Chemical & Biological Defense Program S&T Overview

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					      Chemical & Biological Defense Program
                  S&T Overview



                                 Dr. Charles Gallaway
                   Joint Science and Technology Office for Chemical and
                                    Biological Defense
                     Chemical & Biological Defense Directorate, DTRA

                                      25 April 2005
APBI 2005
6/7/2012 5:34 AM                                                          1
   Outline


• Overview
• Program Transformation
• Business Opportunities




                           2
        JSTO is an integral member of the
          CBDP Team           • Combatant Commanders
                                                      • Services




               Joint Requirements           Required
                   Office (JRO)             Capabilities




                     Test &
                    Evaluation



 Joint Science &          S&T Gaps           Joint Program
Technology Office                              Executive
    DTRA/CB           Mature Technologies    Office (JPEO)




                                                                   3
    Mission

       Develop and sustain a robust, agile, and
       flexible science and technology program
       to support chemical and biological
       defense capability needs


 Transition     Answer       Mission Space
Technologies    Science
               Questions     • Maneuvering warfighters
       Maintain              • Installation protection
       Robust                • Homeland defense
      Tech Base              • Global war on terrorism




                                                         4
    CBDP S&T is…
•Technically challenging
  –Exceedingly high customer expectations
  –No "silver bullet" solutions


•Scientifically diverse
  –Numerous and disparate disciplines
  –Distinct chemical and biological solutions




                                                5
     We reach out to the best-in-class
      performers


                        Academia




                                            Industry
Service Labs/Agencies




                                   FFRDCs




      National Labs

                                                       6
  President’s budget request reflects
    significant increase to S&T


       500

       400
$(M)                          Cong Add
       300

       200                    JSTO PB
                              Request
       100

        0
             FY05   FY06


                                         7
             CBDP S&T Funding
                                                    Funding in Program
              Funding for FY06                        Element Space

                                                                   Medical S&T
                                                                         6.1
                                                                         6.2
                                                                         6.3




                                 Medical S&T
                                 Physical S&T


                                                                   Physical S&T
                                                                         6.1
                                                                         6.2
                                                                         6.3




*As of FY06 President’s Budget
                                    *FY06 - $409M
                                                                                 8
    We redirected the S&T program
     toward…
• Earliest warning
    – Detection
    – Medical diagnostics & surveillance
    – Battlespace Awareness & Information dissemination

• Broad spectrum medical countermeasures
    – Pretreatment
    – Therapeutics

• “How clean is safe?”
    – Decontamination
    – Low-Level toxicology
    – Environmental fate of agent


                                                          9
     Detection
• Objective: Develops a real-time capability to detect, identify,
  quantify, and track the presence of all CB warfare agent threats
  at physiologically significant levels.
• Challenges:
   – Signatures that can be used to distinguish threat agents from the
      background
   – Algorithms that rapidly and
      reliably distinguish threat
      agent signatures from a
      complex background
   – Excitation sources and
      photomultipliers that extend
      ranges, but minimize size,
      weight, cost and power
      consumption


                                                                         10
    Medical Diagnostics & surveillance
• Objective: develop FDA-approved systems to identify/confirm
  exposure to BW agents, ideally before symptoms occur.
• Challenges:
   – Development of field deployable hand-held instrumentation
   – Identifying appropriate physical and chemical variables,
     biomarkers and parameters for ensuring accuracy and
     sensitivity of the analytical process
   – Identifying suitable gene targets based on bioinformatics

                                               Sampling
                                                   &
                                     Rapid
                                               Specimen
                                     Nucleic                   Immuno-
                                               Processing
                                      Acid                   diagnostics
                                    Analysis
                                                  Other
                                          Clinical
                                         Diagnosis
                                                       Classical
                                              or
                                                       Microbiology
                                          Medical
                                        Intelligence




                                                                           11
      Battlespace Analysis & Integrated
       Early Warning
• Objective: Develop information technology tools that integrate
  threat information, CB sensor and reconnaissance data,
  protective posture, environmental conditions, medical
  surveillance, with dispersion and operational effects models
  to warn affected personnel without impacting on operations
  elsewhere.
• Challenges:
                                           Atmospheric Transport                                                                          Ship/Urban Transport
   – CBRN hazards on complex, urban    Frame 001 ½ 08 Jan 2003 ½ Colorado Terrain




     terrain and fixed sites
   – Integration of non-CBR and non-
     sensor data                                            5




