the University continues
to play a role in broadening access to higher education. However, the University, like many
other historically disadvantaged institutions, continues to experience serious difficulties in
terms of a lack of capacity – many of which are rooted in its past apartheid legacy. In
particular, it has experienced a significant decline in student numbers, large student debt, a
decline in the financial situation and management/governance disruptions.

The Minister of Education asked the Auditor-General's office to facilitate special audits in late
1998 to address the financial deficits and shortcomings in the administrative and financial
management systems of six of the historically disadvantaged universities, including the
University of Zululand. The audits were carried out in 1999 by major audit companies. The
findings for the University of Zululand included a set of recommendations that needed to be
implemented in order to address the identified deficiencies.

However, the University of Zululand suffered management and governance disruptions and
there was also little capacity at the time to ensure the implementation of the recommendations
that emanated from the special audit. This has impacted not only on teaching, learning and
research, but also on the quality of the day-to-day life of students and personnel.

The Ministry of Education has been acutely aware of the need to find lasting solutions to the
problems experienced by the University of Zululand. This has now been addressed as part of


                                                                                               114
the overall restructuring of the higher education system. In this regard, the Minister of
Education published his intention in June 2002 to refocus the mission of the University to
become a comprehensive institution offering technikon-type programmes, as well as a limited
number of relevant university-type programmes, with its future growth linked to the Richards
Bay region. This has the full support of the Cabinet of the Republic of South Africa.

The proposal to reconfigure the University of Zululand is intended to ensure the expanded and
broadened access to higher education in a part of the Kwa-Zulu Natal Province which, at the
moment, is not well served. In particular, the current academic programme profile,
comprising largely of general formative degrees in the arts, humanities, education and law, is
not responsive to the development needs of the region, especially for increased opportunities
for technikon type vocational certificate, diploma and degree level qualifications, to support
the industrial developments associated with the growth of the Richards Bay area. The current
academic programme offerings are also unlikely to support or sustain future growth. The
reconfiguration of the University of Zululand to a comprehensive university will require the
planning of a new programme profile that is responsive to the needs of the region. Phased
implementation will, in turn, require human and infrastrucural resources, including the
appropriate personnel development initiatives to allow for the re-skilling of existing academic
personnel to meet new teaching challenges; a commitment to major curriculum reform and the
establishment of close links with the immediate community and with business and industry.
The rural location of the institution also allows exciting possibilities for teaching and research
to be closely linked to development challenges, through, amongst others, service learning and
other forms of community service.

In order to succeed with the major task of re-shaping and strengthening the academic
offerings of the University of Zululand, the necessary investment needs to be made in
building institutional capacity and a committed and competent leadership. Most importantly,
the necessary administration and managerial structures, policies and processes essential to
support teaching, learning, research and community service must be established. In this
regard, Professor H P Africa, a very experienced retired Vice-Chancellor, was until very
recently appointed as acting Vice-Chancellor at the University of Zululand. Professor Africa
began the process of institution transformation during 2002 and visible gains have already
been made in areas such as governance and student debt recovery. A substantive Vice-
Chancellor, Professor R V Gumbi, has been appointed and is committed to continue the work.

Nevertheless the University is in a serious financial crisis and the current financial condition
of the University can best be summed up by the response of the institution’s auditors, Deloitte
and Touche, in their qualification to their audit report on the financial statements at year-end
2001. The qualification firstly draws attention to the fact that South African Generally
Accepted Accounting Standards are not being followed. In addition, attention is drawn to
concerns about the financial viability of the University.

Turnaround Strategies Currently Being Implemented
The immediate priority for all concerned was to ensure the future viability of the University.
In this regard, the Department had meetings with the University management and the
Chairperson of the Council to assist the University to draft a turnaround strategy to restore its
financial stability. This strategy framework has been approved by the Council of the
University for immediate implementation and depends largely on the development of efficient
and effective administrative, management and financial systems which are the focus areas of
this project.


                                                                                              115
Another aspect which is key to the ‘turnaround’ of the University is the Government’s
intention to address the under capitalisation of the University as part of the restructuring of
higher education. This will eventually lead to the injection of major resources to the
University. Policies, systems and processes need to be shown to be in place before major new
investment can be made.

The purpose of this SANTED project is therefore to lay the foundation for a viable academic
organisation, through building capacity in the establishment of sound administrative,
management and financial systems. It will be implemented in parallel with three of the
University's initiatives currently in progress:

(i) The University of Zululand's internal turnaround initiatives
Activities have been initiated and managed within the University over the past year to address
areas of weakness. These were initiated and driven by Professor Africa and work on these
will be continued by the new Vice-Chancellor. The University has allocated a budget of R
500 000 for this purpose. Visible gains have already been made.

These turnaround activities include:
    refocused budgeting process (implemented);
    upgrading of human resources activities: job descriptions have been written ahead of
       the next phase of evaluation, performance appraisals are being implemented. In
       addition, a skills development exercise is underway (in progress);
    the development of a new organisational structure to improve efficiency and
       effectiveness for council approval (in progress);
    the restructuring of the information and technology services within the University (in
       progress);
    improvements to the physical surrounds (done);
    focus on improving internal controls including the development of a structured audit
       plan which provides for prompt follow-up where weaknesses have been identified
       (implemented).

(ii)    The Department of Education’s contribution to turnaround activities
The Department of Education identified and advised on appropriate actions that could be
implemented to support the continued momentum within the University's own turnaround
activities. These actions have the potential for quick wins for which an amount of R1 million
has been provided by the Department of Education.
Activities include:
      the recommendation that focused resources be put in place to facilitate the effective
         collation, control and progress of turnaround/improvement activities;
      the actual amalgamation of the two existing Information Technology Departments;
      implementation of best practice as established by other South African universities in
         selected areas;
      the strengthening of the financial division through a restructuring process currently in
         progress and the identification of an appropriately qualified individual to fill a vacancy
         on a contract basis if necessary.




                                                                                               116
(iii) Refocus of the vision and mission of the University
The reconfiguration of the University of Zululand to a comprehensive university will require
the planning of a new programme profile that is responsive to the needs of the region. It
includes the following activities:
      The development of an institutional operating plan. Funds will be provided to re-
        capitalise the University but they are contingent on the development of a satisfactory
        institutional operating plan. All institutions involved in the restructuring of the higher
        education system are required to submit to the Ministry an ‘institutional operating
        plan’. The Department of Education anticipates the University will require re-
        capitalisation of approximately R100 million;
      Realigning and refocusing academic programmes to the new comprehensive character
        of the institution.

3.    SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
3.1   Objective
The primary objective of the Project is the establishment of sound administrative,
management and financial systems at the University.

3.2    Outputs / Deliverables
The outputs linked to the above objective are:
     a business plan developed on an assessment and situation analysis pertaining to the
       current situation as well as the future vision and mission. The business plan
       comprises:

                  shape and size of the intended University organisation (students, academic,
                   support structures);
                  human resources model;
                  facilities and spatial plan;
                  information and communications technology plan;
                  student affairs plan;
                  academic administration plan;
                  marketing and communications plan;
                  change management plan;
                  financial plan;
                  an operating revenue and expenditure budget;
                  a capital expenditure budget;
                  a restructuring of the University's balance sheet;
                  a funding plan;
                  a cashflow forecast;

       A strategy for the implementation of the business plan in terms of short, medium and
       longer term outputs.

       Joint agreement between the service provider and the University on the
       implementation of the business plan in terms of defined deliverables.




                                                                                              117
4. DEVELOPMENT PATH OF THE PROJECT
4.1 Project Activities
As the focus will be on ensuring a functional organisation that operates within financially
sustainable parameters to facilitate the strategic aspects of the University’s refocusing
towards becoming a comprehensive institution, the activities will include:
         stabilising the institution;
                       the identification and analysis of all material factors pertaining to the current
                        situation at the University as well as to the future vision for the University;
                       work sessions with representative groups of stakeholders in each of the
                        appropriate focus areas to facilitate the above analysis;
                       development of an executive report which summarises the needs for
                        institutional changes;
                       changing and improving the support service structures of the University in line
                        with the newly defined core academic business.

4.2 Timeframe
The project will run through to the end of 2004/early 2005. The broad timelines with the
different components of the project are given below. These will be subject to the outcome
of the review phase.



                                       PROJECT TIME PERSPECTIVE
                                       PROJECT TIME PERSPECTIVE


                                            Project Establishment
                                             Project Establishment
 PROJECT PHASES




                                                       Assessment
PROJECT PHASES




                                                        Assessment
                                                       Situation Analysis
                                                        Situation Analysis

                                                             Business Plan
                                                              Business Plan
                                                             Budget
                                                              Budget


                                                                              implementation
                                                                               implementation




                  1     2    3    4    5     6    7     8    9    10    11    12    1    2    3     4      5    6    - 12
                   1     2    3    4    5     6    7     8    9    10    11    12    1    2    3     4      5    6    - 12
                       2003                                                                        2004                2005
                                                                                                                        2005
                        2003                                                                        2004
                                                              MONTHS
                                                              MONTHS


4.3 Project Management
4.3.1 Service Provider
In order to ensure the achievement of the stated objectives and the sustainability of
capacity building within the University, the service provider identified through a tender
and evaluation process will be contracted with the University of Zululand to secure
ownership.
4.3.2 Project Steering Committee


                                                                                                                             118
A Steering Committee will be established comprised of all stakeholders to monitor
progress and facilitate discussions.

4.3.3 Formal Decision Making Structures
Formal decisions will be jointly made by the University's management and the
Department of Education.
The Director of SANTED will monitor the overall progress according to normal
procedures for the SANTED Programme.

