Reactivity of Metals in Single-Replacement Reactions Problem: Predicting single-replacement reactions. What metals will replace other metals in solution? Materials Five small pieces of each of the following metals: copper, magnesium, aluminum and zinc Dilute solutions of the following compounds: HCl (1.0M), CuCl2 (0.1 or 0.2M), MgCl2 (0.1 or 0.2M), (0.1 or 0.2M), NaCl and AlCl3 (0.1 or 0.2M) 12-well ceramic spot plate Procedure Caution! Acids are corrosive and should not be left on the skin. If you get any acid on your hands, wash immediately in cold water. Recap all bottles after use. 1. Take 5 pieces of copper and put one piece into each well plate in a single row. 2. Do the same for aluminum, magnesium and zinc. Place each type of metal in a single row. 3. Obtain one bottle of solution. 4. Add the solution to cover each metal. Allow each to react for a few minutes and record observations in the data table. 5. When finished, return solution to the supply cart. Repeat step four with remaining solutions. You may add the solutions in any order. 6. Rinse well plates into a labeled waste beaker by the sink. Wash hands and clean up lab station. Observation Table: Prepare a data table in your lab notebook that lists the four solutions you will use in each column and the metals in each row. The metals and solutions you will use are listed in the materials section. Record detailed observations of each reaction. Some reactions take time. HCl(aq) CuCl2(aq) MgCl2(aq) NaCl(aq) Cu Al Mg Zn Predict which reactions should occur. Put NR to indicate no reaction. Lab Report - Your lab report should be on a separate sheet of paper, not torn out of a notebook and include the following in this order. You will lose points if the lab repot is not neat and legible: 1. Title 2. Purpose 3. Paraphrase Procedure 4. Observation table containing detailed observations - lines in table must be straight. Use a ruler. 5. Results 6. Discussion Section: Use complete sentences (turn the question around). Avoid pronouns. 7. Conclusion: Summarize the main findings of the lab. Results Write a balanced equation showing the correct final products. Equations must have Circle the more reactive metal Predict the products. the formulas for the products must be neutral Include symbols indicating appropriate phases (s), (aq), or (g) Balance the equation (same number of each atom in the reactants and products). If no reaction occurred, write NR for no reaction. Discussion (write answers in complete sentences): 1. What evidence did you have that a chemical reaction occurred? 2. Which metal never reacted and why? 3. What solutions never reacted and why? 4. List the metals from most reactive to least reactive. 5. Which metals were able to replace hydrogen in HCl? 6. Use the activity series to explain why Cu, Ag and Au are used to make coins and jewelry. 7. Were any results inconsistent with your predictions? If so, explain why. 8. Which metal forms the precipitate: the more reactive or less reactive metal? Give an example from the lab. 9. Which metal goes into solution: the more reactive or less reactive metal? Give an example from the lab. Conclusion: Describe the purpose of this lab and identify major findings by pointing to the reactions that occurred in the lab – or the reactions that did not occur. Explain when single replacement reactions occur. Illustrate on reaction on the molecular level. Label the more reactive metal. Label the less reactive metal.
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