   – Applicable expert and artificial
                                                            4                                                                        41

                                           Elevation (km)
                                                            3
                                                                                                                             40
                                                            2



     intelligence systems




                                                                                                                               rth
                                                                                                                           /N o
                                                                                                                      39
                                                            -109




                                                                                                                        uth
                                                                   -108




                                                                                                                      So
                                                                          -107                                   38



   – Human effects, small unit behaviors
                                                                           E as        -106
                                                                               t/W
                                                                                     est
                                                                                              -105
                                                                                                            37
                                                                                                     -104




     and low level/long-term exposures
     in CB environment


                                                                                                                                                                 12
    We redirected the S&T program
     toward…
• Earliest warning
    – Detection
    – Medical diagnostics & surveillance
    – Battlespace Awareness & Information dissemination

• Broad spectrum medical countermeasures
    – Pretreatment
    – Therapeutics

• “How clean is safe?”
    – Decontamination
    – Low-Level toxicology
    – Environmental fate of agent


                                                          13
       Pretreatment
• Objective: Develop vaccines and other pre-exposure treatments
  against validated chemical and biological threat agents.
• Challenges:
   – Identifying the specific pathogen components required to elicit a
     protective immune response
   – Developing appropriate animal model systems to demonstrate
     efficacy
   – Development of a catalytic nerve agent bioscavenger




                                                                         14
      Therapeutics
• Objective: Develop FDA-licensable drugs to treat personnel
  exposed to validated biological and chemical warfare agents.
  Augment existing nerve agent chemical defense
  countermeasures with improved neuroprotection and
  anticonvulsant compounds.
• Challenges:
   – FDA requires demonstration of efficacy in animal model
   – Vesicant and nerve agents have multiple host effects to protect
     against
   – Rapid acting therapies needed for viral threats
   – Ricin and botulinum toxin modes of action are intracellular




                                                                       15
    We redirected the S&T program
     toward…
• Earliest warning
    – Detection
    – Medical diagnostics & surveillance
    – Battlespace Awareness & Information dissemination

• Broad spectrum medical countermeasures
    – Pretreatment
    – Therapeutics

• “How clean is safe?”
    – Decontamination
    – Low-Level toxicology
    – Environmental fate of agent


                                                          16
     Decontamination
• Objective: Develops technology to remove and/or
  detoxify/neutralize contaminated material without damaging
  combat equipment, personnel, or the environment.
• Challenges:
   – Removing or detoxifying chemical agents bound in porous matrices to
     a standard below low-level toxicological thresholds
   – Decontaminant material compatibility and environmental safety
   – Logistical supportability (minimize quantity and variety of
     decontaminants required)

              Damage to Polycarbonate Headlamp Cover




                      Before              After

                                                                           17
    Low-level toxicity
• Objective: Perform cross-validation studies for exposure route
  comparison that refine operational human health risk
  assessments. Assess short-term effects of CW agents following
  a range of low-dose exposures for varying durations to improve
  estimates of impact on human operational readiness.
• Challenges:
   – Generation and maintenance of stable exposure conditions
   – Cross validation of routes of
     exposure and species
      • Inhalation/Injection/
         Percutaneous
      • Animal models to human
         extrapolation
   – Communicating complex and
     variable data in an ORM framework



                                                                   18
    Environmental fate of agent
• Objective: Measure and understand the physicochemical
  processes on agents on surfaces in order to predict their
  persistence and fate in operational scenarios.
• Challenges:
   – Developing methodologies for high-precision delivery, sampling, and
     measurements of small quantities of highly toxic materials
   – Developing novel methodology for measuring surface contamination
   – Managing a complex set of surfaces,
     agents, and environmental conditions
     to measure                              McNamara Glove Box Facility
   – Understanding the effects of scaling;   (MGBF)
     from laboratory, to wind tunnel, then
     field tests
   – Assessing predictive modeling
     accuracy from limited CW agents
     outdoor field test facilities




                                                                           19
   Doing Business with JSTO

• Broad Area Announcements
  – Annual
  – Tailored
     • MARS
• Advanced Concepts Technology Demonstrations
  (ACTDs)
• Chemical & Biological Defense Initiative Fund
  (CBDIF)
• Transformational BW Countermeasures solicitation
• Small Business Innovative Research (SBIRs)




                                                     20
   Contacting the Joint Science &
    Technology Office for CB Defense

• E-mail: cb@dtra.mil
• Also through the DTRA website
  – www.dtra.mil




                                       21

				
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