4.3.4 Budget and Disbursement Plan
4.3.5
       Indicative budget of the SANTED Project and related activities

                           R total            Tentative Disbursement Plan
   Project
                                            2003            2004            2005
   1. University’s     R    500 000    R   400 000     R    100 000
   turnaround
   strategy
   2. DoE’s support    R   1 000 000   R   500 000     R    500 000
   of turnaround
   strategy
   3. Refocus of the   R100 000 000    R 15 000 000    R 55 000 000    R 30 000 000
   vision and
   mission
   4. The SANTED       R   5 000 000   R   2 500 000   R   2 000 000   R   500 000
   Project
   disbursement is
   dependent on
   business plan to
   be developed by
   service provider
   and approved by
   the Department
   and the
   University.



4.3.6 Key Performance Indicators
On assessment of the business plan developed by the service provider, key performance
indicators will be agreed upon with the service provider. Disbursements will only occur
on the successful attainment of these indicators in terms of defined outputs.

4.3.7 Procedures for Monitoring and Reviews
These will follow the normal SANTED procedures in conjunction with the Project
Steering Committee.




                                                                                      119
   The Detailed SANTED-UNIZUL Assessment of the Review Team

Introduction
The SANTED programme was launched in August 2003 and closed in June 2005. This
review covers this period and comments on the progress achieved in the capacity building
domain which was the main thrust of the SANTED intervention. The report reviews
measures and steps taken in the fields of human resources, financial management and
academic administration.

A total of 66 activities was generated within the SANTED programme and although some of
the activities are on-going a large number were finalized. It is noteworthy that all the projects
and activities generated by the SANTED programme have been integrated into the
mainstream line functions of UNIZUL and are going to be continued as part of its on-going
business and turn-around strategy.

Institutional focus areas
The SANTED intervention was designed to effect change in the area of capacity
development; consequently the following line management fields have been positively
affected:

information communication technology
facilities
student services
library
bureau for development and public relations
academic administration
human resources
financial management

Information Communication Technology (ICT)
This department was identified as an area of weakness, in spite of its critical role in the
delivery of quality service for both academic and non-academic activity. A new executive
director was appointed to undertake and oversee the transformation of the ICT from being a
data processing unit into an information systems unit. The ICT department now provides
support and functional activities to all the departments on campus and ownership of ICT
activities now rests with the institutions’ different departments. The existing staff have
received training and the finalization of a new organogram for the department has been
deferred. ICT is now housed in new offices.

The SANTED intervention gave momentum to the changes and transformation that needed to
be effected and because of this intervention new additional funding has been attracted. The
overall achievement has been the re-organisation, re-structuring, and re-positioning of ICT
and the training of staff.

Facilities
Three major projects were undertaken in this section: (i) rightsizing structure (ii) transport
model (iii) hot water system.

The rightsizing of structure entailed the outsourcing of certain functions which meant that the
total number of permanent staff was reduced. This exercise was undertaken with the


                                                                                             120
assistance of an external consultancy. A new approach to transport provisioning was initiated
by way of a full maintenance lease model. This exercise is being undertaken jointly with the
institution’s bankers, ABSA bank. The third project in this department is the improvement of
the hot water system in the East residences. This initiative is being undertaken in partnership
with Eskom and will be handled on a turn-key basis covering all aspects including design,
build and commission. The achievement in this project is the accumulation of professional
expertise, a net saving of thousands of rand, and a part solution to the perennial hot water
problem.

Student Services Department
The SANTED programme has afforded an opportunity to the Student Services Department to
design and implement a business plan and turn around strategy. An office for international
students has been established and the residences have been re-furbished. A new policy on
admission to residences has been drawn up and a self-catering Pick-’n-Pay system has been
introduced. New residences to accommodate five hundred students will alleviate the pressure
on student accommodation. As part of the transformation of this department current staff
have been put through extensive training and they can now assume responsibility for the
quality of their work. A new Head of Department for Guidance and Counselling is to be
appointed and change management intervention is to be implemented in the division.

Library
The library, though centrally located at UNIZUL was in serious need of upgrading. The
SANTED intervention has provided this impetus and the most serious physical shortcomings
have been corrected. An important activity was change management and conflict resolution
to result in a functional management team working together effectively. There are several
outstanding issues, for example, follow-up training sessions, a critical review and
determination of staffing structure and the formalization of a formal working protocol with
ICT.

Bureau for Development and Public Relations.
In order for UNIZUL to be recognised and accepted as an efficient and effective institution
certain misperceptions have to be countered. The SANTED intervention afforded the
institution the opportunity of image-building and marketing. In this regard there was strategic
co-ordination of school visits, of marketing during registration, of internal research activities.
The Bureau engaged on extensive market research, analysis, strategy and implementation
plan. This operation is at a 70% completion level and requires additional inputs to reach
optimal efficiency. Inputs from academic departments are yet to be factored into the overall
strategy. New and ongoing initiatives include the relationship with the University of Bergen
in Norway, the introduction of development and gender studies, the expansion of Health
Education, and the promotion of ICT for academic purposes. Activities that complement
those of SANTED include the link with Chicago State University in the teacher education
domain, the promotion of research in indigenous knowledge systems and the developing
relationship with the Ministry for Science and Technology.

Security
Unizul had set up satellite stations under the Protective Services Department, and established
a crime prevention function. In furtherance of this objective a business plan was developed
which spelt out clearly the purpose of function, the resourcing requirements and the funding
and budget requirements. In terms of personnel, a crime-awareness/protection officer was to
be recruited.


                                                                                              121
Most of the projects under this section are still in the non-implementation phase. Activities
such as the installation of intruder alarms, CCTV, lighting of the surrounds and the
installation of perimeter fencing (in progress) are still at the planning stages. The use of
supporting technology is to be investrigated.

Academic Administration
The activities and functions under this heading were divided into six projects:
registration and process
student information “clean up”
international student office
student help desk
academic policies and procedures
re-structuring of academic administration

Registration and Process
The acquisition of ITS as a business solution instrument meant that the target time frame for
student registration to be completed within a day was achievable.

Student information “Clean Up”
This project was undertaken in collaboration with ICT. All biographical and academic
information of all currently registered students (2004) and all students registered between
1999 and 2003 has been captured. The next phase in this regard is to capture all data for
registered students for period 1998 – 1978 and earlier.

International Student Office
The re-structuring and re-vitalization of this office is undertaken jointly with Student
Services. In the first phase a needs analysis was conducted and the new office with its staff
was set up. It proved essential also to train the existing staff and develop a market plan. In
this regard wheelchairs and a golf cart have been made available for the disabled students.

Student Help Desk
The services to be rendered to students were explicitly defined, a specific location for the desk
was identified and all members in the department were trained to deliver effective and
efficient services. A list of complaints and queries handled was recorded and a satisfaction
survey was undertaken.

Re-structuring of Academic Administration
In academic administration the overall goal is to provide students with improved and effective
links to the faculty, curriculum and classroom through a continuum of services from
registration to graduation. To achieve this the following measures were put in place:

      development of examination operational procedures (in consultation with staff)
      compilation of a comprehensive policy manual
      implementation of an ITS students iEnable System ( a web-based
      application/registration system and enquiry module (review team did not have the
       opportunity of testing this system)

The major obstacles to the realization of these outcomes were the low skills of current staff
in the examinations and committee structures, and general resistance to change.


                                                                                             122
By all accounts this is the one portfolio where success must be achieved. This section is at the
interface between general academic administration and the students. The SANTED
programme and its emphasis on collaboration and linkage ensures that UNIZUL can benefit
from best practice at UFH and UWC.

Human Resources
The overall objective of the SANTED programme in this sector was to initiate a re-structuring
of the Human Resources Department. The lack of capacity and skills in the Department was
recognised and recruiting and re-training strategies were formulated. The immediate short
term goal was to identify initiatives for short term staff reduction especially in relation to one
of its campuses, the Durban-Umlazi- Campus which UNIZUL was to shed. The overall
expenditure of UNIZUL on remuneration and salaries was higher than the optimal level (60-
64%) The HR department is to design a turn-around strategy for staffing in view of its new
mandate as a comprehensive institution.

Financial Management
As was the case with the University of Fort Hare, the finances of the University of Zululand
were in a parlous state with a high overdraft and a high student debt. Its future hung in the
balance. The SANTED programme was critical in its intervention, as it made possible the
introduction of more competent and experienced staff who introduced an effective turn-
around strategy. This section has 7 projects under the SANTED umbrella:

student debt management
governance structure
budget management
internal controls and risks
re-structuring of finance department
source funds
3rd stream income

Student Debt Management
The students owing monies to UNIZUL were categorised and fees collection was highly
improved. This measure has improved the cash situation of the institution, and a student fee
office has been created within the Finance Department.

Governance Structures
The following Committees of Council were either introduced or re-activated.
Finance Committee
Audit Committee
Human Resources Committee
Delegation of Authority – (properly established)

Budget Management
Electronic controls are in place. Actual expenditure monitored against approved budget and
quarterly reports are sent routinely to all departments and Council.

Internal Controls and Risks
Auditors have been appointed to review the controls, and fun dings and reconciliations are
being done monthly and reviewed by senior staff.


                                                                                              123
Restructure Finance Department
The SANTED programme was responsible for the training given to existing staff in the
department. Interim re-organisation has been completed and implemented. A skill and gap
analysis has been undertaken and decisions must be taken on staff re-deployment.

Source Funds
Schedule of funds required for the implementing the various activities had been drawn up.
Additional funding had been obtained from other organisations for change management, HR
capacity building and the introduction of a performance management system.

Third Stream Income
A unit within the Finance Department has been established to manage third stream income
and to develop practices and procedures regarding the management and allocation of funds
from third stream income. It is believed that all these measures will have a sulatary influence
and impact on the financial management at UNIZUL.

CONCLUSION
The account given of the impact of SANTED – related activities in HR, Finance and
Administration indicates that much success has been made. In particular, it must be stated
that the improvement in the financial management of UNIZUL gives much hope for its future
as a comprehensive institution.




                                                                                           124
          Annex 10: SANTED-University of Western Cape Review
          Programme

                                    1. EQUITABLE ACCESS PROJECT
                                     2. ZAWECA PROJECT

Monday, 15 August 2005
Time      Schedule                                      UWC delegates                  Venue            Person
                                                                                                        responsible
08h30     Collect NORAD delegates from Hotel
09h00 –   09h00-     Welcome                            Rector - Prof O’Connell        Small Council
09h25     09h10      Orientation / Overview             L Pokpas                       Chambers / SOG
          09h10-     presentation                       (small group of senior
          09h25                                         members and project staff)
09h35 –   09h35 –    Overview of TLSP(C1)               Senior Executive               Council
10h35     09h55      presentation:                      representative -               chambers / SOG
                     Implementation,                    L Pokpas,
                     achievements, success,
                     challenges                         D Cranfield,
                                                        N Prinsloo,
          09h55 –                                       Counsellors (Dorothea &
          10h15      Question / Answer                  Erika)
                                                        Student Assistants (past and
                                                        present – Florence and
                                                        Mbolekwa)
          10h15 –    Overview of RPL presentation       Consultants (1 or 2)
          10h25
          10h25 –    Question / Answer                  Senior Executive
          10h35                                         representative: Prof Ridge
                                                        Natheem Hendricks
                                                        Allan Ralphs

10h40 –   10h40 –    Overview of Academic               Senior Executive               Council
11h20     11h05      support (C3)                       Representative Prof Ridge:     chambers / SOG
                             Writing Centre            Lorna Holtman
                             PET                       Fatima Sleming
          11h05 –                                       Student Assistants/
          11h20      Question/Answer                    Consultants
                                                        L Pokpas / D Cranfield
11h25 –   11h25 –    Professionalisation of Services    Senior Executive               Council
11h45     11h35       MAS (possible                    representative:                Chambers/ SOG
                         presentation)                  Dr I Miller
                      O! timetabling system            Madiny Darries
                      Training :                       L Pokpas / D Cranfield
                         o       Call centre training
                         o       Front end training
                         o       Dale Carnegie
          11h35 –             training
          11h45       SEMS

                     Question / Answer
11h50 –   11h50-     Career Development (C8)            Senior Executive
12h15     12h00.     presentation.                      representative:
                                                        Prof L Tshiwula
          12h00 –                                       Winston Middleton



                                                                                                               125
          12h15   Question/Answer              M Kleinsmith
                                               Student Assistants
                                               L Pokpas / D Cranfield
12h20 –           ZAWECA overview              Senior Executive
13h10             presentation.                representative: Prof B
                                               O’Connell
                  Question / Answer            L Pokpas
                                               T Vergnani
                                               J Jacobs
                                               Peer Educators

                                               Students representatives
                                               from Zambia and UWC
13h15 –           REVIEW panel team meeting.   Review panel                Council
13h45                                                                      chambers/ SOG
14h00 –                               Lunch                                Rectors dining room
15h30
15h30 –             REVIEW panel team.         Feedback session from the   Rectors dining
16h15                                          review team of initial      room
                                               impressions.




                                                                                                 126
Annex 11: SANTED University of Fort Hare Review
Programme

                 East London Campus 15/16 August 2005


MONDAY EVENING - 15 AUGUST 2005

18:45           Collect delegation from East London Airport (Alan & Noel)

                Mr. Stein Hansen and Dr. Hugh Africa

EAST LONDON, DOLPHIN VIEW LODGE

19:00           Arrival at East London, Dolphin View Lodge

DINNER

19h30            Dinner: Welcome and informal discussion at Cape to Cairo
                 Restaurant, Dolphin View Lodge

TUESDAY - 16 AUGUST 2005

EAST LONDON CAMPUS

08h00 - 08:30    Collect Norwegian delegation and travel to East London Campus

08:30 - 09:00   Arrival of all Delegates (Tea / Coffee)

Programme Director: Mr. Alan Shaw

09:00 - 09:10    Introduction and welcome address to Norwegian Delegation

                 Prof. Derrick Swartz - Vice-Chancellor

09:10 - 09:30    Overview of projected outcomes of SANTED Review session
                 from the Norwegian Review Panel

                Mr. Stein Hansen - Norwegian Delegate.

09:30 - 09:40    Transformation in Higher Education

                Dr. Hugh Africa - Department of Education

09:40 - 09:55    SANTED Project - Project Leader's perspective on the project
                 experiences and the overall outcomes and objectives of the project.




                                                                                127
                     Mr. Noel Knickelbein - SANTED Project Leader

09:55 - 10:10        Reflecting on the Financial Management project outcomes and
lessons learnt for the institution.

                     Mr. Clint Ramoo - Chief Finance Officer

10:10 - 10:25        Reflecting on the project outcomes and lessons learnt for the
                     institution from an Academic Administrative Support perspective

                     Dr. Pinky Mrwetyana - University Registrar

10:25 - 10:40        Reflecting on the project outcomes and achievements for the
                     institution from an Human Resources perspective

                     Mrs. Nobuhle Mbete - Director: Human Resources

10:40 - 10:55        An overview of the project achievements and the technological
                     advances from an IT perspective.

                     Mr. Mickey Moodley - Director: Information Technology

10:55 - 11:10        Brief overview and the value of institutional collaboration
                     between University of Fort Hare, University of the Western Cape
                     and the University of Zululand

                     Mr. Alan Shaw - Property Consultant

11:10 - 11:25        Vice-Chancellor’s reflection on the positive project outcomes in
                     alignment with the institutional mission of the University of Fort
                     Hare

                     Prof. Derrick Swartz - Vice Chancellor

11:25 - 11:50 * Interviews with staff and student representatives

                     * Overall report-back/comments on SANTED Project from
                       Norwegian Delegation

                     Mr. Stein Hansen - Norwegian Delegate

11:50 - 12:00 Vote of Thanks & Conclusion of Review Session

                     Mr. Bruce Phillips - Chairperson of SANTED Project Management
                     Committee

12:00 - 13h00 Light Finger lunch




                                                                                   128
13:00 - 13:30 Tour of East London Campus

13h30 - 15:45        Optional activities for visiting delegation

                            Visit to UFH Bhisho and Cyber Centre
                            Viewing 10 year structural development plan for Buffalo City
                             Campus
                            Informal tour of Buffalo City

15:45 - 16:15 Delegation departs for East London Airport (Alan & Noel)

17:00                Flights departs for Durban

List of University of Fort Hare delegates, who will be participating during the SANTED
Review session are as follows:

   1. Prof. Derrick Swartz - Vice-Chancellor
   2. Dr. Pinky Mrwetyana - University Registrar
   3. Mr. Clint Ramoo - Chief Financial Officer
   4. Mr. Raymond Olander - Chief Operations Officer
   5. Mrs. Nobuhle Mbete - Director: Human Resources
   6. Mr. Mickey Moodley - Director: Information Technology
   7. Mr. Alan Shaw - SANTED Project Initiator
   8. Mr. Bruce Phillips - SANTED Project Management Committee
   9. Mr. Msi Silinga - CEO : Institutional Advancement Office
   10. 3 x Staff members who have participated in the project
   11. 2 x Student Council Representatives
   12. Mr. Noel Knickelbein - SANTED Project Leader




                                                                                        129
Annex 12: SANTED University of KwaZulu-Natal Review
Programme
                                16/17 AUGUST 2005

                                   PROGRAMME
DATE:          Wednesday 17 August 2005
VENUE:         Public Affairs Functions Room, Howard College Campus

8.45 – 9.00         Arrival of all delegates: tea, coffee

9.00 – 9.10         Introduction and welcome address to the Norwegian Delegation
                    Professor Malegapuru Makgoba, Vice-Chancellor

9.10 – 9.30         Overview of projected outcomes of SANTED review session from
                    the review panel
                    Mr Stein Hansen

9.30 – 9.40         Transformation in Higher Education
                    Professor Hugh Africa – Department of Education

9.40 – 9.55         Access and retention at UDW and UKZN: from UPEB to SUKAR
                    Professor Elizabeth de Kadt, Executive Director: Access

9.55 – 10.10        UPEB: institutional context, institutional debates
                    Professor Thengani Ngwenya, Deputy Dean, Faculty of
                    Education

10.10 – 10.25       The educational value of UPEB
                    Professor Cliff Malcolm, Faculty of Education

10.25 - 10.40       Access and retention: SUKAR
                    Professor Elizabeth de Kadt, Executive Director: Access
                    and SUKAR project leader

10.40 – 11.00       Access, retention and transformation
                    Input from student leaders

11.00 – 11.20       Overall reportback / comments on UKZN SANTED project from
                          external review panel

11.20 – 12.00       Round table discussion

12.00 – 12.10       Vote of thanks and conclusion of review session
                    Ms Denyse Webbstock, Quality Promotion and Assurance

12.15 – 13.30       Finger lunch



                                                                              130
13.30 – 14.00      Departure of delegation for Unizul


Review Panel:
Mr Ad Boeren
Mr Stein Hansen
Professor Hugh Africa


UKZN participants:
Professor MWM Makgoba, Vice-Chancellor
Professor Elizabeth de Kadt, Executive Director: Access
Professor Cliff Malcolm, Professor of Science Education
Professor Thengani Ngwenya, Deputy Dean: Faculty of Education
Professor Donal McCracken, Dean: Humanities, Development and Social Sciences
Professor Deogratius Jaganyi, Deputy Dean: Science and Agriculture
Ms Denyse Webbstock, Quality Promotion and Assurance
Student Leaders




                                                                           131
Annex 13: SANTED University of Zululand Review
Programme
             Notice of meeting of the Santed Project Review Committee


Date :       18 August 2005
Time :       09h00
Venue :      Room 401, Admin Building.


                            AGENDA

   1. Opening & Welcome by Prof RV Gumbi, VC & Rector.

   2. Attendance Register

   3. Presentation – ICT                                   9h15
      Mr T Maphanga : Director - ICT

   4. Presentation – Facilities                            9h30
      Mr M Smythe : Director – Facilities

   5. Presentation – Catering & Student Services           9h45
      Mr M Hlongwane : Dean of Students

   7. Presentation – Library                               10h00
      Ms L Vahed : University Librarian

   8. Presentation – Marketing                             10h15
      Mr M Kubone : Director- PR

      TEA BREAK                    TEA BREAK                       10h30

   9. Presentation – Security                              10h45
      Mr TG Ntuli : Director – PSD

   10. Presentation – Academic Administration              11h00
       Mr G Maphisa / Mr E Doeseb : Asst Registrar

   11. Presentation – Human Resources                      11h15
       Mr J Ramathe : Director – HR

   12. Presentation – Finance                              11h30
       Mr S Govindsamy : CFO

   13. Matters to be discussed under “General”

   14. Closure


                                                                           132
Annex 14: SANTED University of Witwatersrand Review
Programme
15TH – 16TH AUGUST 2005
Date                    Time                            Details

14th August Sunday          19h00                       Dinner with SANTED and
                                                        Wits @ Meat Company
                                                        Melrose Arch. Prof
                                                        Scholes, Charles Simkins

15th August Monday          09h00 – 10h15               Wits – Meet with Deborah
                            To meet outside Senate      McConnell – SANTED
                            House entrance at 08h45     Project co-ordinator
                            09h30                       Meet with Dr John Ndiritu,
                                                        Engineering Co-ordinator
                            10h15-11h15                 Meet with Profs Scholes
                                                        (APES) and Simkins
                                                        (Economics)
                            11h30-12h30                 Wits – meet with Prof
                                                        Mthembu, Project Director
                            12h30-13h30                 Wits – Lunch at Hofmeyer
                                                        House
                                                        McConnell, Himbara,
                                                        SANTED
                            14h00                       Meet with SANTED Staff
                            Deborah to walk Mr Boeren   for afternoon
                            over to CEPD
                            19h10                       TM 306 flight to Maputo
  th
16 August Tuesday           09h00 – 12h00               Meeting with UEM
                                                        SANTED team
                            14h00                       Fly to Durban from Maputo
                                                        TM 232

Monday 15th: Arrival and dinner with the SANTED team
Tuesday 16th: 9-10 Meeting with Orlando Quilambo
       10-11.30 Meeting with APES, Engineering and Economics
        11.45-Meeting with financial officer and roundup with Deborah McConnell




                                                                                     133
       Annex 15: Protocol on Education and Training in the
       Southern African Development Community (SADC).

                   September 1997, ARTICLE 7, PAGES 11 to 14

                                             ARTICLE 7

        CO-OPERATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING
      [Shading has been used to highlight paragraphs B:1(a), (b), (c) and D: (a), (b) and (c)]

(A)      ACCESS TO UNIVERSITIES STUDENT AND STAFF MOBILITY

1 Member States agree to recommend to universities and other tertiary institutions in their
countries to reserve at least 5% of admissions for students from SADC nations other than their
own.

2 Member States agree to work towards harmonisation, equivalence, and eventual
standardisation of University entrance requirements.

3 Member States agree that in order to prevent costly repetition of courses taken at
universities within the Region and in order to contribute towards the mutual recognition of
qualifications throughout the Region, universities shall be encouraged to devise mechanisms
to facilitate credit transfer from one University to another within the Region.

4 Member States agree that it is desirable to work towards the harmonisation of the academic
years of universities in order to facilitate staff and student mobility.

5 Member States agree that within ten years from the date of entry into force of this Protocol,
they shall treat students from SADC countries as home students for purposes of fees and
accommodation.

6. Member States agree to facilitate movement of students and staff from the Region for
purposes of study, research, teaching and any other pursuits relating to education and training.
To this end, Member States agree to work towards the gradual relaxation and eventual
elimination of immigration formalities that hinder free student and staff mobility.

(B)      UNDER-GRADUATE STUDIES

1 Member States agree that whilst education and training at under-graduate level shall
continue to be largely the responsibility of each Member State, co-operation and mutual assistance is
possible and shall take place in some fields of study which can be agreed to by the institutions
concerned. To this end, Member States agree to recommend to their universities:

a) to co-operate in the design of academic programmes where appropriate, in particular in
programmes which are jointly taught:
b) to establish links between themselves bilaterally and multilaterally for purposes of joint
or split- site teaching, collaborative research and consultancy work, and for other
academic activities where appropriate. The format, content and implementing modalities
shall be worked out by the concerned universities between themselves;


                                                                                                 134
c) to collaborate in the production of teaching and learning materials such as textbooks,
computer software and others in order to achieve the economies of scale and to support
the move towards harmonising academic and professional programmes in the Region as
necessary;
d) to promote student and staff exchange programme negotiated on a bilateral and multilat
eral basis by the sending and receiving universities for educational purposes and to pro
mote cultural ties and engender commitment to the Region;
e) to increasingly make use of external examiners from the Region as this shall not only
contribute towards the building of a regional community of scholars but shall also lead to
the development of comparable standards in higher education in the Region;
f) to encourage and support the creation of regional professional associations to enable staff
to exchange views, ideas and experiences on their disciplines, and thus enable them to
develop top quality programmes which are relevant to the development of the Region;
g) to notify the sub-sector about bilateral and multilateral cooperative arrangements agreed
with other universities in the Region for purposes of sharing information and experiences.

2 Member States agree that. where necessary and appropriate, but without prejudice to the
normal admission requirements, socially disadvantaged groups shall be given preference in
admission to fields of study where they have not featured prominently. Further, Governments
shall, where necessary, provide special scholarships for students from socially disadvantaged
groups.

3 Member States agree that universities shall ensure that the content, quality and relevance of
their under-graduate degrees shall be acceptable to graduate schools and employers in the
Region for further study and for employment.

4 Member States undertake to provide, where necessary, resources to enable their universities
to develop high quality under-graduate programmes through the provision of the necessary
teaching and research requisites such as qualified staff, physical infrastructures, library
holdings, equipment and in particular scientific and information technology equipment

(C)     POST-GRADUATE STUDIES

ADMISSIONS

1 Member States agree that an acceptable qualification as determined by the receiving
institution, shall constitute a sufficient entry requirement into a post-graduate degree
programme of a University in the Region.

2 Member States agree that the actual numbers admitted shall reflect a more significant mix of
students from SADC countries than that provided for at under-graduate level.

3 Member States agree that where necessary and appropriate, but without prejudice to the
normal admission requirements, socially disadvantaged groups shall be given preference in
admission to fields of study where they have not featured prominently. Further, Governments
shall, where necessary, provide special scholarships for students from socially disadvantaged
groups.



                                                                                            135
4. Member States undertake to provide the necessary resources to enable their Universities
to develop quality post-graduate programmes through the provision of the necessary
teaching and research requisites such as qualified staff, physical infrastructures, library
holdings, equipment and in particular scientific and information technology equipment.

(D)     SPHERES OF CO-OPERATION

Member States agree that mounting robust post-graduate programmes in all required fields is
too costly for each Member State to pursue on a realistically sustainable basis and therefore
that it is essential to pool the Region's resources in order to establish high quality
post-graduate programmes. To this end, Member States agree to recommend to their
universities:

a) to co-operate in the design of academic programmes where appropriate, in particular in
programmes which are jointly taught;
b) to establish links between and among themselves bilaterally and multilaterally for
purposes of joint or split-site teaching, collaborative research and consultancy work, and for
other academic activities where appropriate. The format, content and implementing modalities
shall be devised by the universities concerned between themselves;
c) to collaborate in the production of teaching and learning materials such as text books,
computer software and others. This would be a step towards harmonising academic
programmes in the Region as necessary;
d) to promote student and staff exchange programmes negotiated on a bilateral and
multilateral basis by the sending and receiving universities for educational purposes and to
promote cultural ties and engender commitment to the Region;
e) to increasingly make use of external examiners from the Region as this shall not only
contribute towards the building of a regional community of scholars, but shall also lead to the
development of comparable standards in higher education in the Region;
f) to encourage and support the creation of regional professional associations to enable staff
to exchange views, ideas and experiences on their disciplines, and thus enable them to
develop programmes which are of good quality and relevant to the development of the
Region. The associations would also be for a for con tributing to the development of regional
policy and cooperation in higher education;
g) to create an association of university Vice Chancellors in the Region as a forum for
contributing to the Development of regional policy and co-operation in university education
and training and research and development;
h) that in order to create and maintain a data base, details of the co-operation arrangements
shall be notified to the sub-Sector by the universities concerned.

(E)    CENTRES OF SPECIALISATION

1 Member States agree that the general objective of establishing Centres of Specialisation is
to build capacity for regional training institutions to offer education and training programmes
in critical and specialised areas and thereby increase the stock of trained personnel in the
Region. This includes the need to develop local teaching and learning materials and
especially, case studies to make the programmes relevant to the regional situation.

2 Member States agree to establish Centres of Specialisation in the Region at existing
institutions which they shall strengthen as necessary to be able to offer regional programmes.


                                                                                              136
3 Member States agree to support Centres of Specialisation by sending students to them and
by any other means including scholarships.

4 Member States agree that regional programmes shall consist mainly of post-graduate fields
of study, but that some critical disciplines offered at under-graduate level such as medicine
and engineering shall also be offered at Centres of Specialisation.

5 Member States agree that the selection of the Centres of Specialisation shall be - on the
basis of equal opportunity to bid by the relevant universities in the Region. The bids shall be
assessed by a group of appropriate specialists selected by the sub-Sector and the distribution
of the Centres shall aim to achieve regional spread and balance in location.

6 Member States agree that +the subject areas of such Centres shall be determined by
consultation between the sub-Sector, the universities and the Governments of SADC
Countries.

7 Member States agree that a Centre of Specialisation shall allow for a quota for the
admission into its programmes of students from the SADC Countries. The quota shall be as
may be agreed upon between the Centres of Specialisation and the sub-Sector and may be
varied for any agreed –reason or period of time as may be negotiated.

8 Member States agree that the language of instruction at Centres of Specialisation shall
normally be that of the host institution. The Centre shall provide and facilitate support for
language train ing in those instances where this is essential to expand regional participation.

9 Member States agree that Centres of Specialisation shall provide such facilities and services
to students and staff participating in its programmes as are sufficient to enable them to pursue
and complete their programmes.

10 Member States agree that Centres of Specialisation shall regard students from SADC
Countries as home students of the receiving Centre for purposes of fees and accommodation.

11 Member States agree to work towards the gradual relaxation and eventual elimination of
immigration formalities that hinder free student and staff mobility.

12 Member States agree that the sub-Sector in consultation with universities hosting Centres
of Specialisation shall devise and implement monitoring and assessment mechanisms for
ensuring that the centres dispense their mandate satisfactorily.

13 Member states agree that where the results of monitoring and assessment are not
satisfactory, the university concerned shall be given a period of two years to remedy the
situation, failing which the Member States shall withdraw the regional status and support.




                                                                                            137
Annex 16: SANTED – SADC Meetings held at
Witwatersrand University and Eduardo Mondlane
University, Mozambique
15 August
Witwatersrand Ms Deborah McConnell           SANTED Project Co-ordinator
University    Dr John Ndiritu                Engineering Co-ordinator
              Professor Mary Scholes         APES Co-ordinator
              Professor Charles Simkins      Economics Co-ordinator
              Professor Thandwa Mthembu      Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Project
                                             Director
SANTED          Derrick Young                SANTED Programme Director
Office          Ms Zamo Shongwe              SANTED Programme Co-ordinator
University of   Dr T.Vergnani                ZAWECA
Western Cape    Mr. J Jacobs                 ZAWECA
                Mr Larry Pokpas              Project Leader
16 August
Eduardo         Professor Orlando Quilambo   UEM SADC Project Co-ordinator
Mondlane        Dr Joachim Saide             APES Co-ordinator
University      Dr Isabel Guiamba            Engineering Co-ordinator
                Dr Fernando Lichucha         Economics Co-ordinator
19 August
Department of Ms Nasima Badsha               Deputy Director-General: Higher
Education                                    Education
              Ms Sanette Boshoff




                                                                                  138
 Annex 17 : Achievements and implementation challenges
                  of the SADC projects

This paragraph briefly lists the specific objectives, achievements and implementation
challenges of the various SADC projects and sub-projects. This is necessary in order to be
able to address the main questions in the ToR in an effective and meaningful way.

1     The NEW (NamibiaEduardoMondlaneWits) Institutional Co-operation
Project

The data and findings in this paragraph are to a large extent derived from the Project Update
August 2005 that was prepared by the NEWs Project Co-ordinator at the Witswatersrand
University (Wits) prior to the review mission. These are supplemented with information
gathered during the interviews with various stakeholders and observations of the team.

The NEW projects is part of Wits’ internationalization plan that networks and partnerships
built with various institutions outside South Africa in order to become a leading center of
intellectual engagement and delivery, particularly within the SADC region. According to Wits
policies it is appropriate to strengthen relationships with higher education institutions in this
region in order to strengthen its profile as leading centre. This will have short-term and long-
term benefits for the university as it will not only attract students - already the overwhelming
majority of Wits’ international students come from within SADC countries - but also
researchers and organizations that are willing to collaborate with Wits. It was for this reason
that Wits participated in the SANTED programme. The NEW project was implemented in
two phases. The first one started in 2001. The purpose of this phase was two fold:

3. To build and strengthen existing relationships with the two partner institutions in Namibia
   (UNAM) and Mozambique (UEM) through a series of workshops and exchange visits,
   and;

4. To develop a detailed business plan for academic collaboration between the three partners

Three workshops were held during the course of Phase I, which resulted in development of
strong relationships between the three partners. Phase I funding was also used to sponsor
student visits to UEM and UNAM by Wits Economics and Sociology of Work students and
staff, as well as to engage in research in educational issues between Wits and UEM. Arising
out of the workshops, a business plan was produced and approved in October 2003. The final
business plan reduced the number of subject areas from five to three, excluding Education and
Public Administration. This decision was based on DOE priorities.

Phase II implementation has been based on the final business plan (7 November 2003). In
terms of timing, this meant that implementation of Phase II was thus effectively 18 months.
Originally, the whole project was to have been 5 years, with two years for planning and three
years for implementation. However, the time that was needed to establish relationships and to
agree on the final Business Plan for Phase II led to the reduced implementation time.

As mentioned, the NEW project has sub-projects in three subject disciplines. The
achievements and implementation challenges in these three sub-projects are discussed in the
following paragraphs.

                                                                                             139
Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences (APES)
Objectives: There are two broad objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly produce a
programme for a joint Masters of Science degree in Rangelands Management based at the
University of Namibia and to agree a way forward with regard to joint implementation of this
degree. Secondly, to pilot undergraduate team teaching courses on Inhaca Island in
Mozambique. According to Wits, both of these objectives involve piloting work in innovative
areas of regional collaboration.

Achievements: The outline of Master of Science degree programme is complete while the
content is being developed (80% ready). Approval of the course programme is still to be
obtained from the Unam Senate. A review workshop will be held in September 2005. The
planned recruitment of one staff member at Unam has not yet been realized.
Two successful team teaching workshops have been conducted at Inhaca island in which 10
students and 3 staff members of each of the three institutions participated. A joint curriculum
was produced and a field guide drafted. A review of facilities and skills on Inhaca Island was
completed with a view to consolidating collaboration.
It is expected that in September 2005, the expenditure of this project will be approximately 75
% of the original budget.
Challenges:
 The MSc curriculum development activity took of slowly partly because the project staff
   in Unam did not have the capacity to co-develop the curriculum. This was contracted out to
   specialists in Namibia with inputs form Wits and UEM. The project staff at Unam is
   specialized in animal science and is not capable at the moment to teach the full course,
   which also include plant and environmental science subjects. It seems that the partners need
   to work out capacity building and team teaching strategies to successfully launch the degree
   programme. From the interviews the Review Team did get the impression that the
   ownership issue in this sub-project is not yet properly settled and that there is room for
   strengthening working relations between the collaborating partners. The activity is also not
   yet mainstreamed in the operations of the responsible department at Wits.
 The team teaching at Inhaca suffered from organizational problems in the first workshop.
   The staff from UEM was in the beginning not enthusiastic, but the payment of financial
   incentives helped to change their minds. The relationships between the collaborating
   partners are good. The weakness in the collaboration is the fact that the workshop is not
   included in a teaching programme at UEM. Students do not receive credit points for taking
   part in the workshop, but this does not stop them from participating. For the UEM staff
   involved it is an extra workload. The review team is of the opinion that without integration
   of the workshop in the regular programmes at UEM or the delivery of incentives the
   participation of UEM staff in this activity will be difficult to sustain.

Economics
Objectives: There are four objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly develop a Masters
programme in Economics at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Secondly, to
support high level staff development at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia.
Thirdly, to encourage collaborative research and sharing of research. Finally, to review the
undergraduate offering at the University of Eduardo Mondlane. These inputs rely heavily on
Wits’ long expertise in delivering Economics programmes at the undergraduate and
postgraduate level.




                                                                                             140
Achievements: At Unam the Masters programme has started. It has been integrated into the
regular university system and the University has taken ownership of the programme. It is a fee
paying programme which can be expected to be there after the ending of the programme.
In Mozambique curricula for two Masters programmes were developed and approved by the
Academic and University Councils (Development Economics and Risk Management). At
least one of them will start in 2006. A small team has been set up to deal with resourcing and
organizational issues that may hamper effective implementation. Materials have been
procured to assist with teaching and learning.
One staff from Unam and one from UEM have started PhD studies in South Africa. The
original plan was two each, but it was not feasible to identify and release two staff members
from the same institution at one time.
The project sponsored 10 research papers that were presented during a workshop. There were
four papers from UEM, four from Wits and two from Unam.
The review of the undergraduate programme at UEM has not yet been conducted because of
the language barrier involved. The Wits’ Project Co-ordinator is learning Portuguese so he
will be able to read the many lecture notes and exam papers without the need for translation.
The expenditure of this subject area is expected to arrive at 94% by the end of September
2005.
The partners in this project have been able to build good relations and considering the results
obtained in a relatively short time, they have been very productive which augurs well for the
continuation of the collaboration. The Wits’s staff has been committed to the project. The
Economics Project Co-ordinator has been relieved from one teaching obligation to be
involved in the project. For UEM the project meant a turnaround in the attitudes of the
Economics faculty. Many of them have side jobs to implement their incomes and the
problems involved in the undergraduate programme made them skeptical about the
possibilities of starting programmes at the Masters level. The project proved an engine to
bring the staff together and to enthuse them. This was particularly stimulated by the
‘competition’ between Unam and UEM in developing the Masters programme.
The three partners expect and want the collaboration to continue, particularly in relation to
Masters and doctoral programmes, as well as collaborative research.
Challenges:
 The research component took off slowly because the original size of the research grants
  was not attractive to the staff at Unam and UEM. Hence the grant had to be increased.
  During the workshop research papers were presented and discussed, but it is the impression
  of the Review Team that little of the research involved collaboration between two or more
  of the partner institutions.
 The Wits’ Economics Project Co-ordinator would like to institutionalize the annual
  research seminar and to involve the PhD graduates in the African Economics Research
  Network. He would also like to bring the Universities of Zimbabwe and Bostwana in the
  collaboration; however, the feeling at UEM seems to be that priority should be given to the
  consolidation of the activities that have been started in Phase I first.
 The launching of the programmes at UEM is critical to the Department. For UEM the
  implementation of the new Master programmes in collaboration with Wits and Unam may
  well provide the solution to the problems in the undergraduate programme. It will force staff
  to do research and provide an opportunity to upgrade junior staff members.
 It seems to the Review Mission that at Wits the staff involvement in the Master degree
  component of this sub-project needs to be broadened. The project is not really mainstreamed
  in the Department. Probably this will happen when the co-teaching activities in the
  programmes at UEM and Unam take of, and when collaborative research activities with the
  other partners can be formulated and implemented.


                                                                                           141
Engineering
Objectives: The following are the main objectives in the Engineering component. Firstly, to
jointly develop an undergraduate curriculum for the University of Namibia. Secondly, to
assess the offering of the University of Eduardo Mondlane and to advise on issues of
accreditation and harmonization. Thirdly, to assist the University of Eduardo Mondlane in the
adequate provision of teaching and learning materials. Fourthly, to promote human resource
development of academic staff, and; finally, to initiate a staff exchange programme between
the three institutions.
Achievements: The draft of a full undergraduate curriculum in Engineering at Unam was
produced with inputs from Wits and UEM, but apparently has not yet approved by the Unam
Senate.
A workshop was held at UEM that examined possibilities for harmonization of curricula and
the introduction of a credits system at UEM, and discussed procedures for regional
collaboration. UEM has to work on a harmonization of engineering curricula within
Mozambique before it can decide on a harmonization of Mozambican curricula with those
within the region.
With regard to the teaching and learning materials for UEM, a resource list of key texts and
research in various specific subject areas identified by UEM has been produced. Selection of
materials will take place from this list. Wireless internet connection is being installed and
library equipment purchased. Ten UEM lecturers are presently involved in the preparation of
lecture notes. These activities are a change from the original plan, which envisaged that Wits’
lecture notes would be translated into Portuguese. This plan met with skepticisms and little
enthusiasm on the part of the Wits’ staff and was subsequently abandoned.
Two staff members from Unam and two from UEM started their postgraduate studies at Wits.
One award for Unam is still outstanding.
Staff exchange between the institutions had a slow start. There have been three visits from
UEM staff members to Wits to discuss possibilities for joint research, contents of lectures and
future activities. It has taken a long time to match UEM and Unam staff up with counterparts
at Wits. The Engeneering staff at Wits did not know the background of the request and
showed little interest at first.
The expenditure of the Engineering sub-project is expected to reach 92% by the end of
September 2005. The relationships between the Engineering Faculty and its counterparts in
the two other countries are not optimal. The overall results are rather disappointing, contrary
to what the expected expenditure rate may suggest.
At Wits the project lacked clear ownership and the Engineering Project Co-ordinator had the
ungrateful task to sollicit the commitment from the Faculty staff for a project that was not
properly introduced nor integrated into the Faculty. The staff exchange and teaching &
learning materials activities got some momentum when the NEW Project Co-ordinator took
over the responsibility for their implementation. This was in particular a great relief to UEM,
otherwise UEM would have gained very little from this sub-project.
Challenges:
 The Engineering Faculty at UEM expressed the desire to continue the collaboration
  especially in the areas of staff development and staff exchange. The Review Team did not
  get a response from the Engineering Faculty at Unam about its interest in the continuation
  of the collaboration.
 In the opinion of the Review Team there is little scope for good collaboration between the
  three partners if the Wits Faculty of Engineering does not show more commitment. It has
  been suggested to the Team that part of the problem might be related to the fact that the
  project is not attached to a particular Department within the Faculty but to the Faculty as a


                                                                                           142
 whole. This may well be true. Apart from this, the commitment from staff and the
 integration of projects like this in the regular programmes of a department or faculty is
 conditional for their success.

Challenges in general
The August 2005 update of the NEW project identifies two factors which have affected the
implementation of the project a) difficulty in obtaining the time commitment from
participating academics and; b) lack of time for implementation.
It mentions three reasons for the varying levels of commitment of academic staff to
participate. Firstly, academics at all three institutions have many demands on their time. Their
key responsibilities are teaching and research, and projects such as this are therefore often
seen as periphery to their core business. At universities such as Eduardo Mondlane, funding is
often derived from donors and for some academics this is seen as an alternative method of
making some extra money, as salaries are low. Or, they may be engaged in external
consultancy work in order to supplement their salaries and therefore unavailable for project
activities.
The update document draws the attention to a related challenge; the fact that this sort of
collaborative work is quite new, at least to the staff at Wits, and therefore ways of integrating
it into the academic work of the institution are still being piloted. In the past, individual
academics might have engaged in collaboration, but this more formal approach is new to
them.
The second key challenge has been that of time. This is related both to the NEW project itself
since it is packed with many activities and sub projects; and also to the fact that the time span
for implementation of Phase II has been shortened (from three years to 18 months). This has
meant that some activities have had to fall away altogether (for example, quality assurance
within Economics; some staff development in Engineering) and other activities have had to
change (for example, only one research workshop in Economics, materials development in
Engineering).
The planning of collaborative activities has its limitations. Workshop reports can be planned
and implemented and therefore be under the control of project management. However, asking
for research proposals or staff exchange ideas requires time for people to think and
communicate with each other. Such ‘thinking’ and ‘relationship’ time is not built into
projects, which are very output focused.

Lessons learnt
Looking back at the experiences gained during Phases I and II of the project, the August 2005
Project Update Document report lists the following key lessons learnt in the NEW project:
1) When planning sub-projects, it may be of benefit to build on either a) existing project
   within the School or Department or; b) develop projects based on areas of interest of key
   academics who will be involved in implementation. These existing initiatives can then be
   broadened to include collaborative activities.
   Comments from the Review Team: as mentioned in the discussions on the challenges of
   the sub-projects, the proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational
   structures and programmes is a key condition for effective implementation of project
   activities and ensuring sustainability of the project results. Linking project objectives to
   interest areas of departments, faculties or institutions, helps to ensure institutionalization
   of projects. Linking projects to academic interests of individual staff members is
   stimulating the implementation of project activities but not necessarily the
   institutionalizing of project results.



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2) It is important to identify and nurture the champions of the project. The ideal scenario is to
   have a champion who is influential within the University. Where this has not been
   possible, it has also been beneficial to identify enthusiastic, younger staff members or
   senior students.
   Review Team comments: the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals is key to the
   success in any project. In projects tike the ones supported by SANTED individual
   commitment should go hand in hand with institutional commitment and the embedding of
   project activities in organizational structures and regular activities.
3) When planning the project, it may be necessary to budget for ‘buying’ the time of some of
   the participants. Obviously it is not desirable to set a trend to pay market related
   consultancy fees, however, some benefit for the individual (as well as the institution) must
   be spelt out. Academics seek to build their profile in research or related academic
   activities. Benefits can therefore also be explored in those areas, where it would have a
   direct favorable impact on their careers.
   Review Team comments: the ‘buying of time’ from, or the payment of ‘incentives’ to
   implementers of projects is a contentious issue, especially when the implementers are ‘co-
   beneficiaries’ of the project. Some donors are more flexible on this issue than others. The
   RT was told in Maputo that the UEM management nowadays implicitly accepts the
   payment of incentives as a way to keep the staff involved in university programmes. Be
   this as it may, the RT is of the opinion that the payment of incentives should be well
   considered and justified. It has been key to the success of this project to have senior
   management involved. It simply would have floundered without this. In particular, the
   involvement of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Wits has given the project status within all
   three institutions.
   Review Team comments: senior management involvement is essential in kicking of
   institutional cooperation activities, in ensuring favorable conditions for collaboration at
   the institution and in strategizing the continuation of co-operating agreements.
4) The close and interested involvement of the management team of the overall SANTED
   programme has also been invaluable. They have been consistently available and have
   always been on hand to share experiences and advice. Their high profile within the project
   has also made given it a more heavyweight status. This assists greatly with
   implementation.
   Review Team comments: a Dutch proverb says: “the eye of the owner makes the horse
   fat”, meaning to say that proper attention and care pay off. This is certainly proven in the
   case of the SANTED programme, which is characterized by hands-on management by the
   SANTED Office.
   This project has adopted a model of co-ordination, where a centrally based co-ordinator
   works with part time co-ordinators in the partner institutions. This has benefits in that
   there is a central point of information and control. However, it also means that it is at
   times difficult to gain entry into the administration structures at the different
   departments/schools involved in the project. Inevitably, some of the co-ordination work
   has to be done by those directly involved, and getting results and information at this level
   has at times been very difficult. A possible solution could be to ensure that each
   department involved agrees to have part of a person’s job (it would be a very small part)
   assigned to project implementation.

Review Team comments: according to the interviewees at Wits and UEM and a response
from Unam, the appointment of a full-time co-ordinator at Wits has had a tremendous positive
influence on the coordination and implementation of project activities, the monitoring of
progress, the financial administration and reporting. Everybody spoke highly of the


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commitment and performance of the project co-ordinator at Wits. Decentralizing some of the
co-ordination and administration to partner institutions invariably means that rules,
regulations and customs of the participating institutions do play a role in overall project
management. However, the Review Team is of the opinion that efficiently dealing with these
differences forms part of the capacity building agenda of institutional collaborations.
Actually, it may be advised to incorporate it as one of the planned results of co-operation
programmes.

2. Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Co-operation with SADC
Countries (PET)

The findings of this sub-paragraph are derived from the SANTED 2004 Progress Report, the
project’s Business Plan of 2001, the 2004 Annual Report, the Project Synopsis and a
questionnaire filled returned by the Project Director at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
University.
Objectives: The goal of the programme is to help SADC countries to upgrade the
qualifications of health academics and professionals by providing opportunities to obtain
higher qualifications through the Port Elizabeth Technikon. The qualifications offered are B
Tech post diploma in: a) Radiography, b) Environmental Health, and c) Biomedical
Technology. The B Tech is offered by means of distance tuition as well as contact lectures. A
further objective is to assist in particular education institutions in SADC countries to upgrade
their staff so that they in time will be able to offer these higher qualifications. Apart from
increased numbers of graduates with advanced studies, the project’s Business Plan mentions
the establishment of research projects and increased contacts with other countries in Africa
are envisaged outputs.
Achievements:
An existing agreement with the Evelyne Hone College (EHC) in Zambia had enabled the
Technikon to offer these qualifications to the Colleges staff from 1998. The hoped for
numbers of students in 2002 did not materialise (the 20 in 2001 only increased to 23 in 2002,
12 below the targeted figure). The main reason for this was that the marketing of the courses
to other SADC institutions could not take place in 2001. With the improved marketing in
2002, the projected figure of 40 students in 2003 could be reached. Students from Malawi and
Namibia enrolled in the programme in 2003 and 2004. In 2005 enrolments from Zimbabwe
were realized.
The table below, which has been drawn from the Project Synopsis Report, gives an overview
of the enrolments and completions of students in the programme.

 Year       Planned            Actual New          Accumulative       No. of
            Enrolments         Enrolments          Enrolments         Graduates
 1998       4                  6                   6
 1999       6                  0                   6
 2000       23                 14                  20
 2001       30                 6                   26                 3
 2002       35                 8                   34                 8
 2003       40                 11                  45                 6
 2004       45                 16                  61                 17
 2005       50                 49                  110
 Total      233                110                 308                34




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From the table it can be seen that of the 61 students who enrolled between 1998 and 2004, 34
have already obtained their degrees. There are still some in the system who can still graduate
from this cohort. According to the report, enrolments could have been higher had students
been able to afford to pay the course fees.
Part of the project is to stock the participating institution’s libraries with suitable reference
material. A series of books have been identified which have been delivered to EHC. This is a
small contribution compared to what is actually required, but the budget for this line item is
limited.
A mixture of study models is emerging. The original Zambian model of distance education
and basing the programme at Evelyne Hone College is an essential one when financial
resources are limited. The emerging Botswana model were students are sent to the PET for
full time study seems to be yielding better students results, but is much more costly.
The Project Director stipulates that the SANTED programme is a necessary as well as useful
instrument to establish and strengthen ties between higher education institutions within the
SADC countries. SANTED allowed for a well-planned and co-ordinated programme.

Challenges in implementation:
 In 2003, major communication problems were experienced with Zambia as their telephone
 line had been cut due to the account not been paid. Financial support was given from the
 programme’s budget which alleviated the problem and this problem has not occurred again.
 Weekly contact is made with the countries either by telephone or e-mail.
 Having a designated co-ordinator at each institution in the SADC countries has been
 essential in ensuring regular communication and for control purposes. The lack of this in
 Angola could have contributed to the programme not taking off yet.
 Another difficulty experienced was that many students from the SADC countries have
 major financial constraints. In all the SADC countries there has been a huge interest in
 enrolling for the programme but only a small number can successfully pay the required
 deposits and fees and register for the programme. Financial assistance is budgeted for each
 year, but this basically only covers the costs of the students traveling and accommodation
 expenses when they come to Port Elizabeth at the beginning of each year of study for an
 intensive orientation programme.
 When the programme was first started with the Evelyn Hone College in 1998, the
 programme was run under the UNDP who were committed to paying all the course fees for
 the students. However this support was withdrawn in 2001. Since then there have been a
 number of co-ordinators at the Evelyn Hone College responsible for this programme.
 Because of this discontinuity, confusion arose with regard to the payment of course fees to
 the PET. The source of this problem has not been sorted out to date with the result that
 approximately R100 000 is owed for outstanding fees. This has resulted in some students
 not being able to continue their studies or being able to graduate because of large amounts
 outstanding. To date a solution has not been found to overcome this problem. In trying to
 solve this, the Evelyn Hone College has not accepted any remuneration for their lecturers
 and co-ordinating services but rather had the amount transferred to the relevant student
 accounts.

Lessons learnt / spin-offs
The Synopsis Report lists the following lessons learnt and spin-offs:
1) It has been realized that it is of prime importance to appoint co-ordinators at all the
   institutions involved in the programme. This is needed to ensure the following:
   · putting a central control point in place;
   · ensuring regular communication between parties and students;


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   · administrative systems are effectively managed.
2) A positive spin-off of the programmes was that the PET in its commitment to the
   programme, established a new Biomedical Technology laboratory with the assistance of
   the Japanese Embassy primarily for the use of B Tech, and
3) M Tech students studying on a full-time basis. It is intended that this laboratory will
   concentrate on research and projects with respect to health problems specific to Africa.

Review Team comments:
The reported outcomes of the project lead the Review Team to the conclusion that the project
has been fairly successful in marketing the programme in a number of SADC countries and
has attracted growing numbers of students. The commitment of PET to the B Techn and M
Tech programmes is a positive factor. At the same time it seems evident that many students in
the SADC region do not have the funds to enrol and that it will be difficult for the programme
to continue without fee-paying students or external funding. The reports do not show any
evidence of achievements being made regards staff training at EHC or the other institutions to
a level that they will be able to offer the programme under the auspices of PET or the
establishment of research projects with institutions in the region.

3. Nurse Leadership Development in Angola (UNISA Project)

The findings of this sub-paragraph are derived from the SANTED 2004 Progress Report, the
project’s Business Plan of 2001, the 2004 Annual Report, the Project Synopsis and a
questionnaire received from the Project Director at Unisa.
Objectives: The main purpose of the project is to develop and empower Angolan nurses as
leaders in the health field for Angola, and that these leaders will at the receipt of their degrees,
continue to develop and empower the nurses in Angola. The development of nurse leadership
forms a foundation for the improvement of nursing education and the strengthening of health
service delivery.
The specific objectives are to:
 produce a number of Angolan nurses (lecturers at the University of Agostinho Neto) with
    master’s degrees in Nursing and Advanced Midwifery
 extend distance education to a war ravished Angola were an urgent need to improve the
    education and health professionals exists
 empower nursing faculty in a SADC country by offering master degrees in collaboration
    with the University of Agostinho Neto in Angola
 develop nurse educators, health service managers and advanced midwives in Angola
 assist with the improvement of nursing education and health service delivery in Angola
 develop academic excellence in the University of Agostinho Neto.
Achievements:
Twelve Angolan nurses from UAN were selected by UAN from their Nursing Science Faculty
to register for the Master of Arts in Nursing Science (MA Cur) in January 2002. The
curriculum comprises five papers or 10 modules and a dissertation of limited scope. During
2003 four students de-registered from the programme for a number of reasons, the most
prevalent being the inability to set aside time from their normal employment to pursue part-
time study. Despite the formidable challenges (listed below) which the project had to
overcome and the extra efforts which Unisa had to put into the project, the 8 students have
successfully completed the structured part of their master’s programme and have embarked on
the dissertation. It is envisaged that the students will only complete their dissertations at the
end of 2006. For this to happen, the students will need extensive supervision. The supervisors


                                                                                                147
will have to visit the students at least four times during 2006. The students will also need
assistance to obtain literature for their dissertations. Funds are needed for the translation of
each chapter the students send in and the corrections thereof. Translation and editing of the
final copy of each student’s dissertation on completion will have to be funded.
Challenges:
 Language: teaching in a foreign language posed a difficulty. Initially, it was planned that
    the students will receive the teaching in English. The Beginners English course did not
    equip the students with enough scientific English to be able to write and learn. Two
    translators and interpreters were employed by Unisa. All teaching and learning material
    were either translated or bought from Brazil. All work of the students including the
    dissertations are submitted in Portuguese and translated into English.
 Communication: establishing a communication system was and still is a problem.
    Teleconferencing failed as a result of technical problems with the telephone lines in
    Angola. It was therefore necessary for the Unisa staff to make more frequent visits to the
    students in order to assist them with the preparation of their assignments and examination.
    No student has access to e-mail. All material is sent by courier which at most times, there
    could be a delay of 3-4 weeks.
 Academic standards: although the students had the minimum requirements to register for
    the masters programmes, they lacked the basic knowledge and writing skills. The result
    was that the lecturers had to put in a lot of work to fill in the basic knowledge gaps, before
    embarking on the master’s work. Most of the students repeated 2 or more of the
    papers/modules registered for.
 Clinical placement: Due to the poor clinical facilities at the hospitals in Angola, it was
    difficult to identify suitable placement for the students. After several commitments made
    by hospitals to assist, a private clinic was identified which had good facilities and Unisa
    appointed an obstetrician and neonatologist to assist with the mentorship of the students.

Review Team comments: Unisa staff should be commended for the commitment displayed in this
project. Unisa had to invest much more time than anticipated. Of the specific objectives, the projects
managed to partially realize the first two. Capacity building at the University Agostinho Neto (UAN)
has not taken place in a structural way and the commitment of this institution to the project seems to
have been weak. Without proper follow-up it may be questionable whether the graduates will be able
to use their acquired knowledge and skills to the fullest. The project seems to have developed good
relations with the Ministry of Health, and much less with UAN. Apparently there are disagreements
between the Ministry and UAN.
Reading the various reports one gets the impression that this project has not been based on a proper
situational analysis. It responds to a real need, but with hindsight the question may be raised whether
in this particular case distance education is the most effective way of teaching and learning,
considering the language and communication problems involved.

4. The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project (ZAWECA)
The findings of this sub-paragraph are derived from the SANTED 2004 Progress Report, the
project’s Business Plan of 2003, the 2003 Progress Reports, two Project Synopsises and two
questionnaires submitted by the UNZA partner.
Objectives: The goal of the ZAWECA project is to enhance institutional collaboration
between UWC and the University of Zambia through developing, implementing, and
evaluating appropriate university-based HIV/AIDS peer education programmes. It aims to
equip students on both campuses with relevant life skills, enabling them to negotiate safer sex
practices in order to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission. The project goal has four inter-related
objectives, each of which has a number of related activities:



                                                                                                  148
   Establish formal links between UWC and the University of Zambia to build capacity in
    the field of HIV & AIDS peer education.
   Develop and implement appropriate university-based HIV & AIDS peer education
    programmes aimed at changing attitudes and perceptions, and developing appropriate
    lifeskills among the participants.
   To evaluate the effectiveness of the peer education programmes through a process of joint
    monitoring and evaluation.
   To disseminate information on the peer education experience.
Achievements:
The project only started in November 2003. Within a relatively short period the projects has
been able to achieve most of its objectives. An important outcome of the project has been the
establishment of formal links between the University of the Western Cape and the University
of Zambia, cemented by official visits between the two institutions at Vice-Chancellor level,
working visits by the project management and research teams and student exchange visits.
Two student groups from UWC and another two from UNZA have exchanged visits, and
three staff visits by UNZA project team and two by UWC have taken place. For all the
students who participated in the exchange visits, this was their first experience of visiting
another African country and they could spend time getting to know each other and
exchanging ideas and experience relating to HIV and AIDS in their respective countries. In
addition, these visits provided the opportunity for joint training and capacity building in peer
education methods, the development of leadership skills and opportunities to do joint
community outreach work relating to HIV and AIDS in both countries. This has laid the
foundation for further collaboration between the two institutions particularly in the area of
student development.
At the student level the project has trained 55 students at UWC as peer educators and 59
students at UNZA. They received intensive training and experience in peer education. In
addition, they learned how to document and reflect on their experience as peer educators in
portfolios, which can in turn be used advantageously when they enter the job market.
The ZAWECA project has succeeded in placing HIV & AIDS on student agendas both in the
student residences and on main campus. This was achieved by involving a number of student
governance structures both in training on HIV & AIDS and planning prevention and social
marketing events using the peer educators.
The project has stimulated both collaborative and individual research projects. These include
a comparative baseline study of first year student sexual behaviour at the two institutions and
the evaluation of the peer education programme at the University of the Western Cape using
an action research model.
Although not intended as a primary objective, the project at both institutions has led to a
series of community outreach projects using peer educators. The perceived success of the
project at UWC resulted in numerous requests from NGO’s, schools, churches and
community based organizations to use the peer educators for HIV and AIDS prevention and
also to use the interactive theatre group.
The institutions look forward to closer collaboration across a range of disciplines between the
institutions participating in the project.
Challenges:
 Problems with communication due to lack of email facilities and access at the University
    of Zambia. This meant that extra unforeseen visits between the two project teams had be
    planned and budgeted for. This however, also had positive spin-offs in that it strengthened
    the relationships between the two teams.




                                                                                            149
   The two institutions had to deal with different administration systems, different cultural
    contexts and different resources available to support the peer education programmes.
   Student apathy with regard to the issue of HIV & AIDS and high levels of HIV & AIDS
    ‘fatique’. Engaging them in preventative activities requires careful planning and the use
    of new and innovative methods.
   Time factor has been a challenge in the implementation of the ZAWECA project. The
    project did not start on time due to logistical problems associated with project start-up and
    therefore the implementation process was delayed. Partly because of this, the first baseline
    survey of the first year students at UNZA was not properly conducted.
   Peer education as an intervention approach is a very labour intensive process as it requires
    constant training, supervision and support of peer educators. The UWC report mentions
    the need for appointing a dedicated peer education manager. The university will have to
    consider putting funding into such a post.

Review Team comments: The project has managed to establish good working relations
between the two institutions at various levels. A strong point in the project is the shared
interest in a critical area and opportunities for the sharing of experiences that can be
immediately applied. It has built capacity of staff and students in the field of peer education
and research. According to the partners, the project provides a model of a mutually beneficial
and enduring partnership around the critical area of HIV and AIDS prevention and could be
platform for further collaboration in other disciplines as well. According to the Review Team,
the real challenge is to sustain a partnership where the resource base of the partners is so
unequal. UNZA does not have the funds to support any activity outside its regular
programmes. UWC has funds to continue collaborative activities like ZAWECA. This fact
forms a psychological barrier in the relationship. For this reason it may be a good idea to
extend the collaboration to include other SADC partner institutions which are in a similar
situation as UNZA. Under-resourced institutions have a lot to share in terms of coping
mechanisms to survive in difficult circumstances and of experiences with international
cooperation programmes funded by various donors. In a partnership it is important to be clear
about the mutual benefits and to spell these out. A weaker and poorer partner may not be able
to contribute much in financial terms, but can provide the collaborating partners with access
to research grounds, opportunities for staff and student exchange, regional networks and PhD
candidates.

5. The SASVO-SANTED SRC Workcamp 2003
This subparagraph is based on the information contained in the SANTED 2004 Progress
report. This project was an ad-hoc funding arrangement at the request of the Department of
Education and with the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The project aimed to enable
the South African Students Volunteer Organisation (SASVO) to spread volunteer work by
involving student leaders from the SADC region. The SANTED programme funded on a pilot
basis a Workcamp in December 2003 under the condition that the Workcamp would address
greater institutional co-operation in the region. Twenty six universities were contacted to
select students (6 from SADC) and 17 attended (3 from SADC).
The Workcamp did not deliver what was planned (the third and last week was cancelled) and
the composition of the group was not in balance in terms of the portfolios students held on
their various councils. However, the students still found the experience useful and a number
of resolutions were adopted.
In the he SANTED Progress Report the write-up on this project ends with the following
observations:



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”Some useful lessons have come out of this pilot. This type of programme could be very
helpful to student leadership in SADC and may be worth pursuing in a revised form. Given
the lack of delivery of the current project in some key areas, it is doubtful whether this project
should be supported beyond the pilot phase.” (p.42)
Review Team comments: the Team sees the value of strengthening student leadership in
SADC though a workcamp, but doubts that a programme like SANTED, which aims at
institutional collaboration between institutions of higher education in the areas of teaching
and research, is the right locus for an activity like this. The selection of this project did not
follow the normal procedures and the project does not aim to achieve any of the outputs areas
targeted in the programme. The Review Team feels that this project, even though it concerned
a pilot activity and carried some potential, should not have been allowed into the programme
on procedural grounds (programme criteria as well as selection process).
Since the SASVO-SADC SRC Workcamp project is a small pilot activity that does not quite
fit into the portfolio of SADC institutional collaboration projects, the Review Team has
decided not to include it into the overall assessment of the SADC component. Hence, in the
following paragraphs the review will only focus on the four SADC projects that were selected
in the 2001 regular selection procedure.

6. Conclusions and lessons learnt
 The SADC component is highly appreciated by participating institutions, SANTED Office
    and DoE as it is an effective instrument to give meaning to the recommendations agreed
    upon the SADC Protocol on Education and Training of 1997.
 The SADC component has no detailed rules and regulations, procedures and formats for
    programme or project implementation. This allows for flexibility but at the same time
    carries the risk of inconsistencies and confusion in project implementation. The hands-on
    management practices adopted by the SANTED Office have neutralized this risk. Overall,
    the management and administration of the SADC component has been in very good hands
    at the SANTED Office.
 Establishing good working relationships between project partners took a long time and the
    formulation of the business plans was time consuming. The time investments were needed
    and paid of. The workshops which brought the partners together to agree on the content of
    the project and work out implementation agreements have been instrumental in this
    process.
 In the SADC component good effective relations have been established between the
    institutions, the SANTED Office and the Department of Education, for which the
    SANTED Office can be largely credited.
 Four projects were selected as a result of what appears to have been an open and
    transparent assessment procedure. All four qualify according to the programme criteria.
 In hindsight, the assessment procedure could have benefited form external advise on some
    proposals to check the feasibility of the project that was proposed.
 Of the four projects, two are clearly showing promising results in terms of establishing
    firm grounds for longer-term institutional collaboration. The other projects have not been
    able to achieve the same position. It is interesting to note that the two more successful
    projects have realized this within a relatively short project period which was preceded by
    a rather long preparatory phase.
 The SADC projects once more show that commitment of staff and institutions are
    essential ingredients in effective project implementation and sustaining relations.
 The proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational structures and
    programmes is another key condition for effective implementation of project activities and
    ensuring sustainability of the project results. Linking project objectives to interest areas of


                                                                                               151
    departments, faculties or institutions, helps to ensure institutionalization of projects.
    Linking projects to academic interests of individual staff members is stimulating the
    implementation of project activities but not necessarily the institutionalizing of project
    results. Apart from the PET project, which markets an institutional recognized
    programme, none of the projects have as yet properly institutionalized the project
    activities in their institutional set-up and programmes. This needs to be done if project
    results are to be sustained.
   The SADC projects also indicate that broader-based, multi-tasked projects lay a better
    foundation for institutional collaboration than single-task projects. It requires the
    involvement of a broader range of staff and creates more room for a variety of mutual
    benefits that can act as drivers for sustained collaboration.
   It is important to note that relationships between institutions that seem unequal at first
    because of obvious disparities in capacities and resources should be looked at from the
    perspective of potential for growth and development into mutually benefiting
    arrangements. This guiding principle helps to keep the relationship on the right footing.
   The ‘buying of time’ from staff members in poorer SADC institution for project activities
    is a factor to reckon with. It needs to be dealt with in an open and consistent manner
    across the programme.

7.     Recommendations
The Review Team recommends the following:
 To continue with the component and, if resources permit, expand its coverage in terms of
   participating institutions and disciplines.
 To consolidate the projects that show potential for establishing broad-based longer-term
   institutional collaboration by giving them the opportunity to further implement what they
   have implemented in Phase I. This specifically regards the NEW and ZAWECA projects.
 To solicit external advise in the selection procedure of proposals when there are doubts
   about the feasibility of projects that are being proposed.
 To design and implement a programme policy on payment of financial or non-financial
   benefits for the SADC partners involved in projects. Preference should be given to the
   incorporation of non-financial benefits where needed, to ensure to effective
   implementation of projects and sustainability of project results.
 To introduce a higher level of formalization of procedures and practices into the
   management and the administration of the programme and the projects when the lifespan
   of the programme continues to expand, and the number of projects increases.
 To consider the need to introduce a management model that is less dependent on
   incidental personal qualities of the manager(s) of the programme.
 For the SANTED Office to stimulate the systematic use of quantifiable output indicators
   in project business plans and project progress.
 To avoid adding projects to the SADC component on the basis of ad-hoc decisions rather
   than according to agreed assessment and selection procedures.




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